Você está na página 1de 65
®
®

TXI Chaparral Steel

® TXI Chaparral Steel Structural Shapes Technical Manual Price Sheets and Rolling Schedules are supplementary information

Structural Shapes Technical Manual

Price Sheets and Rolling Schedules are supplementary information to this publication and may be obtained by calling our toll free number or by visiting our web-site.

by calling our toll free number or by visiting our web-site. 300 Ward Road • Midlothian

300

Ward

Road

Midlothian

 

TX

76065

Phone

800-527-7979

Fax

972-779-1236

www.txi.com

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Introduction

TXI Chaparral Steel (Midlothian), located approximately 30 miles Southwest of Dallas, Texas, is a technologically advanced steel mill producing bar and structural products by recycling scrap.

The plant commenced operations in 1975 producing 300,000 tons per year of rebar and merchant bar quality products.

With melting and rolling mill expansions, the plant increased capacity to 1,000,000 tons per year in 1982 which included light structural shapes up to 14" deep.

In 1992 additional melting capacity was completed.

A near net shape caster that was developed by

Chaparral was installed together with a new large section mill, increasing capacity to1,700,000 tons per year.

Currently the plant produces 400,000 tons per year of special bar quality shapes and rebar together with over 1,300,000 tons per year of structural shapes. Beam product consists of wide flange up to 24" deep, standard "I" beams and channels up to 12" deep, a proprietary range of light Bantam ® Beams up to 12.5" deep and piling of the "H" and "PS" configurations.

The plant consists of two, ultra high-powered, electric arc furnaces; one 4-strand billet continuous casting machine feeding the bar mill; one 5-strand billet/beam-blank continuous casting machine feeding the medium section mill; and one proprietary 2-strand near-net shape casting machine feeding the large section mill.

TXI Chaparral Steel (Virginia), located approximately 30 miles south of Richmond, Virginia, is a state of the art steel mill capable of producing structural shapes up to 36" deep (including wide flange, standard I beams, channels, H-pile & Bantam ® Beams) and sheet piling sections of the "PZ", "PS" & "PSA" configurations. The plant capacity is 1,200,000 tons per year.

This plant consists of one ultra high-powered, electric arc, shaft furnace; one proprietary near-net shape continuous casting machine; and one high-speed multi-purpose "X-H" rolling mill.

Both facilities have high volume, scrap-shredding facilities and are among the most efficient, ecologically and environmentally conscious, steel manufacturing facilities in the world. TXI Chaparral Steel’s principal customers are steel service centers, steel fabricators, cold finishers, forgers and original equipment manufacturers.

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

General Information

This catalog contains information on structural sections, with those sections produced by TXI Chaparral Steel printed with the blue background. Structural shapes produced by TXI Chaparral Steel are rolled to conform to the latest ASTM Structural Steel Specification. Rolling and cutting tolerances shown in this catalog are in conformance with ASTM

A6/A6M.

Weights of rolled sections are computed on the basis that one cubic foot of steel weighs 490 lbs. Weights have been calculated on theoretical dimensions and rounded to the nearest pound.

Rolling shapes involves factors such as roll wear, subsequent roll dressing, and temperature variations, which cause actual dimensions to vary slightly from the published dimensions, within the permissible ASTM tolerances. The radii of fillets and rounded edges are likely to change during the rolling process due to roll wear. The listed dimensions of k and k 1 generally allow for these wear variations.

Derived design property values have been calculated from the theoretical dimensions, and generally rounded to three significant figures. Fillets have been included in computations of weights and properties.

The information presented in this catalog has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information only. While it is believed that all information furnished is accurate, no person, corporation, association or other entity involved in the preparation of this publication represents or warrants that this information is fit or suitable for any general or particular use or purpose, or assumes any responsibility in the use of this information.

This information must be used in conjunction with sound engineering judgement and is intended to be used only by competent structural engineers, architects, or other licensed professionals.

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Rolling Process

Metallurgical Aspects

Material Specifications and Chemistries

Standard Mill Practices

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003

Modern Long Product Manufacturing

Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003

Process Flow Chart

Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
Modern Long Product Manufacturing Process Flow Chart ® CHAPARRAL STEEL Version 3.0 • January 2003
®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Steel Making Process

TXI Chaparral Steel utilizes the Electric Arc Furnace - Continuous Casting method in the production of structural steel products.

Recycled steel scrap provides the raw material for the Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF). After the scrap is loaded into the EAF, electrodes are lowered through the retractable roof into the EAF near the scrap metal charge. Electricity transfers from one electrode to the scrap metal charge, then back to another electrode. Heat to melt the scrap metal charge is developed by resistance of the metal to the flow of the massive amount of electricity and by the heat of the arc itself. Oxygen is injected into the EAF to speed up the melting process. Fluxes and alloys may be added to EAF at the end of its melt cycle or at the ladle upon tapping the EAF to establish the chemistry of the heat of steel.

Molten steel is tapped from the EAF to a ladle. The ladle is then sent to a ladle metallurgy refining station (LMF). While the ladle is at LMF the chemistry of the heat of steel is verified to determine that proper alloy additions were made during the tapping of the heat. Additional alloys and fluxes may be added at the LMF if required. Homogenization of temperature and chemistry of the heat of steel is accomplished by the bubbling of inert gas through the ladle. Upon completion of LMF treatment the ladle is then sent to the continuous casting operation.

The continuous casting or strand casting operation produces billets, beam blanks, and near-net shape profiles. These semi-finished products are utilized in the rolling mills to produce structural shapes. Molten steel is poured through a slide gate controlled nozzle on the bottom of the ladle into a tundish. The tundish acts as a reservoir and releases the molten steel in a continuous stream through a series of nozzles in its base. The steel flows out at a steady rate into oscillating molds. The hollow interior of the oscillating molds have inside dimensions corresponding to the width and thickness of the billets, beam blanks, and near-net shape profile that is being cast. The molds are contained within water cooled jackets that direct water flow around the outside walls of the mold. As the surface of the metal begins to solidify, a thin skin is formed on the outer edges. During this freezing operation, the metal in the mold continuously moves downward as the mold oscillates up and down to keep the metal from sticking. As the billet leaves the mold, it enters a secondary spray cooling process. The metal solidifies from the outside skin toward the center as it continues to move through the process. When the metal has solidified, the billets, beam blanks and near-net shape profiles are torch cut to length and may be direct charged to a rolling mill or placed in inventory for rolling at a later date.

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

to a rolling mill or placed in inventory for rolling at a later date. ® CHAPARRAL
Metallurgical Aspects TXI Chaparral Steel produces Carbon and High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels for

Metallurgical Aspects

TXI Chaparral Steel produces Carbon and High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels for its structural products.

Carbon Steel - Steel is considered to be carbon steel when no minimum content is specified or required for chromium, columbium (niobium), molybdenum, nickel, titanium, vanadium, or any other element, to obtain a desired alloying effect and when the specified minimum for copper does not exceed 0.40 percent, or when the maximum content specified for any of the following elements does not exceed the following percentages:

manganese 1.65, silicon 0.60, copper 0.60.

High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) Steel is comprised of a group of steels with chemical composition developed to impart higher mechanical property values and, in certain grades of these steels, greater resistance to atmospheric corrosion than is obtainable from carbon steel.

Common Elements found in steel

Carbon – is used as a strengthening element. It is maintained at a level consistent with weldability and ductility. Manganese – contributes to strength and hardness. Phosphorus – results in increased strength and hardness, and improves resistance to atmospheric corrosion. Sulfur – higher levels decrease ductility, toughness and weldability, aids machinability. Silicon – is one of the principal deoxidizers used in steelmaking and contributes to strength and hardness. Copper – contributes to strength and enhances resistance to atmospheric corrosion.

Other elements such as chromium, columbium (niobium), molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen, titanium, and vanadium may be added singly or in combination for their beneficial effects on strength, toughness, atmospheric corrosion resistance, and other desirable properties.

Incidental or Residual Elements – In all steels small quantities of certain elements are unavoidably retained from raw materials. This is especially true of steel produced from recycled steel scrap. The elements of copper, nickel, chromium, molybdenum and tin are always present as residual elements in steel produced from a scrap base. Unless the chemical composition of the steel specifies a minimum and maximum of these elements, they and others that may be present are considered as incidental and are commonly referred to as residual.

Carbon Equivalent To a good approximation, the weldability of steel can be estimated from its chemical composition. The most significant alloying element effecting weldability is carbon. The effects of other elements can be estimated by equating them to an additional amount of carbon. The total alloy content has the same effect on weldability as an equivalent amount of carbon. Several empirical formulas have been devised to calculate this carbon equivalent. The result of the calculation is expressed as C eq or CE. The most commonly used formula comes from the International Institute of Welding and is listed in the supplementary requirements of ASTM A6/A6M and in Appendix XI of the AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code.

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Metallurgical Aspects (cont.)

Metallurgical Aspects ( c o n t . ) Heat Analysis – applies to the chemical

Heat Analysis – applies to the chemical analysis representative of a heat of steel as reported to the purchaser. The analysis is determined by analyzing test samples obtained during the pouring of the steel for the elements that have been specified, or for elements that are required to be reported. Samples representing the first, middle, and last portion of the heat are used to survey uniformity. The average of the three samples is reported on the Certified Material Test Report.

Product Analysis – A product analysis is a chemical analysis of the finished steel to determine conformance to the specification requirements and is typically performed by the purchaser. The chemical composition determined shall conform to the listed chemistry specified in the product specification subject to the product analysis tolerances in ASTM A6/A6M. Product analysis tolerances are not to be applied to the chemistry reported on a Certified Material Test Report.

Killed Steel – Carbon and oxygen react in the steelmaking process to form a gas. If the oxygen available for this reaction is not removed (deoxidized) prior to casting, the gaseous products continue to evolve during solidification. De-oxidation of the steel is accomplished by the addition of silicon. The result of this practice is "silicon killed steel". The requirement for killed steel is met when the percentage of silicon in the steel is 0.10 or greater as shown on the Certified Material Test Report for the heat of steel.

Grain Size - Grain size is usually expressed as the average diameter or as a numeric value representing the quantity of grains per unit area or volume. Two types of grain sizes are commonly expressed:

1)

"Austenitic" (high temperature) grain size as determined by the McQuaid-Ehn test ( ref. ASTM E-112).

2)

various forms of room temperature grain sizes which are called as-rolled or ferritic/pearlitic grain size.

TXI Chaparral produces all A992, A572, A588, and Chaparrals A36/A572-50 multi-cert steel to a fine grain practice utilizing Columbium / Niobium or Vanadium. This practice has shown to provide a Fine Austenitic Grain Size when the McQuaid-Ehn tests have been performed; however this test is not performed on all material rolled and inventoried due to the time and cost involved in performing the test.

Charpy V-Notch Impact Testing – A charpy impact test is a dynamic test in which a selected specimen is struck and broken by a single blow in a specially designed testing machine. The energy absorbed in breaking the specimen is measured. The energy values determined are qualitative comparisons on a selected specimen and although frequently specified as an acceptance criterion, they cannot be converted into energy figures that would serve for engineering calculations. Test specimens for structural shapes and test frequency are selected in accordance with ASTM A673 "Sampling Procedures for Impact Testing of Structural Steel." An impact test consists of three specimens taken from a single test coupon. The average of which shall comply with the specified minimum with not more than one value below the specified minimum, but in no case below either two thirds of the specified minimum or 5 ft.-lbf., whichever is greater. The impact properties of steel can vary within the same heat and piece. The purchaser should be aware that testing of one shape does not provide assurance all shapes of the same heat will be identical in toughness with the product tested.

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Metallurgical Aspects (cont.) Impact testing is performed only when required by the material specification or

Metallurgical Aspects (cont.)

Impact testing is performed only when required by the material specification or by request on the initial purchase order from a customer. TXI Chaparral Steel’s standard production is typically capable of meeting a minimum impact value of 25 ft-lbf at test temperatures of 10 o F and above. Impact test values can not be certified or guaranteed without the actual tests being performed. Requirements for lower test temperatures require review on an individual basis.

Imperfections may be present on the surface of structural shapes.

utility of these products are not considered injurious. ASTM specification A6 makes allowance for these types of imperfections in Section 9. Quality Section 9 states;" The material shall be free of injurious defects and shall have a workmanlike finish." Note 2 states; "Unless otherwise specified, structural quality steels are normally furnished in the as-rolled condition and subjected to visual inspection by the manufacturer. Non-injurious surface, or internal imperfections, or both may be present in the steel delivered and may require conditioning by the purchaser to improve appearance of the steel or in preparation for welding, coating, or further processing."

Imperfections which do not affect the

Limitations of Inspection – There are a number of intrinsic features in the production of structural shapes that affect the properties or conditions of the finished products. Those effects cannot always be precisely known. It is not possible at the present time to identify any reasonable or practical methods of testing or inspection that will ensure the detection and rejection of every piece of steel that varies from the specified requirements with regard to dimensional tolerances, mechanical properties, surface or internal conditions. Therefore, it is technically impossible to give unconditional certification of complete compliance with all prescribed requirements. This fact is manifest to those having a technical knowledge of the subject and is recognized in applying a factor of safety in the design of structural steel.

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Material Specifications & Chemistries

Material Specifications & Chemistries The following listings indicate the ASTM grades that TXI Chaparral Steel can

The following listings indicate the ASTM grades that TXI Chaparral Steel can produce in structural shapes. The A36/A572-50 multi-cert. grade is our standard production grade and meets the requirements of A36, A572-50, AISC Tech Bulletin #3 and ASTM A992. The ASTM A992 grade was recently approved by ASTM and applies only to Wide Flange Shapes. Other ASTM, Industry or International specifications and grades can be supplied from these grades provided the additional testing and certification requirements are defined on the customer purchase order.

Structural Grades

ASTM A36

Mild Steel, General Building Grade.

ASTM A572-50

High-Strength Low-Alloy, General Building Grade.

Chaparral A36/A572-50

Multi-Certified, Meets ASTM A36, ASTM A572-50, AISC Tech bulletin # 3, and ASTM A992.

A572-50 w/ AISC Tech. Bulletin # 3

AISC Specification. Same as A572-50, except max. yield of 65, Fy/Fu of .85, and Carbon equivalent of .50% max.

ASTM A992

New ASTM HSLA Specification. Same spec. as AISC Tech. Bulletin #3. Applies to WF Beams only.

ASTM A572-60

High-Strength Low-Alloy Specification.

ASTM A572-65

High-Strength Low-Alloy Specification.

ASTM

A529-50

High-Strength Non-Alloyed. Generally used in the metal building industry. Previous plate specification which now includes structural shapes.

ASTM A588 A,B,&C

High-Strength Corrosion-Resistant. General Building Grade.

ASTM 328

Sheet Pile Specification.

ASTM A690

High-Strength Low-Alloy Corrosive-Resistant Specification used in H piles and Sheet piles

CSA G40.21 50W

Canadian Specification for High-Strength Low Alloy General Building Grade Specification.

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

  Chemical Properties (%)   Elements   Grade   ASTM A36 ASTM A572-50 A36/A572-50
 

Chemical Properties (%)

 

Elements

 

Grade

 

ASTM A36

ASTM A572-50

A36/A572-50

AISC A572-50 Tech Bltn. #3

ASTM A992

ASTM A572-60

ASTM A572-65

Multi-Cert.

C

0.26

max

0.23

max

0.23

max

0.23

max

0.23

max

0.26

max

0.23

max

Mn

***

1.50

max

1.50

max

1.50

max

1.50

max

1.50

max

1.65

max

P

0.04

max

0.04

max

0.035

max

0.035

max

0.035

max

0.04

max

0.04

max

S

0.05

max

0.05

max

0.045

max

0.045

max

0.045

max

0.05

max

0.05

max

Si

0.40

max

0.40

max

0.40

max

0.40

max

0.40

max

0.40

max

0.40

max

Cu

***

***

0.60

max

0.60

max

0.60

max

***

***

Ni

***

***

0.45

max

0.45

max

0.45

max

***

***

Cr

***

***

0.45

max

0.45

max

0.45

max

***

***

Mo

***

***

0.15

max

0.15

max

0.15

max

***

***

Sn

***

***

***

***

***

***

***

V

***

0.010

- 0.15*

0.010

- 0.15*

0.010

- 0.15*

0.15

max*

0.010

- 0.15*

0.010

- 0.15*

Cb/Nb

***

0.005

- 0.05*

0.005

- 0.05*

0.005

- 0.05*

0.05

max*

0.005

- 0.05*

0.005

- 0.05*

Notes:

*** = not specified, Where *** is shown for Copper a minimum of 0.20 may be specified * would contain singly or in combination, dependent on production type (1,2 or 3) Other requirements such as Carbon Equivalent, Mn/S ratio may apply

 
 

Physical Properties

 

F y (ksi)

36 min

50

min

50-65

50-65

50-65

60

min

65

min

F u (ksi) Elong %

58-80

65

min

65-80

65 min

65 min

75

min

80

min

20 @ 8” n/a

18 @ 8” n/a

20 @ 8” .85 max

18 @ 8”

18 @ 8” .85 max

16 @ 8” n/a

15 @ 8” n/a

F y/ F u

.85

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

 

Chemical Properties (%)

 
 

Elements

 

Grade

ASTM A529-50

ASTM A588 A

ASTM A588 B

ASTM A588 C

ASTM A328

ASTM A690

CSA G40.21- 50W

C

0.27

max

0.19

max

0.20

max

0.15

max

***

0.22

max

0.23

max

Mn

1.50

max

0.80

- 1.25

0.75

- 1.35

0.80

- 1.35

***

0.60

- 0.90

0.50

- 1.50

P

0.04

max

0.04 max

0.04 max

0.04 max

0.035 max

0.08

- 0.15

0.04

max

S

0.05

max

0.05 max

0.05 max

0.05 max

0.04 max

0.04

max

0.05

max

Si

0.40

max

0.30

- 0.65

0.15

- 0.50

0.15

- 0.40

***

0.40

max

0.40

max

Cu

***

0.25

- 0.40

0.20

- 0.40

0.20

- 0.50

***

0.50

min

***

Ni

***

0.40

max

0.50

max

0.25

- 0.50

***

0.40

- 0.75

***

Cr

***

0.40

- 0.65

0.40

- 0.70

0.30

- 0.50

***

***

***

Mo

***

***

***

***

***

***

***

Sn

***

***

***

***

***

***

***

V

***

0.02

- 0.10

0.01

- 0.10

0.01

- 0.10

***

***

0.10

max*

Cb / Nb

***

n/a

n/a

n/a

***

***

0.10

max*

Notes:

 

*** = not specified Where *** is shown for Copper a minimum of 0.20 may be specified * would contain singly or in combination, dependent on production type (1,2 or 3) Other requirements such as Carbon Equivalent, Mn/S ratio may apply

 
 

Physical Properties

 

F

y (ksi)

50

min

50

min

50

min

50

min

50

min

 

50

min

50 min

F

u (ksi)

65

min*

70

min

70

min

70

min

70

min

70

min

65-90

Elong %

n/a

18 @ 8”

18 @ 8” n/a

18 @ 8” n/a

18 @ 8” n/a

18 @ 8” n/a

19 @ 8” n/a

F

y/ F u

n/a

n/a

Notes:

 

*group 1 & 2 shapes only A328 applies only to sheet pile A690 applies only to H Pile And Sheet Pile

 
only to sheet pile A690 applies only to H Pile And Sheet Pile   ® CHAPARRAL
®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Standard Mill Practice W Shapes HP Shapes Bantam Shapes B 1 / B±E 2 C

Standard Mill Practice

W Shapes HP Shapes Bantam Shapes

B 1 / B±E 2 C A 1 / B±E 2
B
1
/
B±E
2
C
A
1
/
B±E
2
1 / B±E B 2 T' T' 1 / 2 B ±E C A T
1
/
B±E
B
2
T'
T'
1
/
2
B ±E
C
A
T
T

Permissible Variations in Cross Section

 

A, Depth (in.)

   

B, Flg. Width (in.)

T+T’

E

C, Max.

Section

Over

Over

Over

Over

Flanges Out of Sq. Max (in.)

Web Off

Depth at

Nominal

Theoretical

Theoretical

Theoretical

Theoretical

Center

any Cross

Size (in.)

Max (in.)

Sect. Over

 

Theoretical

Depth (in.)

to 12, inc.

1/8

1/8

1/4

3/16

1/4

3/16

1/4

over 12

1/8

1/8

1/4

3/16

5/16

3/16

1/4

 

Permissible Variations in Length

 
     

Variations from Specified Length (in.)

   

W Shapes

     
 

HP Shapes

Bantam Shapes

 

30 ft. and Under

 

Over30 ft.

 
 

Over

Under

Over

Under

All W, HP, & Bantam Shapes

 

2

 

0

2

 

0

This is a Chaparral Steel Cutting Tolerance: This varies from ASTM A6/A6M.

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Standard Mill Practice

T'

T

B * A
B
*
A

S Shapes

T'

T

B A
B
A

Channels

Practice T' T B * A S Shapes T' T B A Channels Pe rmissible Variations

Permissible Variations in Cross Section

* Back of square and centerline of web to be parallel when measuring “out of square”

   

A, Depth (in.) a

B, Flg. Width (in.)

T+T’ b

Section

Nominal

         
 

Size

Flanges Out of Sq. per inch of B, in.

(in.)

Over

Under

Over

Under

 

Theoretical

Theoretical

Theoretical

Theoretical

 

3

to 7, inc.

3/32

1/16

1/8

1/8

1/32

S

Over 7 to 14

1/8

3/32

5/32

5/32

1/32

Shapes

included

Over 14

3/16

1/8

3/16

3/16

1/32

 

3

to 7, inc.

3/32

1/16

1/8

1/8

1/32

Over 7 to 14

1/8

3/32

1/8

5/32

1/32

Channels

included

Over 14

3/16

1/8

1/8

3/16

1/32

a A is measured at center line of web for beams; and at back of web for channels

b T + T’ applies when flanges of chanels are toed in or out.

Permissible Variations in Length

   

Variations from Specified Length for Lengths Given (in.)

 

Section

To 30 ft. included

Over 30 ft. to 40 ft. included

Over 40 ft. to 50 ft. included

Over 50 ft. to 65 ft. included

Over 65

ft.

S Shapes &

Over

Under

Over

Under

Over

Under

Over

Under

Over

Under

Channels

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

02

 

0

This is a Chaparral Steel Cutting Tolerance: This varies from ASTM A6/A6M.

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Standard Mill Practice

Standard Mill Practice Positions for Measuring Camber & Sweep Camber Camber Sweep Sweep Horizontal Horizontal
Positions for Measuring Camber & Sweep Camber Camber Sweep Sweep Horizontal Horizontal Surface Surface
Positions for Measuring Camber & Sweep
Camber
Camber
Sweep
Sweep
Horizontal
Horizontal
Surface
Surface

W, HP, S, & Bantam Shapes

Channels

Permissible Variations in Camber & Sweep

W & HP Shapes

Sizes

Length

 

Permissible Variations, (in.)

 

Camber

 

Sweep

Sizes with flange width eq. to or greater than 6 in.

All

 

1/8 “ x ( total length, ft)

 
 

10

Sizes with flange width less than 6 in.

All

1/8 “ x ( total length, ft)

 

1/8 “ x ( total length, ft)

 

10

5

Certain sections witha flange width approx. eq. to depth & specified on order as columns b

45 ft. & under

 

1/8 “ x ( total length, ft)

with 3/8” max.

 

10

Over

3”

+ (

(1/8 “ x ( total length, (ft) - 45)

)

 

45 ft.

8

10

b Applies only to: W8x31 and heavier, and W10x49 and heavier, and W12x65 and heavier, W14x90 and heavier. If other section are specified on the order as columns, the tolerance will be subject to negotiation. Due to the extreme variations in flexibility of these shapes, straightness tolerances for sweep are subject to negotiations.

Other Tolerances for W & HP Shapes

Variation in Weight:

(±) 2.5 % of theoretical or published weight

Ends out of Square:

1/64” per inch of depth, or flange width if it is greater than depth.

Other Tolerances for S, Channels & Bantams

Variation in Weight:

(±) 2.5 % of theoretical or published weight

Ends out of Square:

1/64” per inch of depth

Camber:

1/8” x total length, (ft.)

5

Sweep:

1/4” x total length, (ft.)

5

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Structural Shapes

Dimensions

&

Properties

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

Y

t f k 1 d X X t w Y b f
t
f
k 1
d
X
X
t
w
Y
b
f

k

T

k

 

W Shapes

 

Dimensions & Properties

 
 
  Produced by Chaparral Steel

Produced by Chaparral Steel

 

Area

Depth

Web Thickness

Flange

Distance

 

Elastic Properties

 

Designation

       

Width

Thick.

     

X-X Axis

 

Y-Y Axis

Adt w

t w /2

b f

t f

k

k 1

I x

S x

r x

l y

S y

r y

in. 2

in.

in.

in.

in.

in.

in.

in.

in. 4

in. 3

in.

in. 4

in. 3

in.

W44x335*

98.3

44.02

1.020

0.510

15.950

1.770

2.5625

1.3125

31100

1410

17.8

1200

150

3.49

x290*

85.8

43.62

0.870

0.435

15.830

1.580

2.3750

1.2500

27100

1240

17.8

1050

133

3.50

x262*

77.2

43.31

0.790

0.395

15.750

1.420

2.1875

1.1875

24200

1120

17.7

927

118

3.46

x230*

67.7

42.91

0.710

0.355

15.750

1.220

2.0000

1.1250

20800

969

17.5

796

101

3.43

W40x593*

174

42.99

1.790

0.895

16.690

3.230

4.4375

2.0625

50400

2340

17.0

2520

302

3.81

x503*

148

42.05

1.540

0.770

16.420

2.760

3.9375

1.9375

41700

1980

16.8

2050

250

3.72

x431*

127

41.26

1.340

0.670

16.220

2.360

3.5625

1.8750

34800

1690

16.6

1690

208

3.65

x372

109

40.63

1.160

0.580

16.060

2.050

3.2500

1.7500

29600

1460

16.4

1420

177

3.60

x321

94.1

40.08

1.000

0.500

15.910

1.770

2.9375

1.6875

25100

1250

16.3

1190

150

3.56

x297

87.4

39.84

0.930

0.465

15.825

1.650

3.0625

1.6875

23200

1170

16.3

1090

138

3.54

x277

81.3

39.69

0.830

0.415

15.830

1.575

2.7500

1.6250

21900

1100

16.4

1040

132

3.58

x249

73.3

39.38

0.750

0.375

15.750

1.420

2.6250

1.5625

19500

992

16.3

926

118

3.56

x215

63.3

38.98

0.650

0.325

15.750

1.220

2.3750

1.5000

16700

858

16.2

796

101

3.54

x199

58.4

38.67

0.650

0.325

15.750

1.065

2.2500

1.5000

14900

769

16.0

695

88.2

3.45

x174*

51.1

38.20

0.650

0.325

15.750

0.830

2.0000

1.5000

12200

639

15.5

541

68.8

3.26

W40x466*

137

42.44

1.670

0.835

12.640

2.950

4.1250

2.0000

36300

1710

16.3

1010

160

2.72

x392*

115

41.57

1.420

0.710

12.360

2.520

3.6875

1.8750

29900

1440

16.1

803

130

2.64

x331*

97.6

40.79

1.220

0.610

12.170

2.130

3.3125

1.8125

24700

1210

15.9

646

106

2.57

x278*

81.8

40.16

1.020

0.510

11.970

1.810

3.0000

1.6875

20500

1020

15.8

521

87.1

2.52

x264

77.6

40.00

0.960

0.480

11.930

1.730

2.9375

1.6875

19400

971

15.8

493

82.6

2.52

x235

68.9

39.69

0.830

0.415

11.890

1.575

2.7500

1.6250

17400

874

15.9

444

74.6

2.54

x211

62.0

39.37

0.750

0.375

11.810

1.415

2.6250

1.5625

15500

785

15.8

390

66.1

2.51

x183

53.7

38.98

0.650

0.325

11.810

1.220

2.3750

1.5000

13300

682

15.7

336

56.9

2.50

x167

49.1

38.59

0.650

0.325

11.810

1.025

2.1875

1.5000

11600

599

15.3

283

47.9

2.40

x149

43.8

38.20

0.630

0.315

11.810

0.830

2.0000

1.5000

9780

512

14.9

229

38.8

2.29

* Not currently produced by domestic mills.

®
®

CHAPARRAL STEEL

Version 3.0 • January 2003

W Shapes

 

Y

t f k 1 d X X t w Y b f
t
f
k 1
d
X
X
t
w
Y
b
f

k

Dimensions & Properties

T

 

k

Nom

Plastic

 

Compact Section Criteria

           

Torsional Properties

 

wt/ft

Modulus

 

ASD

 

LRFD

           
 

Z x

Z y

b f /2t f

Fy’

d/t w

F y ’’’

h/t w

F y ’’’

r T

d/A f

X 1

X 2 x 10 6

J

C w

W no

 

S w

Q f

Q w

lbs.

in. 3

in. 3

 

ksi

 

ksi

 

ksi

in.

 

ksi

(1/ksi) 2

in. 4

in. 6

in. 2

 

in. 4

in. 3

in. 3

335

1620

236

4.5

-

43.2

35.5

38.1

44.0

4.12

1.56

2430

5110

74.4

536000

168

 

1190

282

811

290

1420

206

5.0

-

50.1

26.3

44.7

32.0

4.10

1.74

2140

8220

51.5

463000

166

1040

251

709

262

1270

183

5.5

-

54.8

22.0

49.2

26.0

4.07

1.94

1930

12300

37.7

406000

165

922

225

636

230

1100

157

6.5

-

60.4

18.1

54.8

21.0

4.05

2.23

1690

21200

24.9

346000

164

789

194

551

593

2760

481

2.6

-

24.0

-

19.1

-

4.38

0.80

4790

337

451

989000

166

2240

484

1380

503

2300

394

3.0

-

27.3

-

22.2

-

4.30

0.93

4110

620

186

649000

158

 

1540

354

992

431

1950

327

3.4

-

30.8

-

25.5

-

4.23

1.08

3550

1100

142

577000

156

1380

323

894

372

1670

277

3.9

-

35.0

53.8

29.5

-

4.18

1.23

3100

1860

109

511000

154

1240

294

813

321

1420

234

4.5

-

40.1

41.1

34.2

-

4.13

1.42

2690

3240

79.4

446000

152

1100

264

730

297

1330

215

4.8

-

42.8

36.0

36.8

47.0

4.11

1.53

2500

4240

61.2

397000

151

986

240

665

277

1250

204

5.0

-

47.8

28.9

41.2

38.0

4.13

1.59

2350

5370

51.1

378000

151

940

230

624

249

1120

182

5.5

-

52.5

24.0

45.6

31.0

4.10

1.76

2120

7940

37.7

333000

149

836

208

560

215

963

156

6.5

-

60.0

18.4

52.6

23.0

4.09

2.03

1830

14000

24.4

283000

149

714

179

481

199

868

137

7.4

-

59.5

18.7

52.6

23.0

4.03

2.31

1690

20300

18.1

245000

148

621

157

434

174

715

107

9.5

46.8

58.8

19.1

52.6

23.0

3.92

2.92

1500

36000

11.2

189000

147

481

119

364

466

2050

262

2.1

-