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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE APRESENTAO

Prezados(as) alunos(as), com prazer que apresento mais um curso aqui no Ponto dos Concursos: Ingls - Teoria e Exerccios para os cargos de analista e tcnico do SENADO. O pblico alvo do curso tanto aquele aluno com nvel bsico de ingls quanto aquele de nvel intermedirio. Minha meta para o aluno que tenha pouco conhecimento do idioma fazer com que ele consiga acertar o mximo de questes possveis considerando que nas provas h questes de 3 nveis de dificuldade, o aluno que tem pouco conhecimento prvio poder acertar as questes fceis e mdias, que correspondem a cerca de 60% da prova. Para o aluno de nvel intermedirio, este curso se prope a ser uma ferramenta eficiente e rpida para adquirir o vocabulrio tcnico especfico e a prtica necessria em provas de concurso. Dedicar-se ao ingls para concursos no tarefa fcil,

principalmente diante da quantidade de matrias que o candidato tem para estudar. Por isso proponho ensinar a voc como fazer a prova de ingls de concursos da maneira mais eficiente possvel. As aulas vo funcionar da seguinte maneira: As provas de ingls para concursos so geralmente compostas de textos extrados de revistas, jornais e sites estrangeiros, sendo que para cada um destes textos voc ter que julgar cerca de 10 itens/questes. Para trabalharmos de maneira eficiente, os textos no devero ser lidos no primeiro momento. O aluno dever comear j pelas questes e pelos comentrios correspondentes.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

DICA: Para facilitar o entendimento e evitar que o aluno tenha que a todo momento voltar na pgina em que est o texto, poder ser necessrio imprimir parte do material.

No decorrer dos textos e questes de prova, para facilitar, sero apresentados quadros com o vocabulrio-chave. Voc no tem tempo para usar um Dicionrio. E claro, no intuito de no te fazer perder tempo algum, as explicaes sempre sero feitas em bom e fcil portugus. Ao final de cada aula ser disponibilizado um quadro geral do vocabulrio-chave e todos os pontos gramaticais estudados.

DICA:

Na

semana

antes

da

prova,

reviso poder ser facilmente feita com a leitura desses quadros de vocabulrio-chave e de gramtica que integram o final de cada aula. A proposta ir direto ao ponto. Durante as resolues das questes de prova, tecerei comentrios sobre aspectos gramaticais, sempre com foco na resoluo eficiente das questes e no vocabulrio-chave. Os objetivos do curso sero: Abordar os temas freqentes nas provas de ingls para concursos por meio de questes de provas de concursos recentes; Servir de ferramenta de reviso para os temas relacionados ao SENADO; www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 2

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Trein-los a fazer provas de ingls de concursos; Contribuir para o conhecimento da gramtica necessria e a memorizao das palavras-chave de temas que podero ser cobrados.

Ao todo sero seis aulas, uma a cada semana, sem contar com esta Aula Demonstrativa, que tem apenas o objetivo de demonstrar a forma como sero conduzidas as aulas. Espero que gostem.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

AULA DEMONSTRATIVA

DICA: Antes de ler o texto todo, no perca tempo, v direto s questes. Veja o que a Banca Examinadora quer de voc.

Nutrition and Older Persons in Brazil: A Human Rights Perspective Brazil, along with many other countries in the developing world, faces an epidemiological transition in a scenario characterized by gross fertility rates as low as 2.3 and a continually rising life expectancy to 67 years (63 for men and 71 for women). On the one hand, this is good news; on the other hand, however, it translates into a fast-growing older population which presents society with major social challenges. Foremost among these challenges is to guarantee that older persons have access to adequate food and nutrition - their basic and fundamental human right. (http://www.unsystem.org/scn/archives/scnnews19/ch20.htm)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) is (A) going down. (B) going back. (C) going up. (D) going still. (E) going away. Comentrios:

The text informs that life expectancy in Brazil

Vejamos as palavras-chave do enunciado da questo: life, expectancy, Brazil, is. Logo, a questo est se referindo expectativa de vida no Brasil, certo? No texto, foi dito que: . a continually rising life expectancy to 67 years (63 for men and 71 for women). Analisando as palavras em destaque possvel concluir que a

expectativa de vida continua crescendo (rising). Rising palavra presente em todas as provas de ingls. A primeira para voc guardar. Agora, vejamos as opes de resposta: (A) going down. (diminuindo) (B) going back. (voltando) (C) going up. (subindo) (D) going still. (permanecendo igual) (E) going away. (indo embora, se afastando) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

A nica alternativa que acompanha o que o texto est afirmando a letra C. O que voc precisa saber de gramtica aqui a formao IS+GOING, que est indicando uma ao em progresso. o Presente Contnuo: um tempo verbal que mostra movimento, algo que est acontecendo. Uma ao que ocorre no momento da construo da frase. Veja no quadro abaixo a estrutura do presente contnuo:

PRESENTE CONTNUO I He She It You We They are + verbo + ing is + verbo + ing (Life expectancy is rising = It is rising) am + verbo + ing

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE life expectancy: expectativa de vida is: , verbo be (ser/estar) down: baixo www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 6

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE back: atrs up: acima still: ainda going away: indo embora continually: continuamente rising: aumentando years: anos men: homens women: mulheres

Resposta: letra C.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) mostly irrelevant. (B) both good and bad. (C) neither fresh nor old. (D) totally unwelcome. (E) definitely reassuring. Comentrios:

The news reported is

O enunciado trata de news e buscando no texto, encontramos new na frase: On the one hand, this is good news; on the other hand, however, it translates into a fast-growing older population which presents society with major social challenges. Aqui, aparecem as expresses: On the one hand.on the other hand (Se por um lado..por outro lado). Logo, o texto traz duas idias que esto sendo contrapostas. Por um lado, good news (life expectancy is rising, com vimos na questo anterior); por outro lado, bad news (fast-growing older population a populao mais velha crescente). Vejamos as alternativas de resposta: A notcia (news) : (A) mostly irrelevant. Principalmente irrelevante. (B) both good and bad. Boa e ruim. (C) neither fresh nor old. Nem nova ou velha. (D) totally unwelcome. Totalmente indesejvel. (E) definitely reassuring. Definitivamente tranqilizadora. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 8

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Logo, a resposta a alternativa B.

Nesta questo aparecem advrbios e adjetivos. Em ingls, a maioria dos advrbios formada adicionando-se o sufixo -ly ao adjetivo de origem (careful/carefully, happy/happily etc.). Enquanto o adjetivo d uma caracterstica ao substantivo, o advrbio se refere ao verbo. Existem algumas palavras que terminam em -ly mas que, porm, no so advrbios, e sim adjetivos. As principais delas so: friendly: amigvel, lonely: solitrio, ugly:feio, likely: provvel, unlikely: improvvel. Os advrbios podem ser derivados de adjetivos ou podem ter a mesma forma do adjetivo. Neste ltimo caso, temos situao semelhante em portugus quando dizemos, por exemplo: Ele um rapaz bonito (adjetivo) x Ele canta bonito (advrbio). Muitos advrbios, principalmente os de modo, freqncia e intensidade, so derivados de adjetivos mediante o acrscimo do sufixo ly (-mente em portugus). Adjetivo Slow (lento, devagar) Careful (cuidado) Efficient (eficiente) Quick (rpido) Bad (mau) Perfect (perfeito) Silent (silencioso) Easy (fcil) Terrible (terrvel) Advrbio Slowly (lentamente, devagar) Carefully (cuidadosamente) Efficiently (eficientemente) Quickly (rapidamente) Badly (mal) Perfectly (perfeitamente) Silently (silenciosamente) Easily (facilmente) Terribly (terrivelmente) 9

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Tragic (trgico) Tragically (tragicamente)

Como no possvel acrescentar um ly a adjetivos que j terminam em ly (tais como friendly, silly, lovely etc), deve-se recorrer a uma construo com way (jeito, modo) ou manner (maneira). Por exemplo: Friendly (amigvel) in a friendly way (de modo amigvel) Ateno para um advrbio que em nada semelhante ao adjetivo: good (bom) . . .....................well (bem).

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE news: notcia reported: reportada mostly: principalmente irrelevant: irrelevante both: ambos good and bad: bom e ruim neither: nem fresh nor old: nova ou velha totally: totalmente unwelcome: indesejvel definitely: definitivamente reassuring: tranquilizadora On the one hand: por um lado on the other hand: por outro lado fast-growing: crescimento rpido older: mais velho www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 10

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE population: populao

Resposta: letra B. 3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) proper nourishment. (B) warm clothing. (C) good housing. (D) instant help. (E) quality medicare. Comentrios: O enunciado da questo trouxe as palavras most, important, challenge, see, old people, have. No texto algumas destas palavras so encontradas na frase: Foremost among these challenges is to guarantee that older persons have access to adequate food and nutrition - their basic and fundamental human right. O texto fala em challenges (desafios), guarantee (garantir), older persons (= old people, idosos), have access (=have, ter), adequate food and nutrition (comida e nutrio adequadas). Analisando as alternativas, observamos que apenas uma delas fala em nutrio: (A) proper nourishment. nutrio (B) warm clothing. vestimenta www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 11 According to the text, the most important

challenge is to see that old people have

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (C) good housing. moradia (D) instant help. assistncia (E) quality medicare. sade Nesta questo foi abordado o superlativo most important. Veja um pouco de como so formados os superlativos em ingls: Para formar os comparativos e superlativos dos adjetivos de uma slaba adiciona-se -er para a forma comparativa e -est para a forma superlativa.Veja alguns exemplos: Adjetivos cold old fast small weak Comparativo -ER colder older faster smaller weaker Superlativo -EST coldest oldest fastest smallest weakest

Alguns dos adjetivos mais comuns em ingls tm formas irregulares de comparativos e superlativos. Adjetivo bad good far Comparativo worse better further farther older elder Superlativo worst best furthest farthest oldest eldest

old

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Para formar os comparativos e superlativos dos adjetivos de duas ou mais slabas (adjetivos longos) usamos o more e less para as formas comparativas e most e least as formas superlativos. Veja alguns exemplos:

Adjetivo

Comparativo

Superlativo

arrogant

more arrogant less arrogant more tense less tense more cooperative less cooperative more perfect less perfect

most arrogant least arrogant most tense least tense most cooperative least cooperative most perfect least perfect

tense

cooperative

perfect

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE proper nourishment: nutrio apropriada warm clothing: vestimentas para o frio good housing: boa moradia instant help: assistncia imediata quality: qualidade medicare: programa governamental de assistncia sade dos idosos foremost: em primeiro lugar challenges: desafios guarantee: garantir www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 13

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE older persons: idosos have access: ter acesso adequate food and nutrition: comida e nutrio adequada

Resposta: letra A.

REVISO DO VOCABULRIO-CHAVE

A partir deste momento vamos revisar a aula por meio do quadro do vocabulrio-chave.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE life expectancy: expectativa de vida is: , verbo be (ser/estar) down: baixo back: atrs up: acima still: ainda going away: indo embora continually: continuamente rising: aumentando years: anos men: homens women: mulheres news: notcia reported: reportada www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 14

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE mostly: principalmente irrelevant: irrelevante both: ambos good and bad: bom e ruim neither: nem fresh nor old: nova ou velha totally: totalmente unwelcome: indesejvel definitely: definitivamente reassuring: tranquilizadora On the one hand: por um lado on the other hand: por outro lado fast-growing: crescimento rpido older: mais velho population: populao proper nourishment: nutrio apropriada warm clothing: vestimentas para o frio good housing: boa moradia instant help: assistncia imediata quality: qualidade medicare: programa governamental de assistncia sade dos idosos foremost: em primeiro lugar challenges: desafios guarantee: garantir older persons: idosos have access: ter acesso adequate food and nutrition: comida e nutrio adequada

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE QUESTES DA AULA Nutrition and Older Persons in Brazil: A Human Rights Perspective Brazil, along with many other countries in the developing world, faces an epidemiological transition in a scenario characterized by gross fertility rates as low as 2.3 and a continually rising life expectancy to 67 years (63 for men and 71 for women). On the one hand, this is good news; on the other hand, however, it translates into a fast-growing older population which presents society with major social challenges. Foremost among these challenges is to guarantee that older persons have access to adequate food and nutrition their basic and fundamental human right. (http://www.unsystem.org/scn/archives/scnnews19/ch20.htm)

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) is (A) going down. (B) going back. (C) going up. (D) going still. (E) going away.

The text informs that life expectancy in Brazil

2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) mostly irrelevant.

The news reported is

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA DEMONSTRATIVA PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (B) both good and bad. (C) neither fresh nor old. (D) totally unwelcome. (E) definitely reassuring. 3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) proper nourishment. (B) warm clothing. (C) good housing. (D) instant help. (E) quality medicare. According to the text, the most important

challenge is to see that old people have

GABARITO 1-C 2-B 3-A

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE APRESENTAO

Prezados(as) alunos(as), Ol pessoal, Sejam bem-vindos ao curso de Ingls Teoria e Exerccios para o SENADO. Como j foi dito na aula demonstrativa, ao todo sero seis aulas, divididas por assuntos, em que resolveremos questes de provas do CESPE, ESAF e FGV, j que a banca examinadora para o prximo concurso do Senado Federal ainda no est definida. Nesta primeira aula sero apresentados os principais tempos verbais e como foram abordados pelas diferentes bancas examinadoras. Para facilitar a reviso, na parte final da aula est o quadro-geral do vocabulrio-chave e as questes apresentadas. Bons estudos.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

AULA 01 TEMPOS VERBAIS

PRESENTE SIMPLES E PRESENTE CONTNUO

O tempo verbal do ingls denominado Presente Simples corresponde ao Presente do Indicativo da lngua portuguesa. Os verbos no Presente Simples so empregados para indicar uma ao habitual, que ocorre no momento em que enunciada. Normalmente aparece aps expresses de tempo como when, as soon as, before e after. Alguns advrbios de freqncia tambm funcionam como indicadores do Presente Simples, tais como always, generally, seldom e often. Afirmativa: Sujeito + Infinitivo. Para he, she, it o verbo acrescido de s.

Negativa: Sujeito + Do/Does + Not + Verbo principal no infinitivo (sem to). Para he, she, it usa-se does; para you, they, we usa-se Do.

J o Presente Contnuo um tempo verbal que mostra movimento, algo que est acontecendo. Uma ao que ocorre no momento da construo da frase. Veja no quadro abaixo a estrutura do presente simples e do

presente contnuo:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PRESENTE SIMPLES (VERBO BE/HAVE) I He She It You We They PRESENTE CONTNUO I He She It You We They are + verbo + ing is + verbo + ing am + verbo + ing (I am working) are/have is/has am/have (I am at work)

Agora veja como caiu em prova:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE DICA: Antes de ler o texto todo, no perca tempo, v ao enunciado da questo. Veja o que a Banca Examinadora quer de voc.

The web makes waves in Brazil There is no doubt that the web has caught on in Brazil as its web-using population has doubled in just three years. In July 2008 more than 23.7 million Brazilians went online according to figures gathered by web statistics firm IBOPE/NetRatings. The figure is up 28% on the same time in 2007 and continues the trend of booming net use. Proof that it has caught on can be seen in statistics which suggest Brazilians spend the longest time surfing from home than any other nationality. By contrast, North Americans spend 20 hours 30 minutes and Germans 21 hours browsing the web every month. While net access is popular in the homes of Brazilians, with 35.4 million homes connected to the web in July 2008, internet cafes, or Lan houses as they are known in Brazil, are becoming hugely popular. So popular that they are springing up in underground stations and fast food restaurant. The dark side The internet has a reputation for harbouring some dark areas and for that reason, a rigorous check is done before anyone can use a computer in a Lan house. (adapted from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7642224.stm)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The title of this article refers to a movement that is (A) swaying. (B) sweeping. (C) swindling. (D) swerving. (E) swinging.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo j remete o leitor ao ttulo do texto The web makes waves in Brazil. Logo, para responder a essa questo no ser necessrio ler o texto, mas apenas o ttulo. Observe que no ttulo est dito que a web faz ondas (makes waves presente simples web (it) makes) no Brasil. Vamos entender essa frase: make wave/fazer onda em portugus seria melhor traduzido por A web se tornou uma onda no Brasil, no sentido de varredura, popularizao. O enunciado da questo diz que o ttulo do texto se refere a um movimento que (is, presente simples do verbo be) Vejamos as alternativas de resposta: (A) swaying. (balanando) (B) sweeping. (arrebatando, varrendo, tomando conta), sim, como uma onda (C) swindling. (trapaceando) (D) swerving. (desviando) (E) swinging. (balanando)

PALAVRAS-CHAVE web: web, rede make: fazer waves: onda www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE swaying: balanando sweeping: arrebatando, varrendo, tomando conta swindling: trapaceando swerving: desviando swinging: balanando

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The underlined word in While net access is popular (line12) can be replaced by (A) Whereas. (B) Wherefore. (C) Whenever. (D) Whence. (E) Whereby.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo j indica a frase que deveremos ler no texto: While net access is popular (linha 12). Vejamos: While net access is popular in the homes of Brazilians, with 35.4 million homes connected to the web in July 2008, internet cafes, or Lan houses as they are known in Brazil, are becoming hugely popular. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 6

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

No pargrafo citado aparecem grifados os verbos no presente simples e no presente continuo. Observe:

While net access is popular ... (Enquanto o acesso internet popular..) be no presente simples They are known (Eles so conhecidos..)

Internet cafes or lan houses are becoming (ciber cafs e lan houses esto se tornando..)

be + become + ing (presente contnuo)

Como acabei de apresentar o presente simples e o continuo, resolvi colocar essa questo. Contudo, esta foi uma questo de puro vocabulrio e cobrou do candidato o conhecimento dos advrbios, que estudaremos na nossa prxima aula. Mas vamos l: Voc dever acertar o substituto para while, que significa enquanto. Vejamos as opes de resposta: (A) Whereas = enquanto, ao passo que, considerando que (B) Wherefore = por isso (C) Whenever = quando (D) Whence = onde (E) Whereby = como, de que forma, por meio do qual

PALAVRAS-CHAVE while: enquanto, considerando www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 7

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE net access: acesso interne popular: popular homes of Brazilians: lares brasileiros internet cafes: ciber cafs known: conhecido become: tornar-se hugely: amplamente, largamente whereas: enquanto, ao passo que, considerando que wherefore: por isso whenever: quando whence: onde whereby: como, de que forma, por meio do qual

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) When the article informs that it has a reputation for harbouring some dark areas (lines19-20), this implies the Internet can be used for (A) exquisite ends. (B) sober objectives. (C) genuine aims. (D) sensible reasons. (E) grim purposes.

Comentrios: O enunciado diz que quando o artigo informa que ela has a reputation for harbouring some dark areas (linhas 19-20), isto implica que a internet pode ser usada por (can be used for). Internet has a reputation for harbouring some dark reas A frase est no presente simples, observe que o verbo have est conjugado, passando para has (It has). O texto afirma que a internet tem uma reputao (reputation) de abrigar (harbouring) algumas reas obscuras (dark). Isto quer dizer que a internet pode ser usada para: (A) exquisite ends = requintados/extraordinrios fins (B) sober objectives. = objetivos sbrios (C) genuine aims. = objetivos verdadeiros (D) sensible reasons.= razes sensatas (E) grim purposes. = propsitos cruis/ameaadores A nica alternativa que carrega a idia negativa de dark a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

PALAVRAS-CHAVE when: quando article: artigo inform: informar that: que has/have: ter reputation: reputao harbouring: abrigo dark areas: areas obscuras imply: implicar can be used for: pode ser usado para exquisite ends: requintados/extraordinrios fins sober objectives: objetivos sbrios genuine aims: objetivos verdadeiros sensible reasons: razes sensatas grim purposes: propsitos cruis/ameaadores

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) 1. The regulation of insurance company solvency is a function of

the state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic onsite examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

4. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Comentrios: O enunciado da questo j remete o leitor expresso insolvencies do occur. S ser necessrio encontrar esta expresso no texto. Vejamos a ltima frase do texto: ()Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. Agora as palavras-chave e as alternativas de resposta:

PALAVRAS-CHAVE insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente take place: ocorrer pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser

a) actually happen. A opo A est correta. Insolvencies do occur uma frase que est no presente simples. O verbo occur que significa ocorrer, est precedido de do que o verbo auxiliar do presente simples. Ora, mas o auxiliar no usado para formar as interrogativas e negativas? Sim, mas tambm usado para dar nfase, como no presente caso. Dizer que Insolvencies do occur significa dizer que insolvncias efetivamente acontecem. Actually significa de fato, efetivamente. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 12

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE DO PARA DAR NFASE

Insolvencies do occur =

Insolvencies occur.

Do verbo auxiliar, usado em negativas e interrogativas no presente. Exemplos Do insolvencies occur? Insolvencies dont occur.

b) are undoubtedly preventable. A opo B est incorreta. Da leitura da frase Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. percebe-se que apesar dos esforos dos reguladores (despite efforts), as insolvncias efetivamente ocorrem. Logo, no se pode afirmar que insolvncia seja indubitavelmente evitvel (preventable). c) hardly take place. A opo C est incorreta. O texto no diz que insolvncia dificilmente (hardly) ocorre (take place), apenas afirma que ela ocorre. d) do not pose a threat. A opo D est incorreta. Insolvencies do occur no quer dizer que insolvncias no representam (do not pose) uma ameaa (threat). Perceba que o enunciado da questo quer apenas o significado da expresso, no quer sua interpretao para insolvncias, se elas so ou no ameaas.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

e) used to be more frequent. A opo E est incorreta. A opo afirma que insolvncias costumavam ser (used to be) mais freqentes. Esta frase est no passado e o texto est no presente.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Lembrete: No leia o texto, v direto para o enunciado da questo.

Irans top nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili and EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana agreed yesterday to pursue talks aimed at resolving the nuclear crisis, state television reported. () Iran is facing a possible fourth round of U.N.Security Council sanctions over its refusal to halt enrichment, a process which makes nuclear fuel but also the core of an atomic bomb. The European Union and the United States have also imposed restrictions on the activities of Irans largest banks, which are running in parallel to the three sets of sanctions agreed by the Security Council.
Internet: <www.afp.google.com.article> (adapted).

5.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2008) Despite the talks between Jalili and Solana, Iran

still proceeds with its process to make nuclear fuel rich which is also the kernel of an atomic bomb. Comentrios: O primeiro passo buscar as palavras-chave da alternativa.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE Despite the talks between Jalili and Solana, Iran still proceeds with its process to make nuclear fuel rich which is also the kernel of an atomic www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 15

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE bomb. despite: apesar de (das) talks: conversas between: entre still: ainda proceeds: continuar process: processo make: fazer nuclear fuel rich: combustvel nuclear enriquecido which: que the kernel: semente atomic bomb: bomba atmica is also: tambm

Ao buscar no texto a frase que mais se assemelha a esta questo, encontramos: () a process which makes nuclear fuel but also the core of an atomic bomb. PALAVRAS-CHAVE ()Iran is facing a possible fourth round of U.N.Security Council sanctions over its refusal to halt enrichment, a process which makes nuclear fuel but also the core of an atomic bomb. refusal: recusa, negativa halt: parar process: processo nuclear fuel: combustvel nuclear www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 16

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE the core: caroo, semente but also: mas tambm Agora, compare: Item: process - make nuclear fuel rich - which is also the kernel of an atomic bomb. Texto: enrichment - process - makes nuclear fuel but also the core of an atomic bomb. Enquanto a alternativa fala em processo para fazer combustvel nuclear enriquecido, o qual tambm a semente da bomba atmica, o texto fala que o Iran continua com o processo de enriquecimento para fazer combustvel nuclear mas tambm a semente de uma bomba atmica. Assim como no texto, o item afirmou que o combustvel nuclear tambm a semente de uma bomba atmica. O tempo verbal utilizado aqui o presente simples. Observe os verbos em destaque: Despite the talks between Jalili and Solana, Iran still proceeds with its process to make nuclear fuel rich which is also the kernel of an atomic bomb. (...)Iran still proceeds..(...)O Iran ainda continua. O verbo est conjugado na 3 pessoa do presente simples: I proceed You proceed He, She, It proceeds (Iran = it) We proceed They proceed

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (...)which is. .................. (...)que which pronome que substitui process. O verbo be (is) est conjugado na 3 pessoa do presente simples: I am You are He, She, it is (process = it) We are They are

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Companies in the rich world are confronted with a rapidly ageing workforce. Nearly one in three American workers will be over 50 by 2012, and America is a young country compared with Japan and Germany. China is also ageing rapidly, thanks to its onechild policy. This means that companies will have to learn how to manage older workers better. Most companies are remarkably ill-prepared. There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the recession. The management literature on older workers is a mere molehill compared with the mountain devoted to recruiting and retaining the young. Companies are still stuck with an antiquated model for dealing with ageing, which assumes that people should get pay rises and promotions on the basis of age. They have dealt with the burdens of this model by periodically downsizing older workers or encouraging them to take early retirement. This has created a dual labour market for older workers, of cosseted insiders on the one hand and unemployed or retired outsiders on the other. But this model cannot last. The number of young people, particularly those with valuable science and engineering skills, is shrinking. And governments are raising retirement ages and making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers, in a desperate systems. Feb 4th 2010 | From The Economist print edition [adapted] attempt to cope with their underfunded pension

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

6.

(ESAF/AFT/2010)

The

text

suggests

that

the

governments

of

industrialized countries are a) trying to stop companies dismissing older members of their workforce. b) refusing to employ younger workers because of their expensive pensions. c) cutting the retirement pensions of valuable workers on the basis of age. d) making desperate attempts to cope with an inefficient labour market. e) regretting their generosity to workers who have taken early retirement.

Comentrios: a) trying to stop companies dismissing older members of their workforce. A opo A est correta. A questo trata da atuao dos governos dos pases industrializados face ao problema da fora de trabalho envelhecida. Esta alternativa afirma que os governos esto tentando (are trying) impedir que empresas demitam os trabalhadores mais velhos. Nesse sentido, analisando a frase And governments are raising retirement ages and making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers, in a desperate attempt to cope with their underfunded pension systems. percebemos que exatamente isso o que o texto diz, que os governos esto dificultando que estes trabalhadores sejam demitidos (making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers). Logo, correta. b) refusing to employ younger workers because of their expensive pensions. A opo B est incorreta. O texto no diz os governos esto evitando (refusing) empregar trabalhadores jovens. Logo, incorreta.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE c) cutting the retirement pensions of valuable workers on the basis of age. A opo C est incorreta. A alternativa afirma que os governos esto promovendo cortes nas penses dos trabalhadores (cutting) com base no critrio de idade. No, observe que o texto fala em raising retirement ages, ou seja, aumentar o limite de idade para a aposentadoria, mas no cortar aposentadorias j efetivadas. d) making desperate attempts to cope with an inefficient labour market. A opo D est incorreta. O item fala que o governo est fazendo tentativas desesperadas (making desperate attempts) para lidar com um mercado penso. e) regretting their generosity to workers who have taken early retirement. A opo E est incorreta. O texto no afirma que o governo est arrependido (regreting, regreted) de sua generosidade para com aqueles que se aposentaram mais cedo. de trabalho ineficiente, enquanto o texto fala de tentativa desesperada para lidar com o problema do financiamento do sistema de

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE governments: governos industrialized countries: pases industrializados are trying: esto tentando to stop: parar companies: empresas dismissing: demitindo older: mais velhos

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE workforce: fora de trabalho refusing: negando to employ: empregar younger workers: trabalhadores jovens expensive pensions: penses caras cutting: cortando retirement: aposentadorias valuable workers: trabalhadores ativos age: idade making: fazendo attempts: enforos inefficient: ineficiente labour market: mercado de trabalho

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Sharks in the water In the last year, Somalias pirates have attacked 120 vessels in the Gulf of Aden, choking commerce in a critical shipping lane (the transit route for 20 percent of the worlds oil), blocking aid supplies and driving up transport costs. () The Somalias internationally recognized transitional government has invited foreign navies to do whats necessary to stop the pirates, even attacking them ashore if need be. The Security Council has affirmed that option. Moreover, nearly all of Somalias pirates come from one region (Puntland), live in a single town (Boosaaso) and stash captured vessels in one of three ports (Eyl, Hobyo or Haradhere) making interdiction that much easier. Andrew Linington of Nautilus UK, a seamans union that has had many of its members taken hostage, says the international community knows where the pirates are, they know the ports they use, they know the mother ships. Stopping them could be done, he says. But that would be expensive at a time when U.S. resources are tied up in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Rod Nordlant. Sharks in the water. Internet: <www.newsweek.com> (adapted).

According to the text, it is correct to affirm that

7. (CESPE/ ANTAQ/2009)

All of Somalias pirates come from one region,

what makes their interdiction quite easy.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Comentrios: As palavras All, Somalias pirates, come, one region, interdiction, quite easy. Vejamos o que diz o texto: Moreover, nearly all of Somalias pirates come from one region (Puntland), live in a single town (Boosaaso) and stash captured vessels in one of three ports (Eyl, Hobyo or Haradhere) making interdiction that much easier. ITEM All Somalias pirates (They 3 pessoa do plural) come (presente simples do verbo come) one region interdiction quite easy one region interdiction much easier come TEXTO nearly all Somalias pirates

O texto afirma que quase todos (nearly all) os piratas da Somlia vm (come) de uma regio, o que no o mesmo que dizer que todos (all) os piratas da Somlia vm de uma nica regio. H tambm outro erro na questo, quando ela afirma que a interdio torna-se quite easy (muito fcil), ao passo que o texto diz que a interdio torna-se muito mais fcil (much easier). Quando o texto diz muito mais fcil est comparando com alguma outra situao, no significa, necessariamente, que a interdio seja algo muito fcil de ser feita, e sim, mais fcil do que em outras situaes.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE all: todos Somalias pirates: piratas da Somlia come: vir one region: uma regio interdiction: interdio quite easy: muito fcil nearly all: quase todos much easier: muito mais fcil

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

PASSADO SIMPLES E PRESENTE PERFEITO

O Passado Simples o tempo verbal em ingls que equivale ao pretrito perfeito do indicativo do portugus, indicando uma ao j concluda. Os verbos em ingls so divididos entre regulares e irregulares. Os regulares so conjugados da mesma maneira para todas as pessoas, apenas com o acrscimo de ED para formao do passado. Os irregulares tambm so conjugados da mesma maneira para todas as pessoas quando esto no passado (com exceo do verbo be que pode ser was ou were), mas no so formados apenas com o acrscimo de ED (exemplos: write, wrote; have, had; be, was/were)

PASSADO VERBOS REGULARES ANNOUNCE (ANUNCIAR) I He She It You We They announced announced announced I He She It You We They

PASSADO VERBOS IRREGULARES THINK (PENSAR) thought thought

thought

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PASSADO VERBOS IRREGULARES COME INTO FORCE (ENTRAR EM VIGOR) I He She It You We They came (didnt come) came (didnt come) came (didnt come) I He She It You We They were (werent) was (wasnt) PASSADO VERBOS IRREGULARES BE (SER, ESTAR) was (wasnt)

Como vocs observaram, os verbos regulares recebem o acrscimo de ed ao infinitivo para formar o passado simples (simple past) e o particpio passado (past participle). Nos verbos irregulares, no h nenhum tipo de regra que estabelea como ser formado o passado. necessrio decorar o passado dos verbos irregulares mais importantes, aqueles que realmente caem em prova, tais como o verbo be. PASSADO DO VERBO BE (SER, ESTAR) I He She It You We They were was was I He She It You We They werent Were wasnt Was wasnt Was I ? He ..? She.? It ? You ? We .? They?

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

O Presente Perfeito o tempo verbal mais recorrente em provas de concursos, portanto, ateno. Este um tempo verbal que no tem um equivalente em portugus. Normalmente, indica aes que ocorreram no passado e perduram at o presente, concludas. composto por dois verbos: um auxiliar e outro principal. O auxiliar o verbo have (no presente simples), ou seja: have (para: I, you, we, they) ou has (para: he, she, it). O verbo principal sempre deve estar no particpio (passado particpio). So trs as situaes em que o Presente Perfeito pode aparecer: aes de um passado indeterminado e aes recentemente

a) Aes iniciadas que ocorreram em um tempo passado, sendo que suas conseqncias perduram at o tempo presente. Neste caso, o Present Perfect geralmente utilizado com: since, for, lately, recently, up to now; b) Pode indicar aes passadas, em um tempo desconhecido,

indeterminado; c) Em aes recentemente concludas o Present Perfect usado, geralmente, com a palavra just.

Importante observar que o been pode ser usado ou no. Veja o quadro abaixo:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PRESENTE PERFEITO I He She It You We They have has + been + verbo passado (1) (dealt) + verbo no passado (2) (dealt) been (sido) pode ser usado ou no. have

O USO DESSE TEMPO VERBAL (tanto no 1 quanto no 2 modelo) PODE TER DOIS SIGNIFICADOS DIFERENTES: Acontecido em algum momento indeterminado no passado (foram tratados). Repetidas vezes no passado ou iniciado no passado e ainda no terminado (tem sido tratados).

Agora, vejamos questes que cobraram esses dois tempos verbais:

Lembre-se de no ler o texto. V direto para as questes para s depois buscar as palavras-chave no texto.

Companies in the rich world are confronted with a rapidly ageing workforce. Nearly one in three American workers will be over 50 by 2012, and America is a young country compared with Japan and Germany. China is also ageing rapidly, thanks to its onechild policy. This means that companies will have to learn how to manage older workers better. Most companies are remarkably ill-prepared. There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the recession. The management literature on older workers 29 www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE is a mere molehill compared with the mountain devoted to recruiting and retaining the young. Companies are still stuck with an antiquated model for dealing with ageing, which assumes that people should get pay rises and promotions on the basis of age. They have dealt with the burdens of this model by periodically downsizing older workers or encouraging them to take early retirement. This has created a dual labour market for older workers, of cosseted insiders on the one hand and unemployed or retired outsiders on the other. But this model cannot last. The number of young people, particularly those with valuable science and engineering skills, is shrinking. And governments are raising retirement ages and making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers, in a desperate systems. Feb 4th 2010 | From The Economist print edition [adapted] attempt to cope with their underfunded pension

8. (ESAF/AFT/2010)

In paragraph 2, the author claims that the

recent economic recession has a) awakened an interest in science and engineering among younger workers. b) caused the number of young people seeking jobs in business to increase. c) extinguished what little interest firms had shown in how to manage an older staff. d) made a mountain of business management out of a managerial molehill. e) led many firms to dismiss older workers in their periodic staff reductions.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Comentrios: Esta foi uma questo totalmente no Passado Simples. a) awakened an interest in science and engineering among younger workers. A opo A est incorreta. A questo faz remisso ao pargrafo 2 e recente recesso econmica. A alternativa afirma que a recesso enfraqueceu (awakened, passado de awake, verbo regular) o interesse em cincia e engenharia. Observe que no texto, especificamente na frase There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the reces sion. no mencionado nada disso. A frase fala em problema (fora de trabalho envelhecida) e que houve interesse no problema at que ocorreu a recesso, que acabou com o interesse no problema. b) caused the number of young people seeking jobs in business to increase. A opo B est incorreta. O texto no diz que a recesso elevou a procura dos jovens por empregos nas empresas. Pode at ser que isso tenha acontecido, mas o texto no diz. O verbo caused passado de cause. Observe que um verbo regular. c) extinguished what little interest firms had shown in how to manage an older staff. A opo C est correta. A alternativa acompanha o texto ao afirmar que a recesso extinguiu o interesse das firmas em como lidar com funcionrios idosos (There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the recession.).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

d) made a mountain of business management out of a managerial molehill. A opo D est incorreta. De acordo com a alternativa, a recesso teria transformado (made, passado de make) uma montanha de negcios em um pequeno monte, ou seja, teria reduzido os negcios. O texto no diz isso. e) led many firms to dismiss older workers in their periodic staff reductions. A opo E est incorreta. A alternativa afirma que a recesso levou (led, passado de lead) as empresas a demitir os trabalhadores mais velhos. O texto no diz isso. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE awakened:acordou, passado do verbo awaken caused: causou, passado do verbo cause extinguished: extinguiu, passado do verbo extinguish made: fez, passado do verbo make led: levou, conduziu, passado do verbo lead

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

The pre-Iraq war and pre-9/11 performance of some secret services is subject to harsh criticism and, in some countries, various investigations. Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. The different agencies are blamed for inter- and intra-agency rivalry blocking the efficiency of any early warning system. In addition, they are heavily criticized for delivering the message their political masters wanted to hear. We do not want to blame anybody. But we believe that it is necessary to rethink the whole business of secret services. Without knowing the details that obviously led to serious deficiencies, there are several fundamental problems with the work of secret services in open, democratic societies. In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards intelligence gathering. It seems to be a dirty job. Democracy asks for openness and transparency. People in democracies do not like the work in a shadow. Scientists and journalists refrain in general from cooperation with secret services. They are afraid to destroy their access to foreign countries and colleagues. Recruitment of qualified young people has become difficult. Dieter Farwick. Internet: <http://www.world securitynetwork. com/showArticle3.cfm?article_id=9226> (with adaptations).

From the text above, it can be deduced that

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

9.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

the American decision to declair war against

Iraq was based on doubtless information. Comentrios: As palavras decision e based aparecem na frase: Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. Fazendo a comparao, temos que: Item Texto x x Are accused Decision.. Was based .. On doubtless information. have taken decisions based upon dubious information x

American .. Governments

Feita a anlise, fica mais fcil observar que enquanto o item fala em deciso americana, o texto fala, de maneira geral, que governos so acusados de terem tomado decises (have taken decisions). Ao contrario do que est dito no texto (decises baseadas em informaes dbias, duvidosas), a alternativa fala em decises baseadas em informaes indubitveis (doubtless).

SUFIXO LESS Doubtless = indubitvel sufixo - LESS = contrrio, negativo Logo, doubt=dvida, desconfiana

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOZ PASSIVA
Tanto na questo quanto no texto foi usada a voz passiva. Observe: the American decision to declair war against Iraq was based on doubtless information. decises (objeto) foram baseadas (passado be + based)

Governments are accused to have taken decisions based upon dubious information governos so acusados (presente be + accused)

VOZ PASSIVA (BE + VERBO NO PASSADO PARTICPIO)

PODE ESTAR NO PRESENTE OU NO PASSADO (is, are, was, were)

PALAVRAS-CHAVE declair: declarar war against Iraq: guerra contra o Iraque was based on: estava/era baseado doubtless: indibutvel are accused to: so acusados de have taken decisions: ter tomado decises essential: essencial based upon: baseado em dubious: dbio

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

10.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

qualified young people have never been

interested in becoming a secret agent. Comentrios: Para resolver esta questo temos que saber um pouquinho de gramtica, especificamente o tempo verbal chamado presente perfeito. Tanto o item quanto a frase em que encontramos a resposta no texto esto no presente perfeito, veja: qualified young people have never been interested in becoming a secret agent. (1) Recruitment of qualified young people has become difficult. (2)

PRESENTE PERFEITO I He She It You We They have has + (never) been + verbo passado (1) (interested) + verbo no passado (2) (become) been (sido) pode ser usado ou no. have

O USO DESSE TEMPO VERBAL (tanto no 1 quanto no 2 modelo) SIGNIFICA: Acontecido em algum momento indeterminado no passado, que continua at o momento atual. (Jovens qualificados NUNCA ESTIVERAM INTERESSADOS em se tornar agentes secretos) (O recrutamento de jovens qualificados SE TORNOU difcil)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Observe que o texto apenas afirma que o recrutamento de jovens qualificados se tornou difcil. A partir dessa afirmativa no possvel concluir que jovens nunca (never) estiveram interessados em serem recrutados.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE qualified: qualificado young people: jovens never: nuca been interested: estado interessado secret agent: agente secreto recruitment: recrutamento become: tornar-se

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE FUTURO

O futuro no ingls basicamente formado pelo verbo auxiliar will. tambm ser identificada pela expresses: Tomorrow amanh The day after tomorrow depois de amanh Next week prxima semana Next weekend prximo final de semana Next month prximo ms Next year prximo ano

will + verbo no infinitivo usado para expressar ao futura, que pode

FUTURO I He She It You We They will + verbo infinitive (I will work tomorrow Eu trabalharei amanh)

Vale lembrar que o futuro tambm feito com a expresso going to. Be going to uma estrutura que pode ser usada para falarmos de planos futuros de forma informal.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Going to enfatiza a idia de inteno, de uma deciso que j foi tomada. Ex.: Mark is going to cross Ireland. His friends are going to help him. amigos iro ajud-lo). (Marcos ir atravessar a Irlanda. Seus

Agora vejamos como cai em prova:

The long climb Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal, but it

will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

11. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) defined as a) both real and active. b) absolutely extraordinary. c) not very active or busy. d) sustainable and rapid. e) unpredictable.

In paragraph 1, growth in the new order is

Comentrios: A questo nos remete ao Pargrafo 1 e expresso growth in the new order. Voc dever escolher a opo que mais se assemelha definio de growth in the new order dada pelo texto. Vejamos como o texto trata do assunto: The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal, but it will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE growth: crescimento new order: nova ordem world economy: economia mundial getting back to normal: voltando ao normal will be: futuro do verbo be (ser) - ser subdued: passado do verbo subdue (reduzir) reduzido, reduziu unemployment: desemprego will remain: futuro do verbo remain (continuar) - continur high: alto www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 40

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Qual a opo que mais retrata o crescimento econmico (growth) na nova ordem mundial: a) both real and active. A opo A est incorreta. A alternativa caracteriza a nova ordem como real e active (ativa, rpida, vigorosa). A definio positiva e est errada. Veja que o texto fala em alto desemprego (high unemployment) e crescimento reduzido (subdued). b) absolutely extraordinary. A opo B est incorreta. Assim como a alternativa a, a alternativa b traz uma definio positiva da nova ordem: absolutamente extraordinria (absolutely extraordinary). c) not very active or busy. A opo C est correta. O texto define o crescimento na nova ordem como: (...) growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. Temos aqui que o crescimento ser reduzido e desemprego continuar alto, logo, pode-se dizer que o crescimento no ser muito vigoroso, ativo (active, busy). d) sustainable and rapid. A opo D est incorreta. Aqui a definio de crescimento tambm positiva, sustainable e rapid (sustentvel e rpido). e) unpredictable. A opo E est incorreta. O texto no diz que o crescimento na nova ordem mundial inprevisvel (unpredictable).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE DICA: Apenas na alternativa c, resposta para a questo, foi apresentada uma definio negativa para o crescimento na nova ordem mundial. Mesmo sem saber a definio de subdued daria para acertar a questo.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

The technological developments of the last decade have allowed us to use new forms of communication (telefax, electronic data-traffic) on an enormous scale. Our society is increasingly becoming an information society, in which the availability of information and the use of information channels have become essential parts of societal intercourse. This technological development implies that old ways of protecting data, which is vital to a considerable section of our society, have become inadequate. New ways must be found to guarantee that data flow be secret, undamaged and/or authenticated when necessary. The combination of advanced mathematical techniques with the enormous growth of the possibilities for automatic dataprocessing has resulted in very strong systems of cryptography, that is, systems that are powerful, sophisticated, and virtually impregnable. Encryption, which in this study will be understood to mean the automatic processing of data in such a way as to make them incomprehensible to third parties, therefore seems an ideal www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 42

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE solution for guaranteeing secrecy as well as authentication and integrity of data in digital data exchange. Indeed, it is increasingly being used to that purpose by a considerable part of our society. On the other hand, the use of encryption by criminals, who will also increasingly make use of technological developments, creates problems for the investigation and finding of evidence by the judicial authorities, owing to the same development of strong cryptographic systems. Encryption can also threaten the work of national security agencies. Internet: <rechten.uvt.nl> (adapted).

12. (CESPE/STJ/2009)

Encryption means mechanical processing of data

so as to turn them understandable to the end user. Comentrios: A questo trata da definio de Encryption. No texto, ela aparece na frase: Encryption, which in this study will be understood to mean the automatic processing of data in such a way as to make them incomprehensible to third parties, () ITEM Encryption mechanical processing of data turn them understandable to the end user = = TEXTO Encryption automatic processing of data make them incomprehensible to third parties

Da comparao acima perceba que h muitas contradies entre a questo e o texto. Por exemplo, enquanto a questo fala que criptografia www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 43

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (encryption) um processo mecnico de informao, o texto fala em processo automtico.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE encryption: criptografia means: significa mechanical: mecnico processing of data: processamento de dados turn: tornar understandable: inteligvel end user: receptor final automatic: automtico make: fazer incomprehensible: incompreensvel third parties: terceiros

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

FUTURO DO PRETRITO E PRETRITO MAIS-QUE-PERFEITO DO SUBJUNTIVO

Os tempos verbais do futuro do pretrito e do pretrito mais-que-perfeito so formados em ingls com o uso do would, um verbo auxiliar. Veja o quadro abaixo:

WOULD WOULD PROVOKE (provocaria) WOULD WORSEN (pioraria) WOULD HAVE PROVOKED (teria provocado) Equivale aos nossos tempos verbais do futuro do pretrito (ex: "Eu iria" fica "I would go") e do pretrito mais-que-perfeito do subjuntivo ("Eu teria ido" fica "I would have gone") WOULD + VERBO PRESENTE

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

ATENO: NO LEIA O TEXTO, V DIRETO PARA O COMENTRIO E PARA AS QUESTES.

A apatia do crescimento Fonte: CartaCapital 03/12/03 (Com adaptaes) provvel que nos prximos trimestres a economia brasileira recupere a sua capacidade de crescimento, fruto de uma menor conteno monetria (juros altos) e das melhores expectativas dos consumidores e investidores. Todavia, a magnitude deste crescimento incerta. Os ltimos nmeros de variao do Produto Interno Bruto, divulgados na ltima quarta-feira 26,foram muito decepcionantes. O PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) caiu 1.5% no terceiro trimestre em relao ao mesmo trimestre do ano anterior. Note-se que no trimestre anterior o decrscimo tinha sido de 1.1%, ou seja, a recesso continuou se aprofundando. Os investimentos tambm prosseguiram em queda (9.1%). O consumo das famlias caiu 3.7%. Em comparao com o trimestre anterior, o crescimento foi de apenas 0.4%. Em relao a este ltimo nmero, os analistas esperavam um crescimento de 1.5% em funo do melhor ambiente econmico que prevaleceu no terceiro trimestre. Os ltimos indicadores de atividades tm sido mais favorveis, o que possibilitar que em 2004 o Pas apenas reponha o crescimento perdido nos ltimos trimestres.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

13. (ESAF/IPEA/2004)

O PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) caiu 1.5% no

primeiro trimestre em relao ao mesmo trimestre do ano anterior. a) The Brazilian internal production decreased by 1.5%. b) The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) went up by 1.5%. c) Investment levels went down by 1.5%. d) Brazilian investment predictions reached 1.5%. e) The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) fell by 1.5%. Comentrios: Primeiro vamos achar as palavras-chave da frase em portugus: O PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) caiu 1.5% no primeiro trimestre em relao ao mesmo trimestre do ano anterior. Agora veja a alternativa que diz isso em ingls: e) The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) fell by 1.5%. A opo B est errada j que usou o verbo went up que significa subir, aumentar.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 14. (ESAF/IPEA/2004) ... a recesso continuou se aprofundando. a) Recession was prevented from increasing. b) Recession remained less severe. c) Recession kept on deepening. d) Recession levels continued to lower. e) Recession continued to be fought. Comentrios: Vejamos qual alternativa traduz melhor a frase: ... a recesso continuou se aprofundando. As palavras-chave so: continuou e aprofundando. Essas duas palavras s aparecem na alternativa c: kept e deepening, que significam exatamente isso. a) Recession was prevented from increasing. b) Recession remained less severe. c) Recession kept on deepening. d) Recession levels continued to lower. e) Recession continued to be fought.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 15. (ESAF/IPEA/2004) Os ltimos indicadores de atividades tm sido mais favorveis. a) Have been more sensible. b) Had been more optimistic. c) Would be absolutely gloomy. d) Have been more favourable. e) Will be less pessimistic. Comentrios: A questo exige conhecimento do tempo verbal presente perfeito. S para relembrar, veja o quadro a seguir:

PRESENTE PERFEITO I He She It You We They


Acontecido em algum momento ou repetidas vezes no passado ou iniciado no passado e ainda no terminado. (tem sido)

have has + been have

As alternativas a e d so as nicas que esto no presente perfeito. a) Have been more sensible. (perceptvel) d) Have been more favourable. (favorvel)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PALAVRAS-CHAVE GDP (Gross Domestic Product): PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) fell: caiu (passado do verbo fall) went up: subiu, aumentou (passado do verbo go up) prevented: impedido, evitado (passado do verbo prevent) increasing: aumento recession: recesso remained: mantido (passado do verbo remain) less: menos, mnimo, inferior severe: severo, rigoroso kept: mantido (passado do verbo keep) deepening: aprofundando continued: continuou (passado do verbo continue) lower: abaixar, diminuir fought: combateu (passado do verbo fight) sensible: perceptvel optimistic: otimista absolutely: absolutamente gloomy: pessimista favourable: favorvel less: menos pessimistic: pessimista

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

16. (ESAF/ STN/2008)

In paragraph 1, the author refers to a massive

government intervention which a) would worsen the scenario. b) is presently out of the question. c) would provoke constraints. d) is certainly on the way. e) seems highly questionable. Comentrios: No pargrafo 1, o autor se refere (refers) interveno governamental massiva (massive government intervention) que est se aproximando, chegando (is coming). () a massive government intervention is coming. a) would worsen the scenario. A opo A est incorreta. A alternativa afirma que a interveno governamental pioraria (would worsen) o cenrio. O texto no diz isso. b) is presently out of the question. A opo B est incorreta. Enquanto o texto diz que a interveno governamental massiva (massive government intervention) est se aproximando (in coming), aqui est sendo afirmado que a interveno governamental est fora de questo (out of the question). c) would provoke constraints. A opo C est incorreta. O texto no diz que a interveno provocaria (would provoke) constrangimento (constraints). d) is certainly on the way. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo D est correta. A interveno certamente est a caminho (on the way) o mesmo que dizer a interveno est se aproximando (in coming) e) seems highly questionable. A opo E est incorreta. No h no texto qualquer indicao de que a interveno parece (seems) altamente questionvel, duvidosa (questionable).

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE refer: referir-se massive: massiva/o government intervention: interveno would worsen: pioraria scenario: cenrio presently: agora, logo out of the question: fora de questo would provoke: provocaria constraints: constrangimento certainly: certamente, seguramente on the way: a caminho seem: parecer highly: altamente questionable: questionvel

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Offshore oil discoveries in Brazil to end Middle East Supremacy? In the last couple of months, several major offshore oil discoveries in Brazil have made headlines. The discovery of two oil fields has given new life to the idea that Brazil could become the worlds largest oil producer in the coming decades. The discovery of the Carioca field, estimated to hold 33 billion barrels, could alone increase Brazils future oil production capacity by 1-1.5 million barrels per day (bpd). This would make it the third largest oil field in the world and turn Brazil into the seventh largest producer of oil. In addition, Brazils national oil company PETROBRAS reported in November 2007 that the offshore Tupi field may hold 8 billion barrels of recoverable crude. Western news sources have been buzzing with the idea that Brazil could become an energy source large enough to undermine the current supremacy of the Middle East. The need for the U.S. and Europe to diversify away from current oil suppliers is obvious; these suppliers are largely based in instable and growingly anti-Western regions, such as the Middle East, North Africa and West Africa. Brazil, as one of the leading Latin American economies, is still considered to be one of the most stable oil producing regions. Peter Zeihan, VP analysis at Strategic Forecasting, believes that Brazils discoveries of what may be two of the worlds three biggest oil finds in the past 30 years could help end the Western Hemispheres reliance on Middle East crude. He indicated that the new discoveries would result in a decrease of Saudi Arabias position as largest oil producer and exporter. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 54

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE The position taken by Strategic Forecastings Zeihan is based on the belief that Brazil will be pumping several million barrels of crude daily by 2020, but an increase of 1- 1.5 million bpd in crude oil production is just a drop in the ocean. At present, the Gulf region transports about 17-18 million bpd to world markets. Total global demand is predicted to be about 112-115 million bpd, with around 55-60 million bpd produced by OPEC to counter lower production in other regions. To end the Middle Eastern supremacy, the world will need, in addition to the Brazilian discoveries, a tripling of Canadian oil sands output and higher fuel efficiency. The U.S. alone imports around 10 million bpd of crude oil, showing that Brazils 1-1.5 million bpd could only supply 10%-15% of imports. And this percentage would decrease as import volumes are increased if and when the American economy recovers. So as long as Gulf-based producers are still supplying around 23% of total U.S. imports, the need for stability in the Middle East will remain.
Internet: <www.resourceinvestor.com> (adapted).

17. (CESPE/PETROBRS/2009) According to the text, A several months ago, discoveries of important offshore oil reserves made Brazil hit international headlines. B Brazil will be the largest oil producer all over the world by the next year. C todays Brazil capability of producing oil reaches about 1-1.5 million barrels per day. D by the end of last year, PETROBRAS announced that Tupi field may contain 8 billion barrels of recoverable crude. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 55 middle of

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE E at present, Brazil is the third largest oil producer in the world.

Comentrios: A. Nesta alternativa, as palavras-chave so: several, months, ago,

dicoveries, offshore, oil reserves, brazil, headlines. No texto, podemos encontr-las na frase: In the last couple of months, several major offshore oil discoveries in Brazil have made headlines. Observe a comparao a seguir:

Item several months ago discoveries offshore oil reserves Brazil international headlines

Texto last couple of months discoveries offshore oil Brazil headlines

Feita a comparao entre o item e o texto, observamos que enquanto o primeiro fala em vrios (several) meses, o segundo fala em dois (couple) meses. Logo, incorreta.

B. Nesta opo de resposta, as palavras-chave so: Brazil, will be, largest, oil producer, middle, next year. No texto, temos a frase:

The discovery of two oil fields has given new life to the idea that Brazil could become the worlds largest oil producer in the coming decades.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Item Brazil will be largest oil producer middle of next year Texto Brazil could become largest oil producer coming decades

Enquanto o item fala que o Brasil ser (will be) o maior produtor de petrleo at o meio do ano que vem, o texto fala que o Brasil poder se tornar (could become) o maior produtor nas prximas dcadas. No texto a idia de probabilidade. No quadro abaixo veja outros verbos que indicam probabilidade. MODAL VERBS Can: poder ou saber fazer Could: poderia ou era capaz Permisso Habilidade Possiblidade GRAU DE PROBABILIDADE

May: poderia ou provvel Might: talvez seja possvel

Possibilidade Probabilidade

MUST

CAN/MAY Must: dever Possibilidade Obrigao Proibio MIGHT www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 57 COULD

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

C. Nesta opo aparecem as palavras: capability, producing oil, reaches, 1-1.5 million barrels, day. Vejamos no texto: The discovery of the Carioca field, estimated to hold 33 billion barrels, could alone increase Brazils future oil production capacity by 1-1.5 million barrels per day (bpd). A questo fala que a produo brasileira chega hoje (todays Brazil capability) a 1-1.5 milhes de barris por dia, certo? J o texto fala em produo futura (Brazils future) de 1-1.5 barris por dia. Logo, incorreta. D. As palavras-chave da alternativa so: PETROBRAS, announced, Tupi field, may, contain, 8 billion barrels, recoverable crude. No texto, temos que: In addition, Brazils national oil company PETROBRAS reported in November 2007 that the offshore Tupi field may hold 8 billion barrels of recoverable crude. Acompanhando o texto, a alternativa afirma que a Petrobrs anunciou (annouced = reported) que o campo Tupi pode (may-idia de forte probabilidade) conter (contain = hold) 8 bilhes de barris de petrleo recupervel (recoverable crude). Logo, correta.

E. As palavras-chave so: present, Brazil, the third largest, oil producer, world. No texto, vejamos:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE This would make it the third largest oil field in the world and turn Brazil into the seventh largest producer of oil. Observe que o texto fala em would make it the third largest oil field, sendo que o it se refere ao campo de petrleo (field) e no ao Brasil. Quanto ao Brasil, enquanto a questo fala em 3 lugar, o texto fala que ele se tornaria (would turn) o 7 maior produtor de petrleo. importantssimo que voc saiba o verbo would para a prova. Veja no quadro abaixo:

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE several: muitos months: meses ago: atrs discoveries: descobertas offshore: alto mar oil reserves: reservas de petrleo headlines: manchetes last: ltimo couple: dois, casal major: maior, principal will be: ser

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE largest: o maior oil producer: produtor de petrleo middle: meio next year: prximo ano oil fields: campos de petrleo could become: poderia se tornar coming decades: nas prximas dcadas capability: capacidade reach: alcanar barrels: barris alone: sozinho increase: aumento, acrscimo announced: anunciou may: poder (probabilidade) contain: conter recoverable crude: petrleo recupervel reported: reportou hold: conter would make: faria third largest: terceiro maio turn: transformar, mudar seventh largest: stimo maior

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

QUESTO 39 18. (CESPE/PETROBRS/2009) Based on the text, choose the incorrect option. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 60

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

A Western media sources have been considering the possibility that Brazil could weaken the present leadership of the Middle East in terms of oil production. B Some mid eastern producers are unstable and are not friendly towards the USA or Europe. C Brazil, one of the main Latin American economies, is taken as a steady oil producing region. D Peter Zeihan defends the idea that discoveries in Brazil could help to finish the Occident dependence on some mid-eastern countries. E Europe and the USA will soon be self-sufficient in oil production. Comentrios: A. A alternativa apresenta as seguintes palavras-chave: Western media sources, have been considering, Brazil, could weaken, leadership of the Middle East. No texto, temos que: Western news sources have been buzzing with the idea that Brazil could become an energy source large enough to undermine the current supremacy of the Middle East.

Item Western media sources have been considering Brazil leadership of the Middle East = = = = =

Texto Western media sources have been buzzing with the idea Brazil undermine (minar, enfraquecer) supremacy Middle East

could weaken (enfraquecer) =

A partir da comparao acima, percebe-se que o item est apenas parafraseando o texto. Logo, correta. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 61

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

B. As palavras-chave so: mid eastern producers, unstable, not friendly, USA, Europe. O texto diz o seguinte: The need for the U.S. and Europe to diversify away from current oil suppliers is obvious; these suppliers are largely based in instable and growingly antiWestern regions, such as the Middle East, North Africa and West Africa. Item mid eastern producers unstable not friendly USA, Europe = = = = = Texto Middle East suppliers instable anti-Western (anti-ocidentais) U.S. and Europe

No h contradies entre o texto e a alternativa. Nos dois momentos est sendo dito que os produtores de petrleo do Oriente Mdio so instveis e no amigveis para com os EUA e a Europa (anti-ocidentais). Logo, correta. C. Aqui, a palavras-chave : Brazil, one of the main Latin American economies, is taken as a steady oil producing region. Vejamos no texto: Brazil, as one of the leading Latin American economies, is still considered to be one of the most stable oil producing regions. Tanto o texto quanto a alternativa afirmam que o Brazil considerado uma das regies produtoras de petrleo mais estveis (stable = steady). Logo, correta.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE D. As palavras-chave que aparecem na alternativa so: Peter Zeihan, defends, discoveries, Brazil, could help, finish, Occident dependence, mid-eastern countries. O texto diz que: Peter Zeihan, VP analysis at Strategic Forecasting, believes that Brazils discoveries of what may be two of the worlds three biggest oil finds in the past 30 years could help end the Western Hemispheres reliance on Middle East crude. Item Peter Zeihan defends discoveries Brazil could help finish Occident dependence = = = = = = = Texto Peter Zeihan believes discoveries Brazils could help end Western Hemispheres reliance on Middle East

mid-eastern countries =

Partindo da comparao acima, observa-se que o item est apenas reescrevendo o que est dito no texto. Logo, correta.

E. A alternativa diz que os EUA e a Europa logo sero (will soon be) autosuficientes na produo de petrleo, certo? Errado. O texto no diz isso em nenhum momento. Ao contrrio, em uma de suas passagens afirma que The U.S. alone imports around 10 million (...), ou seja, os EUA so grandes importadores de petrleo e por isso, no auto-suficientes. Logo, incorreta.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE Western media sources: fontes da mdia ocidental have been considering: considerou, tem considerado could weaken: poderia enfraquecer leadership: liderana Middle East: Oriente Mdio Western news sources: fontes de notcias ocidentais buzzing with the idea: levantando a idia could become: poderia tornar-se energy source: fonte de energia undermine: minar, enfraquecer current: atual supremacy: supremacia unstable: instvel not friendly: no amigvel stable: estvel steady: estvel defend: defender believe: acreditar end: finalizar reliance: confiana crude: petrleo will soon be: logo ser

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

REVISO DO VOCABULRIO-CHAVE

A partir deste momento vamos revisar a aula por meio do quadro do vocabulrio-chave.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE web: web, rede make: fazer waves: onda swaying: balanando sweeping: arrebatando, varrendo, tomando conta swindling: trapaceando swerving: desviando swinging: balanando while: enquanto, considerando net access: acesso interne popular: popular homes of Brazilians: lares brasileiros internet cafes: ciber cafs known: conhecido become: tornar-se hugely: amplamente, largamente www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 65

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE whereas: enquanto, ao passo que, considerando que wherefore: por isso whenever: quando whence: onde whereby: como, de que forma, por meio do qual when: quando article: artigo inform: informar that: que has/have: ter reputation: reputao harbouring: abrigo dark areas: areas obscuras imply: implicar can be used for: pode ser usado para exquisite ends: requintados/extraordinrios fins sober objectives: objetivos sbrios genuine aims: objetivos verdadeiros sensible reasons: razes sensatas grim purposes: propsitos cruis/ameaadores insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente take place: ocorrer www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 66

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser despite: apesar de (das) talks: conversas between: entre still: ainda proceeds: continuar process: processo make: fazer nuclear fuel rich: combustvel nuclear enriquecido which: que the kernel: semente atomic bomb: bomba atmica is also: tambm refusal: recusa, negativa halt: parar process: processo nuclear fuel: combustvel nuclear the core: caroo, semente but also: mas tambm governments: governos industrialized countries: pases industrializados are trying: esto tentando to stop: parar companies: empresas dismissing: demitindo older: mais velhos workforce: fora de trabalho refusing: negando to employ: empregar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 67

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE younger workers: trabalhadores jovens expensive pensions: penses caras cutting: cortando retirement: aposentadorias valuable workers: trabalhadores ativos age: idade making: fazendo attempts: enforos inefficient: ineficiente labour market: mercado de trabalho all: todos Somalias pirates: piratas da Somlia come: vir one region: uma regio interdiction: interdio quite easy: muito fcil nearly all: quase todos much easier: muito mais fcil awakened:acordou, passado do verbo awaken caused: causou, passado do verbo cause extinguished: extinguiu, passado do verbo extinguish made: fez, passado do verbo make led: levou, conduziu, passado do verbo lead declair: declarar war against Iraq: guerra contra o Iraque was based on: estava/era baseado doubtless: indibutvel are accused to: so acusados de have taken decisions: ter tomado decises essential: essencial www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 68

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE based upon: baseado em dubious: dbio qualified: qualificado young people: jovens never: nuca been interested: estado interessado secret agent: agente secreto recruitment: recrutamento become: tornar-se growth: crescimento new order: nova ordem world economy: economia mundial getting back to normal: voltando ao normal will be: futuro do verbo be (ser) - ser subdued: passado do verbo subdue (reduzir) reduzido, reduziu unemployment: desemprego will remain: futuro do verbo remain (continuar) - continur high: alto encryption: criptografia means: significa mechanical: mecnico processing of data: processamento de dados turn: tornar understandable: inteligvel end user: receptor final automatic: automtico make: fazer incomprehensible: incompreensvel third parties: terceiros GDP (Gross Domestic Product): PIB (Produto Interno Bruto)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE fell: caiu (passado do verbo fall) went up: subiu, aumentou (passado do verbo go up) prevented: impedido, evitado (passado do verbo prevent) increasing: aumento recession: recesso remained: mantido (passado do verbo remain) less: menos, mnimo, inferior severe: severo, rigoroso kept: mantido (passado do verbo keep) deepening: aprofundando continued: continuou (passado do verbo continue) lower: abaixar, diminuir fought: combateu (passado do verbo fight) sensible: perceptvel optimistic: otimista absolutely: absolutamente gloomy: pessimista favourable: favorvel less: menos pessimistic: pessimista refer: referir-se massive: massiva/o government intervention: interveno would worsen: pioraria scenario: cenrio presently: agora, logo out of the question: fora de questo would provoke: provocaria constraints: constrangimento certainly: certamente, seguramente www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 70

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE on the way: a caminho seem: parecer highly: altamente questionable: questionvel several: muitos months: meses ago: atrs discoveries: descobertas offshore: alto mar oil reserves: reservas de petrleo headlines: manchetes last: ltimo couple: dois, casal major: maior, principal will be: ser largest: o maior oil producer: produtor de petrleo middle: meio next year: prximo ano oil fields: campos de petrleo could become: poderia se tornar coming decades: nas prximas dcadas capability: capacidade reach: alcanar barrels: barris alone: sozinho increase: aumento, acrscimo announced: anunciou may: poder (probabilidade) contain: conter www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 71

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE recoverable crude: petrleo recupervel reported: reportou hold: conter would make: faria third largest: terceiro maio turn: transformar, mudar seventh largest: stimo maior Western media sources: fontes da mdia ocidental have been considering: considerou, tem considerado could weaken: poderia enfraquecer leadership: liderana Middle East: Oriente Mdio Western news sources: fontes de notcias ocidentais buzzing with the idea: levantando a idia could become: poderia tornar-se energy source: fonte de energia undermine: minar, enfraquecer current: atual supremacy: supremacia unstable: instvel not friendly: no amigvel stable: estvel steady: estvel defend: defender believe: acreditar end: finalizar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 72

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE reliance: confiana crude: petrleo will soon be: logo ser

QUESTES DA AULA

The web makes waves in Brazil There is no doubt that the web has caught on in Brazil as its web-using population has doubled in just three years. In July 2008 more than 23.7 million Brazilians went online according to figures gathered by web statistics firm IBOPE/NetRatings. The figure is up 28% on the same time in 2007 and continues the trend of booming net use. Proof that it has caught on can be seen in statistics which suggest Brazilians spend the longest time surfing from home than any other nationality. By contrast, North Americans spend 20 hours 30 minutes and Germans 21 hours browsing the web every month. While net access is popular in the homes of Brazilians, with 35.4 million homes connected to the web in July 2008, internet cafes, or Lan houses as they are known in Brazil, are becoming hugely popular. So popular that they are springing up in underground stations and fast food restaurant. The dark side

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE The internet has a reputation for harbouring some dark areas and for that reason, a rigorous check is done before anyone can use a computer in a Lan house. (adapted from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7642224.stm)

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The title of this article refers to a movement that is (A) swaying. (B) sweeping. (C) swindling. (D) swerving. (E) swinging. 2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The underlined word in While net access is popular (line12) can be replaced by (A) Whereas. (B) Wherefore. (C) Whenever. (D) Whence. (E) Whereby. 3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) When the article informs that it has a reputation for harbouring some dark areas (lines19-20), this implies the Internet can be used for (A) exquisite ends. (B) sober objectives. (C) genuine aims. (D) sensible reasons. (E) grim purposes. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 74

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Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) 1. The regulation of insurance company solvency is a function

of the state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic onsite examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

4. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent.

Irans top nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili and EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana agreed yesterday to pursue talks

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE aimed at resolving the nuclear crisis, state television reported. () Iran is facing a possible fourth round of U.N.Security Council sanctions over its refusal to halt enrichment, a process which makes nuclear fuel but also the core of an atomic bomb. The European Union and the United States have also imposed restrictions on the activities of Irans largest banks, which are running in parallel to the three sets of sanctions agreed by the Security Council.
Internet: <www.afp.google.com.article> (adapted).

5.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2008)

Despite the talks between Jalili and Solana,

Iran still proceeds with its process to make nuclear fuel rich which is also the kernel of an atomic bomb.

Companies in the rich world are confronted with a rapidly ageing workforce. Nearly one in three American workers will be over 50 by 2012, and America is a young country compared with Japan and Germany. China is also ageing rapidly, thanks to its one-child policy. This means that companies will have to learn how to manage older workers better. Most companies are remarkably ill-prepared. There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the recession. The management literature on older workers is a mere molehill compared with the mountain devoted to recruiting and retaining the young. Companies are still stuck with an antiquated model for dealing with ageing, which assumes that people should get pay rises and promotions on the basis of age. They have dealt with the burdens of this model by www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 76

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE periodically downsizing older workers or encouraging them to take early retirement. This has created a dual labour market for older workers, of cosseted insiders on the one hand and unemployed or retired outsiders on the other. But this model cannot last. The number of young people, particularly those with valuable science and engineering skills, is shrinking. And governments are raising retirement ages and making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers, in a desperate attempt to cope with their underfunded pension systems. Feb 4th 2010 | From The Economist print edition [adapted]

6. (ESAF/AFT/2010)

In paragraph 2, the author claims that the

recent economic recession has a) awakened an interest in science and engineering among younger workers. b) caused the number of young people seeking jobs in business to increase. c) extinguished what little interest firms had shown in how to manage an older staff. d) made a mountain of business management out of a managerial molehill. e) led many firms to dismiss older workers in their periodic staff reductions.

Sharks in the water In the last year, Somalias pirates have attacked 120 vessels in the Gulf of Aden, choking commerce in a critical shipping lane (the transit route for 20 percent of the worlds oil), blocking aid supplies and driving up transport costs. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 77

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE () The Somalias internationally recognized transitional government has invited foreign navies to do whats necessary to stop the pirates, even attacking them ashore if need be. The Security Council has affirmed that option. Moreover, nearly all of Somalias pirates come from one region (Puntland), live in a single town (Boosaaso) and stash captured vessels in one of three ports (Eyl, Hobyo or Haradhere) making interdiction that much easier. Andrew Linington of Nautilus UK, a seamans union that has had many of its members taken hostage, says the international community knows where the pirates are, they know the ports they use, they know the mother ships. Stopping them could be done, he says. But that would be expensive at a time when U.S. resources are tied up in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Rod Nordlant. Sharks in the water. Internet: <www.newsweek.com> (adapted).

According to the text, it is correct to affirm that

7. (CESPE/ ANTAQ/2009)

All of Somalias pirates come from one region,

what makes their interdiction quite easy.

Companies in the rich world are confronted with a rapidly ageing workforce. Nearly one in three American workers will be over 50 by 2012, and America is a young country compared with Japan and Germany. China is also ageing rapidly, thanks to its one-child policy. This means that companies will have to learn how to manage older workers better.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Most companies are remarkably ill-prepared. There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the recession. The management literature on older workers is a mere molehill compared with the mountain devoted to recruiting and retaining the young. Companies are still stuck with an antiquated model for dealing with ageing, which assumes that people should get pay rises and promotions on the basis of age. They have dealt with the burdens of this model by periodically downsizing older workers or encouraging them to take early retirement. This has created a dual labour market for older workers, of cosseted insiders on the one hand and unemployed or retired outsiders on the other. But this model cannot last. The number of young people, particularly those with valuable science and engineering skills, is shrinking. And governments are raising retirement ages and making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers, in a desperate attempt to cope with their underfunded pension systems. Feb 4th 2010 | From The Economist print edition [adapted]

8. (ESAF/AFT/2010)

In paragraph 2, the author claims that the

recent economic recession has a) awakened an interest in science and engineering among younger workers. b) caused the number of young people seeking jobs in business to increase. c) extinguished what little interest firms had shown in how to manage an older staff. d) made a mountain of business management out of a managerial molehill. e) led many firms to dismiss older workers in their periodic staff reductions.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

The pre-Iraq war and pre-9/11 performance of some secret services is subject to harsh criticism and, in some countries, various investigations. Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. The different agencies are blamed for inter- and intra-agency rivalry blocking the efficiency of any early warning system. In addition, they are heavily criticized for delivering the message their political masters wanted to hear. We do not want to blame anybody. But we believe that it is necessary to rethink the whole business of secret services. Without knowing the details that obviously led to serious deficiencies, there are several fundamental problems with the work of secret services in open, democratic societies. In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards intelligence gathering. It seems to be a dirty job. Democracy asks for openness and transparency. People in democracies do not like the work in a shadow. Scientists and journalists refrain in general from cooperation with secret services. They are afraid to destroy their access to foreign countries and colleagues. Recruitment of qualified young people has become difficult. Dieter Farwick. Internet: <http://www.world securitynetwork. com/showArticle3.cfm?article_id=9226> (with adaptations).

From the text above, it can be deduced that

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 9. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) the American decision to declair war against Iraq

was based on doubtless information. 10. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) qualified young people have never been

interested in becoming a secret agent. The long climb Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal, but it

will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

11. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) defined as a) both real and active.

In paragraph 1, growth in the new order is

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE b) absolutely extraordinary. c) not very active or busy. d) sustainable and rapid. e) unpredictable. The technological developments of the last decade have allowed us to use new forms of communication (telefax, electronic data-traffic) on an enormous scale. Our society is increasingly becoming an information society, in which the availability of information and the use of information channels have become essential parts of societal intercourse. This technological development implies that old ways of protecting data, which is vital to a considerable section of our society, have become inadequate. New ways must be found to guarantee that data flow be secret, undamaged and/or authenticated when necessary. The combination of advanced mathematical techniques with the enormous growth of the possibilities for automatic dataprocessing has resulted in very strong systems of cryptography, that is, systems that are powerful, sophisticated, and virtually impregnable. Encryption, which in this study will be understood to mean the automatic processing of data in such a way as to make them incomprehensible to third parties, therefore seems an ideal solution for guaranteeing secrecy as well as authentication and integrity of data in digital data exchange. Indeed, it is increasingly being used to that purpose by a considerable part of our society. On the other hand, the use of encryption by criminals, who will also increasingly make use of technological developments, creates problems for the investigation and finding of evidence by the judicial authorities, owing to the same development of strong www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 82

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE cryptographic systems. Encryption can also threaten the work of national security agencies. Internet: <rechten.uvt.nl> (adapted).

12. (CESPE/STJ/2009)

Encryption means mechanical processing of data

so as to turn them understandable to the end user.

A apatia do crescimento Fonte: CartaCapital 03/12/03 (Com adaptaes) provvel que nos prximos trimestres a economia brasileira recupere a sua capacidade de crescimento, fruto de uma menor conteno monetria (juros altos) e das melhores expectativas dos consumidores e investidores. Todavia, a magnitude deste crescimento incerta. Os ltimos nmeros de variao do Produto Interno Bruto, divulgados na ltima quarta-feira 26,foram muito decepcionantes. O PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) caiu 1.5% no terceiro trimestre em relao ao mesmo trimestre do ano anterior. Note-se que no trimestre anterior o decrscimo tinha sido de 1.1%, ou seja, a recesso continuou se aprofundando. Os investimentos tambm prosseguiram em queda (9.1%). O consumo das famlias caiu 3.7%. Em comparao com o trimestre anterior, o crescimento foi de apenas 0.4%. Em relao a este ltimo nmero, os analistas esperavam um crescimento de 1.5% em www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 83

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE funo do melhor ambiente econmico que prevaleceu no terceiro trimestre. Os ltimos indicadores de atividades tm sido mais favorveis, o que possibilitar que em 2004 o Pas apenas reponha o crescimento perdido nos ltimos trimestres.

13. (ESAF/IPEA/2004)

O PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) caiu 1.5% no

primeiro trimestre em relao ao mesmo trimestre do ano anterior. a) The Brazilian internal production decreased by 1.5%. b) The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) went up by 1.5%. c) Investment levels went down by 1.5%. d) Brazilian investment predictions reached 1.5%. e) The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) fell by 1.5%. 14. (ESAF/IPEA/2004) ... a recesso continuou se aprofundando. a) Recession was prevented from increasing. b) Recession remained less severe. c) Recession kept on deepening. d) Recession levels continued to lower. e) Recession continued to be fought.

15. (ESAF/IPEA/2004) Os ltimos indicadores de atividades tm sido mais favorveis. a) Have been more sensible. b) Had been more optimistic. c) Would be absolutely gloomy. d) Have been more favourable. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 84

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE e) Will be less pessimistic.

While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

16. (ESAF/ STN/2008)

In paragraph 1, the author refers to a massive 85

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE government intervention which a) would worsen the scenario. b) is presently out of the question. c) would provoke constraints. d) is certainly on the way. e) seems highly questionable.

Offshore oil discoveries in Brazil to end Middle East Supremacy? In the last couple of months, several major offshore oil discoveries in Brazil have made headlines. The discovery of two oil fields has given new life to the idea that Brazil could become the worlds largest oil producer in the coming decades. The discovery of the Carioca field, estimated to hold 33 billion barrels, could alone increase Brazils future oil production capacity by 1-1.5 million barrels per day (bpd). This would make it the third largest oil field in the world and turn Brazil into the seventh largest producer of oil. In addition, Brazils national oil company PETROBRAS reported in November 2007 that the offshore Tupi field may hold 8 billion barrels of recoverable crude. Western news sources have been buzzing with the idea that Brazil could become an energy source large enough to undermine the current supremacy of the Middle East. The need for the U.S. and Europe to diversify away from current oil suppliers is obvious; these suppliers are largely based in instable and growingly anti-Western regions, such as the Middle East, North Africa and West Africa. Brazil, as one of the leading Latin American economies, is still considered to be one of the most stable oil producing regions. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 86

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Peter Zeihan, VP analysis at Strategic Forecasting, believes that Brazils discoveries of what may be two of the worlds three biggest oil finds in the past 30 years could help end the Western Hemispheres reliance on Middle East crude. He indicated that the new discoveries would result in a decrease of Saudi Arabias position as largest oil producer and exporter. The position taken by Strategic Forecastings Zeihan is based on the belief that Brazil will be pumping several million barrels of crude daily by 2020, but an increase of 1- 1.5 million bpd in crude oil production is just a drop in the ocean. At present, the Gulf region transports about 17-18 million bpd to world markets. Total global demand is predicted to be about 112-115 million bpd, with around 55-60 million bpd produced by OPEC to counter lower production in other regions. To end the Middle Eastern supremacy, the world will need, in addition to the Brazilian discoveries, a tripling of Canadian oil sands output and higher fuel efficiency. The U.S. alone imports around 10 million bpd of crude oil, showing that Brazils 1-1.5 million bpd could only supply 10%-15% of imports. And this percentage would decrease as import volumes are increased if and when the American economy recovers. So as long as Gulf-based producers are still supplying around 23% of total U.S. imports, the need for stability in the Middle East will remain.
Internet: <www.resourceinvestor.com> (adapted).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Brazil hit international headlines. B Brazil will be the largest oil producer all over the world by the middle of next year. C todays Brazil capability of producing oil reaches about 1-1.5 million barrels per day. D by the end of last year, PETROBRAS announced that Tupi field may contain 8 billion barrels of recoverable crude. E at present, Brazil is the third largest oil producer in the world. 18. (CESPE/PETROBRS/2009) Based on the text, choose the incorrect option. A Western media sources have been considering the possibility that Brazil could weaken the present leadership of the Middle East in terms of oil production. B Some mid eastern producers are unstable and are not friendly towards the USA or Europe. C Brazil, one of the main Latin American economies, is taken as a steady oil producing region. D Peter Zeihan defends the idea that discoveries in Brazil could help to finish the Occident dependence on some mid-eastern countries. E Europe and the USA will soon be self-sufficient in oil production.

GABARITO

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 1-B 6-A 11-C 16-D 2-A 7-E 12-E 17-D 3-E 8-C 13-E 18-E 4-A 9-E 14-C 5-C 10-E 15-D

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE AULA 02

Prezados(as) alunos(as),

Nesta segunda aula vamos estudar os adjetivos e advrbios em ingls e como as Bancas Examinadoras tm abordado a matria em prova. No deixem de tirar as dvidas no Frum das aulas, terei o maior prazer em respond-las. Destaco que o Frum o canal de comunicao entre o professor e os alunos, a oportunidade para que voc tire suas dvidas. Bons estudos.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

ADJETIVOS

Adjetivo a palavra que expressa uma qualidade ou caracterstica do substantivo, certo? Os adjetivos em ingls tm a mesma funo dos adjetivos em portugus. O que muda a posio deles na frase. No ingls, os adjetivos so usados, em sua maioria, antes dos substantivos que eles qualificam. Essa regra tambm vlida para quando estiverem presentes dois ou mais adjetivos. It was a difficult test. (Foi uma prova difcil.) O adjetivo difficult (difcil) descreve o substantivo test (prova).

Para interpretar corretamente os textos das provas de ingls da ESAF, alm de saber que os adjetivos se posicionam antes dos substantivos, voc ter que saber identificar e distinguir adjetivos comparativos e superlativos. Sendo assim, passo a demonstrar como se formam os comparativos e os superlativos em ingls.

Comparativos e Superlativos

Adjetivos Curtos Para formar os comparativos e superlativos dos adjetivos de uma slaba adiciona-se -er para a forma comparativa e -est para a forma superlativa.Veja alguns exemplos: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 2

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Adjetivos Cold Old Fast Small Weak Comparativo -ER colder older faster smaller weaker Superlativo -EST coldest oldest fastest smallest weakest

Alguns dos adjetivos mais comuns em ingls tm formas irregulares de comparativos e superlativos. Adjetivo Bad Good Far Comparativo worse better Superlativo worst best furthest farthest oldest eldest

Old

mais slabas (adjetivos longos) usamos o more e less para as formas

Al ai de

comparativas e most e least as formas superlativos. Veja alguns exemplos:

SS

Se

Para formar os comparativos e superlativos dos adjetivos de duas ou

ee

vv

Adjetivos de duas ou mais slabas

ve

ee

rr 3 r5 i7 i0 ia 2a 6a 8n 0n 4n 7o 2o

farther older elder

o,

further

,,

Adjetivo

Comparativo

Superlativo

Arrogant

more arrogant www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

most arrogant

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE less arrogant Tense more tense less tense more cooperative less cooperative more perfect less perfect least arrogant most tense least tense most cooperative least cooperative most perfect least perfect

Cooperative

Perfect

Em resumo, o que voc precisa saber est no quadro da prxima pgina:

COMPARATIVO Regra geral adj curto + er + than slower than (mais lento) richer than (mais rico) latter than (mais tarde)

more + adj longo + than less + adj longo + than

more urbanized than (mais urbanizado que) less urbanized than (menos urbanizado que)

Excees

good (bom) bad (mal) far (longe)

better than (melhor) worse than (pior) farther/further than (mais longe)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

SUPERLATIVOS Regra geral adj curto + est The slowest (o mais lento) The richest (o mais rico)

most + adj longo least + adj longo

most valuable (o mais valioso) least valuable (o menos valioso)

Excees

good (bom) bad (mal)

best (melhor) worst (pior)

Expresses comparativas Alm das formas comparativas estudadas, h expresses que tambm so usadas para fazer comparaes e podem aparecer nas provas. As...as e So....as so recorrentes em prova: Expresso to..quanto as. as as fast as (to rpido quanto) not as fast as (no to rpido) as stable as (to estvel quanto) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE not as stable as (no to estvel quanto) so.....as so stable as (to estvel quanto) so developed as (to desenvolvido quanto)

Adjetivos terminados em ed e ing. Por fim, h dois tipos de adjetivos que devem ser lembrados: os adjetivos formados pelo particpio passado (-ed) e aqueles formados pelo gerndio (-ing). Alm de ser usado para formar o passado dos verbos, o -ed tambm e o ing tambm foram adjetivos. O ed corresponde, em portugus, s terminaes ado/-edo/-ido (resolved=resolvido; bearded=barbado). O ing corresponde, em portugus, s terminaes ente/-ante (depressing=deprimente; interesting=interessante).

Advrbios Em ingls, a maioria dos advrbios formada adicionando-se o sufixo ly ao adjetivo de origem (careful/carefully, happy/happily etc.). Enquanto o adjetivo d uma caracterstica ao substantivo, o advrbio se refere ao verbo.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Existem algumas palavras que terminam em -ly mas que, porm, no so advrbios, e sim adjetivos. As principais delas so: friendly: amigvel, lonely: solitrio, ugly:feio, likely: provvel, unlikely: improvvel. Os advrbios podem ser derivados de adjetivos ou podem ter a mesma forma do adjetivo. Neste ltimo caso, temos situao semelhante em portugus quando dizemos, por exemplo: Ele um rapaz bonito (adjetivo) x Ele canta bonito (advrbio). Muitos advrbios, principalmente os de modo, freqncia e intensidade, so derivados de adjetivos mediante o acrscimo do sufixo ly (-mente em portugus). Adjetivo Slow (lento, devagar) Careful (cuidado) Efficient (eficiente) Quick (rpido) Bad (mau) Perfect (perfeito) Silent (silencioso) Easy (fcil) Terrible (terrvel) Tragic (trgico) Advrbio Slowly (lentamente, devagar) Carefully (cuidadosamente) Efficiently (eficientemente) Quickly (rapidamente) Badly (mal) Perfectly (perfeitamente) Silently (silenciosamente) Easily (facilmente) Terribly (terrivelmente) Tragically (tragicamente)

Como no possvel acrescentar um ly a adjetivos que j terminam em ly (tais como friendly, silly, lovely etc), deve-se recorrer a uma construo com way (jeito, modo) ou manner (maneira). Por exemplo: Friendly (amigvel) in a friendly way (de modo amigvel)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Ateno para um advrbio que em nada semelhante ao adjetivo: good (bom) . . .....................well (bem).

Advrbios de Frequncia Em destaque, os advrbios de freqncia. Recorrentes em provas de concurso da ESAF, so aqueles que nos indicam com que frequncia algo aconteceu, acontece, acontecer etc. Observe o quadro abaixo, que mostra, em uma escala do mais frequente para o menos frequente, o grau de frequncia dos principais advrbios:

ADVRBIOS DE FREQUNCIA

+
always: sempre often: frequentemente usually: habitualmente sometimes: s vezes seldom/rarely: raramente never: nunca

Agora, vejamos como os adjetivos e advrbios so cobrados pela FGV, CESPE e ESAF:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Meet the new neighbours The empty house, in a middle-class corner of southern California, is two storeys high and boasts a three-car garage. Roses bloom around a kidney-shaped swimming pool, which is green with algae. Bill Bobbitt, a county inspector, dips a ladle into the water and brings up half a dozen wriggling larvae. Mosquitoes, and the West Nile virus that some of them carry, are thriving in Californias plunging property market. West Nile virus arrived in America in 1999 and made it to California three years later. Since then it is known to have infected 2,300 people in the state, of whom 76 have died In theory, owners are supposed to keep their properties in decent shape whether they live there or not. California has even passed a bill fining banks and mortgage companies that seize properties and then allow pools to fester. But Mr. Bobbitt isnt waiting for the lawyers. He has treated the pool in Santa Ana with oil and synthetic growth hormones, which will keep the mosquitoes adolescent, preventing breeding. Then he tips in a few dozen mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), which begin happily munching larvae. You can buy a lot of the fish for what a lawyer charges per hour, and some authorities, with commendable creativity, even provide them free to help control the pests. (from The Economist, August 2d, 2008, p. 34)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The tone of the title is (A) tragic. (B) sympathetic. (C) ironic. (D) wailing. (E) enthusiastic. Comentrios: A questo cobra conhecimento de vocabulrio, referindo-se ao ttulo e ao assunto do texto, questionando o tom/intonao (tone) do ttulo. Vejamos do que trata o texto:

West Nile virus arrived in America in 1999 and made it to California three years later. Since then it is known to have infected 2,300 people in the state, of whom 76 have died Veja, o texto est tratando de um virus que chegou Amrica em 1999. O ttulo diz: Meet the new neighbours = Conhea os novos vizinhos (A) tragic.= trgico (B) sympathetic. = simptico (C) ironic. = irnico (D) wailing. = lastimoso (E) enthusiastic. = entusiasmado

PALAVRAS-CHAVE meet: conhecer, encontrar new: novo www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 10

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE neighbours: vizinhos tragic: trgico sympathetic: simptico ironic: irnico wailing: lastimoso enthusiastic: entusiasmado

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) According to the text, the market for buying and selling houses in California is (A) dropping. (B) stable. (C) rising. (D) sky-rocketing. (E) inflated. Comentrios: De acordo com o texto, o Mercado de compra (buying) questo: market, houses, Califrnia: Mosquitoes, and the West Nile virus that some of them carry, are thriving in Californias plunging property market. Questo de puro vocabulrio, mas se observar as opes de resposta, apenas uma tem idia negativa. Ou seja, mesmo que voc no saiba o e venda (selling) de casas na Califrnia est.... Procure no texto as palavras-chaves da

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE significado de plunging (afundando), analisando as alternativas daria para acertar a questo:

(A) dropping. = caindo (B) stable. = estvel (C) rising. = crescendo (D) sky-rocketing. = subindo (E) inflated.= inflado

PALAVRAS-CHAVE mosquitoes: mosquitos virus: vrus carry: carregar are: so/esto, verbo be thriving: prosperando plunging: afundando property market: mercado imobilirio dropping: caindo stable: estvel rising: subindo sky-rocketing: altssimo inflated:inflado

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) A kidney-shaped swimming-pool is (A) triangular. (B) square. (C) rectangular. (D) trapezoid. (E) curved. Comentrios: O texto fala em kidney-shaped swimming-pool. Aqui temos o adjetivo kidney-shaped que o mesmo que kidney-form e significa em forma de rins, reniforme. Certo, mas o que ser isso, no mesmo? Vejamos as alternativas de resposta: (A) triangular. = triangular (B) square. = quadrado (C) rectangular. = retangular (D) trapezoid. = trapezide (E) curved. = curvado

PALAVRAS-CHAVE kidney-shaped: em forma de rins, reniforme swimming-pool: piscina triangular: triangular square: quadrado rectangular: retangular trapezoid: trapezide. curved: curvado, curvo Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 4. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The expression boasts a three-car garage (line 2) reveals an attitude which is (A) humble. (B) haughty. (C) hopeful. (D) hospitable. (E) holy. Comentrios: A expresso boasts a three-car garage significa ostenta uma garagem para 3 carros. A expresso revela uma atitude que : (A) humble. = humilde (B) haughty. = arrogante (C) hopeful. = esperanoso (D) hospitable. = hospitaleiro (E) holy. = sagrado, divino

PALAVRAS-CHAVE boast: ostentar three-car garage: garagem para trs carros reveal: reveler which: que humble: humilde haughty: arrogante hopeful: esperanoso hospitable: hosptaleiro. holy: sagrado, santo

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 14

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

A former head of German counter-intelligence recently confided: The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. That spymasters emphasis on exclusivity and withholding information even from his friends is, alas, the watchword among intelligence chiefs worldwide. And it threatens to undermine efforts to globalize the hunt for terrorists and their bad works. Timely and credible intelligence often the merest scrap can be as decisive in foiling terrorist plotting as any police action, cruise missile, or bomb. Thats why the American Congress and the White House are focused on improving information sharing between the CIA and FBI. But the debate has so far overlooked another chronic intelligence failure: the inadequacy of the CIAs liaison with other intelligence services. One reason for urgent reform is that even though the United States far outstrips other countries in its technical intelligence gathering, many other nations often have better human intelligence, or humint real live spies. Robert Gerald Livingston. Internet: <http://www.ndol.org/ndol_ci.cfm (with adaptations).

foil to prevent (someone or something) from being successful.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 5. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The best piece of information is not supposed to

be available to anyone. Comentrios: Ainda no lemos o texto, certo? Ento vamos procurar as palavras-chave desse item e depois busc-las no texto para decidir se o item est certo ou errado. PALAVRAS-CHAVE The best piece of information is not supposed to be available to anyone. best piece: melhor pea information: informao is not: no supposed: deveria be: ser, estar available: disponvel, acessvel No texto as palavras-chave do item aparecem na seguinte frase: The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. PALAVRAS-CHAVE The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. intelligence: inteligncia is: one: um only: somente possess: possuo Agora vamos comparar: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Item: best piece information is not supposed to be available to anyone Texto: best piece intelligence is only I possess Apenas com essas palavras-chave j respondemos a questo. Enquanto a alternativa afirma que a melhor pea (best piece) de informao no deve estar disponvel para qualquer um (available to anyone), o texto afirma que a melhor pea de inteligncia aquela que s uma pessoa possui (only I possess).

VOZ PASSIVA As vozes de um verbo estabelecem a relao entre o sujeito e a ao expressa por este verbo. O sujeito pratica ou sofre a ao, isto , o sujeito agente ou paciente. Quando o sujeito o agente, temos a voz ativa (active voice) e, quando o sujeito o paciente, temos a voz passiva (passive voice). Veja que na alternativa foi usada a voz passiva:

The best piece of information is not supposed to be available to anyone

OBJETO

VERBO NA VOZ PASSIVA (BE + PASSADO)

'supposed to' = tem idia de deveria

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 6. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The word one (R.2) is a numeral.

Comentrios: Vejamos a linha 2: The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. A alternativa afirma que a palavra one um numeral. pegadinha daquelas... Sim, a palavra one como todo mundo sabe, significa um, portanto, um numeral. Mas na alternativa, one aparece na funo de pronome, se referindo best piece of intelligence. The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. Esta foi uma

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

7.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

Chiefs agree to the principle that intelligence

can only be passed on to some special friends all over the world. Comentrios: Vamos identificar as palavras-chave da alternativa: PALAVRAS-CHAVE Chiefs agree to the principle that intelligence can only be passed on to some special friends all over the world. chiefs: chefes www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE agree: concordar principle: princpio can: poder be passed on: ser passada, ser transmitida some: alguns special friends: amigos especiais No texto, as palavras chiefs e friends aparecem na frase: That spymasters emphasis on exclusivity and withholding information even from his friends is, alas, the watchword among intelligence chiefs worldwide.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE That spymasters emphasis on exclusivity and withholding information even from his friends is, alas, the watchword among intelligence chiefs worldwide. spymaster: mestre de investigao emphasis: nfase, enfatizar exclusivity: exclusividade withholding: reteno even: mesmo alas: palavra usada para dar nfase em exclamaes watchword: lema among: entre worldwide: mundialmente Agora, fazendo a comparao: Item: Chiefs - agree - intelligence - can - be passed on - friends

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE
Texto: emphasis - exclusivity and withholding - information - even from his

friends Enquanto o item fala que inteligncia pode (can) ser passada, transmitida para amigos, o texto, ao contrrio, fala em exclusividade e reteno (withholding) de informao mesmo (even) para amigos.

VOZ PASSIVA Intelligence can only be passed on to some special friends.

OBJETO

VERBO NA VOZ PASSIVA (CAN BE + PASSADO)

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

8.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

The word threatens (R.5) can be correctly

replaced by menaces. Comentrios: A questo afirma que a palavra threatens pode (can) ser corretamente substituda por menaces. Questo difcil, que exige o conhecimento de threatens e menaces. Se o candidato no souber a definio das duas palavras, muito provvel que erre a questo. Melhor deixar em branco esse tipo de questo se voc no sabe o significado das palavras, no perca tempo (tempo que poder ser til na resoluo de outras questes que exijam raciocnio). menaces = ameaas = threatens

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 9. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) Believable and opportune intelligence can

decisively replace the action of the police, even cruise missiles, and bombs. Comentrios: As palavras-chave da questo (police, cruise missiles, bombs) so encontradas na frase: Timely and credible intelligence often the merest scrap can be as decisive in foiling terrorist plotting as any police action, cruise missile, or bomb. Antes de ver a traduo do vocabulrio-chave, vamos comparar a questo com o texto: QUESTO believable opportune intelligence can decisively replace the action of the police cruise missiles bombs Credible timely intelligence can be as decisive as any police action cruise missile bomb TEXTO

Enquanto a questo fala que inteligncia pode decisivamente substituir (can decisively replace) a ao policial, o texto afirma que inteligncia pode ser to deciva quanto (as decisive as) qualquer ao policial. As...as significa igualdade. A estrutura do uso : As + adjetivo + as. Importante: As...as = So...as

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PALAVRAS-CHAVE believable: acreditvel, possvel opportune: oportuno can: poder decisively: decididamente replace: repor,substituir action of the police: ao da polcia even: mesmo missiles: msseis bombs: bombas timely: tempestiva credible: confivel decisive: decisivo

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 10. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The CIA and FBI are yet to establish a process

of information interchange. Comentrios: No texto, as palavras CIA, FBI, information aparecem na frase Thats why the American Congress and the White House are focused on improving information sharing between the CIA and FBI. Observem que o assunto abordado na questo a troca de informaes entre a CIA e o FBI (information interchange = information sharing) A questo traz duas palavras importantes: yet e establish No texto temos: improving Mesmo sem saber os significados das outras palavras, j podemos pensar o seguinte: enquanto a questo fala em estabelecer o texto fala em melhorar, ora, s possvel melhorar algo que j existe, certo? Logo, o item est errado. Importante Yet: ainda ( usado quando algo ainda no aconteceu) Still: ainda ( usado quando algo ainda est acontecendo) Already: j ( usado quando algo j aconteceu)

PALAVRAS-CHAVE American Congress: Congresso Americano www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 24

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE White House: Casa Branca are focused: esto focados improving: melhorar information sharing: compartilhamento de informaes between: entre yet: ainda establish: estabelecer process: processo information interchange: intercmbio de informaes

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 11. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The USA surpasses other countries in terms of

technical intelligence collection. Comentrios: A questo est se referindo aos EUA e technical intelligence, certo? O texto trata dos EUA e inteligncia tcnica na frase: One reason for urgent reform is that even though the United States far outstrips other countries in its technical intelligence gathering() Vamos comparar: Item: USA surpasses in terms of technical intelligence collection Texto: U.States outstrips in its technical intelligence gathering A questo est correta, observe que ela apenas a parfrase do texto. Enquanto o item afirma que os EUA superam (surpasses) os outros pases em termos de acmulo (collection) de inteligncia tcnica, o texto diz que os EUA se destacam (outstrips) dos outros pases pela sua coleta (gathering) de inteligncia tcnica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE surpasse: superar other countries: outros pases terms: termos technical intelligence: inteligncia tcnica collection: coleo reason: razo even though: apesar disso outstrip: destacar gathering: coleta Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Ateno: No se assuste com o tamanho do texto a seguir. Ele foi cobrado na prova do concurso TCU 2009, para o cargo 3, Auditor Federal de Controle Externo. No primeiro momento, no leia o texto. V direto para as questes. Na hora da prova no d tempo de ler o texto. Voc deve partir para a identificao das palavras-chave e s depois procurar a resposta no texto.

While there is no shortage of studies into the reasons why software projects fail (Ewusi-Mensah, 1997), the major risks of software development (Jones, 1994), or even the factors affecting project success (Cooke-Davies, 2002), the field of software engineering lacks a general model with which to investigate such failures. To date, studies have tended to be surveys of the factors 4 thought to play some part in a failure. Several researchers have argued that a simple model of accidents is insufficient for dealing with modern technology. A causal-chain model of accidents is useful to investigate the failure of a specific component through wear and tear, or the attribution of the cause can be established through application of a but for test. Given the cause, similar accidents can be prevented by checking the same component for wear and tear or other flaws such as structural cracks. However, it is a less useful model when investigating accidents which causes are ultimately not due to physical weaknesses but are due to interactions between components or the failure of the system itself. Driven by the need to find ways to prevent future accidents, the alternative models reject the simple causal chain model on several www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 27

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE grounds. The first is that looking back along the causal chain requires a stopping rule to determine when to cease investigating deeper into the system which, it is argued, can be somewhat arbitrary in the choice of cause (Leveson, 2004). The second reason is that such investigative techniques tend to focus attention on the proximate event most closely associated with the accident and direct attention away from the latent, contributory causes. Where, in the past, it may have been sufficient to seek direct causes of an accident, modern socio-technical systems can produce accidents that are the result of the interaction of different parts of the system rather than a failure of any one part of the system. Turner & Pidgeon (1997) reviewed official investigations into non-natural disasters to arrive at a view that many disasters were man-made and entirely foreseeable. In a major contrast to causal models of accidents, the authors argued that the conditions for the disasters he investigated largely originated from decisions made by upper management. The view that there was ample evidence of impending disaster available if only someone paid it any attention appears to be shared by investigators other than Turner. However such hindsight bias has been criticised by several researchers, most notably Dekker (2005). Hindsight bias ignores the reality that most operational decisions are made under ambiguous circumstances based on sparse and ambiguous evidence. Instead, Dekker argues, investigators must try hard to understand the circumstances of the time and put aside knowledge of the outcome. To reason more fully about the interaction of different parts of a socio-technical system, several researchers have proposed a system theoretic model in which the system is expressed as a hierarchy of control levels. Each level of the hierarchy is considered to act on the level below it through the imposition of constraints and directions to achieve emergent properties and to receive feedback. A more useful model for considering total risk was a top-down, systems oriented www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 28

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE approach based on system control theoretic concepts. This approach gave a control structure embedded in an adaptive socio-technical system. Such a model shows how different parties contribute to safety regardless of their organizational affiliations.
Jon McBride. A model for investigating software accident. In: Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, vol. 40, n. 1, Feb. 2008 (adapted)

Judge the following items according to the text. 12. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2009) A causal-chain model of accidents is effective

in investigating accidents which causes are solely due to failures of the system. Comentrios: Primeiro, vamos identificar as palavras-chave da questo (causal-chain model, accidents, investigating, failures) e encontrar a frase correspondente no texto: O texto diz que: A causal-chain model of accidents is useful to investigate the failure of a specific component through wear and tear,() Da anlise comparativa entre a questo e o texto, temos que: Item
causal-chain model of accidents is effective in investigating which causes are solely due to failures of the system = = = =

Texto
causal-chain model of accidents is useful to investigate the failure of a specific component

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Observe que enquanto a questo fala que o modelo de cadeia-causal (causal-chain) efetivo para investigar acidentes cujas causas so falhas de sistema, o texto fala nesse modelo para investigar falhas em componentes especficos. Alm disso, na frase do texto reproduzida abaixo, ainda temos que: However, it is a less useful model when investigating accidents which causes are ultimately not due to physical weaknesses but are due to interactions between components or the failure of the system itself. A questo afirma que o modelo causal-chain efetivo para investigar acidentes cujas causas estejam relacionadas com falhas no sistema. Na frase acima, o autor afirma que este um modelo less useful, ou seja, menos til, quando a falha do sistema (failure of the system itself). O importante para resolver esta questo era o candidato saber que less significa menos. Aqui a banca cobrou o conhecimento gramatical de adjetivos comparativos. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE causal-chain model: modelo de cadeia-causal accidents: acidentes is: , verbo be (ser,estar) effective: efetivo useful: til in investigating: em investigar solely: somente due: devido failures: falhas system: sistema specific component: componente especfico Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Ateno: No leia o texto. Leia a questo, identifique as palavras-chave e s depois procure a resposta no texto.

The world of computer security has changed dramatically in the last few years, and one of the greatest challenges now facing CIOs and IT directors is the task of maintaining the security of their IT environments. The effects of a security breach can be catastrophic, including unplanned downtime and the resulting loss of service, a potentially significant financial impact, and the loss of sensitive and confidential information. This problem has been compounded by the proliferation of networked PCs and servers as well as the growing intelligence of malicious software that seeks to exploit and expand throughout the Internet infrastructure. Companies are releasing new technologies and tools to address the needs of system administrators responsible for managing the security large numbers of geographically dispersed systems. For example, technologies such as Position Independent Executables (PIE) and Exec Shield help protect against buffer overflows, a tactic frequently employed by attackers to infiltrate and compromise flawed software programs. Security features in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (adapted).

13. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) The occurrence of a security breach can bring about only three undesirable results.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Comentrios: A questo fala em security breach, can, bring, only three, undesirable results. No texto, temos que: The effects of a security breach can be catastrophic, including unplanned downtime and the resulting loss of service, a potentially significant financial impact, and the loss of sensitive and confidential information. A questo afirma que a ocorrncia de violao da segurana pode trazer (bring about) somente (only) 3 (three) resultados indesejveis (undesirable). No texto, fala-se em efeitos da violao da segurana (security breach), que incluem (including) .... 1. unplanned downtime and the resulting loss of service, 2. a potentially significant financial impact, 3. loss of sensitive and confidential information Enquanto a questo fala de que os resultados so apenas 3, o texto fala de efeitos (= resultados), que incluem....os trs citados acima. Apesar de o texto citar 3 efeitos da violao da segurana, quando se usa a palavra including, entende-se que h outros efeitos que no estes que o texto cita. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE occurrence: ocorrncia can bring about: pode gerar, trazer only: somente three: trs undesirable: indesejveis results: resultados effects: efeitos can be: pode ser including: incluindo Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 32

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

14. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) Two of the technologies to help protect against buffer overflows are mentioned. Comentrios: A questo fala em two technologies, help, protect, against, buffer, overflows. No texto, estas palavras aparecem na frase: For example, technologies such as Position Independent Executables (PIE) and Exec Shield help protect against buffer overflows, a tactic frequently employed by attackers to infiltrate and compromise flawed software programs. ITEM Two of = TEXTO For example 1. technologies such as Position
Independent Executables (PIE) and 2. Exec Shield

technologies help
protect against buffer overflows

= =
=

technologies help
protect against buffer overflows

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE two: dois help: ajuda, ajudar protect: proteger against: contra Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

15. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) seldom. Comentrios:

frequently (R.18) is the opposite of

Para acertar esta questo bastaria saber os advrbios de freqncia. Enquanto frequently significa frequentemente, seldom significa raramente. Veja o quadro explicativo abaixo: ADVRBIOS DE FREQUNCIA

+
always: sempre often, frequently: frequentemente usually: habitualmente sometimes: s vezes seldom/rarely: raramente never: nunca

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) 1. The regulation of insurance company solvency is a function of

the state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic onsite examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

16. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo diz: In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators (Em relao ao monitoramento da sade financeira de www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 35

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE companhias licenciadas a oferecer seguro, os reguladores estatais...) Vejamos onde o texto est tratando de monitoring. DICA: Observe que das 10 palavras-chave, 6 so verdadeiros cognatos, ou seja, palavras que se assemelham ao portugus. Felizmente elas so maioria! Mas cuidado, h os falsos cognatos. No se preocupe com eles agora. Eles so minoria.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE relation: relao monitoring: monitoramento financial health: sade financeira companies: companhias licensed: licenciadas provide: oferecer, fornecer, produzir state regulators: reguladores estatais

O texto trata do assunto monitoring na seguinte frase: State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examinations.

MAIS PALAVRAS-CHAVE www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 36

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE through: atravs analysis: anlises detailed: detalhadas annual: anual financial statements: demonstraes financeiras insurers: segurador, seguradora are required: so demandados, solicitados to file: seguir periodic: peridico on-site examinations: exame, investigao in loco

Da leitura, verificamos que h duas maneiras por meio (through) das quais os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias: analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examination.

a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. A opo A est incorreta. O texto no diz que os reguladores estatais esto atualmente (currently) desenvolvendo (designing) duas ferramentas (tools) para monitoramento da sade financeira das seguradoras. O autor apenas afirma que os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias de seguro atravs de 2 ferramentas: analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers e periodic on-site examination.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Currently = atualmente CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO!

x
actually = realmente, efetivamente

b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. A opo B est correta. O verbo to resort to significa recorrer a, apelar a. J might resort to d a idia de probabilidade. A opo afirma que possvel que os reguladores do mercado de seguros recorram s ferramentas citadas no texto. Logo a afirmativa est corretssima, uma vez que o autor afirma que os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias atravs da analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file e do periodic on-site examination, duas aes desenvolvidas para lhes assistir.

c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. A opo C est incorreta. O autor no diz que os reguladores podem (may) decidir por terceirizar (outsource) anlises mais profundas (further = como vimos, esta a forma comparativa do adjetivo far). d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. A opo C est incorreta. No texto no h qualquer meno ao verbo assess (avaliar, estimar, calcular) ou outro com idia similar. Logo, est errado afirmar que os reguladores estatais esto avaliando os procedimentos mais efetivos (most effective = forma superlativa do adjetivo effective). e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 38

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo E est incorreta. No se pode afirmar pela leitura do texto que os reguladores estatais esto tendentes a adotar a anlise de suas demonstraes. Totalmente errada.

IMPORTANTE Sufixo -LY Forma adjetivos e advrbios slowly: lentamente likely: provavelmente, tendente lively: vivaz

PALAVRAS-CHAVE currently: atualmente designing: desenvolvendo tool: ferramenta resort to: recorrer a outsource: terceirizar further: mais profundo, mais distante assess: avaliar, estimar, calcular

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE most effective procedures: procedimentos mais efetivos likely: provvelmente, tendente adopt: adotar

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

17. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo j remete o leitor expresso insolvencies do occur. S ser necessrio encontrar esta expresso no texto. Vejamos a ltima frase do texto: ()Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. Agora as palavras-chave e as alternativas de resposta:

PALAVRAS-CHAVE

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente take place: ocorrer pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser

a) actually happen. A opo A est correta. Insolvencies do occur significa que insolvncias efetivamente acontecem. Actually significa de fato, efetivamente. IMPORTANTE actually = realmente, efetivamente Adjetivos + Sufixo LY = advrbio Logo, actual = real, efetivo CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO! Atualmente = nowadays, presently Outros exemplos: undoubtedly (indubitavelmente) hardly (dificilmente) frequently (frequentemente) usually (usualmente, habitualmente)

b) are undoubtedly preventable. A opo B est incorreta. Da leitura da frase Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. percebe-se que apesar dos www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 41

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE esforos dos reguladores, as insolvncias efetivamente ocorrem. Logo, no se pode afirmar que insolvncia seja indubitavelmente evitvel (preventable). c) hardly take place. A opo C est incorreta. O texto no diz que insolvncia dificilmente (hardly) ocorre (take place), apenas afirma que ela ocorre. d) do not pose a threat. A opo D est incorreta. Insolvencies do occur no quer dizer que insolvncias no representam (pose) uma ameaa (threat). Perceba que o enunciado da questo quer apenas o significado da expresso e no a interpretao de que sejam ou no ameaas. e) used to be more frequent. A opo E est incorreta. A opo afirma que insolvncias costumavam ser (used to be) mais freqentes. No texto no h essa afirmao.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal, but it

will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

18. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) defined as a) both real and active. b) absolutely extraordinary. c) not very active or busy. d) sustainable and rapid. e) unpredictable.

In paragraph 1, growth in the new order is

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A questo nos remete ao Pargrafo 1 e expresso growth in the new order. Voc dever escolher a opo que mais se assemelha definio de growth in the new order dada pelo texto. Vejamos como o texto trata do assunto: The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal, but it will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE growth: crescimento new order: nova ordem world economy: economia mundial getting back to normal: voltando ao normal will be: futuro do verbo be (ser) - ser subdued: passado do verbo subdue (reduzir) reduzido, reduziu unemployment: desemprego will remain: futuro do verbo remain (continuar) - continur high: alto Qual a opo mais retrata o crescimento econmico (growth) na nova ordem mundial: a) both real and active. A opo A est incorreta. A alternativa caracteriza a nova ordem com os adjetivos real e active (ativa, rpida, vigorosa). A definio positiva e est errada. Veja que o texto fala em alto desemprego (high unemployment) e crescimento reduzido (subdued). b) absolutely extraordinary. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 44

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo B est incorreta. Assim como a alternativa a, a alternativa b traz uma definio positiva da nova ordem: absolutamente extraordinria (absolutely extraordinary). c) not very active or busy. A opo C est correta. O texto define o crescimento na nova ordem como: (...) growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. Temos aqui que o crescimento ser reduzido e desemprego continuar alto, logo, a alternativa est correta ao afirmar que o crescimento no ser muito vigoroso, ativo (active, busy). d) sustainable and rapid. A opo D est incorreta. Aqui a definio de crescimento tambm positiva, sustainable e rapid (sustentvel e rpido). e) unpredictable. A opo E est incorreta. O texto no diz que o crescimento na nova ordem mundial imprevisvel (unpredictable). DICA: Apenas na alternativa c, resposta para a questo, foi apresentada uma definio negativa para o crescimento na nova ordem mundial. Mesmo sem saber a definio de subdued daria para acertar a questo. Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Reason with him Source: www.newsweek.com 22nd Sep, 2009 (Adapted) Question (Q) 1: Margolis: When you took office, Brazil was regarded as an underachiever, and the last among the BRIC nations. Now Brazil is considered a star among emerging countries. Whats happened? Lula: No one respects anyone who doesnt respect themselves. And Brazil always behaved like a second-class country. We always told ourselves we were the country of the future. But we never transformed these qualities into anything concrete. In a globalized world you cannot sit still. You have to hit the road and sell your country. So we decided to make strengthening Mercosul (the South American trading bloc) a priority, and deepened our relations with Latin America in general. We prioritized trade with Africa and went into the Middle East aggressively. Our trade balance today is diversified. This helped us cushion the blow of the economic crisis. Q2: Margolis: Has Brazils success in navigating the economic crisis changed investorsviews? Lula: There was no miracle. We had a strong domestic market. We had consumers who wanted to buy cars. We reduced part of the sales tax and asked the companies to offer consumers credit on affordable items. Its the same case with refrigerators, stoves, washing machines, and with computers and the housing construction. Q3: Margolis: What are the lessons for other countries? Lula: The great lesson is that the state has an important role to play, and has great responsibility. We dont want the state to manage business. But it can be an inducer of growth and can work in harmony with society.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 19. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) In his answer to question 1, Brazils president refers to strengthening Mercosul as a priority. In other words, a measure he considered a) risky. b) unattainable. c) pivotal. d) unnecessary. e) advisable. Comentrios: A questo se refere expresso strengthening Mercosul as a priority e quer saber qual dos adjetivos reflete a opinio do presidente acerca dessa medida (measure). Considerando que o presidente disse ser a medida uma prioridade (priority), o fortalecimento do Mercosul :

a) risky. b) unattainable. c) pivotal. d) unnecessary. e) advisable. Observe que no era preciso saber ingls para acertar a questo, todos as adjetivos apresentados nas alternativas se parecem com o portugus. O vocabulrio-chave que cobrado nesta questo se parece bastante com o portugus: PALAVRAS-CHAVE strengthening: fortalecimento, fortalecer priority: prioridade measure: medida www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 47

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE risky: arriscado unattainable: inatingvel pivotal: fundamental, essencial, piv unnecessary: desnecessrio advisable: aconselhvel

Das 08 palavras-chave, 06 se parecem com nossas palavras do portugus. Isso muitas vezes acontece. Existem sim os falsos cognatos, aquelas palavras que na escrita se assemelham ao portugus, mas que tm significados diferentes. Contudo, importante lembrar que forte a presena de vocbulos de origem latina no ingls, sendo que a porcentagem de ocorrncia dessas palavras como falsos cognatos em relao ao portugus insignificante - menos de 0,1%. No se preocupe com qualquer probabilidade de erro ao interpretar palavras do ingls parecidas com palavras do portugus. Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 20. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) Brazils president refers to the countrys diversified trade balance as having a) contributed to worsen the global economic crisis. b) resulted from trade with one sole strategic partner. c) been prevented by internal regulations. d) been considered as an unattainable goal. e) minimized the adverse effects of the world crisis. Comentrios: Vamos destacar as palavras-chave do enunciado para depois buscar no texto a resposta: Brazils president refers to the countrys diversified trade balance as having (O Presidente se refere balana comercial diversificada do pas como tendo....) No texto, as palavras diversified trade balance aparecem no trecho: Our trade balance today is diversified. This helped us cushion the blow of the economic crisis. Juntando as palavras-chave do enunciado com as do texto, temos que: diversified trade balance helped economic crisis

Agora vejamos as alternativas de respostas: a) contributed to worsen the global economic crisis. A opo A est incorreta. Com a anlise das palavras no quadro acima, conclumos que a balana comercial diversificada ajudou (helped) o pas na www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 49

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE crise econmica. Ao contrrio do texto, a alternativa diz que a balana comercial prejudicou, piorou (worsen) a crise econmica global. Observe que a palavra crisis est precedida de dois adjetivos: global e economic. b) resulted from trade with one sole strategic partner. A opo B est incorreta. Estamos falando aqui de diversified trade balance e a alternativa fala em trade with one solo strategic partner (comrcio com um nico parceiro estratgico). A palavra partner est precedida dos adjetivos one solo e strategic. c) been prevented by internal regulations. A opo C est incorreta. O presidente trata da balana comercial diversificada como fator que teria ajudado o pas na crise e no como tendo sido evitada ou impedida (prevented) por regulamentaes internas. Internal o adjetivo que est qualificando regulations.

d) been considered as an unattainable goal. A opo D est incorreta. A alternativa afirma que a balana comercial diversificada foi considerada (been considered) um objetivo (goal) inatingvel (unattainable) unattainable o adjetivo. e) minimized the adverse effects of the world crisis. A opo E est correta. Assim como est no texto que a balana comercial diversificada ajudou, a alternativa diz que ela minimizou (minimized) os efeitos adversos (adverses o adjetivo) da crise mundial.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE diversified: diversificado trade balance: balana comercial www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 50

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE contributed: contribuido worsen: piorar global economic crisis: crise econmica global resulted: resultou trade: comrcio one sole: um s, um nico strategic partner: parceiro estratgico been: sido, estado prevent: evitar, impedir, prevenir internal regulations: regulamentaes internas considered: considerado unattainable: inatingvel goal: objetivo minimized: minimizou adverse effects: efeitos adversos cushion: amortecer, proteger contra choques

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

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21. (ESAF/ STN/2008) As regards investors in Europe at the moment, they are feeling a) nervous and upset. b) confident and optimistic. c) reassured, but cautious. d) slightly afraid. e) tense, but optimistic. Comentrios: Veja que as alternativas s trazem adjetivos. O enunciado diz: quanto aos (as regards) investidores (investors), como esto se sentindo. H duas frases no texto com palavras-chave que aparecem tambm em duas das alternativas: In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. Nesta frase aparece a palavra reassurance, que significa resseguro, confiante. Na alternativa e est sendo afirmado que os investidores esto confiantes, mas cuidadosos. Contudo, o texto est negando que os investidores tenham tal confiana, segurana (veja que o texto diz: have no). That makes many watchers nervous. Aqui no aparece a palavra investors, mas a palavra watchers, que significa observadores em geral (o que inclui, portanto, os investidores) a) nervous and upset. (nervosos e preocupados) b) confident and optimistic. (confiantes e otimistas) c) reassured, but cautious. (confiantes, mas cautelosos) d) slightly afraid. (levemente temerosos) e) tense, but optimistic. (tensos, mas otimistas) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 53

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE as regards: quanto /ao investors: investidores feeling: sentindo nervous: nervoso upset: preocupado confident: confidante, certo, seguro optimistic: otimista reassured: resseguro, confiante cautious: cauteloso slightly: levemente afraid: temeroso, com medo tense: tenso, ansioso

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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A world of connections Source: www.economist.com (Adapted) Jan 28th, 2010 To sceptics all this talk of twittering, yammering and chattering smacks of another internet bubble in the making. They argue that even a huge social network such as Facebook will struggle to make money because fickle networkers will not stay in one place for long, pointing to the example of MySpace, which was once all the rage but has now become a shadow of its former self. Last year the site, which is owned by News Corp, installed a new boss and fired 45% of its staff as part of a plan to revive its fortunes. Within companies there is plenty of doubt about the benefits of online social networking in the office. A survey of 1,400 chief information officers conducted last year by Robert Half Technology, a recruitment firm, found that only one-tenth of them gave employees full access to such networks during the day, and that many were blocking Facebook and Twitter altogether. The executives biggest concern was that social networking would lead to social networking, with employees using the sites to chat with friends instead of doing their jobs. Some bosses also fretted that the sites would be used to leak sensitive corporate information.

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22. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 2, the benefits of online social networking in the office are a) undeniable. b) numerous. c) long-lasting. d) uncertain. e) predictable. Comentrios: De acordo com o pargrafo 2, os benefcios (benefits) de uma rede social (networking) online para um escritrio (office) so.... No texto, encontramos a palavra benefits na frase: Within companies there is plenty of doubt about the benefits of online social networking in the office. As palavras-chave para responder a questo so plenty (muitas) e doubt (dvidas). Analisando as alternativas e seus adjetivos, qual deles traz a idia de algo duvidoso: a) undeniable. (inegveis) b) numerous. (numerosos) c) long-lasting. (duradouros) d) uncertain. (incertos) = plenty of doubt e) predictable. (previsveis)

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VOCABULRIO-CHAVE benefits: benefcios office: escritrio undeniable: inegvel numerous: numeroso long-lasting: duradouro uncertain: incerto predictable: previsvel within: em companies: empresas plenty of doubt: muitas dvidas

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 23. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 2, some bosses also worried that through the sites sensitive corporate information would be a) altered. b) distorted. c) made classified. d) disclosed. e) negotiated.

Comentrios: De acordo com o pargrafo 2, alguns patres/chefes (bosses) tambm temam (worried) que atravs destes sites (sites de redes sociais) informaes corporativas sensveis (sensitive corporate information)

seriam.....Observe que informao est aqui caracterizada por sensitive e corporate, dois adjetivos que antecedem a palavra information. No texto, a palavra bosses aparece na frase: Some bosses also fretted that the sites would be used to leak sensitive corporate information. Sem se preocupar com a traduo de leak, sabendo que o texto trata dos riscos destes sites de redes sociais para informaes sensveis de que essas informaes sejam amplamente divulgadas, certo? Informaes sensveis podem ser tambm informaes sigilosas, no mesmo?

Vejamos as alternativas: a) altered. (alteradas) b) distorted. (distorcidas) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 58

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE c) made classified.(classificadas) d) disclosed. (abertas, divulgadas) e) negotiated.(negociadas) As alternativas so todas adjetivos terminados em ed, ou seja, formadas pelo passado particpio de verbos. As alternativas a e b so sinnimos e a questo no pode ter duas respostas. A c e a e no fazem sentido no contexto. Portanto, sobra a letra d. Disclosed (divulgadas) tem o mesmo sentido que leak, que significa vazar informaes secretas. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE some: alguns bosses: chefes also: tambm worried: preocupado sensitive corporate information: informaes corporativas sensveis altered: alteradas distorted: distorcidas classified: classificadas disclosed: divulgadas negotiated: negociadas fretted: preocupado leak: vazar informaes secretas

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

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Tackling Corruption for Growth and Development Source: www.ausaid.gov.au 18th Jan 2008 (Adapted) 1. Corruption is a major impediment to broadbased growth and

development, undermining government revenue and expenditure on the delivery of basic services such as law and justice, health care, education, and the maintenance of essential infrastructure. The World Bank Institute has estimated that more than US$1 trillion is paid in bribes each year and, over the long run, countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times. 2. Corruption weakens institutions and makes states more vulnerable to crisis. It has the potential to undermine security in our partner countries and in the Asia-Pacific region more broadly. Security can be threatened when governments fail to deliver services, uphold law and order, maintain public confidence in institutions, or control the use of resources. 3. Corruption can lead to money politics and undermine the decisions of democratically elected governments. It can also open the way for a variety of other crimes such as money laundering and trafficking in drugs, arms, and people.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 24. (ESAF/CGU/2008) According to the text, the effect of corruption on the decisions made by democratically elected governments is that these decisions a) become more legitimate and effective. b) gradually become less effective. c) are implemented in a shorter period of time. d) gain both credibility and morale. e) may lose legitimacy and credibility.

Comentrios: O enunciado no diz o pargrafo a que se refere a questo. Teremos que procurar no texto onde o assunto foi tratado. Vejamos as palavras-chave do enunciado: According to the text, the effect of corruption on the decisions made by democratically elected governments is that these decisions A questo trata do efeito (effect) da corrupo nas decises tomadas (decisions made) pelos governos democraticamente eleitos (democratically elected governments), certo? Quando voltamos ao texto, percebemos que a palavra democratically aparece na primeira frase do pargrafo 3. Corruption can lead to money politics and undermine the decisions of democratically elected governments. Agora, vejamos as alternativas: a) become more legitimate and effective. A opo A est incorreta. Vimos que a questo trata da corrupo e sua influncia nas decises dos governos democraticamente eleitos. A alternativa afirma que, como efeito da corrupo, as decises tornam-se mais legtimas e

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE efetivas. Isso no poderia ser verdadeiro, no mesmo? Aqui temos a forma comparativa (more) dos adjetivos legitimate e effective. b) gradually become less effective. A opo B est correta. O texto diz que a corrupo mina, enfraquece (undermine) as decises, ou seja, as decises vo se tornando menos (less) efetivas com a corrupo. A palavra undermine tem o significado de arruinar gradativamente (gradually), minar. c) are implemented in a shorter period of time. A opo C est incorreta. Tambm no h no texto a informao de que as decises, considerando a ocorrncia de corrupo, sejam implementadas num perodo de tempo mais curto (shorter forma comparativa do adjetivo short) do que se no houvesse corrupo. d) gain both credibility and morale. A opo D est incorreta. Ao contrrio do que o texto afirma, esta alternativa diz que as decises ganham credibilidade e moralidade. e) may lose legitimacy and credibility. A opo E est incorreta. O texto no diz claramente que as decises dos governos democraticamente eleitos perdem legitimidade e credibilidade. O texto diz que a corrupo enfraquece as decises e usa o verbo undermine, que tem a idia de processo gradativo.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE democratically: democraticamente elected: eleito goernments: governos lead: conduzir, levar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 62

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE undermine: minar, enfraquecer become: tornar-se less effective: menos efetivo gradually: gradualmente implemented: implementado shorter: mais curto, menor morale: moral gain: ganho, benefcio, vantagem both: ambos credibility: credibilidade lose: perder legitimacy: legitimidade

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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REVISO DO VOCABULRIO-CHAVE

A partir deste momento vamos revisar a aula por meio do quadro do vocabulrio-chave.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE meet: conhecer, encontrar new: novo neighbours: vizinhos tragic: trgico sympathetic: simptico ironic: irnico wailing: lastimoso enthusiastic: entusiasmado mosquitoes: mosquitos virus: vrus carry: carregar are: so/esto, verbo be thriving: prosperando plunging: afundando property market: mercado imobilirio dropping: caindo stable: estvel rising: subindo sky-rocketing: altssimo inflated:inflado kidney-shaped: em forma de rins, reniforme

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE swimming-pool: piscina triangular: triangular square: quadrado rectangular: retangular trapezoid: trapezide. curved: curvado, curvo boast: ostentar three-car garage: garagem para trs carros reveal: reveler which: que humble: humilde haughty: arrogante hopeful: esperanoso hospitable: hosptaleiro. holy: sagrado, santo best piece: melhor pea information: informao is not: no supposed: deveria be: ser, estar available: disponvel, acessvel intelligence: inteligncia is: one: um only: somente possess: possuo chiefs: chefes agree: concordar principle: princpio can: poder

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE be passed on: ser passada, ser transmitida some: alguns special friends: amigos especiais spymaster: mestre de investigao emphasis: nfase, enfatizar exclusivity: exclusividade withholding: reteno even: mesmo alas: palavra usada para dar nfase em exclamaes watchword: lema among: entre worldwide: mundialmente believable: acreditvel, possvel opportune: oportuno can: poder decisively: decididamente replace: repor,substituir action of the police: ao da polcia even: mesmo missiles: msseis bombs: bombas timely: tempestiva credible: confivel decisive: decisivo American Congress: Congresso Americano White House: Casa Branca are focused: esto focados improving: melhorar information sharing: compartilhamento de informaes between: entre

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE yet: ainda establish: estabelecer process: processo information interchange: intercmbio de informaes surpasse: superar other countries: outros pases terms: termos technical intelligence: inteligncia tcnica collection: coleo reason: razo even though: apesar disso outstrip: destacar gathering: coleta causal-chain model: modelo de cadeia-causal accidents: acidentes is: , verbo be (ser,estar) effective: efetivo useful: til in investigating: em investigar solely: somente due: devido failures: falhas system: sistema specific component: componente especfico occurrence: ocorrncia can bring about: pode gerar, trazer only: somente three: trs undesirable: indesejveis results: resultados www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 67

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE effects: efeitos can be: pode ser including: incluindo two: dois help: ajuda, ajudar protect: proteger against: contra relation: relao monitoring: monitoramento financial health: sade financeira companies: companhias licensed: licenciadas provide: oferecer, fornecer, produzir state regulators: reguladores estatais through: atravs analysis: anlises detailed: detalhadas annual: anual financial statements: demonstraes financeiras insurers: segurador, seguradora are required: so demandados, solicitados to file: seguir periodic: peridico on-site examinations: exame, investigao in loco currently: atualmente

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE designing: desenvolvendo tool: ferramenta resort to: recorrer a outsource: terceirizar further: mais profundo, mais distante assess: avaliar, estimar, calcular most effective procedures: procedimentos mais efetivos likely: provvelmente, tendente adopt: adotar insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente take place: ocorrer pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser growth: crescimento new order: nova ordem world economy: economia mundial getting back to normal: voltando ao normal will be: futuro do verbo be (ser) - ser subdued: passado do verbo subdue (reduzir) reduzido, reduziu www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 69

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE unemployment: desemprego will remain: futuro do verbo remain (continuar) - continur high: alto strengthening: fortalecimento, fortalecer priority: prioridade measure: medida risky: arriscado unattainable: inatingvel pivotal: fundamental, essencial, piv unnecessary: desnecessrio advisable: aconselhvel diversified: diversificado trade balance: balana comercial contributed: contribuido worsen: piorar global economic crisis: crise econmica global resulted: resultou trade: comrcio one sole: um s, um nico strategic partner: parceiro estratgico been: sido, estado prevent: evitar, impedir, prevenir internal regulations: regulamentaes internas considered: considerado unattainable: inatingvel goal: objetivo minimized: minimizou adverse effects: efeitos adversos cushion: amortecer, proteger contra choques as regards: quanto /ao investors: investidores www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 70

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE feeling: sentindo nervous: nervoso upset: preocupado confident: confidante, certo, seguro optimistic: otimista reassured: resseguro, confiante cautious: cauteloso slightly: levemente afraid: temeroso, com medo tense: tenso, ansioso benefits: benefcios office: escritrio undeniable: inegvel numerous: numeroso long-lasting: duradouro uncertain: incerto predictable: previsvel within: em companies: empresas plenty of doubt: muitas dvidas some: alguns bosses: chefes also: tambm worried: preocupado sensitive corporate information: informaes corporativas sensveis altered: alteradas distorted: distorcidas classified: classificadas disclosed: divulgadas negotiated: negociadas

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE fretted: preocupado leak: vazar informaes secretas democratically: democraticamente elected: eleito goernments: governos lead: conduzir, levar undermine: minar, enfraquecer become: tornar-se less effective: menos efetivo gradually: gradualmente implemented: implementado shorter: mais curto, menor morale: moral gain: ganho, benefcio, vantagem both: ambos credibility: credibilidade lose: perder legitimacy: legitimidade

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QUESTES DA AULA Meet the new neighbours The empty house, in a middle-class corner of southern California, is two storeys high and boasts a three-car garage. Roses bloom around a kidney-shaped swimming pool, which is green with algae. Bill Bobbitt, a county inspector, dips a ladle into the water and brings up half a dozen wriggling larvae. Mosquitoes, and the West Nile virus that some of them carry, are thriving in Californias plunging property market. West Nile virus arrived in America in 1999 and made it to California three years later. Since then it is known to have infected 2,300 people in the state, of whom 76 have died In theory, owners are supposed to keep their properties in decent shape whether they live there or not. California has even passed a bill fining banks and mortgage companies that seize properties and then allow pools to fester. But Mr. Bobbitt isnt waiting for the lawyers. He has treated the pool in Santa Ana with oil and synthetic growth hormones, which will keep the mosquitoes adolescent, preventing breeding. Then he tips in a few dozen mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), which begin happily munching larvae. You can buy a lot of the fish for what a lawyer charges per hour, and some authorities, with commendable creativity, even provide them free to help control the pests. (from The Economist, August 2d, 2008, p. 34)

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1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The tone of the title is (A) tragic. (B) sympathetic. (C) ironic. (D) wailing. (E) enthusiastic. 2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) According to the text, the market for buying and selling houses in California is (A) dropping. (B) stable. (C) rising. (D) sky-rocketing. (E) inflated. 3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) A kidney-shaped swimming-pool is (A) triangular. (B) square. (C) rectangular. (D) trapezoid. (E) curved. 4. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The expression boasts a three-car garage (line 2) reveals an attitude which is (A) humble. (B) haughty. (C) hopeful. (D) hospitable. (E) holy. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 74

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A former head of German counter-intelligence recently confided: The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. That spymasters emphasis on exclusivity and withholding information even from his friends is, alas, the watchword among intelligence chiefs worldwide. And it threatens to undermine efforts to globalize the hunt for terrorists and their bad works. Timely and credible intelligence often the merest scrap can be as decisive in foiling terrorist plotting as any police action, cruise missile, or bomb. Thats why the American Congress and the White House are focused on improving information sharing between the CIA and FBI. But the debate has so far overlooked another chronic intelligence failure: the inadequacy of the CIAs liaison with other intelligence services. One reason for urgent reform is that even though the United States far outstrips other countries in its technical intelligence gathering, many other nations often have better human intelligence, or humint real live spies. Robert Gerald Livingston. Internet: <http://www.ndol.org/ndol_ci.cfm (with adaptations).

foil to prevent (someone or something) from being

successful.

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12.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The best piece of information is not

supposed to be available to anyone. 13. 14. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The word one (R.2) is a numeral. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) Chiefs agree to the principle that

intelligence can only be passed on to some special friends all over the world. 15. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The word threatens (R.5) can be

correctly replaced by menaces. 16. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) Believable and opportune intelligence can

decisively replace the action of the police, even cruise missiles, and bombs. 17. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The CIA and FBI are yet to establish a

process of information interchange.

18.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

The USA surpasses other countries in

terms of technical intelligence collection.

While there is no shortage of studies into the reasons why software projects fail (Ewusi-Mensah, 1997), the major risks of software development (Jones, 1994), or even the factors affecting project success (Cooke-Davies, 2002), the field of software engineering lacks a general model with which to investigate such failures. To date, studies have tended to be surveys of the factors www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 76

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 4 thought to play some part in a failure. Several researchers have argued that a simple model of accidents is insufficient for dealing with modern technology. A causal-chain model of accidents is useful to investigate the failure of a specific component through wear and tear, or the attribution of the cause can be established through application of a but for test. Given the cause, similar accidents can be prevented by checking the same component for wear and tear or other flaws such as structural cracks. However, it is a less useful model when investigating accidents which causes are ultimately not due to physical weaknesses but are due to interactions between components or the failure of the system itself. Driven by the need to find ways to prevent future accidents, the alternative models reject the simple causal chain model on several grounds. The first is that looking back along the causal chain requires a stopping rule to determine when to cease investigating deeper into the system which, it is argued, can be somewhat arbitrary in the choice of cause (Leveson, 2004). The second reason is that such investigative techniques tend to focus attention on the proximate event most closely associated with the accident and direct attention away from the latent, contributory causes. Where, in the past, it may have been sufficient to seek direct causes of an accident, modern socio-technical systems can produce accidents that are the result of the interaction of different parts of the system rather than a failure of any one part of the system. Turner & Pidgeon (1997) reviewed official investigations into non-natural disasters to arrive at a view that many disasters were man-made and entirely foreseeable. In a major contrast to causal models of accidents, the authors argued that the conditions www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 77

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE for the disasters he investigated largely originated from decisions made by upper management. The view that there was ample evidence of impending disaster available if only someone paid it any attention appears to be shared by investigators other than Turner. However such hindsight bias has been criticised by several researchers, most notably Dekker (2005). Hindsight bias ignores the reality that most operational decisions are made under ambiguous circumstances based on sparse and ambiguous evidence. Instead, Dekker argues, investigators must try hard to understand the circumstances of outcome. To reason more fully about the interaction of different parts of a socio-technical system, several researchers have proposed a system theoretic model in which the system is expressed as a hierarchy of control levels. Each level of the hierarchy is considered to act on the level below it through the imposition of constraints and directions to achieve emergent properties and to receive feedback. A more useful model for considering total risk was a top-down, systems oriented approach based on system control theoretic concepts. This approach gave a control structure embedded in an adaptive socio-technical system. Such a model shows how different parties contribute to safety regardless of their organizational affiliations.
Jon McBride. A model for investigating software accident. In: Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, vol. 40, n. 1, Feb. 2008 (adapted)

the time and put aside knowledge of the

Judge the following items according to the text.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 12. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2009) failures of the system. The world of computer security has changed A causal-chain model of accidents is

effective in investigating accidents which causes are solely due to

dramatically in the last few years, and one of the greatest challenges now facing CIOs and IT directors is the task of maintaining the security of their IT environments. The effects of a security breach can be catastrophic, including unplanned downtime and the resulting loss of service, a potentially significant financial impact, and the loss of sensitive and confidential information. This problem has been compounded by the proliferation of networked PCs and servers as well as the growing intelligence of malicious software that seeks to exploit and expand throughout the Internet infrastructure. Companies are releasing new technologies and tools to address the needs of system administrators responsible for managing the security large numbers of geographically dispersed systems. For example, technologies such as Position Independent Executables (PIE) and Exec Shield help protect against buffer overflows, a tactic frequently employed by attackers to infiltrate and compromise flawed software programs. Security features in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (adapted).

13. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) The occurrence of a security breach can bring about only three undesirable results. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 79

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14. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) Two of the technologies to help protect against buffer overflows are mentioned. 15. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) seldom. Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) 1. The regulation of insurance company solvency is a frequently (R.18) is the opposite of

function of the state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

16. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 80

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements.

17. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent.

The long climb Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal,

but it will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 81

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

18. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) In paragraph 1, growth in the new order is defined as a) both real and active. b) absolutely extraordinary. c) not very active or busy. d) sustainable and rapid. e) unpredictable.

Reason with him Source: www.newsweek.com 22nd Sep, 2009 (Adapted) Question (Q) 1: Margolis: When you took office, Brazil was regarded as an underachiever, and the last among the BRIC nations. Now Brazil is considered a star among emerging countries. Whats happened? Lula: No one respects anyone who doesnt respect themselves. And Brazil always behaved like a second-class country. We always told ourselves we were the country of the future. But we never transformed these qualities into anything concrete. In a globalized world you cannot sit still. You have to hit the road and sell your country. So we decided to make strengthening Mercosul (the www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 82

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE South American trading bloc) a priority, and deepened our relations with Latin America in general. We prioritized trade with Africa and went into the Middle East aggressively. Our trade balance today is diversified. This helped us cushion the blow of the economic crisis. Q2: Margolis: Has Brazils success in navigating the economic crisis changed investorsviews? Lula: There was no miracle. We had a strong domestic market. We had consumers who wanted to buy cars. We reduced part of the sales tax and asked the companies to offer consumers credit on affordable items. Its the same case with refrigerators, stoves, washing machines, and with computers and the housing construction. Q3: Margolis: What are the lessons for other countries? Lula: The great lesson is that the state has an important role to play, and has great responsibility. We dont want the state to manage business. But it can be an inducer of growth and can work in harmony with society. 19. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) In his answer to question 1, Brazils president refers to strengthening Mercosul as a priority. In other words, a measure he considered a) risky. b) unattainable. c) pivotal. d) unnecessary. e) advisable.

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20. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) Brazils president refers to the countrys diversified trade balance as having a) contributed to worsen the global economic crisis. b) resulted from trade with one sole strategic partner. c) been prevented by internal regulations. d) been considered as an unattainable goal. e) minimized the adverse effects of the world crisis.

While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 84

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

21. (ESAF/ STN/2008) moment, they are feeling a) nervous and upset. b) confident and optimistic. c) reassured, but cautious. d) slightly afraid. e) tense, but optimistic.

As regards investors in Europe at the

A world of connections Source: www.economist.com (Adapted) Jan 28th, 2010 To sceptics all this talk of twittering, yammering and chattering smacks of another internet bubble in the making. They argue that even a huge social network such as Facebook will struggle to make money because fickle networkers will not stay in one place for long, pointing to the example of MySpace, which was once all the rage but has now become a shadow of its former self. Last year the site, which is owned by News Corp, installed a new boss and fired 45% of its staff as part of a plan to revive its fortunes. Within companies there is plenty of doubt about the benefits of online social networking in the office. A survey of 1,400 www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 85

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE chief information officers conducted last year by Robert Half Technology, a recruitment firm, found that only one-tenth of them gave employees full access to such networks during the day, and that many were blocking Facebook and Twitter altogether. The executives biggest concern was that social networking would lead to social networking, with employees using the sites to chat with friends instead of doing their jobs. Some bosses also fretted that the sites would be used to leak sensitive corporate information.

22. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 2, the benefits of online social networking in the office are a) undeniable. b) numerous. c) long-lasting. d) uncertain. e) predictable.

23. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 2, some bosses also worried that through the sites sensitive corporate information would be a) altered. b) distorted. c) made classified. d) disclosed. e) negotiated.

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Tackling Corruption for Growth and Development Source: www.ausaid.gov.au 18th Jan 2008 (Adapted) 1. Corruption is a major impediment to broadbased

growth and development, undermining government revenue and expenditure on the delivery of basic services such as law and justice, health care, education, and the maintenance of essential infrastructure. The World Bank Institute has estimated that more than US$1 trillion is paid in bribes each year and, over the long run, countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times. 2. Corruption weakens institutions and makes states more vulnerable to crisis. It has the potential to undermine security in our partner countries and in the Asia-Pacific region more broadly. Security can be threatened when governments fail to deliver services, uphold law and order, maintain public confidence in institutions, or control the use of resources. 3. Corruption can lead to money politics and undermine the decisions of democratically elected governments. It can also open the way for a variety of other crimes such as money laundering and trafficking in drugs, arms, and people.

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24. (ESAF/CGU/2008) According to the text, the effect of corruption on the decisions made by democratically elected governments is that these decisions a) become more legitimate and effective. b) gradually become less effective. c) are implemented in a shorter period of time. d) gain both credibility and morale. e) may lose legitimacy and credibility.

GABARITO 1-C 10-E 19-C 2-A 11-C 20-E 3-E 12-E 21-A 4-B 13-E 5-C 14-C 6-E 15-C 24-B 7-E 16-B 8-C 17-A 9-E 18-C

22-D 23-D

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Ol pessoal, Nesta terceira aula veremos uma matria importante para a correta interpretao dos textos de ingls das provas de concursos: os pronomes. Aps a breve exposio acerca dos tipos de pronomes e de que forma so usados, vou mostrar como as bancas examinadoras tm abordado a matria. Forte abrao e bons estudos.

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Pronomes

O pronome

a classe de palavras que acompanha ou substitui

um substantivo ou um outro pronome, indicando sua posio em relao s pessoas do discurso ou mesmo situando-o no espao e no tempo. Os pronomes nos ajudam a evitar repeties desnecessrias na fala e na escrita. As questes de prova no cobram isoladamente esta matria, mas no h como interpretar corretamente os textos e at mesmo as questes das provas de ingls da ESAF se voc no souber um pouco dos pronomes. O candidato muitas vezes dever saber a que se referem os pronomes. Os principais tipos de pronomes e os recorrentes em provas da ESAF so: pessoais (reto e oblquo), possessivos, reflexivos, indefinidos, relativos e demonstrativos. Vejamos da maneira mais objetiva possvel o que voc deve saber sobre cada um desses grupos:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Pronomes pessoais

Os pronomes pessoais (caso reto) so os Subject pronouns , tm a funo de sujeito na orao e, em portugus, correspondem :

I eu You tu, voc He ele She ela It ele, ela (usado para coisas e animais) We ns You vs, vocs They eles, elas

Os pronomes pessoais (caso obliquo) so os Object pronouns e tem assumem na orao a funo de objeto direto ou indireto: me me, mim you te, ti, o, a, lhe him o, lhe her a, lhe it o, a us nos you - vos, os, as, lhes them os, as, lhes

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Pronomes possessivos Os pronomes possessivos so usados para substituir a os adjetivos possessivos e os substantivos que os acompanham. Os adjetivos possessivos so:

my meu, minha, meus, minhas your teu, tua, teus, tuas, seu, sua, seus, suas his dele, seu, sua, seus, suas her dela, seu, sua, seus, suas its dele, dela, seu, sua, seus, suas (coisas ou animais) our nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas their deles, delas, seu, sua, seus, suas (pessoas, animais, coisas) Os pronomes possessivos so:

mine meu, minha, meus, minhas yours teu, tua, teus, tuas, seu, sua , seus, suas his seu, sua, seus, suas, dele hers seu, sua, seus, suas, dela ours nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas theirs seu, sua, seus, suas deles, delas

Agora veja como acontece a substituio: Ex.: They are my books = They are mine.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Pronomes reflexivos

Como o prprio nome j diz, os pronomes reflexivos em ingls so usados quando desejamos nos referir a ns mesmos, quando o sujeito faz e sofre a ao. Myself Me, mesmo(a), prprio(a), (a) mim mesmo(a) Yourself Te, si, mesmo(a), prprio(a), ti mesmo(a), voc mesmo(a) Himself Se, si, mesmo, prprio, a ele mesmo, a si mesmo Herself Se, si, mesma, prpria, a ela mesma, a si mesma Itself Se, si, mesmo, prprio, a ele mesmo, a si mesmo Ourselves ns, ns mesmos, a ns mesmos Yourselves vs, mesmos, a vs mesmos Themselves Se, si, mesmo(a), prprio(a), (a) eles/elas mesmo(a)s

Ex.: I saw myself in the mirror. (Eu me vi no espelho.)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Pronomes indefinidos

Os pronomes indefinidos em ingls so: some e any SOME- usado em frase afirmativas ou interrogativas quando a resposta esperada afirmativa. some - algum; alguma; um pouco de somebody/someone algum something - algo, alguma coisa Ex.: I have some doubts. Tenho algumas dvidas. Would you like some more wine? (Gostaria de um pouco mais de vinho?)

ANY- usado em frases interrogativas e negativas any - algum, alguma (frases interrogativas); qualquer (frases afirmativas); nenhum, nenhuma (frases negativas) anyone/anybody algum; ningum anything - alguma coisa; qualquer coisa; nada Ex.: Do you any money on you? (Voc tem algum dinheiro com voc?), Are you waiting for anybody? (Est esperando por algum

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Pronomes relativos Os pronomes relativos so aqueles usados para adicionar

informaes um objeto/sujeito de uma primeira orao. Os pronomes relativos em ingls so: who (quem, que); which (que, o qual, a qual); whose (de quem, cujo); e that (que). Veja as situaes em que cada um usado:

Who usado para o sujeito ou pronomes pessoais. Ex.: I told you about who lives here (Eu contei a voc sobre quem vive aqui.), The man who leads the group (O homem que lidera o grupo). Which usado para sujeito ou pronomes para animais ou coisas. Ex.: My dog, which is brown, is sleeping. (meu cachorro, que marrom, est dormindo) Whose tm o significado de cujo. Ex.: Do you know the boy whose father is dead? (voc conhece o garoto cujo pai est morto?) That usado para sujeito, pessoas, animais, coisas, nos casos onde define alguma coisa. Ex.: I do not like the car that is parked there (Eu no gosto do carro que est estacionado ali)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Pronomes demonstrativos

Os pronomes demonstrativos servem para indicar/mostrar algo, algum lugar, pessoa ou objeto. So eles: This usado no singular, significa: este, esta, isto. That usado no singular, significa: aquele, aquela, esse, essa.

These plural de this, significa: estes, estas. Those plural de that, significa: aqueles, aquelas.

Tendo esses grupos de pronomes em mente, vejamos como so as questes de prova.

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Translation: getting it right For non-linguists, buying in translation is often a source of frustration. The suggestions in this brochure are aimed at reducing stress. Think international from the start. Avoid culture-bound clichs. References to your national sport may well fall flat. Ditto literary/cultural metaphors. Tread carefully with references to parts of the human body, viewed differently by different cultures. For written documents, dont box yourself in by linking your pitch to visuals that may not carry the same meaning outside your native country forcing translators to resort to cumbersome wordplay and workarounds. In January 1998 PM Tony Blair told a group of Japanese businessmen that his government intended to go the full monty in putting the UK economy on a sound footing. Blank faces: the film had not yet been released in Japan. Keep some local flavour if you like, but check with your foreign-text team to make sure that adaptation is possible. For written documents, be sure to include international calling codes for telephone and fax How important is style? Some translations are no-hopers from the start. Often these are raw machine translation, or the work of non-native speakers struggling away with a grammar book in one hand and a dictionary in the other. They are good for a laugh. Other translations are technically accurate, yet the sentences do not flow as smoothly as they might; word order or choice of vocabulary may be unduly influenced by the original language. They are not particularly effective for selling, but may be www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 9

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE good enough for readers who know the subject and can or have time to read between the lines.
(adapted from http://www.fit-ift.org/download/getright2-en.pdf)

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) offer apologies. (B) sell devices. (C) spread gossip. (D) give advice. (E) create networks. Comentrios:

The function of this text is to

A questo quer saber a funo do texto. Vejamos o que diz o enunciado do texto: () The suggestions in this brochure are aimed at reducing stress. A frase diz que as sugestes deste (this pronome demonstrativo) folheto objetivam reduzir o stress. Vejamos as alternativas de resposta: (A) offer apologies. = oferecer desculpas (B) sell devices. = vender estratgias (C) spread gossip. = espalhar fofocas (D) give advice. = dar conselhos (E) create networks. = criar redes No enunciado do texto j encontramos a palavra suggestion que sinnimo de advice, sendo esta a alternativa correta.

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VOCABULRIO-CHAVE suggestion: sugesto this: este, esta brochure: folheto be aimed: ter objetivo offer apologies: oferecer desculpas sell devices: vender estratgias spread gossip: espalhar fofocas give advice: dar conselhos create networks: criar redes

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

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2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) When the suggestions are aimed at reducing stress (lines 4-5), this means they intend to (A) cut it out. (B) cut it down. (C) cut it up. (D) cut it off. (E) cut is loose. Comentrios: A questo diz que: Quando as sugestes objetivam reduzir o stress isto significa que elas pretendem (intend to): CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO: Pretend: fingir Intend: pretender Vejamos as alternativas de resposta. Observem que todas esto usando o it, pronome objetivo que est sendo usado em substituio palavra stress. (A) cut it out. = planejar (B) cut it down. = reduzir (C) cut it up. = criticar (D) cut it off. = remover, recortar (E) cut is loose. = separar Nas alternativas de resposta apenas cut it down tem o mesmo significado de reduce. (linhas 4-5),

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE reduce: reduzir intend: pretender cut it out: planejar cut it down: reduzir cut it up: criticar cut it off: remover, recortar cut is loose: separar

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (lines 6-7) you (A) indulge in them. (B) try to use them. (C) challenge them. (D) misunderstand them. (E) keep away from them. Comentrios: A questo diz que:

When you avoid culture-bound clichs

Quando voc evita clichs ligados cultura, voc: Vejamos as alternativas. Observe que todas elas usam o them pronome objetivo em substituio da palavra clichs. (A) indulge = ceder (B) try to use = tentar usar (C) challenge = desafiar (D) misunderstand = confundir (E) keep away from = manter distncia Avoid e keep away so sinnimos neste caso.

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VOCABULRIO-CHAVE avoid: evitar indulge: ceder try to use: tentar usar challenge: desafiar misunderstand: confundir keep away from: manter distncia

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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4. (FGV/SENADO/2008)

When the text states that translators

resort to cumbersome wordplay and workaround (lines 13-14), it implies that translators ultimately (A) get rid of them. (B) make use of them. (C) look down on them. (D) get tired of them. (E) run out of them. Comentrios Quando o texto afirma que tradutores recorrem (resort) a trocadilhos complexos (linhas 13-14), isto implica que os tradutores.... Them nas alternativas de resposta est no lugar das palavras em ingls para trocadilhos: wordplay and workaround. (A) get rid = livrar-se (B) make use = usar (C) look down on = desprezar (D) get tired = cansar-se (E) run out of = esgotar-se A alternativa que trouxe uma palavra com a idia de recorrer (resort) foi a B, com o verbo make use.

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VOCABULRIO-CHAVE resort: recorrer wordplay and workaround: trocadilhos get rid: livrar-se make use: usar look down on: desprezar get tired: cansar-se run out of: esgotar-se

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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While there is no shortage of studies into the reasons why software projects fail (Ewusi-Mensah, 1997), the major risks of software development (Jones, 1994), or even the factors affecting project success (Cooke-Davies, 2002), the field of software engineering lacks a general model with which to investigate such failures. To date, studies have tended to be surveys of the factors 4 thought to play some part in a failure. ()
Jon McBride. A model for investigating software accident. In: Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, vol. 40, n. 1, Feb. 2008 (adapted)

5. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2009)

which, in lacks a general model with

which to investigate such failures (R.3), refers to investigate. Comentrios: Nesta questo, a Banca Examinadora cobrou o conhecimento do candidato acerca dos pronomes. Raras so as questes de prova que cobram isoladamente esta matria. No caso em tela, voc precisava saber os pronomes relativos. Como vimos, o pronome Which usado para sujeito ou pronomes para animais ou coisas. Ex.: My dog, which is brown, is sleeping. (meu cachorro, que marrom, est dormindo) Na frase da questo, which no poderia estar se referindo a investigate, que um verbo.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE lacks a general model with which to investigate such failures Which est se referindo palavra model.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

Information is a cornerstone of political education and socialization. The ability to find out about issues of public importance, and the capacity to inform oneself about the workings of government and its policies are examples of how information can be essential to the education of the informed and responsible citizen. Yet in this era of information overload, the subtle but vital difference between information and knowledge needs to be drawn in order to create virtual places that promote political education in the broadest sense. It is not, in fact, information per se which is useful but knowledge, information which has been distilled and contextualized so that it can impart meaning. The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chock-full of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 19

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Internet users know well that the abundance of informational riches can have a paralytic effect, rendering the viewer helpless to find anything. The huge quantity of information available creates an inverse relationship between speaking and listening, between information and understanding. The more people speak, the fewer people will actually be heard. In fact, the deluge of data ensures that we cannot find anything. It has also the effect of making us even more dependent than in the days before the flood on unaccountable, commercialized search tools and information filters to sort information and make it meaningful. Although these editors are machines, they are not neutral. The values and choices are embedded deep within the code and often not obvious to the user.
Beth Simone Noveck. Paradoxical partners: electronic communication and electronic democracy. In: Peter Ferdinand (Ed.). The Internet, democracy, and democratization. London: Frank Cass/Routledge, 2000, p. 23-4 (with adaptations).

Based on the text above, judge the following items.

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6. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010)

The expression chock-full (R.13) means

completely full or full to the limit. Comentrios:

A questo trata do significado da expresso chock-full, afirmando que significa completamente cheio ou cheio at o limite. Vejamos a frase em que a expresso aparece no texto:
The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chock-full of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. Veja as palavras-chave da frase e observe que muitas (em negrito) tm origem do latim e se aproximam do portugus: Internet is = verbo be, ser/estar, conjugado. PRESENTE SIMPLES (VERBO BE) I He She It You We They are is am (I am at work)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE ultimate reference library chock-full = completamente cheio, abarrotado, repleto data = informao supplied = passado do verbo supply, que significa fornecer PASSADO VERBOS REGULARES SUPPLY (FORNECER) I He She It You We They individuals and institutions from around the world = de todo o mundo usually free use = uso livre, gratuito comers = usurios A traduo para a frase seria: "A internet a biblioteca de referncia final, cheia de dados fornecidos por pessoas e instituies de todo o mundo, geralmente para o uso livre de todos. supplied supplied supplied

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VOCABULRIO-CHAVE ultimate: final reference: referncia library: biblioteca chock-full: completamente cheio data: informaes supplied: fornecido, forneceu individuals: indivduos institutions: instituies around: em volta world: mundo usually: usualmente, geralmente free use: uso livre, gratuito comers: usurios

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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7. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) In the text, the expressions comers (R.15) and Internet users (R.19) refer to the same kind of people: those who access the Internet for information. Comentrios:

Como vimos nos comentrios da questo anterior, comers significa usurios, ou seja, sinnimo de Internet users. Logo, a questo est correta ao afirmar que as duas expresses se referem ao mesmo tipo (the same kind) de pessoas: aquelas que (who) acessam a internet em busca de informao. No enunciado da questo vejam que a palavra who est empregada como um pronome relativo, se referindo palavra people.
VOCABULRIO-CHAVE expressions: expresses internet users: usurios da internet refer: referir same: mesmo kind of people: tipo de pessoas those: aqueles/aquelas who: quem, que access: acessar

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8. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) 16). Comentrios:

In it is actually drowning us in

irrelevancies (R.18), it refers to The danger of the Internet (R.15-

A questo se refere frase it is actually drowning us in


irrelevancies, afirmando que it se refere a The danger of the Internet. Vejamos o pargrafo a que se refere a questo:

The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chock-full of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. O texto fala da internet, certo? The danger of the Internet is that it threatens it is

It pronome pessoal objetivo, ou seja, pronome pessoal do caso reto. It est substituindo o sujeito da orao e de todo pargrafo que Internet. Traduzindo, temos que: O perigo da internet que ela www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 25

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE ameaa (it threatens), ela est na verdade nos direcionando para irrelevncias (it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies).

Currently = atualmente CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO!

x
actually = realmente, efetivamente

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE actually: realmente, efetivamente, de fato drowning: mergulhando us: nos irrelevancies: irrelevncias refer: referir danger: perigo

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Sharks in the water In the last year, Somalias pirates have attacked 120 vessels in the Gulf of Aden, choking commerce in a critical shipping lane (the transit route for 20 percent of the worlds oil), blocking aid supplies and driving up transport costs. The last few weeks have shown how hard it will be to defeat the pirates on the high seas, which seems like the international communitys approach. When British Marines tried to board a captured fishing dhow on Nov. 11, they had to go in with guns blazing and killed one possible hostage in the process. A week later, an Indian warship opened fire on what it thought was a pirate mother ship. But the target turned out to be a Thai fishing vessel. When pirates seized their most valuable prize ever on Nov. 15 the Sirius Star supertanker holding 2 million barrels of Saudi crude everyone kept their distance. As this suggests, Somalias seaborne bandits are making a mockery of all efforts to stop them. Pirates have only increased their efforts, ranging across an area bigger than the Mediterranean. The Sirius Star was taken 450 nautical miles southeast of Kenya, and with it, the Somalis now hold 300 hostages and 15 ships. The Somalias internationally recognized transitional government has invited foreign navies to do whats necessary to stop the pirates, even attacking them ashore if need be. The Security Council has affirmed that option. Moreover, nearly all of Somalias pirates come from one region (Puntland), live in a single town (Boosaaso) and stash captured vessels in one of three ports www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 27

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (Eyl, Hobyo or Haradhere) making interdiction that much easier. Andrew Linington of Nautilus UK, a seamans union that has had many of its members taken hostage, says the international community knows where the pirates are, they know the ports they use, they know the mother ships. Stopping them could be done, he says. But that would be expensive at a time when U.S. resources are tied up in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Rod Nordlant. Sharks in the water. Internet: <www.newsweek.com> (adapted).

According to the text, it is correct to affirm that

9. (CESPE/ ANTAQ/2009)

The efforts to stop the attacks have

forced the pirates to shrink the area of their activities. Comentrios: As palavras-chave aqui so: efforts, stop, attacks, forced, shrink, area, activities. No texto, temos que: Pirates have only increased their efforts, ranging across an area bigger than the Mediterranean. ITEM efforts to stop the attacks have forced the pirates to shrink the area TEXTO pirates have increased their efforts area bigger

Enquanto a questo fala que os esforos para impedir (stop) os ataques foraram (forced) os piratas a reduzir (shrink) a sua rea de 28 www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE atuao, o texto fala que os piratas aumentaram (increased) seus esforos, agindo em uma rea maior (bigger) que o Mediterrneo.

PRONOMES PESSOAIS CASO RETO SUJEITO I (eu) you (tu, voc) He (ele) she (ela) It (ele, ela [neutro]) We (ns) you (vocs, vs) they (eles, elas) my (meu) your (seu, sua) his (dele) her (dela) Its (dele, dela) Our (nosso, nossa) Your (seus, suas) Their (deles, delas) POSSESSIVO

The efforts () have forced the pirates to shrink the area of their activities.

Pirates have only increased their efforts, ranging across ()

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE efforts: esforos stop: parar attacks: ataques forced: forou shrink: reduzir area: area activities: atividade increased: aumentou bigger: maior

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

IMPORTANTE: ler os textos.

Lembre-se V direto

que para

no as

primeiro momento voc no dever questes e utilize o texto apenas para fins de consulta.

A world of connections Source: www.economist.com (Adapted) Jan 28th, 2010 To sceptics all this talk of twittering, yammering and chattering smacks of another internet bubble in the making. They argue that even a huge social network such as Facebook will struggle to make money because fickle networkers will not stay in one place for long, pointing to the example of MySpace, which was once all the rage but has now become a shadow of its former self. Last year the site, which is owned by News Corp, installed a new boss and fired 45% of its staff as part of a plan to revive its fortunes. Within companies there is plenty of doubt about the benefits of online social networking in the office. A survey of 1,400 chief information officers conducted last year by Robert Half Technology, a recruitment firm, found that only one-tenth of them gave employees full access to such networks during the day, and that many were blocking Facebook and Twitter altogether. The

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE executives biggest concern was that social networking would lead to social networking, with employees using the sites to chat with friends instead of doing their jobs. Some bosses also fretted that the sites would be used to leak sensitive corporate information.

10. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 1, the site MySpace a) has turned into the most popular social network. b) attracts more networkers than Facebook. c) played a minor role as a social-networking site. d) convinced sceptics of its outstanding value. e) laid off almost half of its staff. Comentrios: De acordo com o pargrafo 1, o site MySpace. Vejamos no pargrafo o que falado sobre o site MySpace: ()MySpace, which was once all the rage but has now become a shadow of its former self. Last year the site, which is owned by News Corp, installed a new boss and fired 45% of its staff as part of a plan to revive its fortunes. Aqui a ESAF cobrou o conhecimento do pronome relativo which. Veja no quadro abaixo a que se refere o pronome:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

WHICH QUE, O QUE, O QUAL MySpace, which was once all the rage (MySpace, que j foi moda)

Last year the site, which is owned by (o site, que era propriedade da...)

a) has turned into the most popular social network. A opo A est incorreta. O texto no diz que o site MySpace se tornou (has turned) na mais popular rede social. Afirma que o MySpace, que j foi (was once) moda (all the rage) agora se tornou (has now become) uma sombra do que foi no passado (former self). LEMBRE-SE DO SUPERLATIVO (AULA 02) BIG .. THE BIGGEST pequenos) POPULAR.. THE MOST POPULAR ( MOST para adjetivos grandes) GOOD.. THE BEST (irregulares) (-EST para adjetivos

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PRESENT PERFECT HAVE/HAS+ VERBO NO PASSADO (TURNED) (BECOME)

MySpace has turned into the most popular social network. (se tornou) AO PASSADA FINALIZADA EM MOMENTO INDETERMINADO NO PASSADO.

b) attracts more networkers than Facebook. A opo B est incorreta. Como vimos, o texto diz que MySpace, que j foi (was once) moda (all the rage) agora se tornou (has now become) uma sombra do que foi no passado (former self). Logo, est incorreto dizer que o site atrai mais networkers (seguidores) do que Facebook. c) played a minor role as a social-networking site. A opo C est incorreta. De acordo com o texto, o MySpace j foi moda (MySpace, which was once all the rage). Logo, a alternativa est errada ao afirmar que o site desempenhou papel pequeno como um site de rede social. d) convinced sceptics of its outstanding value. A opo D est incorreta. O texto no diz que o site convenceu (convinced) cticos de seu (its aqui est o adjetivo possessivo do pronome pessoal it) extraordinrio (outstanding) valor.

e) laid off almost half of its staff. A opo E est correta. A alternativa afirma que o site demitiu (laid off) quase metade (almost half) dos seus funcionrios (staff), www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 34

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE que o mesmo que dizer que ele fired 45% of its staff, j que 45% quase a metade (50%) de algo. Fired sinnimo de laid off. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE has turned: se tornou the most popular: o mais popular social network: rede social attract: atrair more networkers than: mais networkers que played a minor role: desempenhou papel inferior, pequeno social-networking site: site de redes sociais convinced: convenceu skeptics: cticos outstanding: extraordinrio, excelente value: valor laid off: desmitiu almost half: quase metade staff: funcionrios which: que was: era, estava, passado do verbo be once: uma vez, j all the rage: na moda become: tornar-se shadow: sombra former: antigo, anterior last year: ano passado owned: possuia, propriedade installed: instalou, contratou new boss: novo chefe, patro fired: demitiu

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE plan: plano revive: reviver fortunes: fortunas

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE The long climb Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal,

but it will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

11. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) In paragraph 2, the author mentions the fiscal strain now hobbling California. In other words, the fiscal a) policies which have been favouring Californias growth. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 37

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE b) pressure currently preventing Californias development. c) programmes successfully spoused by California. d) measures which have steadily gained acceptance. e) incentives recently promoted by the Californian government. Comentrios: O enunciado se refere frase the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Nessa frase aparecem duas palavras difceis. No se preocupe, se difcil para voc, ser, certamente, para a grande maioria dos candidatos. So raras as questes desse tipo, em que voc ter que usar o pargrafo inteiro para conseguir responder. Vamos identificar no pargrafo as palavras chaves que conhecemos: The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. S com as palavras-chave possvel concluir que o texto trata de crise (crisis), governo forte (forceful government), preocupaes (worries) e medidas fiscais (fiscal measures). Vamos tentar resolver a questo sem saber o significado das palavras-chave da frase the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Afinal, na hora da prova haver palavras que voc no saber o significado. Voc deve estar treinado para diminuir suas chances de erro. Com as palavras que identificamos no pargrafo, foi possvel concluir que a situao no positiva, o texto fala de crise, preocupaes, medidas fiscais e governo forte. Sendo assim, vamos tentar identificar as alternativas com idias positivas demais: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 38

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

a) policies which have been favouring Californias growth. (++) Nesta frase, o pronome relativo which est se referindo a policies (polticas). b) pressure currently preventing Californias development. (- -) c) programmes successfully spoused by California. (++)

d) measures which have steadily gained acceptance. (++) Aqui, o pronome relativo which est se referindo a measures (medidas). e) incentives recently promoted by the Californian government. (++)

Apenas a alternativa b trata de presso (pressure) que podemos relacionar com governo forte, rigoroso (forcefull government). A palavra preventing (impedindo) tambm tem idia negativa.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE fiscal strain: presso fiscal hobbling: atrasar, impedir policies: polticas favouring: favorecendo growth: crescimento pressure: presso currently: atualmente preventing: impedindo development: desenvolvimento programmes: programas www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 39

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE successfully: com xito spoused: aceito, recebido measures: medidas steadily: firmemente, regularmente gained: ganharam acceptance: aceitao incentives: incentivos recently: recentemente promoted: promoveram

Agora, diante das definies, perceba que a opo B the fiscal pressure currently preventing Californias Development (a presso fiscal atualmente impede o desenvolvimento da Califrnia) a apenas uma reescritura de the fiscal strain now hobbling California (a presso fiscal agora impedindo o progresso (hobbling) da Califrnia). Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

12. (ESAF/ STN/2008) The author refers to assets that are clogging the financial system, which means they www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 41

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE a) could have affected it. b) are blocking it. c) will surely affect it. d) are perfecting it. e) were redesigning it. Comentrios: Novamente, sem saber o significado de clogging, vamos analisar a frase citada no enunciado e as alternativas, tentando identificar a que se referem os pronomes which e it, que aparecem no enunciado da questo e nas alternativas de resposta. O enunciado diz que: The author refers to assets that are clogging the financial system, which means they Which est se referindo frase retirada do texto para o enunciado: O autor se refere a assets that are clogging the financial system, que significa que eles (they aparece substituindo assets)... Nas alternativas de resposta aparece o pronome pessoal do caso oblquo it. As alternativas de resposta se referem frase: assets that are clogging the financial system They (sujeito) it (objeto) (recursos que esto interferindo no sistema financeiro assets that are clogging the financial system : o tempo verbal aqui o presente continuo (algo que est acontecendo agora) Observe que as alternativas de respostas esto em tempos verbais diferentes. Quando isso acontecer, voc j poder eliminar as alternativas que no estiverem www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 42

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE no mesmo tempo verbal da frase

correspondente no texto.

Ao analisar as alternativas, mesmo sem saber o vocabulrio, podemos concluir que apenas as alternativas b e d podem ser a resposta para a questo, j que as demais esto em tempos diferentes (passado e futuro). a) could have affected it. poderiam ter afetado b) are blocking it. c) will surely affect it. afetaro d) are perfecting it. e) were redesigning it. foram redesenhadas Vejam que das duas alternativas que esto no presente, uma tem idia positiva e outra negativa: b) are blocking it. (bloqueando) d) are perfecting it. (aperfeioando) Agora temos que saber qual assunto o texto trata para decidirmos entre as duas. Procure palavras conhecidas: sim, crise (crisis). Se o texto est falando de crise, a probabilidade de a resposta ser a letra b bem maior, certo? E no deu outra. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE assets : recursos, ativos, bens clogging: impedindo, interferindo financial system: sistema financeiro mean: significar

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE affected: afetado blocking: afetando surely: certamente perfecting: aperfeioando redesigning: reprojetar, refazer, redesenhar

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 13. (ESAF/ STN/2008) As regards investors in Europe at the moment, they are feeling a) nervous and upset. b) confident and optimistic. c) reassured, but cautious. d) slightly afraid. e) tense, but optimistic. Comentrios: No enunciado aparece o pronome they. Tente identificar a que ele se refere. Lembre-se que they pronome pessoal do caso reto, ou seja, est substituindo o sujeito da frase. As regards investors in Europe at the moment, they are feeling.. Veja que as alternativas s trazem adjetivos. O enunciado diz: quanto aos (as regards) investidores (investors), como esto se sentindo. H duas frases no texto com palavras-chave que aparecem tambm em duas das alternativas: In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. Nesta frase aparece a palavra reassurance, que significa resseguro, confiante. Na alternativa e est sendo afirmado que os investidores esto confiantes, mas cuidadosos. Contudo, o texto est negando que os investidores tenham tal confiana, segurana (veja que o texto diz: have no). That makes many watchers nervous.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Aqui no aparece a palavra investors, mas a palavra watchers, que significa observadores em geral (o que inclui, portanto, os investidores) a) nervous and upset. (nervosos e preocupados) b) confident and optimistic. (confiantes e otimistas) c) reassured, but cautious. (confiantes, mas cautelosos) d) slightly afraid. (levemente temerosos) e) tense, but optimistic. (tensos, mas otimistas)

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE assets : recursos, ativos, bens clogging: impedindo, interferindo financial system: sistema financeiro mean: significar affected: afetado blocking: afetando surely: certamente perfecting: aperfeioando redesigning: reprojetar, refazer, redesenhar

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 14. (ESAF/ STN/2008) The author reminds the readers that banks are assumed to have a good handle on risk. In other words, they a) do not take it. b) eliminate it. c) do not accept it. d) hardly ever face it. e) understand it well. Comentrios: No enunciado da questo parecem os pronomes that e they. Vejamos a que se referem: The author reminds the readers that banks are assumed to have a good handle on risk. In other words, they O that no est em sua funo de pronome nesta frase, tendo sido usado aqui apenas como conector de duas oraes. O they est se referindo a Banks, sujeito segunda orao da frase. Ateno: they no poderia substituir readers, j que readers objeto da primeira orao e they pronome pessoal do caso reto, s podendo substituir sujeito. A questo quer saber o que significa a expresso good handle na frase: banks are assumed to have a good handle on risk. Mesmo sem saber o significado da expresso, sabemos o

significado de banks (bancos) e de risk (risco). Vejamos as alternativas: a) do not take it. (no correm risco) b) eliminate it. (eliminam o risco) c) do not accept it. (no aceitam o risco) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 47

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE d) hardly ever face it. (dificilmente enfrentam o risco) e) understand it well. (entendem o risco) +

Voc no sabe a definio de good handle, ok. Mas a palavra good voc sabe que significa bom, algo positivo, certo? A resposta ento s pode ser a letra e. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE good handle: saber lidar remind: lembrar assumed: aceito, compreendido risk: risco take risks: assumir ricos eliminate: eliminar accept: aceitar hardly ever: dificilmente face: encarar, enfrentar understand: entender well: bem Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Time to Toss the Textbook Source: Newsweek July 4th 2005 (Adapted) Do we know how much the world economy affects the United States and vice versa? Economics textbooks once described the U.S. economy as mainly self-contained. Americans sold to each other; Americans savings were invested mostly in American investments (stocks, bonds, bank deposits). Trade was small. Globalization has shattered this model. More industries face foreign competition or depend on foreign markets. In 1960, exports and imports together totaled 9.5 percent of gross domestic product; in 2004, they were 25 percent of GDP. Savings and investments have also gone global. In 2003, Americans mainly through pension funds, banks and other big investors owned $3.1 trillion of foreign stocks and bonds, while foreigners owned more than $4.1 trillion of U.S. securities, says the International Monetary Fund. (Note: the $4.1 trillion excluded China.) All these factors modify the U.S. economy.

15. (ESAF/ MPOG/2005) According to the author, globalization has shattered the previous model. In other words, globalization has a) destroyed it. b) regulated it. c) reinforced it. d) deepened it. e) strengthened it. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 49

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Comentrios: O pronome que aparece em todas as alternativas de resposta o it, o qual, no caso em tela, est exercendo a funo de pronome pessoal do caso oblquo (substituindo o objeto da ao). Na frase ...globalization has shattered the previous model.. o sujeito globalizao e o objeto o modelo anterior (previous model). Essa questo puramente de vocabulrio. O enunciado diz que de acordo com o autor, globalizao has shattered o modelo anterior. Voc ter que encontrar a palavra que mais se aproxima da idia de shattered. Vamos tentar resolver a questo sem saber a definio desta palavra. a) destroyed it. (destruiu) b) regulated it. (regulou) c) reinforced it. (reforou) d) deepened it. (aprofundou) e) strengthened it. (fortaleceu) A opo A est correta. Das alternativas de resposta, apenas a

primeira traz um significado negativo. A globalizao destruiu o modelo anterior. Logo, shattered est relacionado com destruir, acabar.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

External Audit Source: http://ec.europa.eu/budget Jan 16th, 2008 (Adapted) 1. The European Unions (EU) annual accounts and resource

management are overseen by its external auditor, the European Court of Auditors, which draws up an annual report for the Council and the European Parliament. The Courts main task is to conduct an external, independent audit of the European Communities annual accounts. As part of its activities, the Court of Auditors produces: . an annual report on the activities financed from the general budget, detailing its observations on the annual accounts and underlying transactions; . an opinion, based on its audits and given in the annual report in the form of a statement of assurance, on (i) the reliability of the accounts and (ii) the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions involving both revenue collected from taxable persons and payments to final beneficiaries; . special reports giving the findings of audits covering specific areas of management. 2. The Court of Auditors is entitled to access all documents required during the course of its audit.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 16. (ESAF/CGU/2008) The closing line of the text reports that the Court of Auditors is entitled to access all the documents in case. Therefore, it a) holds the legal right to access them. b) must obtain approval to look into them. c) has to seek legal permission from the EU. d) is the provider of all the papers in question. e) is held accountable for their safety.

Comentrios: Nesta questo aparecem os pronomes it, them e their. O pronome it aparece logo no enunciado, vejamos: O enunciado da questo diz: A ltima linha do texto afirma que o Tribunal de Contas est autorizado/habilitado (entitled) a acessar todos os documentos necessrios durante o andamento de suas auditorias. Therefore, it .... Portanto, ele....

importante perceber que o pronome it est se referindo ao sujeito da frase anterior, o Tribunal de Contas.

A questo remete o leitor closing line (linha final, frase final) do texto, que a seguinte: The Court of Auditors is entitled to access all documents required during the course of its audit.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

PALAVRAS-CHAVE to be entitled: ter o direito, ser autorizado access: acesso documents: documentos required: requeridos, exigidos, necessrios course: andamento, curso audit: auditoria therefore: portanto, ento hold: deter, possuir, considerar legal right: direito obtain: obter seek: buscar legal permission: permisso legal approval: autorizao provider: provedor papers: documentos accountable: responsvel held: considerado (passado verbo hold) safety: segurana

Agora, as opes de resposta:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE a) holds the legal right to access them. A opo A est correta. A alternativa afirma que o Tribunal de Contas possui o direito de acessar them (documentos necessrios). Them pronome pessoal do caso oblquo, ou, pronome objetivo. Aparece aqui substituindo o objeto da frase que documentos necessrios. Veja o quadro explicativo a seguir. IMPORTANTE PRONOMES PESSOAIS CASO RETO SUJEITO I (eu) you (tu, voc) He (ele) she (ela) it (ele, ela [neutro]) We (ns) you (vocs, vs) they (eles, elas) CASO OBLQUO OBJETO me (me, mim) you (lhe, o, a, te, ti, a voc) him (lhe, o, a ele) her (lhe, a, a ela) it (lhe, o, a) us (nos) you (vos, lhes, a vocs) them (lhes, os, as)

indispensvel que voc saiba claramente a diferena entre sujeito e objeto. Veja a frase do enunciado se completando com a opo (a):

()the Court of Auditors is entitled to access all the documents in case. SUJEITO OBJETO

Therefore, it (a) holds the legal right to access them. PRONOME/SUJEITO PRONOME/OBJETO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 54

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It Them

Court of Auditor documents

b) must obtain approval to look into them. A opo B est incorreta. O texto no diz que o Tribunal de Contas deva (must) obter autorizao para analisar documentos. c) has to seek legal permission from the EU. A opo E est incorreta. O Tribunal de Contas no tem que buscar (seek) permisso legal (legal permission) da Unio Europia para acessar them (documentos necessrios). d) is the provider of all the papers in question. A opo E est incorreta. O Tribunal de Contas no o provedor (provider) auditoria. e) is held accountable for their safety. A opo E est incorreta. A ltima linha do texto afirma que o Tribunal de Contas est autorizado/habilitado a acessar todos os documentos necessrios durante o andamento de suas auditorias. J a alternativa diz que o Tribunal de Contas considerado responsvel pela segurana dos documentos (their pronome possessivo deles/delas). Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A. de toda documentao em questo. Observe que a documentao da qual o texto trata aquela necessria no curso de uma

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE No preciso entender o texto todo para se sair bem na prova de ingls da ESAF. A banca s usa algumas frases para elaborar as questes. Nesse texto que acabamos de ver, apenas a primeira e a ltima frase foram usadas para desenvolver as questes.

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REVISO DO VOCABULRIO-CHAVE

A partir deste momento vamos revisar a aula por meio do quadro do vocabulrio-chave.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE suggestion: sugesto this: este, esta brochure: folheto be aimed: ter objetivo offer apologies: oferecer desculpas sell devices: vender estratgias spread gossip: espalhar fofocas give advice: dar conselhos create networks: criar redes reduce: reduzir intend: pretender cut it out: planejar cut it down: reduzir cut it up: criticar cut it off: remover, recortar cut is loose: separar avoid: evitar indulge: ceder try to use: tentar usar challenge: desafiar misunderstand: confundir www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 57

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE keep away from: manter distncia resort: recorrer wordplay and workaround: trocadilhos get rid: livrar-se make use: usar look down on: desprezar get tired: cansar-se run out of: esgotar-se ultimate: final reference: referncia library: biblioteca chock-full: completamente cheio data: informaes supplied: fornecido, forneceu individuals: indivduos institutions: instituies around: em volta world: mundo usually: usualmente, geralmente free use: uso livre, gratuito comers: usurios expressions: expresses internet users: usurios da internet refer: referir same: mesmo kind of people: tipo de pessoas those: aqueles/aquelas who: quem, que access: acessar actually: realmente, efetivamente, de fato drowning: mergulhando www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 58

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE us: nos irrelevancies: irrelevncias refer: referir danger: perigo efforts: esforos stop: parar attacks: ataques forced: forou shrink: reduzir area: area activities: atividade increased: aumentou bigger: maior has turned: se tornou the most popular: o mais popular social network: rede social attract: atrair more networkers than: mais networkers que played a minor role: desempenhou papel inferior, pequeno social-networking site: site de redes sociais convinced: convenceu skeptics: cticos outstanding: extraordinrio, excelente value: valor laid off: desmitiu almost half: quase metade staff: funcionrios which: que was: era, estava, passado do verbo be once: uma vez, j all the rage: na moda www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 59

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE become: tornar-se shadow: sombra former: antigo, anterior last year: ano passado owned: possuia, propriedade installed: instalou, contratou new boss: novo chefe, patro fired: demitiu plan: plano revive: reviver fortunes: fortunas fiscal strain: presso fiscal hobbling: atrasar, impedir policies: polticas favouring: favorecendo growth: crescimento pressure: presso currently: atualmente preventing: impedindo development: desenvolvimento programmes: programas successfully: com xito spoused: aceito, recebido measures: medidas steadily: firmemente, regularmente gained: ganharam acceptance: aceitao incentives: incentivos recently: recentemente promoted: promoveram assets : recursos, ativos, bens www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 60

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE clogging: impedindo, interferindo financial system: sistema financeiro mean: significar affected: afetado blocking: afetando surely: certamente perfecting: aperfeioando redesigning: reprojetar, refazer, redesenhar assets : recursos, ativos, bens clogging: impedindo, interferindo financial system: sistema financeiro mean: significar affected: afetado blocking: afetando surely: certamente perfecting: aperfeioando redesigning: reprojetar, refazer, redesenhar good handle: saber lidar remind: lembrar assumed: aceito, compreendido risk: risco take risks: assumir ricos eliminate: eliminar accept: aceitar hardly ever: dificilmente face: encarar, enfrentar understand: entender well: bem to be entitled: ter o direito, ser autorizado access: acesso documents: documentos www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 61

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE required: requeridos, exigidos, necessrios course: andamento, curso audit: auditoria therefore: portanto, ento hold: deter, possuir, considerar legal right: direito obtain: obter seek: buscar legal permission: permisso legal approval: autorizao provider: provedor papers: documentos accountable: responsvel held: considerado (passado verbo hold) safety: segurana

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QUESTES DA AULA Translation: getting it right For non-linguists, buying in translation is often a source of frustration. The suggestions in this brochure are aimed at reducing stress. Think international from the start. Avoid culture-bound clichs. References to your national sport may well fall flat. Ditto literary/cultural metaphors. Tread carefully with references to parts of the human body, viewed differently by different cultures. For written documents, dont box yourself in by linking your pitch to visuals that may not carry the same meaning outside your native country forcing translators to resort to cumbersome wordplay and workarounds. In January 1998 PM Tony Blair told a group of Japanese businessmen that his government intended to go the full monty in putting the UK economy on a sound footing. Blank faces: the film had not yet been released in Japan. Keep some local flavour if you like, but check with your foreign-text team to make sure that adaptation is possible. For written documents, be sure to include international calling codes for telephone and fax How important is style? Some translations are no-hopers from the start. Often these are raw machine translation, or the work of non-native speakers struggling away with a grammar book in one hand and a dictionary in the other. They are good for a laugh. Other translations are technically accurate, yet the sentences do not flow as smoothly as they might; word order or www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 63

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE choice of vocabulary may be unduly influenced by the original language. They are not particularly effective for selling, but may be good enough for readers who know the subject and can or have time to read between the lines.
(adapted from http://www.fit-ift.org/download/getright2-en.pdf)

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) offer apologies. (B) sell devices. (C) spread gossip. (D) give advice. (E) create networks. 2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) cut it out. (B) cut it down. (C) cut it up. (D) cut it off. (E) cut is loose. 3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (lines 6-7) you (A) indulge in them. (B) try to use them. (C) challenge them. (D) misunderstand them. (E) keep away from them.

The function of this text is to

When the suggestions are aimed at

reducing stress (lines 4-5), this means they intend to

When you avoid culture-bound clichs

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4. (FGV/SENADO/2008)

When the text states that translators

resort to cumbersome wordplay and workaround (lines 13-14), it implies that translators ultimately (A) get rid of them. (B) make use of them. (C) look down on them. (D) get tired of them. (E) run out of them.

While there is no shortage of studies into the reasons why software projects fail (Ewusi-Mensah, 1997), the major risks of software development (Jones, 1994), or even the factors affecting project success (Cooke-Davies, 2002), the field of software engineering lacks a general model with which to investigate such failures. To date, studies have tended to be surveys of the factors 4 thought to play some part in a failure. ()
Jon McBride. A model for investigating software accident. In: Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, vol. 40, n. 1, Feb. 2008 (adapted)

5. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2009)

which, in lacks a general model with

which to investigate such failures (R.3), refers to investigate.

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Information is a cornerstone of political education and socialization. The ability to find out about issues of public importance, and the capacity to inform oneself about the workings of government and its policies are examples of how information can be essential to the education of the informed and responsible citizen. Yet in this era of information overload, the subtle but vital difference between information and knowledge needs to be drawn in order to create virtual places that promote political education in the broadest sense. It is not, in fact, information per se which is useful but knowledge, information which has been distilled and contextualized so that it can impart meaning. The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chockfull of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. Internet users know well that the abundance of informational riches can have a paralytic effect, rendering the viewer helpless to find anything. The huge quantity of information available creates an inverse relationship between speaking and listening, between information and understanding. The more people speak, the fewer people will actually be heard. In fact, the deluge of data ensures that we cannot find anything. It has also the effect of making us even more dependent than in the days before the flood on unaccountable, commercialized search tools and information filters to sort information and make it meaningful. Although these editors are machines, they are not neutral. The values and choices are embedded deep within the code and often www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 66

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE not obvious to the user.
Beth Simone Noveck. Paradoxical partners: electronic communication and electronic democracy. In: Peter Ferdinand (Ed.). The Internet, democracy, and democratization. London: Frank Cass/Routledge, 2000, p. 23-4 (with adaptations).

Based on the text above, judge the following items.

6. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010)

The expression chock-full (R.13) means

completely full or full to the limit. 7. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) In the text, the expressions comers (R.15) and Internet users (R.19) refer to the same kind of people: those who access the Internet for information. 8. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) In it is actually drowning us in

irrelevancies (R.18), it refers to The danger of the Internet (R.15www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 67

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 16). Sharks in the water In the last year, Somalias pirates have attacked 120 vessels in the Gulf of Aden, choking commerce in a critical shipping lane (the transit route for 20 percent of the worlds oil), blocking aid supplies and driving up transport costs. The last few weeks have shown how hard it will be to defeat the pirates on the high seas, which seems like the international communitys approach. When British Marines tried to board a captured fishing dhow on Nov. 11, they had to go in with guns blazing and killed one possible hostage in the process. A week later, an Indian warship opened fire on what it thought was a pirate mother ship. But the target turned out to be a Thai fishing vessel. When pirates seized their most valuable prize ever on Nov. 15 the Sirius Star supertanker holding 2 million barrels of Saudi crude everyone kept their distance. As this suggests, Somalias seaborne bandits are making a mockery of all efforts to stop them. Pirates have only increased their efforts, ranging across an area bigger than the Mediterranean. The Sirius Star was taken 450 nautical miles southeast of Kenya, and with it, the Somalis now hold 300 hostages and 15 ships. The Somalias internationally recognized transitional government has invited foreign navies to do whats necessary to stop the pirates, even attacking them ashore if need be. The Security Council has affirmed that option. Moreover, nearly all of Somalias pirates come from one region (Puntland), live in a single town (Boosaaso) and stash captured vessels in one of www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 68

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE three ports (Eyl, Hobyo or Haradhere) making interdiction that much easier. Andrew Linington of Nautilus UK, a seamans union that has had many of its members taken hostage, says the international community knows where the pirates are, they know the ports they use, they know the mother ships. Stopping them could be done, he says. But that would be expensive at a time when U.S. resources are tied up in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Rod Nordlant. Sharks in the water. Internet: <www.newsweek.com> (adapted).

According to the text, it is correct to affirm that

9. (CESPE/ ANTAQ/2009)

The efforts to stop the attacks have

forced the pirates to shrink the area of their activities.

A world of connections Source: www.economist.com (Adapted) Jan 28th, 2010 To sceptics all this talk of twittering, yammering and chattering smacks of another internet bubble in the making. They argue that even a huge social network such as Facebook will struggle to make money because fickle networkers will not stay in one place for long, pointing to the example of MySpace, which was www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 69

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE once all the rage but has now become a shadow of its former self. Last year the site, which is owned by News Corp, installed a new boss and fired 45% of its staff as part of a plan to revive its fortunes. Within companies there is plenty of doubt about the benefits of online social networking in the office. A survey of 1,400 chief information officers conducted last year by Robert Half Technology, a recruitment firm, found that only one-tenth of them gave employees full access to such networks during the day, and that many were blocking Facebook and Twitter altogether. The executives biggest concern was that social networking would lead to social networking, with employees using the sites to chat with friends instead of doing their jobs. Some bosses also fretted that the sites would be used to leak sensitive corporate information.

10. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 1, the site MySpace a) has turned into the most popular social network. b) attracts more networkers than Facebook. c) played a minor role as a social-networking site. d) convinced sceptics of its outstanding value. e) laid off almost half of its staff.

The long climb Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal,

but it will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 70

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

11. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) In paragraph 2, the author mentions the fiscal strain now hobbling California. In other words, the fiscal a) policies which have been favouring Californias growth. b) pressure currently preventing Californias development. c) programmes successfully spoused by California. d) measures which have steadily gained acceptance. e) incentives recently promoted by the Californian government.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

12. (ESAF/ STN/2008) The author refers to assets that are clogging the financial system, which means they a) could have affected it. b) are blocking it. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 72

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE c) will surely affect it. d) are perfecting it. e) were redesigning it.

13. (ESAF/ STN/2008) moment, they are feeling a) nervous and upset. b) confident and optimistic. c) reassured, but cautious. d) slightly afraid. e) tense, but optimistic.

As regards investors in Europe at the

14. (ESAF/ STN/2008) The author reminds the readers that banks are assumed to have a good handle on risk. In other words, they a) do not take it. b) eliminate it. c) do not accept it. d) hardly ever face it. e) understand it well.

Time to Toss the Textbook Source: Newsweek July 4th 2005 (Adapted) Do we know how much the world economy affects the United States and vice versa? Economics textbooks once described the U.S. economy as mainly self-contained. Americans sold to each other; 73

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Americans savings were invested mostly in American investments (stocks, bonds, bank deposits). Trade was small. Globalization has shattered this model. More industries face foreign competition or depend on foreign markets. In 1960, exports and imports together totaled 9.5 percent of gross domestic product; in 2004, they were 25 percent of GDP. Savings and investments have also gone global. In 2003, Americans mainly through pension funds, banks and other big investors owned $3.1 trillion of foreign stocks and bonds, while foreigners owned more than $4.1 trillion of U.S. securities, says the International Monetary Fund. (Note: the $4.1 trillion excluded China.) All these factors modify the U.S. economy.

15. (ESAF/ MPOG/2005) According to the author, globalization has shattered the previous model. In other words, globalization has a) destroyed it. b) regulated it. c) reinforced it. d) deepened it. e) strengthened it.

External Audit Source: http://ec.europa.eu/budget Jan 16th, 2008 (Adapted)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 1. The European Unions (EU) annual accounts and resource

management are overseen by its external auditor, the European Court of Auditors, which draws up an annual report for the Council and the European Parliament. The Courts main task is to conduct an external, independent audit of the European Communities annual accounts. As part of its activities, the Court of Auditors produces: . an annual report on the activities financed from the general budget, detailing its observations on the annual accounts and underlying transactions; . an opinion, based on its audits and given in the annual report in the form of a statement of assurance, on (i) the reliability of the accounts and (ii) the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions involving both revenue collected from taxable persons and payments to final beneficiaries; . special reports giving the findings of audits covering specific areas of management. 2. The Court of Auditors is entitled to access all documents required during the course of its audit.

16. (ESAF/CGU/2008) The closing line of the text reports that the Court of Auditors is entitled to access all the documents in case. Therefore, it a) holds the legal right to access them. b) must obtain approval to look into them. c) has to seek legal permission from the EU. d) is the provider of all the papers in question. e) is held accountable for their safety.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

GABARITO

1-D 9-E

2-B 10-E

3-E 11-B

4-B 12-B

5-E 13-A

6-C 14-E

7-C 15-A

8-E 16-A

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Ol pessoal, Neste nosso quarto encontro, estudaremos os prefixos e sufixos do ingls que mais aparecem em provas de concursos. Bons estudos e forte abrao.

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Prefixos e Sufixos

No h como ir para uma prova de concursos em que ser cobrada a matria ingls sem saber um pouco da utilizao de prefixos e sufixos. Eles tm a capacidade de alterar o significado das palavras e at mesmo mudar a sua classe gramatical. Dos dois tipos de afixos em ingls - prefixos e sufixos, os sufixos so aqueles que aparecem com maior incidncia e tm a funo de transformar a categoria gramatical das palavras a que se aplicam. Isto , um determinado sufixo ser sempre aplicado a uma determinada categoria de palavra e resultar sempre numa outra determinada categoria por exemplo, transformando um adjetivo em um substantivo. Os prefixos, por seu turno, em regra no alteram a categoria gramatical da palavra-base a que se aplicam, mas alteram o significado da palavra. Para ilustrar o que foi dito, pense na palavra uncomfortable. A raiz dessa palavra comfort, certo? O prefixo UN aparece garantindo a palavra o sentido contrrio (desconforto), oposto ao de sua raiz. J o sufixo, - BLE lhe d o carter adjetivo (confortvel).

O quadro abaixo, longe de ser exaustivo, apresenta os prefixos e sufixos mais comuns em ingls e suas funes: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 2

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Prefixos

Significado

Exemplo

un-

Oposio

uncomfortable

in-

Oposio

Inconvenient

over-

Excesso

Overtired

Suffixes

Significado

Exemplo

-ness

substantivo

Weakness

-ing

Gerndio

Going

-ed

Particpio passado

Worked

-less

Ausncia

Useless

-ive

Adjetivo

Productive

-able

Adjetivo

Countable

-ible

Adjetivo

Flexible

-er

comparativo

Richer 3

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

- est

Superlativo

Richest

-ous

adjetivo

Delicious

-ly

adverbio

Slowly

Agora vejamos textos e questes em que a FGV, o CESPE e a ESAF cobraram esse conhecimento:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

DICA: No leia o texto. V direto para as questes.

German to English translator A term very much in vogue today is the knowledge economy. This is a term that is justifiably considered vague and nebulous. sectors a Questions knowledge abound. What is exactly is a of? knowledge Why the economy? There seems to be no clear definition. What are the economy composed overwhelming allure of the knowledge economy? Why are sweeping statements made today that the economy of the world today is moving towards a knowledge-based economy? And a question closer to our hearts as language service providers: Are language services part of the knowledge economy? Does it matter if they are considered part of it or outside it? One definition of the knowledge economy, taken from todays overwhelmingly defines the popular web knowledge as the resource, use of wikipedia, knowledge knowledge economy

technologies (such as knowledge engineering and knowledge management) to produce economic benefits. Clearly, it is important for language services to be classified and advertised as a part, nay a critical and indispensable part, of the knowledge economy for three reasons: a) Language services ARE an integral part of todays knowledge economy. The wheels of globalization, itself predicated on a knowledge economy, would grind to a halt without language services. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE b) Language services are not accorded the recognition they deserve in todays comprehensive march towards globalization. Being classified as a component of the knowledge economy will confer on them the status they truly deserve. c) Payment for language services is not commensurate with the benefits they bring to the world economy. Once they get due recognition, pay scales will be revised accordingly by market forces. No one can argue that language services such as translation or interpretation do not produce economic benefits. What has to be driven home is the magnitude of economic benefits produced. i) While language services produce no tangible products or sales (apart from the language services sold themselves), the intangible effects of localization on product sales are substantial. ii) Language services also enhance global collaboration, nay, are the very factor that make it possible . Ask any two multinational companies what underpins their process of collaboration. The answer: a Memorandum of Understanding or some sort of Legal Agreement drawn up in the languages of the countries of the participating companies. So language services are required for global collaboration to even be initiated. And that global collaboration produces economic benefits is a fact. It is therefore, indisputable that language services are a knowledge technology and that they produce considerable intangible economic benefits that are critical to the production of a host of tangible economic benefits. That being established, we as language service providers, can go a step further, and claim that language services are the very bedrock of the knowledge economy. However, what is it that makes language services stand out as a special knowledge-based service? There exist today many knowledgebased technologies, www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 6

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE such as information technology, software engineering, artificial intelligence technologies, cognitive sciences, etc. Why are language services unique? An analogy with a natural phenomenon can drive home the point. Just as the light of the sun is the very essence of the suns ability to illumine, language is the very essence of all knowledge. Just as the light of the sun illumines all objects in the solar system, language is used to describe all known phenomena in our known universe, and therefore forms the very backbone of all human knowledge. While knowledge is domain-specific, language is metaknowledge. Language services are hence very special, since no knowledge is possible without language. Language services will thus form the very bedrock of the global knowledge economy going forward. It is time language services are accorded their rightful place in the global economy. In terms of recognition. In terms of stature. And yes, in terms of remuneration.

1 (FGV/SENADO/2008) and knowledge economy are (A) linked. (B) controversial. (C) exclusive. (D) disposable. (E) questionable. Comentrios

According to the text, language services

De acordo com o texto, servios de traduo/linquagem (language services) e conhecimento de economia (knowledge economy) so.... www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 7

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Vejamos o que o texto diz: Clearly, it is important for language services to be classified and advertised as a part, nay a critical and indispensable part, of the knowledge economy for three reasons: Da leitura das palavras em destaque, percebemos que o autor afirma ser claramente, servios de traduo/linguagem parte do conhecimento de economia. Observe o sufixo ly formando o advrbio clearly e os sufixos ed, -al, -ive, -able das alternativas de resposta formando adjetivos. Vejamos as alternativas de resposta:

(A) linked. = ligados (B) controversial. = controversos (C) exclusive. = exclusivos (D) disposable. = descartveis (E) questionable. = questionveis

Da anlise das alternativas, podemos afirmar que se os servios de traduo/linguagem fazem parte do conhecimento de economia, estas so duas coisas ligadas (linked).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE clearly: claramente linked: ligados controversial: controversos exclusive: exclusivos disposable: descartveis questionable: questionveis

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

2 (FGV/SENADO/2008) and nebulous (lines 2-3) is (A) dim. (B) accurate. (C) inexact. (D) advantageous. (E) imprecise. Comentrios

The opposite of vague in considered vague

O oposto de vague na frase considered vague and nebulous : Vague deriva do latim e significa vago, indeterminado. As alternativas de resposta so: (A) dim. = vago, obscuro (B) accurate. = preciso www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 9

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (C) inexact. = inexato (D) advantageous. = vantajoso (E) imprecise = impreciso A palavra accurate a que tem significado oposto a vague. Observe os prefixos e sufixos em destaque.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE vague: vago, indeterminado dim: vago, obscuro accurate: preciso inexact: inexato advantageous: vantajoso imprecise: impreciso

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 3 (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) farther from them. (B) less sensitive to them. (C) more threatening to them. (D) more influenced by them. (E) nearer to them. Comentrios Quando o texto diz que a questo closer to our hearts, ele quer dizer que a questo .... Closer a forma comparativa de close, significa mais perto. Da anlise das alternativas, apenas a letra E trouxe um sinnimo de closer, que nearer. Logo, esta a alternativa correta. Lembrem-se que o sufixo er usado para formar o comparativo de adjetivos de 1-2 slabas. When the text states that a question is

closer to our hearts (line 9), it means this question is

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE closer: mais perto nearer: mais perto

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 4 (FGV/SENADO/2008) that is (A) all-inclusive. (B) upcoming. (C) understandable. (D) overwhelming. (E) constructive. Comentrios O enunciado diz que uma marcha global aquela que : As alternativas so as seguintes: (A) all-inclusive. = inclusiva (B) upcoming. = prxima (C) understandable. = compreensvel (D) overwhelming. = avassaladora (E) constructive. = construtiva A melhor alternativa de resposta a letra a, j que global gera a idia de com a participao de todos, logo, inclusiva. a comprehensive march (line 27) is one

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE comprehensive march: marcha global all-inclusive: inclusiva upcoming: prxima understandable: compreensvel overwhelming: avassaladora constructive: construtiva Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

5 (FGV/SENADO/2008) The expression a host of tangible economic benefits (line 55) indicates these benefits are (A) scarce. (B) effective. (C) plentiful. (D) successful. (E) welcoming. Comentrios A expresso a host of tangible economic benefits indica que estes benefcios so... A expresso significa uma srie de benefcios econmicos tangveis. Vejamos as alternativas: (A) scarce. = escassos (B) effective. = eficazes (C) plentiful. = abundantes (D) successful. = bem sucedidos (E) welcoming. = acolhedores Da anlise, percebe-se apenas uma alternativa possvel, a letra C, com a idia de muito, abundante acompanhando a idia de uma srie...

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE a host: uma srie tangible: tangvel economic benefits: benefcios econmicos scarce: escassos effective: eficazes plentiful: abundantes successful: bem sucedidos welcoming: acolhedores

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

6 (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) unfit. (B) uniform. (C) unusual. (D) untidy. (E) useful.

When the text qualifies language services

as unique (line 63), it defines them as

Comentrios Quando o texto qualifica servios de traduo/linguagem como unique, ele os define como .... Unique significa nico. Vejamos as alternativas: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 14

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

(A) unfit. = imprprios (B) uniform. = uniformes (C) unusual. = diferentes (D) untidy. = desarrumados (E) useful. = teis A alternativa que mais se aproxima de unique unusual.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE unique: nico. unfit: imprprios uniform: uniformes unusual: diferentes untidy: desarrumados useful: teis

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

Information is a cornerstone of political education and socialization. The ability to find out about issues of public importance, and the capacity to inform oneself about the workings of government and its policies are examples of how information can be essential to the education of the informed and responsible www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 15

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE citizen. Yet in this era of information overload, the subtle but vital difference between information and knowledge needs to be drawn in order to create virtual places that promote political education in the broadest sense. It is not, in fact, information per se which is useful but knowledge, information which has been distilled and contextualized so that it can impart meaning. The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chock-full of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. Internet users know well that the abundance of informational riches can have a paralytic effect, rendering the viewer helpless to find anything. The huge quantity of information available creates an inverse relationship between speaking and listening, between information and understanding. The more people speak, the fewer people will actually be heard. In fact, the deluge of data ensures that we cannot find anything. It has also the effect of making us even more dependent than in the days before the flood on unaccountable, commercialized search tools and information filters to sort information and make it meaningful. Although these editors are machines, they are not neutral. The values and choices are embedded deep within the code and often not obvious to the user.
Beth Simone Noveck. Paradoxical partners: electronic

communication and electronic democracy. In: Peter Ferdinand (Ed.). The Internet, democracy, and democratization. London: Frank Cass/Routledge, 2000, p. 23-4 (with adaptations).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Based on the text above, judge the following items. 7. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) as innumerable. Comentrios: In line 27, unaccountable is the same

Nesta questo a banca cobrou o significado da palavra unaccountable e afirmou ser o mesmo que innumerable. Esta foi uma questo maliciosa que tinha a inteno de confundir o candidato. Veja por que:
Uncountable = innumerable = incontvel Unaccountable = inexplicvel, esquisito, irresponsvel

PREFIXO UN

Unaffected = no afetadas Prefixo UN contrrio, negativo Logo, affected=afetada

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE uncountable: incontvel innumerable: incontvel unaccountable: inexplicvel, esquisito, irresponsvel

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

8. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) There are reasons to doubt the reliability of the Internet as a source of useful, relevant and neutral information. Comentrios:

A questo afirma que h (there are) razes para duvidar (to doubt) da confiabilidade da internet como fonte (source) de informao til, relevante e neutra.
There are reasons to doubt the reliability of the Internet as a source of useful, relevant and neutral information.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

As palavras-chave da questo so os adjetivos useful, relevant e neutral. Vejamos no texto se encontramos palavras similares ou contrrias a estas:
() It is not, in fact, information per se which is useful but knowledge, information which has been distilled and contextualized so that it can impart meaning. () () The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. Internet users know well that the abundance of informational riches can have a paralytic effect, rendering the viewer helpless to find anything. The huge quantity of information available creates an inverse relationship between speaking and listening, between information and understanding. The more people speak, the fewer people will actually be heard. In fact, the deluge of data ensures that we cannot find anything. It has also the effect of making us even more dependent than in the days before the flood on unaccountable, commercialized search tools and information filters to sort information and make it meaningful. Although these editors are machines, they are not neutral. The values and choices are embedded deep within the code and often not obvious to the user. useful It is not information per se which is useful relevant irrelevancies neutral not neutral

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Logo, a questo est correta ao afirmar que h razes para duvidar da utilidade, relevncia e neutralidade das informaes na internet. O texto est dizendo exatamente isto. Aparece na questo o verbo there be que corresponde ao verbo haver no portugus, mas que, ao contrrio do portugus, flexiona para o plural e singular. THERE IS = para o singular THERE ARE = para o plural

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE there are: h reasons: razes doubt: dvida reliability: confiana source: fonte useful: util relevant: relevante neutral: neutro

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

The pre-Iraq war and pre-9/11 performance of some secret services is subject to harsh criticism and, in some countries, various investigations. Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. The different agencies are blamed for inter- and intra-agency rivalry blocking the efficiency of any early warning system. In addition, they are heavily criticized for delivering the message their political masters wanted to hear. We do not want to blame anybody. But we believe that it is necessary to rethink the whole business of secret services. Without knowing the details that obviously led to serious deficiencies, there are several fundamental problems with the work of secret services in open, democratic societies. In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards intelligence gathering. It seems to be a dirty job. Democracy asks for openness and transparency. People in democracies do not like the work in a shadow. Scientists and journalists refrain in general from cooperation with secret services. They are afraid to destroy their access to foreign countries and colleagues. Recruitment of qualified young people has become difficult. Dieter Farwick. Internet: <http://www.world securitynetwork. com/showArticle3.cfm?article_id=9226> (with adaptations).

From the text above, it can be deduced that

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

9.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

the American decision to declair war

against Iraq was based on doubtless information. Comentrios: As palavras decision e based aparecem na frase: Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. Fazendo a comparao, temos que: Item Texto x x Are accused Decision.. Was based .. On doubtless information. have taken decisions based upon dubious information x

American .. Governments

Feita a anlise, fica mais fcil observar que enquanto o item fala em deciso americana, o texto fala, de maneira geral, que governos so acusados de terem tomado decises (have taken decisions). Ao contrario do que est dito no texto (decises baseadas em informaes dbias, duvidosas), a alternativa fala em decises baseadas em informaes indubitveis (doubtless).

SUFIXO - LESS Doubtless = indubitvel sufixo - LESS = contrrio, negativo Logo, doubt=dvida, desconfiana

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOZ PASSIVA
Tanto na questo quanto no texto foi usada a voz passiva. Observe: the American decision to declair war against Iraq was based on doubtless information. decises (objeto) foram baseadas (passado be + based)

Governments are accused to have taken decisions based upon dubious information governos so acusados (presente be + accused)

VOZ PASSIVA (BE + VERBO NO PASSADO PARTICPIO)

PODE ESTAR NO PRESENTE OU NO PASSADO (is, are, was, were)

PALAVRAS-CHAVE declair: declarar war against Iraq: guerra contra o Iraque was based on: estava/era baseado doubtless: indibutvel are accused to: so acusados de have taken decisions: ter tomado decises essential: essencial based upon: baseado em dubious: dbio

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 10. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) security matters. Comentrios: No texto, a palavra political aparece em: In addition, they are heavily criticized for delivering the message their political masters wanted to hear. A questo afirma que questes polticas (poltical issues) no deveriam (should not) prevalecer sobre questes de segurana (security matters). No mesmo sentido, o texto fala em agncias de inteligncia sendo fortemente criticadas (heavily criticized) por sofrer influncia poltica. Item: should not prevail Texto: criticized political issues should not prevail over

heavily = duramente, fortemente Adjetivos + Sufixo LY = advrbio

Outro exemplo: hardly (dificilmente)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PALAVRAS-CHAVE political issues: questes polticas should: deveria prevail over: prevalecer security matters: questes de segurana in addition: Ainda, em adio heavily: severamente criticized: criticado delivering: entrega political: politico masters: mestres want: querer hear: ouvir

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 11. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) open democracies welcome the action of

intelligence services. Comentrios: A questo fala em open democracies, que o texto trata na frase: In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards intelligence gathering. It seems to be a dirty job. Democracy asks for openness and transparency() Item open democracies welcome intelligence services Texto openness, transparency democracies mistrust, dirty intelligence gathering

Observamos que enquanto o item fala que democracias abertas acolhem sem restries (welcome) os servios de inteligncia, o texto fala em mistrust (desconfiana, suspeita) e ainda usa o adjetivo dirty ( que indica sujo, reprovao).

PALAVRAS-CHAVE open democracies: democracias abertas welcome: sem restries, bem-vindo mistrust: desconfiana towards: em direo intelligence gathering: coleta de inteligncia seem: parecer dirty job: trabalho sujo ask: perguntar, solicitar openness: abertura www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 26

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE transparency: transparncia

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

12.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

mistrust (R.17) is synonymous with

distrust. Comentrios: A palavra mistrust aparece em: In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards

intelligence gathering. Trust significa confiana. PREFIXOS Mis Prefixos Dis Trust=confiana (mistrust e distrust = disconfiana) so usados para indicar o oposto

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

This heavily armed group wears black uniforms and their faces are often masked, and their symbol includes a skull with crossed pistols. It is not some illegal paramilitary force but an elite battalion of the police in Rio de Janeiro known as Bope, the Battalion for Special Police Operations. They were created by the Department of Police to deal with kidnappings, but their job now is to take on the most dangerous drug gangs in the country, a battle fought with high-calibre weapons in the citys favelas and shanty towns. The launch of a new movie called Tropa de Elite (or Elite Squad) has put this police unit in the spotlight in an unprecedented way. The movie also points an accusing finger at the hypocrisy of rich young people who complain about violence in Brazilian society, but who use the drugs that finance the gangs which dominate many favelas. Some critics have accused the film of glamorising violence and making a hero of a police officer who endorses torture and acts outside the law, an interpretation rejected by the films director.
Internet: <news.bbc.co.uk> (adapted).

Based on the text, it can be deduced that

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

13. (CESPE/PMDF/2008) people agree that the police officer as shown in the film is an unquestionable hero. Comentrios: As palavras-chave aqui so: people, agree, police officer, unquestionable, hero. Ao busc-las no texto encontramos a frase: Some critics have accused the film of glamorising violence and making a hero of a police officer who endorses torture and acts outside the law, an interpretation rejected by the films director. Enquanto a questo afirma que as pessoas concordam (people agree) que o policial do filme um heri inquestionvel (unquestionable), o texto quando fala no policial heri aborda os crticos (critics) e suas acusaes (accused). Logo, ao contrrio do que a questo afirma, o policial um heri questionvel (questionable x unquestionable), j que sofre critcas. PREFIXO UN -

SUFIXO - BLE Unquestionable = inquestionvel Prefixo UN contrrio, negativo Logo, questionable= questionvel Outros exemplos: unlikely (inprovvel) unstable (instvel) unsustainable (insustentvel) Sufixo BLE vel, - vel Unquestionable = inquestionvel sustainable (sustentvel) stable(estvel) 29

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE people: pessoas agree: concordam police officer: policial unquestionable: inquestionvel hero: heri critics: crticos have accused: acusaram glamorising violence: glamorizar a violncia make: fazer endorses torture: aprovar a tortura acts outside the law: age fora da lei

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

DICA: Antes de ler o texto, no perca tempo, v ao enunciado da questo. Veja o que a Banca Examinadora quer de voc.

Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) 1. function of the The regulation of insurance company solvency is a state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services

Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

14. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo j remete o leitor expresso

insolvencies do occur. S ser necessrio encontrar esta expresso no texto. Vejamos a ltima frase do texto: ()Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. Agora as palavras-chave e as alternativas de resposta:

PALAVRAS-CHAVE insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 32

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE take place: ocorrer pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser

a) actually happen. A opo A est correta. Insolvencies do occur significa que insolvncias efetivamente acontecem. Actually significa de fato, efetivamente. IMPORTANTE actually = realmente, efetivamente Adjetivos + Sufixo LY = advrbio Logo, actual = real, efetivo CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO! Atualmente = nowadays, presently Outros exemplos: undoubtedly (indubitavelmente) hardly (dificilmente) frequently (frequentemente) usually (usualmente, habitualmente)

b) are undoubtedly preventable. A opo B est incorreta. Da leitura da frase Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. percebe-se que apesar dos esforos dos reguladores, as insolvncias efetivamente ocorrem. Logo, no se pode afirmar que insolvncia seja indubitavelmente evitvel (preventable). c) hardly take place. A opo C est incorreta. O texto no diz que insolvncia dificilmente (hardly) ocorre (take place), apenas afirma que ela ocorre. d) do not pose a threat. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 33

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo D est incorreta. Insolvencies do occur no quer dizer que insolvncias no representam (pose) uma ameaa (threat). Perceba que o enunciado da questo quer apenas o significado da expresso e no a interpretao de que sejam ou no ameaas. e) used to be more frequent. A opo E est incorreta. A opo afirma que insolvncias costumavam ser (used to be) mais freqentes. No texto no h essa afirmao.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 15. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo diz: In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators (Em relao ao monitoramento da sade financeira de companhias licenciadas a oferecer seguro, os reguladores estatais...) Vejamos onde o texto est tratando de monitoring. DICA: Observe que das 10 palavraschave, 6 so verdadeiros cognatos, ou seja, palavras que se assemelham ao portugus. Felizmente elas so maioria! Mas cuidado, h os falsos cognatos. No se preocupe com eles agora. Eles so minoria.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE relation: relao monitoring: monitoramento financial health: sade financeira

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE companies: companhias licensed: licenciadas provide: oferecer, fornecer, produzir state regulators: reguladores estatais

O texto trata do assunto monitoring na seguinte frase: State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examinations.

MAIS PALAVRAS-CHAVE through: atravs analysis: anlises detailed: detalhadas annual: anual financial statements: demonstraes financeiras insurers: segurador, seguradora are required: so demandados, solicitados to file: seguir periodic: peridico on-site examinations: exame, investigao in loco

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Da leitura, verificamos que h duas maneiras atravs, por meio (through) das quais os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias: analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examination. Agora, apenas com a leitura dessa frase, sem se preocupar inicialmente com a traduo do que est destacado em azul, vejamos as opes de resposta:

a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. A opo A est incorreta. O texto no diz que os reguladores estatais esto atualmente (currently) desenvolvendo (designing) duas ferramentas (tools) para monitoramento da sade financeira das seguradoras. O autor apenas afirma que os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias de seguro atravs de 2 ferramentas: analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers e periodic on-site examination.

Currently = atualmente CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO!

x
actually = realmente, efetivamente

b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. A opo B est correta. O verbo to resort to significa recorrer a, apelar a. J might resort to d a idia de probabilidade. A opo www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 37

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE afirma que possvel que os reguladores do mercado de seguros recorram s ferramentas citadas no texto. Logo a afirmativa est corretssima, uma vez que o autor afirma que os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias atravs da analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file e do periodic on-site examination, duas aes desenvolvidas para lhes assistir.

c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. A opo C est incorreta. O autor no diz que os reguladores podem (may) decidir por terceirizar (outsource) anlises mais profundas (further forma comparativa do adjetivo far). d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. A opo C est incorreta. No texto no h qualquer meno ao verbo assess (avaliar, estimar, calcular) ou outro com idia similar. Logo, est errado afirmar que os reguladores estatais esto avaliando os procedimentos mais efetivos. e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements. A opo E est incorreta. No se pode afirmar pela leitura do texto que os reguladores estatais esto tendentes a adotar a anlise de suas demonstraes. Totalmente errada.

Sufixo -LY

Forma adjetivos e advrbios slowly: lentamente likely: provavelmente, tendente lively: vivaz www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 38

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PALAVRAS-CHAVE currently: atualmente designing: desenvolvendo tool: ferramenta resort to: recorrer a outsource: terceirizar further: mais profundo, mais distante assess: avaliar, estimar, calcular most effective procedures: procedimentos mais efetivos likely: provvelmente, tendente adopt: adotar Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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Land of Promise Source: www.economist.com/specialreports April 12th 2007 (Adapted) 1. In 2003 Goldman Sachs, an investment bank, selected

Brazil, along with Russia, India and China, as one of the BRICsthe developing countries that would share dominance of the world economy by 2050. 2. In some ways Brazil is the steadiest of the BRICs. Unlike China and Russia it is a full-blooded democracy; unlike India it has no serious disputes with its neighbours. It is the only BRIC without a nuclear bomb. The Heritage Foundations Economic Freedom Index, which measures such factors as protection of property rights and free trade, ranks Brazil (moderate free) above the other BRICs (mostly unfree). One of the main reasons why Brazils growth has been slower than Chinas and Indias is that Brazil is richer and more urbanized. 3. The survey will argue that disgruntlement persists because Brazil is a battleground between progress and inertia. Since independence was proclaimed by the son of the Portuguese king, Brazil has been adding layer upon layer of change rather than sweeping away the old and starting afresh.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 16. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 1, four countries are referred to as a) unlikely to play a key role in the world economic scenario. b) the slowest-growing economies of the present. c) likely to dominate the world economy in the future. d) the fastest-growing economies over the past 50 years. e) being todays richest and most prosperous economies.

Comentrios: Logo no enunciado, mesmo para quem tem apenas noes bsicas de ingls, j d para saber que para responder a questo bastar ler o pargrafo 1. A questo quer saber o que o texto do pargrafo 1 diz sobre os quatro pases. Ento vamos ler apenas o pargrafo 1 e tentar identificar o vocabulrio-chave: In 2003 Goldman Sachs, an investment bank, selected Brazil, along with Russia, India and China, as one of the BRICs- the developing countries that would share dominance of the world economy by 2050.

Significado desse vocabulrio em destaque

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PALAVRAS-CHAVE investment bank: banco de investimentos selected: selecionou developing countries: pases em desenvolvimento would share dominance: compartilharo domnio world economy: economia mundial

DICA: Observe que das 10 palavraschave, 6 so verdadeiros cognatos, ou seja, palavras que se assemelham no portugus e no ingls. Felizmente elas so a maioria! Mas cuidado, h os falsos cognatos, que so minoria, mas no se preocupe com eles agora.

O que podemos extrair deste pargrafo, observando as palavraschave em destaque : Em 2003, um banco de investimentos selecionou o Brasil, juntamente com a Rssia, a ndia e a China para ser um BRICs pases em desenvolvimento que compartilharo o domnio da economia mundial at 2050. Temos a as seguintes palavras chaves: E quanto a esses quatro pases,vamos s opes de resposta:

a) unlikely to play a key role in the world economic scenario. A opo A est errada. No improvvel (unlikely) que os 4 pases tenham papel chave (key role) no cenrio da economia mundial. O primeiro pargrafo afirma exatamente o contrrio. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 42

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Unlikely = Improvvel Prefixo UN contrrio, negativo Logo, likely=provvel

b) the slowest-growing economies of the present. A opo B est errada. O texto no afirma que essas quatro economias esto crescendo de modo mais lento atualmente. O texto claro ao se referir ao tempo futuro, ano de 2050. Nem se trata aqui de saber ingls, mas de observar datas. IMPORTANTE Slowest = mais lento, devagar Sufixo EST para formar superlativos da maioria dos adjetivos curtos em ingls. Para os adjetivos longos usamos o MOST.

c) likely to dominate the world economy in the future. A opo C est correta. Como vimos no comentrio da opo a, likely significa provvel. O texto afirma que os 4 pases provavelmente dominaro a economia mundial. d) the fastest-growing economies over the past 50 years. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 43

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A opo D est errada, o texto no diz que as 4 economias cresceram de modo mais acelerado nos ltimos 50 anos. Como vimos no comentrio do item b, -EST est formando o superlativo do adjetivo fast (rpido, acelerado).

IMPORTANTE Growing = crescendo ou crescimento, a depender da frase em que aparece. Sufixo ING pode formar gerndio de verbos, mas tambm substantivos.

e) being todays richest and most prosperous economies. A opo E est errada. Como vimos, o texto no diz que as 4 economias so as mais ricas nem tampouco as mais prsperas no presente (today).

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 17. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 2, the author compares Brazils

growth to Chinas and Indias and, therefore, defines it as a) not being as fast. b) dependent on the latter. c) unexpectedly higher. d) not as stable. e) the least steady.

Comentrios:

Agora vamos ao pargrafo 2. Neste pargrafo o autor compara o crescimento do Brasil ao da China e ndia. Observe que a questo quer saber como definido o crescimento (growth) do Brasil.

DICA: A Banca quer que o candidato consiga identificar as caractersticas do crescimento no do na Brasil forma que de aparecem texto

adjetivos. Destaque os adjetivos.

In some ways Brazil is the steadiest of the BRICs. Unlike China and Russia it is a full-blooded democracy; unlike India it has no serious disputes with its neighbours. It is the only BRIC without a nuclear bomb. The Heritage Foundations Economic Freedom Index, which measures such factors as protection of property rights and free trade, ranks Brazil (moderate free) above the other BRICs (mostly unfree). One of the

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE main reasons why Brazils growth has been slower than Chinas and Indias is that Brazil is richer and more urbanized. Primeiro perceba que o tema central tratado neste pargrafo a economia brasileira. Observe as palavras-chave em destaque vermelho. Esses so os adjetivos para responder questo. Ao identificar, seno todos, pelo menos alguns dos adjetivos do texto, podemos matar a questo:

PALAVRAS-CHAVE steadiest = mais estvel full-blooded = forte moderate-free = moderadamente livre slower = mais lento (prefixo er para comparativo) richer = mais rico (prefixo er para comparativo) more urbanized = mais urbanizado (prefixo er para comparativo)

Vejamos as opes de resposta: a) not being as fast. A opo A est correta. Na ltima frase do pargrafo 2 o autor afirma que a razo para que o crescimento econmico brasileiro seja mais lento (slower than) que o da China e da ndia que o Brasil mais rico (richer) e mais urbanizado (more urbanized). A opo descreve o crescimento do Brasil como no sendo to rpido (quanto ao da China e ndia not as fast as China).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE b) dependent on the latter. A opo B est incorreta. No h no texto qualquer afirmao de que o crescimento brasileiro seja dependente dos outros pases. Latter significa ltimo ou mencionado em segundo lugar. Voltando ao enunciado da questo, o segundo pas mencionado foi ndia. Contudo, observe que mesmo sem saber o significado desta palavra no h no texto qualquer meno dependncia. Pelo contrrio, quem tem o mnimo de conhecimento em ingls e conseguiu identificar a palavra FREE (livre) no pargrafo 2, j poderia sacar que esse item est incorreto.

c) unexpectedly higher. A letra C est incorreta. Lembre-se que estamos falando de crescimento. O item fala unexpectedly higher (un-expectedly = inesperado lembrem-se do prefixo un)(high-er=mais alto). Se voltarmos aos adjetivos que marcamos no texto no h essa afirmao. No confunda com richer (na ltima frase do pargrafo 2) com higher richer no texto est se referindo ao pas Brasil e no ao crescimento. No necessariamente um pas que mais rico ter um crescimento mais elevado (comparem China e EUA, por exemplo).

d) not as stable. A letra D est incorreta. Na primeira frase do pargrafo temos: In some ways Brazil is the steadiest of the BRICs(). Logo, Brasil o mais estvel. Como j vimos acima, stead (estvel) +est = superlativo (mais estvel). O item diz not as stable (no to estvel). Veja bem:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

stead = stable =

estvel

e) the least steady. A letra E est incorreta. O crescimento brasileiro no o menos (LEAST) estvel. Na primeira frase do pargrafo temos: In some ways Brazil is the steadiest of the BRICs(). Logo, Brasil o mais estvel.

MORE x

LESS

MOST x LEAST

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Brazils President is Wildly Popular Source: Special Double Issue Newsweek Dec 31st, 2007/ Jan 7th, 2008 (Adapted) 1. For Brazilian President Luiz Incio Lula da 2007 has

been a good year. The economy is surging, even as the United States shows signs of weakness. Rising real wages, school enrollments and life expectancy have finally nudged Brazil into the United Nations elite of high human development nations. One by one Lula has seen top aides and allies fall to corruption scandals, but so far nothing seems to dim his aura. Now some of Lulas most ardent devotees in the ruling Workers Party (PT) are even pushing to change the Constitution to allow him to run for a third consecutive term in office. All the stars are aligned, says Walter Molano, a specialist in emerging markets with BCP Securities.

18. (ESAF/CGU/2008) The text reports that the Brazilian economy is surging. In other words, a) its scenario had urged caution. b) its growth has been slowing down. c) it will emerge in the near future. d) it is undergoing a process of growth. e) its development has been hindered.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Comentrios: Tambm nessa questo j podemos ir direto ao ponto. A questo se refere economia brasileira e pede que encontremos a alternativa que mais se assemelha idia de is surging. Vejamos a frase: The economy is surging, even as the United States shows signs of weakness.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE is surging: est surgindo, aumentando rapidamente shows signs: mostra sinais weakness: fraqueza

IMPORTANTE Sufixo -NESS Forma substantivos abstratos: weakness, richness

Vejamos as alternativas:

a) its scenario had urged caution. A opo A est incorreta. O texto fala que a economia est surgindo e no que tenha necessitado de cautela.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

b) its growth has been slowing down. A opo B est incorreta. O crescimento no est diminuindo, pelo contrrio. c) it will emerge in the near future. A opo C est incorreta. O Presidente Lula no diz que a economia ir emergir no futuro prximo. d) it is undergoing a process of growth. A opo D est correta. O que o Presidente diz que a economia est surgindo, logo corresponde idia de que est passando por um processo de crescimento. e) its development has been hindered. A opo E est incorreta. O texto no diz que o desenvolvimento tem sido impedido. Aqui voc precisaria saber o significado de hinder (impedir), contudo, daria para acertar a questo sabendo o vocabulrio da opo d.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Tackling Corruption for Growth and Development Source: www.ausaid.gov.au 18th Jan 2008 (Adapted) 1. Corruption is a major impediment to broadbased

growth and development, undermining government revenue and expenditure on the delivery of basic services such as law and justice, health care, education, and the maintenance of essential infrastructure. The World Bank Institute has estimated that more than US$1 trillion is paid in bribes each year and, over the long run, countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times. 2. Corruption weakens institutions and makes states more vulnerable to crisis. It has the potential to undermine security in our partner countries and in the Asia-Pacific region more broadly. Security can be threatened when governments fail to deliver services, uphold law and order, maintain public confidence in institutions, or control the use of resources. 3. Corruption can lead to money politics and undermine the decisions of democratically elected governments. It can also open the way for a variety of other crimes such as money laundering and trafficking in drugs, arms, and people.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 19. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 1, tackling corruption and the increase of national incomes are described as a) minor governmental concerns. b) dissociated matters. c) major private initiatives. d) unrelated issues. e) closely linked.

Comentrios: A questo remete o leitor ao Pargrafo 1. Antes de ler o pargrafo, vejamos o enunciado. In paragraph 1, tackling corruption and the increase of national incomes are described as Agora, antes de se preocupar com o significado das palavras chaves, vamos ao pargrafo 1 do texto identificar onde est a resposta da questo. countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times. Agora, conforme o enunciado, a banca quer saber como tackling corruption (combate corrupo) e the increase of national incomes (aumento da renda nacional) so descritos no texto.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PALAVRAS-CHAVE tackling: tentar resolver, lidar, atacar (problema, tarefa), combater tackle: tentar resolver, lidar, atacar (problema, tarefa), combater improve: melhorar rule of law: legislao corruption: corrupo increase: aumentar national incomes: renda, salrio, pagamento, honorrio described: descritos minor: menor, inferior, secundrio concerns: preocupaes dissociated: dissociar, desagregar matters: negcio, questo, causa, caso major: maior, principal. private: privado initiatives: iniciativas unrelated: no relacionado issues: questes closely linked: intimamente ligado a) minor governmental concerns. A opo A est incorreta. O texto no diz que corrupo e aumento da renda so preocupaes governamentais secundrias, inferiores (minor concerns). Veja como a corrupo e o aumento da renda nacional esto descritos no texto: countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo B est incorreta. O texto afirma que pases que combatem a corrupo (tackle corruption) podem aumentar em 4 vezes (four times) a renda nacional (increase their national incomes). Logo, no se pode dizer que o combate corrupo e o aumento da renda so questes dissociadas. O texto afirma que um influencia o outro. IMPORTANTE PASSADO PARTICPIO dissociated: dissociada (o) related: relacionada (o) unrelated: prefixo UN negao, logo, no relacionada linked: ligada (o) weakened: enfraquecida (o) c) major private initiatives. A opo C est incorreta. O texto diz countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times, ou seja, fala em pases que combatem a corrupo. A alternativa est errada ao afirmar que o combate corrupo e o aumento da renda nacional so iniciativas principalmente privadas. d) unrelated issues. A opo D est incorreta. Esta afirmao tambm feita na alternativa B e est incorreta. Como vimos, o texto afirma que pases que combatem a corrupo (tackle corruption) podem aumentar em 4 vezes a renda nacional (increase their national incomes). Logo, no se pode dizer que o combate corrupo e o aumento da renda so questes (issues) dissociadas. e) closely linked. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 55

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo E est correta. Se o texto afirma que pases que

combatem a corrupo (tackle corruption) podem aumentar em 4 vezes a renda nacional (increase their national incomes), isso quer dizer que o combate corrupo e o aumento da renda so intimamente ligados (closely linked). Close significa perto, closely transforma o adjetivo em advrbio, traduzido por intimamente, bem perto. IMPORTANTE closely = intimamente Adjetivos + Sufixo LY = advrbio Outros exemplos: hardly (dificilmente) frequently (frequentemente) usually (usualmente, habitualmente)

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 20. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 2, institutions are said to be weakened by corruption. In other words, they a) seem to be immune to this practice. b) have the legal means to prevent it. c) remain unaffected by this practice. d) are undoubtedly affected by it. e) are in charge of legally handling it.

Comentrios: O enunciado da prpria questo destaca que no pargrafo 2 dito que as instituies so enfraquecidas (weakened) pela corrupo. Tendo isso em vista, voc dever encontrar a opo que mais se aproxima dessa idia. Observe que nem ser preciso ler o pargrafo 2 para responder questo. a) seem to be immune to this practice. A opo A est incorreta. Como vimos a questo trata das instituies e o enunciado afirma que as mesmas se enfraquecem pela corrupo. Ao contrrio, a alternativa diz que as instituies parecem (seem) estar imunes a esta prtica (corruption). b) have the legal means to prevent it. A opo B est incorreta. A opo afirma que as instituies tm os meios legais (legal means) para prevenir (prevent) a corrupo (it). Veja que no isso que o texto diz. Conforme o enunciado da questo, no pargrafo 2 dito que as instituies so enfraquecidas pela corrupo.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE c) remain unaffected by this practice. A opo C est incorreta. Ao contrrio do que o texto e o enunciado da questo afirmam, essa alternativa diz que as instituies continuam (remain) no sendo afetadas (unaffected) por esta prtica (corruption). IMPORTANTE Unaffected = no afetadas Prefixo UN contrrio, negativo Logo, affected=afetada

d) are undoubtedly affected by it. A opo D est correta. Se o enunciado da questo afirmou que as instituies se enfraquecem com a corrupo, esta alternativa est correta ao dizer que as instituies so undoubtedly (indubitavelmente) afetadas pela corrupo. IMPORTATE Undoubtedly = indubitavelmente Prefixo UN contrrio, negativo Sufixo LY forma advrbio (- mente)

e) are in charge of legally handling it. A opo E est incorreta. Esta opo diz que as instituies so as responsveis (be in charge) por lidar legalmente (legally handling) com a corrupo. O texto no faz tal afirmao. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 58

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PALAVRAS-CHAVE institutions: instituies said: passado de say dizer weakened: enfraquecido seem: parecer legal means: meios legais prevent: prevenir affected: afetado, passado de affect Undoubtedly: indubitavelmente be in charge: ser o responsvel legally handling: lidar legalmente

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

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REVISO DO VOCABULRIO-CHAVE

A partir deste momento vamos revisar a aula por meio do quadro do vocabulrio-chave.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE clearly: claramente linked: ligados controversial: controversos exclusive: exclusivos disposable: descartveis questionable: questionveis vague: vago, indeterminado dim: vago, obscuro accurate: preciso inexact: inexato advantageous: vantajoso imprecise: impreciso closer: mais perto nearer: mais perto comprehensive march: marcha global all-inclusive: inclusiva upcoming: prxima understandable: compreensvel overwhelming: avassaladora constructive: construtiva a host: uma srie tangible: tangvel www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 60

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE economic benefits: benefcios econmicos scarce: escassos effective: eficazes plentiful: abundantes successful: bem sucedidos welcoming: acolhedores unique: nico. unfit: imprprios uniform: uniformes unusual: diferentes untidy: desarrumados useful: teis uncountable: incontvel innumerable: incontvel unaccountable: inexplicvel, esquisito, irresponsvel there are: h reasons: razes doubt: dvida reliability: confiana source: fonte useful: util relevant: relevante neutral: neutro declair: declarar war against Iraq: guerra contra o Iraque was based on: estava/era baseado doubtless: indibutvel are accused to: so acusados de have taken decisions: ter tomado decises essential: essencial based upon: baseado em www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 61

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE dubious: dbio political issues: questes polticas should: deveria prevail over: prevalecer security matters: questes de segurana in addition: Ainda, em adio heavily: severamente criticized: criticado delivering: entrega political: politico masters: mestres want: querer hear: ouvir open democracies: democracias abertas welcome: sem restries, bem-vindo mistrust: desconfiana towards: em direo intelligence gathering: coleta de inteligncia seem: parecer dirty job: trabalho sujo ask: perguntar, solicitar openness: abertura transparency: transparncia people: pessoas agree: concordam police officer: policial unquestionable: inquestionvel hero: heri critics: crticos have accused: acusaram glamorising violence: glamorizar a violncia

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE make: fazer endorses torture: aprovar a tortura acts outside the law: age fora da lei insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente take place: ocorrer pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser relation: relao monitoring: monitoramento financial health: sade financeira companies: companhias licensed: licenciadas provide: oferecer, fornecer, produzir state regulators: reguladores estatais through: atravs analysis: anlises detailed: detalhadas annual: anual

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE financial statements: demonstraes financeiras insurers: segurador, seguradora are required: so demandados, solicitados to file: seguir periodic: peridico on-site examinations: exame, investigao in loco currently: atualmente designing: desenvolvendo tool: ferramenta resort to: recorrer a outsource: terceirizar further: mais profundo, mais distante assess: avaliar, estimar, calcular most effective procedures: procedimentos mais efetivos likely: provvelmente, tendente adopt: adotar investment bank: banco de investimentos selected: selecionou developing countries: pases em desenvolvimento would share dominance: compartilharo domnio world economy: economia mundial steadiest = mais estvel full-blooded = forte moderate-free = moderadamente livre slower = mais lento (prefixo er para comparativo) richer = mais rico (prefixo er para comparativo) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 64

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE more urbanized = mais urbanizado (prefixo er para comparativo) tackling: tentar resolver, lidar, atacar (problema, tarefa), combater tackle: tentar combater resolver, lidar, atacar (problema, tarefa),

improve: melhorar rule of law: legislao corruption: corrupo increase: aumentar national incomes: renda, salrio, pagamento, honorrio described: descritos minor: menor, inferior, secundrio concerns: preocupaes dissociated: dissociar, desagregar matters: negcio, questo, causa, caso major: maior, principal. private: privado initiatives: iniciativas unrelated: no relacionado issues: questes closely linked: intimamente ligado institutions: instituies said: passado de say dizer weakened: enfraquecido seem: parecer legal means: meios legais prevent: prevenir affected: afetado, passado de affect Undoubtedly: indubitavelmente be in charge: ser o responsvel legally handling: lidar legalmente

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QUESTES DA AULA German to English translator A term very much in vogue today is the knowledge economy. This is a term that is justifiably considered vague and nebulous. Questions abound. What exactly is a knowledge economy? There seems to be no clear definition. What are the sectors a knowledge allure economy of the is composed of? Why Why the are overwhelming knowledge economy?

sweeping statements made today that the economy of the world today is moving towards a knowledge-based economy? And a question closer to our hearts as language service providers: Are language services part of the knowledge economy? Does it matter if they are considered part of it or outside it? One definition of the knowledge economy, taken from todays overwhelmingly defines the popular knowledge web knowledge as the resource, use of wikipedia, economy

knowledge technologies (such as knowledge engineering and knowledge management) to produce economic benefits. Clearly, it is important for language services to be classified and advertised as a part, nay a critical and indispensable part, of the knowledge economy for three reasons: a) Language services ARE an integral part of todays knowledge economy. The wheels of globalization, itself predicated on a knowledge economy, would grind to a halt without language services. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 66

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE b) Language services are not accorded the recognition they deserve in todays comprehensive march towards globalization. Being classified as a component of the knowledge economy will confer on them the status they truly deserve. c) Payment for language services is not commensurate with the benefits they bring to the world economy. Once they get due recognition, pay scales will be revised accordingly by market forces. No one can argue that language services such as translation or interpretation do not produce economic benefits. What has to be driven home is the magnitude of economic benefits produced. i) While language services produce no tangible products or sales (apart from the language services sold themselves), the intangible effects of localization on product sales are substantial. ii) Language services also enhance global collaboration, nay, are the very factor that make it possible . Ask any two multinational companies what underpins their process of collaboration. The answer: a Memorandum of Understanding or some sort of Legal Agreement drawn up in the languages of the countries of the participating companies. So language services are required for global collaboration to even be initiated. And that global collaboration produces economic benefits is a fact. It is therefore, indisputable that language services are a knowledge technology and that they produce considerable intangible economic benefits that are critical to the production of a host of tangible economic benefits. That being established, we as language service providers, can go a step further, and claim that language services are the very bedrock of the knowledge economy. However, what is it that makes language services stand out as a special knowledge-based www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 67

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE service? There exist today many knowledgebased technologies, such as information technology, software engineering, artificial intelligence technologies, cognitive sciences, etc. Why are language services unique? An analogy with a natural phenomenon can drive home the point. Just as the light of the sun is the very essence of the suns ability to illumine, language is the very essence of all knowledge. Just as the light of the sun illumines all objects in the solar system, language is used to describe all known phenomena in our known universe, and therefore forms the very backbone of all human knowledge. While knowledge is domain-specific, language is meta-knowledge. Language services are hence very special, since no knowledge is possible without language. Language services will thus form the very bedrock of the global knowledge economy going forward. It is time language services are accorded their rightful place in the global economy. In terms of recognition. In terms of stature. And yes, in terms of remuneration. 1 (FGV/SENADO/2008) and knowledge economy are (A) linked. (B) controversial. (C) exclusive. (D) disposable. (E) questionable. 2 (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) dim. (B) accurate. (C) inexact. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 68 The opposite of vague in considered According to the text, language services

vague and nebulous (lines 2-3) is

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (D) advantageous. (E) imprecise. 3 (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) farther from them. (B) less sensitive to them. (C) more threatening to them. (D) more influenced by them. (E) nearer to them. 4 (FGV/SENADO/2008) that is (A) all-inclusive. (B) upcoming. (C) understandable. (D) overwhelming. (E) constructive. 5 (FGV/SENADO/2008) The expression a host of tangible economic benefits (line 55) indicates these benefits are (A) scarce. (B) effective. (C) plentiful. (D) successful. (E) welcoming. 6 (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) unfit. (B) uniform. (C) unusual. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 69 When the text qualifies language services a comprehensive march (line 27) is one When the text states that a question is

closer to our hearts (line 9), it means this question is

as unique (line 63), it defines them as

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (D) untidy. (E) useful.

Information is a cornerstone of political education and socialization. The ability to find out about issues of public importance, and the capacity to inform oneself about the workings of government and its policies are examples of how information can be essential to the education of the informed and responsible citizen. Yet in this era of information overload, the subtle but vital difference between information and knowledge needs to be drawn in order to create virtual places that promote political education in the broadest sense. It is not, in fact, information per se which is useful but knowledge, information which has been distilled and contextualized so that it can impart meaning. The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chockfull of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. Internet users know well that the abundance of informational riches can have a paralytic effect, rendering the viewer helpless to find anything. The huge quantity of information available creates an inverse relationship between speaking and listening, between information and understanding. The more people speak, the fewer people will actually be heard. In fact, the deluge of data ensures that we cannot find anything. It has also the effect of making us even more dependent than in the days before the flood on unaccountable, commercialized search tools and information filters to sort information and make it meaningful. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 70

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Although these editors are machines, they are not neutral. The values and choices are embedded deep within the code and often not obvious to the user.
Beth Simone Noveck. Paradoxical partners: electronic

communication and electronic democracy. In: Peter Ferdinand (Ed.). The Internet, democracy, and democratization. London: Frank Cass/Routledge, 2000, p. 23-4 (with adaptations).

Based on the text above, judge the following items. 7. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) as innumerable. 8. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) There are reasons to doubt the reliability of the Internet as a source of useful, relevant and neutral information. The pre-Iraq war and pre-9/11 performance of some secret services is subject to harsh criticism and, in some countries, various investigations. Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. The different agencies are blamed for inter- and intra-agency rivalry blocking the efficiency of any early warning system. In addition, they are heavily criticized for delivering the message their political masters wanted to hear. We do not want to blame anybody. But we believe that it is necessary to rethink the whole business of secret services. Without knowing the details that obviously led to serious deficiencies, there are several fundamental problems with the work of secret services in open, democratic www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 71 In line 27, unaccountable is the same

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE societies. In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards intelligence gathering. It seems to be a dirty job. Democracy asks for openness and transparency. People in democracies do not like the work in a shadow. Scientists and journalists refrain in general from cooperation with secret services. They are afraid to destroy their access to foreign countries and colleagues. Recruitment of qualified young people has become difficult. Dieter Farwick. Internet: <http://www.world securitynetwork. com/showArticle3.cfm?article_id=9226> (with adaptations).

From the text above, it can be deduced that 9.(CESPE/ ABIN/2004) the American decision to declair war against

Iraq was based on doubtless information. 10. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) security matters. 11. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) intelligence services. 12. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) mistrust (R.17) is synonymous with distrust. This heavily armed group wears black uniforms and their faces are often masked, and their symbol includes a skull with crossed pistols. It is not some illegal paramilitary force but an elite battalion of the police in Rio de Janeiro known as Bope, the Battalion for Special Police Operations. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 72 open democracies welcome the action of political issues should not prevail over

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE They were created by the Department of Police to deal with kidnappings, but their job now is to take on the most dangerous drug gangs in the country, a battle fought with high-calibre weapons in the citys favelas and shanty towns. The launch of a new movie called Tropa de Elite (or Elite Squad) has put this police unit in the spotlight in an unprecedented way. The movie also points an accusing finger at the hypocrisy of rich young people who complain about violence in Brazilian society, but who use the drugs that finance the gangs which dominate many favelas. Some critics have accused the film of glamorising violence and making a hero of a police officer who endorses torture and acts outside the law, an interpretation rejected by the films director.
Internet: <news.bbc.co.uk> (adapted).

Based on the text, it can be deduced that

13.

(CESPE/PMDF/2008) people agree that the police officer as

shown in the film is an unquestionable hero.

Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 73

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1.

The regulation of insurance company solvency is a

function of the state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

14. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent. 15. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements.

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Land of Promise Source: www.economist.com/specialreports April 12th 2007 (Adapted) 4. In 2003 Goldman Sachs, an investment bank, selected

Brazil, along with Russia, India and China, as one of the BRICsthe developing countries that would share dominance of the world economy by 2050. 5. In some ways Brazil is the steadiest of the BRICs. Unlike China and Russia it is a full-blooded democracy; unlike India it has no serious disputes with its neighbours. It is the only BRIC without of a nuclear bomb. and The Heritage trade, Foundations ranks Brazil Economic Freedom Index, which measures such factors as protection property rights free (moderate free) above the other BRICs (mostly unfree). One of the main reasons why Brazils growth has been slower than Chinas and Indias is that Brazil is richer and more urbanized. 6. The survey will argue that disgruntlement persists because Brazil is a battleground between progress and inertia. Since independence was proclaimed by the son of the Portuguese king, Brazil has been adding layer upon layer of change rather than sweeping away the old and starting afresh.

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16. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 1, four countries are referred to as a) unlikely to play a key role in the world economic scenario. b) the slowest-growing economies of the present. c) likely to dominate the world economy in the future. d) the fastest-growing economies over the past 50 years. e) being todays richest and most prosperous economies.

17. (ESAF/CGU/2008)

In paragraph 2, the author compares Brazils

growth to Chinas and Indias and, therefore, defines it as a) not being as fast. b) dependent on the latter. c) unexpectedly higher. d) not as stable. e) the least steady.

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Brazils President is Wildly Popular Source: Special Double Issue Newsweek Dec 31st, 2007/ Jan 7th, 2008 (Adapted) 1. For Brazilian President Luiz Incio Lula da 2007 has

been a good year. The economy is surging, even as the United States shows signs of weakness. Rising real wages, school enrollments and life expectancy have finally nudged Brazil into the United Nations elite of high human development nations. One by one Lula has seen top aides and allies fall to corruption scandals, but so far nothing seems to dim his aura. Now some of Lulas most ardent devotees in the ruling Workers Party (PT) are even pushing to change the Constitution to allow him to run for a third consecutive term in office. All the stars are aligned, says Walter Molano, a specialist in emerging markets with BCP Securities.

18. (ESAF/CGU/2008) The text reports that the Brazilian economy is surging. In other words, a) its scenario had urged caution. b) its growth has been slowing down. c) it will emerge in the near future. d) it is undergoing a process of growth. e) its development has been hindered.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Tackling Corruption for Growth and Development Source: www.ausaid.gov.au 18th Jan 2008 (Adapted) 1. Corruption is a major impediment to broadbased

growth and development, undermining government revenue and expenditure on the delivery of basic services such as law and justice, health care, education, and the maintenance of essential infrastructure. The World Bank Institute has estimated that more than US$1 trillion is paid in bribes each year and, over the long run, countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times. 2. Corruption weakens institutions and makes states more vulnerable to crisis. It has the potential to undermine security in our partner countries and in the Asia-Pacific region more broadly. Security can be threatened when governments fail to deliver services, uphold law and order, maintain public confidence in institutions, or control the use of resources. 3. Corruption can lead to money politics and undermine the decisions of democratically elected governments. It can also open the way for a variety of other crimes such as money laundering and trafficking in drugs, arms, and people. 19. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 1, tackling corruption and the increase of national incomes are described as a) minor governmental concerns. b) dissociated matters. c) major private initiatives. d) unrelated issues. e) closely linked. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 78

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20. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 2, institutions are said to be weakened by corruption. In other words, they a) seem to be immune to this practice. b) have the legal means to prevent it. c) remain unaffected by this practice. d) are undoubtedly affected by it. e) are in charge of legally handling it.

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GABARITO

1- A 8- C 15- B

2- B 9- E 16- C

3-E 10- C 17- A

4-A 11- E 18- D

5-C 12- C 19- E

6-C 13- E 20- D

7-E 14- A

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Ol pessoal, Neste nosso quinto encontro, estudaremos 02 textos

retirados do stio eletrnico do Senado Federal que tratam de temas relacionados ao Senado e que podem cair em prova: meio ambiente, Mercosul, eleies e Lei da Ficha Limpa. Na segunda parte desta aula, resolveremos algumas questes da prova do ltimo concurso. Bons estudos e forte abrao.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

INCREMENTANDO O VOCABULRIO PARA O CONCURSO DO SENADO FEDERAL

O texto a seguir foi retirado do site do Senado Federal. Neste primeiro momento, no leia o texto. Vamos estudar um pargrafo de cada vez, identificando as palavras-chave e os pontos gramaticais que foram apreendemos nas aulas anteriores. Ao final do texto voc vai encontrar o quadro de vocabulrio-chave para facilitar a reviso antes da prova.

TEXTO 01

Brazil participates in COP 16 as a leader, government says

Brazil should participate in the Convention on Climate Change (COP 16), between November 29th and December 10th, in Cancun, Mexico, in a comfortable position of leadership, that is, the commitment of demanding a greater engagement from the other participating countries, especially the developed ones, regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 2

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE That was the opinion of three specialists from the government who participated, on Thursday (25), in a public hearing promoted by the Committee on the Environment, Consumer Protection and Inspection and Control. The debate was about the new commitments that will be taken on by the Brazilian government during the COP 16 and the range of the targets set last year during the conference in Copenhagen. Brazils Climate Change ambassador, from the Ministry of External Relations, Srgio Barbosa Serra reminded that Brazil is being internationally respected for having committed itself to a reduction target of greenhouse gas emissions above the 30% recommended to developing countries. He also explained that, although the target for developed countries was set between 25% and 40%, based on 1990, an agreement on that matter will hardly be reached during the meeting in Cancun. That is because the United States did not manage to approve the bill on emissions reduction in the American Congress. In the ambassadors opinion, it would already be a very positive result if, at COP 16, all countries agreed that there will be a new commitment to reduce the emission of gases that aggravate global warming, following the Kyoto Protocol, which expires in 2012. According to Srgio Serra, the perspectives are better in the financial area, especially regarding the approval of a funding of US$ 30 billion in three years to countries that are more vulnerable to the greenhouse effect. Our position will be to try to guarantee the following: that the funding is done in the short term and that there is a concrete sign of the Kyoto Protocols continuity regarding the second period of commitments.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE The hearings second goal, requested by senator Marina Silva (PV-AC), was to debate the regulation of Law 12,187/09, which created the National Policy on Climate Change. By this rule, Brazil ratified the voluntary commitment it had taken on at COP 15 of reducing greenhouse gas emissions between 36.1% and 38.9% until 2020.

Analisando o texto: Ttulo e 1 Pargrafo Comentrios: Brazil participates in COP 16 as a leader, government says. O ttulo do texto afima: O governo diz que o Brasil participa do COP (Reunio do Clima) como um lder. A frase est no presente simples. Brazil (it) participates government (it) says. Brazil should participate in the Convention on Climate Change (COP 16), between November 29th and December 10th, in Cancun, Mexico, in a comfortable position of leadership, that is, the commitment of demanding a greater engagement from the other participating countries, especially the developed ones, regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Da anlise do pargrafo, podemos concluir que o Brasil dever (should) participar da 16 Conferncia do Clima (COP-16), no perodo de 29/11 a 10/12, em Cancm (Mxico), numa confortvel (confort +able = adjetivo confortable) posio de liderana (leadership), com o compromisso (commitment) de cobrar (demand) maior (great+er = adjetivo comparativo) engajamento (engagement) dos www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 4

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE pases participantes (participating), especialmente

(especial+ly=advrbio) os pases desenvolvidos (develop+ed = adjetivo ou verbo), com a reduo (reduct+on=substantivo) das emisses de gases de efeito estufa (greenhouse).

Branca Americano (E), do MMA, ao lado do senador Gilberto Goellner: importante que Brasil ratifique os compromissos assumidos em Copenhague"

2 Pargrafo Comentrios: That was the opinion of three specialists from the

government who participated, on Thursday (25), in a public hearing promoted by the Committee on the Environment, Consumer Protection and Inspection and Control. The debate was about the new commitments that will be taken on by the Brazilian government during the COP 16 and the range of the targets set last year during the conference in Copenhagen. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Esta foi (was = passado do verbo be) a opinio de 3 especialistas do governo que participaram (participated = passado simples do verbo participate), na quinta-feira (25), de audincia pblica (public hearing) promovida pela Comisso de Meio Ambiente (Environment), Defesa do Consumidor (Consumer Protection) Fiscalizao (Inspection) e Controle (Control). PRONOME RELATIVO e

... three specialists from the government who participated,....

O debate foi (was = passado simples verbo be) acerca de novos (new) compromissos (commitments) que sero (will be = futuro) assumidos (taken = particpio do verbo take) pelo governo durante a COP-16) e o alcance (range) de metas (targets) assumidas (set = passado simples do verbo set) no ano passado (last year) durante a conferncia de Copenhague.

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3 Pargrafo Comentrios:

Brazils Climate Change ambassador, from the Ministry of External Relations, Srgio Barbosa Serra reminded that Brazil is being internationally respected for having committed itself to a reduction target of greenhouse gas emissions above the 30% recommended to developing countries. He also explained that, although the target for developed countries was set between 25% and 40%, based on 1990, an agreement on that matter will hardly be reached during the meeting in Cancun. That is because the United States did not manage to approve the bill on emissions reduction in the American Congress. O embaixador (ambassador) do Brasil para a mudana do clima, Srgio Barbosa Serra, lembrou (reminded = passado simples do verbo remind) que o Brasil est sendo (is being = presente contnuo) respeitado (respect+ed= adjetivo ou verbo) internacionalmente por seu compromisso de metas (target) reduo (reduct+ion= substantivo) de emisses de gases de efeito estufa (greenhouse) acima (above) dos 30% recomendados (recomended = passado simple de recomend) para os pases em desenvolvimento (developing countries). Explicou (explained = passado simples de explain) que, apesar (although) de a meta para os pases desenvolvidos (developed countries) ter sido estipulada (was set) entre 25% a 40%, com relao a 1990, dificilmente (hard+ly = advrbio) ser (will be = futuro) fechado (reached = particpio de reach) um acordo (agree+ment=substantivo) nesse sentido no www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 7

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE encontro (meeting) em Cancn. Isso porque os Estados Unidos no conseguiram (did not manage, forma negativa do passado simples) aprovar (approve) no Congresso americano projeto (bill) sobre a reduo das emisses dos gases.

4 Pargrafo

Comentrios: In the ambassadors opinion, it would already be a very positive result if, at COP 16, all countries agreed that there will be a new commitment to reduce the emission of gases that aggravate global warming, following the Kyoto Protocol, which expires in 2012. Na opinio do embaixador, j (already) seria (would be = would faz a forma pretrita mais-que-perfeito do subjuntivo no portugus) um resultado muito positivo se (if), na COP-16, ficasse acertado (agreed) que haver (there will be = verbo haver, there be, no futuro, there will be) novo compromisso para reduo dos gases que agravavam (aggravate) o aquecimento global (global warming), seguindo o Protocolo de Kyoto, que se encerra (expires = presente simples do verbo expire) em 2012.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

5 Pargrafo

Comentrios: According to Srgio Serra, the perspectives are better in the financial area, especially regarding the approval of a funding of US$ 30 billion in three years to countries that are more vulnerable to the greenhouse effect. De acordo com Srgio, as perspectivas so melhores (better = comparativo de good), especialmente (especial+ly=advrbio) devido (regarding) aprovao de um financiamento (funding) de US$ 30 bilhes, em trs anos, para os pases mais vulnerveis (more vulnerable) ao efeito estufa. Na rea financeira, segundo Srgio Serra, as perspectivas so melhores, sobretudo em relao aprovao de um financiamento de US$ 30 bilhes, em trs anos, para os pases mais vulnerveis ao efeito estufa.

Our position will be to try to guarantee the following: that the funding is done in the short term and that there is a concrete sign of the Kyoto Protocols continuity regarding the second period of commitments. O representante brasileiro observou ainda: Nossa posio ser (will be) de tentar (try) garantir (guarantee) o seguinte (the following): que o financiamento saia no curto prazo (short term) e que haja (there is=verbo haver) indicao (sign) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 9

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE concreto da continuidade do protocolo de Kyoto (kyoto Protocols continuity) considerando um segundo perodo de compromissos.

6 Pargrafo

Comentrios: The hearings second goal, requested by senator Marina Silva (PV-AC), was to debate the regulation of Law 12,187/09, which created the National Policy on Climate Change. By this rule, Brazil ratified the voluntary commitment it had taken on at COP 15 of reducing greenhouse gas emissions between 36.1% and 38.9% until 2020. O segundo objetivo da audincia (hearings second goal), solicitado pela Senadora Marina Silva (PV-AC) foi debater (was to debate) a regulamentao (regulation) da Lei (law) 12.187/09, que (which = pronome relativo para law) instituiu (created) a Poltica Nacional sobre Mudana do Clima. Por essa norma (rule), o Brasil ratificou (ratified) o compromisso voluntrio assumido (had taken) no COP-15, de reduzir as emisses de gases de efeito estufa entre 36,1% e 38,9%.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE DO TEXTO liderana (leadership) compromisso (commitment) cobrar (demand) maior (greater) engajamento (engagement) participantes (participating) pases desenvolvidos (developed countries) reduo (reduction) gases de efeito estufa (greenhouse) audincia pblica (public hearing) meio embiente (environment) Defesa do Consumidor (Consumer Protection) fiscalizao (inspection) controle (control) compromissos (commitments) alcance (range) metas (targets) embaixador (ambassador) acima (above) recomendado (recomended = passado simple de recomend) pases em desenvolvimento (developing countries) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 11

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE apesar (although) estipulada (set) fechado, alcanado (reached) acordo (agreement) encontro (meeting) conseguir (manage) aprovar (approve) projeto (bill) j (already) acertado (agreed) haver (there will be = verbo haver) agravavam (aggravate) aquecimento global (global warming) encerra (expires = presente simples do verbo expire) financiamento (funding) vulnerveis (vulnerable) curto prazo (short term) indicao (sign) objetivo (goal) regulamentao (regulation) lei (law) norma (rule) ratificou (ratified)

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TEXTO 02

Clean Record Law to be suggested to Parlasul

Eligibility Rules similar to the ones of the Clean Record Law could also be applied to the direct elections to choose the future members of the Mercosul Parliament (Parlasul). That was one of the requests of the Brazilian Committee on Human Rights and Foreign Policy to the Committee on Citizenship and Human Rights of the Mercosul Parliament, in a meeting at the Senate, on Monday (22). To the representative of the Committee on Human Rights and Foreign Policy, Daniella Hiche, the recent Brazilian law defines essential ethical and moral requirements to qualify the future regional bloc's parliament composition. The citizens have the right to a truly democratic representation. The Clean Record Law is an advance and can be taken as reference, she said. The hearing's aim was to subsidize the annual report by the Committee on Citizenship and Human Rights about the human rights' situation in Mercosul countries. Nine Parlasul members, also members of the committee, took part in the meeting, including its president, Mirtha Palcios, the work coordinator from Paraguay. Senator Augusto Botelho (without party RR) and the federal deputy Geraldo Thadeu (PSB-MG) represented Brazil.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE The Brazilian Committee on Human Rights represented Brazilian civil society in the event. The committee is composed of about 20 civil entities and public organisms dedicated to the promotion and defense of human rights. Daniella Hiche also proposed that the committee study new ways for the society to participate in the document's elaboration, including through the internet. She also suggested that the report adopt the shape of the Brazilian Human Rights National Plan. The document gathers diagnosis, actions and measures for the human right's field and was based on conferences with society and government representatives in Brazil.

Analisando o texto:

Ttulo e 1 Pargrafo Comentrios: O ttulo do texto fala em Clean Record Law, que significa Lei da Ficha Limpa: Lei da Ficha Limpa ser sugerida ao Parlamento do Mercosul (Parlasul). Observe que o ttulo est na forma de voz passiva: be+ verbo no particpio (be suggested)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Eligibility Rules similar to the ones of the Clean Record Law could also be applied to the direct elections to choose the future members of the Mercosul Parliament (Parlasul). That was one of the requests of the Brazilian Committee on Human Rights and Foreign Policy to the Committee on Citizenship and Human Rights of the Mercosul Parliament, in a meeting at the Senate, on Monday (22). O texto comea dizendo que as regras de elegibilidade

(eligibility rules) iguais s da Lei da Ficha Limpa poderiam (could, passado do verbo can) ser tambm (also) aplicadas (applied, passado simples do verbo apply) s eleies diretas (direct elections) dos futuros membros do Parlamento do Mercosul. Essa foi (that was) uma das reivindicaes (requests) do Comit Brasileiro de Direitos Humanos (Human Rights) e Poltica Externa (Foreign Policy) ao Comit de Cidadania (Citizenship) e Direitos Humanos do Parlamento do Mercosul, em reunio (meeting) no Senado, na segunda-feira (22).

2 Pargrafo Comentrios: To the representative of the Committee on Human Rights and Foreign Policy, Daniella Hiche, the recent Brazilian law defines essential ethical and moral requirements to qualify the future regional bloc's parliament composition. Para a representante do comit de Direitos Humanos e Poltica Externa, Daniella Hiche, a recente lei (law) brasileira define (defines, verbo define no presente simples) requisitos 15

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (require+ments=substantivo) ticos e morais essenciais para

qualificar a futura composio do parlamento do bloco regional. The citizens have the right to a truly democratic

representation. The Clean Record Law is an advance and can be taken as reference, she said. Daniella disse (said, passado simples do verbo say)ainda que os cidado (citizens) tem o direito (right) a uma representao verdadeiramente (true+ly=advrbio) democrtica. A Lei da Ficha Limpa (is, verbo be no presente simples) um avano e pode ser (can be) tomada (taken, particpio do verbo take) como referncia.

3 Pargrafo Comentrios: The hearing's aim was to subsidize the annual report by the Committee on Citizenship and Human Rights about the human rights' situation in Mercosul countries. Nine Parlasul members, also members of the committee, took part in the meeting, including its president, Mirtha Palcios, the work coordinator from Paraguay. Senator Augusto Botelho (without party RR) and the federal deputy Geraldo Thadeu (PSB-MG) represented Brazil. Deste pargrafo conclumos que o objetivo da audincia

(hearings aim) foi (was, passado simples do verbo be) subsidiar (subsidize) o informe anual (annual report) da Comisso de Cidadania e Direitos Humanos sobre a situao (situation) dos www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 16

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE direitos humanos nos pases do Mercosul. Nove integrantes do Parlasul tambm membros da comisso, participaram (took part, passado simples de take part) do encontro, inclusive sua presidente (its president), Mirtha Palcios, do Paraguai, que coordenou os trabalhos. O senador Augusto Botelho (sem partido-RR) e o deputado federal Geraldo Thadeu (PSB-MG), representaram o Brasil. Party=partido Pronome Adjetivos Possessivos my meu, minha, meus, minhas your teu, tua, teus, tuas, seu, sua, seus, suas his dele, seu, sua, seus, suas her dela, seu, sua, seus, suas its dele, dela, seu, sua, seus, suas (coisas ou animais) our nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas their deles, delas, seu, sua, seus, suas (pessoas, animais, coisas)

4 Pargrafo

Comentrios: The Brazilian Committee on Human Rights represented Brazilian civil society in the event. The committee is composed of about 20 civil entities and public organisms dedicated to the promotion and defense of human rights.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE O Comit Brasileiro de Direitos Humanos representou

(represented, passado simples de represent) a sociedade civil (civil society) brasileira no evento. O Comit integrado (is composed, to be + passado particpio de compose = voz passiva) por cerca de vinte entidades civis (civil entities) e de rgos pblicos (public organisms) dedicados promoo (promotion) e defesa (defense) dos direitos humanos.

5 Pargrafo

Comentrios: Daniella Hiche also proposed that the committee study new ways for the society to participate in the document's elaboration, including through the internet. She also suggested that the report adopt the shape of the Brazilian Human Rights National Plan. The document gathers diagnosis, actions and measures for the human right's field and was based on conferences with society and government representatives in Brazil. Daniella Hiche props ainda (also proposed) que a comisso estude novos meios (new ways) de participao da sociedade na elaborao do documento, inclusive por meio (through) da internet. Ela tambm sugeriu (also suggested) que o relatrio (report) adote (adopt) o formato (shape) do Plano Nacional de Direitos Humanos. O documento, no Brasil, rene (gathers, presente simples de gather) diagnstico (diagnosis), aes (actions) e metas (measures) para o

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE campo (field) dos direitos humanos e foi baseado (was based) em conferncias com representantes da sociedade e do governo.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE DO TEXTO elegibilidade (eligibility rules) poderiam (could, passado do verbo can) tambm (also) aplicadas (applied, passado simples do verbo apply) eleies diretas (direct elections) reivindicaes (requests) Direitos Humanos (Human Rights) Poltica Externa (Foreign Policy Cidadania (Citizenship) reunio (meeting) lei (law) define (defines, verbo define no presente simples) requisitos (require+ments=substantivo) disse (said, passado simples do verbo say) cidados (citizens) direito (right) verdadeiramente (true+ly=advrbio) tomada (taken, particpio do verbo take)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE objetivo da audincia (hearings aim) subsidiar (subsidize) informe anual (annual report) situao (situation) participaram (took part, passado simples de take part) partido (party) representou (represented, passado simples de represent) sociedade civil (civil society) integrado (is composed, to be + passado particpio de compose = voz passiva) entidades civis (civil entities) rgos pblicos (public organisms) promoo (promotion) defesa (defense) props ainda (also proposed) novos meios (new ways) por meio (through) tambm sugeriu (also suggested) relatrio (report) adote (adopt) formato (shape) renir (gather) diagnstico (diagnosis) aes (actions) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 20

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE metas (measures) campo (field) foi baseado (was based)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

ALGUMAS QUESTES DE PROVA DO LTIMO CONCURSO

Half the nation, a hundred million citizens strong EVER since it was first spotted amid the factory smoke of western Europes industrialising nations, the middle class has borne the hopes for progress of politicians, economists and shopkeepers alike. It remains hard to define, and attempts to do so often seem arbitrary. But in Brazil, the middle class describes those with a job in the formal economy, access to credit and ownership of a car or motorbike. According to the Fundao Getulio Vargas (FGV), a research institute, this means households with a monthly income ranging from 1,064 reais ($600) to 4,561 reais. Since 2002, according to FGV, the proportion of the population that fits this description has increased from 44% to 52%. Brazil, previously notorious for its extremes, is now a middle-class country. This social climbing is a feature mainly of the countrys cities, reversing two decades of stagnation that began at the start of the 1980s. Marcelo Neri of FGV suggests two factors behind the change. The first is education. The quality of teaching in Brazils schools may still be poor, but those aged 15-21 now spend on average just over three more years studying than their counterparts did in the early 1990s. The second is a migration of jobs from the informal black economy to the formal economy. The rate of formal job creation www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 22

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE is accelerating, with 40% more created in the year to this July than in the previous 12 months, which itself set a record. Together with cash transfers to poor families, this helps to explain why in contrast with economic and social development in India or China as Brazils middle class has grown, so the countrys income inequality has lessened. Entering the middle class brings a predictable taste for yogurt and other luxuries. But when shopping, middle-class Brazilians are more conscious of status than middle-class North Americans or Europeans. These are people who may ordinarily serve others, says Nicola Calicchio from McKinsey, a consultancy, so being attended to by someone is very important to them. Middle-class Brazilians may avoid the glitzy stores that cater to the rich, but they do not want their surroundings to look cut-price either. That may be true elsewhere, too, but a sensitivity to surroundings not wanting to be made to feel cheap is particularly marked in Brazil. (http://www.economist.com/world/americas/displaystory.cfm?story_id =12208726)

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The smoke referred to in the opening sentence is a reference to (A) pollution today. (B) the present world. (C) problems ahead. (D) past times. (E) a pending future. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 23

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Comentrios Vejamos o que diz a primeira frase do texto: Half the nation, a hundred million citizens strong ever since it was first spotted amid the factory smoke of western Europes industrialising nations, the middle class has borne the hopes for progress of politicians, economists and shopkeepers alike. Analisando o texto, observamos que a frase est no passado (was, passado simples do verbo be) Metade da nao, uma centena de milhes de cidado fortes desde (ever since) quando pela primeira vez se avistou (spotted) fumaa das fbricas dos pases industrializados da Europa Ocidental, a classe mdia tem mantido (has borne, presente perfeito has+passado particpio de bear) esperanas (hopes) de um progresso igualitrio (alike) de polticos, economistas e logistas. A questo quer saber a que se refere a palavra smoke na primeira frase do texto. Vejamos as alternativas: (A) pollution today. = poluio hoje (B) the present world. = mundo atual (C) problems ahead. = problemas futuros (D) past times. = tempos passados (E) a pending future. = pendncias futuras

Observem que a primeira frase do texto fala quando se avistou pela primeira vez a fumaa das fbricas dos pases industrializados na Europa Ocidental (...ever since it was first spotted amid the factory smoke of western Europes industrialising nations...). Logo, trata-se de tempos passados. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 24

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE half: metade ever since: desde spotted: avistou smoke: fumaa factories: fbricas bear: manter, sustentar (passado borne) hopes: esperanas alike: de maneira igual pollution: poluio ahead: futuro pending: pendente

Resposta: Letra D.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) According to the text, Brazilian middle class has (A) decreased. (B) dwindled. (C) suffered. (D) spread. (E) merged. Comentrios De acordo com o Texto, a classe mdia (middle class) no Brasil.... Vejamos o que o texto diz: But in Brazil, the middle class describes those with a job in the formal economy, access to credit and ownership of a car or motorbike. According to the Fundao Getulio Vargas (FGV), a research institute, this means households with a monthly income ranging from 1,064 reais ($600) to 4,561 reais. Since 2002, according to FGV, the proportion of the population that fits this description has increased from 44% to 52%. Brazil, previously notorious for its extremes, is now a middle-class country. Segundo a Fundao Getulio Vargas (FGV), a proporo da populao que se encaixa (fits) a descrio de classe mdia, aumentou de 44% para 52%. O Brasil agora um pas de classe mdia (middle-class country).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

As alternativas de resposta so: (A) decreased. = diminui (B) dwindled. = diminuiu (C) suffered. = sofreu (D) spread. = aumentou (E) merged. = espalhou O texto fala que a classe media has increased from 44% to 52%. Logo, aumentou, sendo correta apenas alternativa. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE middle class: classe mdia job: emprego formal economy: economia formal access to credit: acesso a crdito ownership: propriedade research: pesquisa institute: instituto mean: significar income: renda proportion: proporo fit: encaixar, enquadrar increased: aumentou decreased: diminui dwindled: diminuiu suffered: sofreu spread: aumentou merged: espalhou Resposta: Letra D. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 27

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3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) In the second paragraph the change is attributed to the (A) quality of primary education. (B) hiring of specialized staff. (C) number of hours in school. (D) building of adequate schools. (E) increase of student admission. Comentrios No segundo pargrafo a mudana (the change) atribuida a.... Vejamos os segundo pargrafo: This social climbing is a feature mainly of the countrys cities, reversing two decades of stagnation that began at the start of the 1980s. Marcelo Neri of FGV suggests two factors behind the change. The first is education. The quality of teaching in Brazils schools may still be poor, but those aged 15-21 now spend on average just over three more years studying than their counterparts did in the early 1990s. O texto diz que Marcelo da FGV sugere (suggests) dois fatores atrs (behind) da mudana. A primeira educao. A qualidade de ensino (teaching) nas escolas do Brasil pode ainda ser baixa (poor), mas aqueles (those) com idade de 15-21 atualmente (now) passam em mdia (average) 3 anos a mais (three years more) estudando do que no incio (early) dos anos 90. Aps analisar o texto, podemos concluir que a mudana atribuda ao tempo maior que os estudantes passam na escola (3 anos www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 28

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE a mais). Nas alternativas temos que a melhor alternativa a letra C, veja: (A) quality of primary education. =qualidade da escola primria (B) hiring of specialized staff. = contratao de profissionais especializados (C) number of hours in school. = tempo na escola (D) building of adequate schools. = construo de escolas adequadas (E) increase of student admission. = aumento de matrculas

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE suggest: sugerir behind: atrs change: mudana teaching: ensino poor: baixa those: aqueles now: agora, atualmente average: mdia early: incio, cedo quality: qualidade primary education: escola primria hiring: contratao specialized staff: profissionais especializados building: construo increase: aumento student admission: aumento de matrculas Resposta: Letra C.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

4. (FGV/SENADO/2008) In the middle class has borne the hopes (lines 2 and 3) borne is the past participle of the verb (A) bare. (B) born. (C) bore. (D) bear. (E) board. Comentrios Como vimos na questo 1, borne o particpio do verbo bear, que significa manter, sustentar. Resposta: Letra D.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE DA AULA liderana (leadership) compromisso (commitment) cobrar (demand) maior (greater) engajamento (engagement) participantes (participating) pases desenvolvidos (developed countries) reduo (reduction) gases de efeito estufa (greenhouse) audincia pblica (public hearing) meio embiente (environment) Defesa do Consumidor (Consumer Protection) fiscalizao (inspection) controle (control) compromissos (commitments) alcance (range) metas (targets) embaixador (ambassador) acima (above) recomendado (recomended = passado simple de recomend) pases em desenvolvimento (developing countries) apesar (although)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE estipulada (set) fechado, alcanado (reached) acordo (agreement) encontro (meeting) conseguir (manage) aprovar (approve) projeto (bill) j (already) acertado (agreed) haver (there will be = verbo haver) agravavam (aggravate) aquecimento global (global warming) encerra (expires = presente simples do verbo expire) financiamento (funding) vulnerveis (vulnerable) curto prazo (short term) indicao (sign) objetivo (goal) regulamentao (regulation) lei (law) norma (rule) ratificou (ratified) half: metade ever since: desde www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 32

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE spotted: avistou smoke: fumaa factories: fbricas bear: manter, sustentar (passado borne) hopes: esperanas alike: de maneira igual pollution: poluio ahead: futuro pending: pendente middle class: classe mdia job: emprego formal economy: economia formal access to credit: acesso a crdito ownership: propriedade research: pesquisa institute: instituto mean: significar income: renda proportion: proporo fit: encaixar, enquadrar increased: aumentou decreased: diminui dwindled: diminuiu suffered: sofreu spread: aumentou merged: espalhou suggest: sugerir behind: atrs change: mudana teaching: ensino

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 05 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE poor: baixa those: aqueles now: agora, atualmente average: mdia early: incio, cedo quality: qualidade primary education: escola primria hiring: contratao specialized staff: profissionais especializados building: construo increase: aumento student admission: aumento de matrculas

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Ol pessoal, Nesta sexta e ltima aula veremos mais textos, desta vez retirados site da Cmara dos Deputados, para tratarmos de temas relacionados ao legislativo federal. Ao final desse nosso encontro ainda resolveremos mais questes da prova do ltimo concurso. Todos recorrentes os em temas provas estudados de durante o nosso curso so

concursos

das

principais

bancas

examinadoras do pas. Contudo, certamente, no possvel esgotar as possibilidades de temas que possam ser cobrados na prova. Sendo assim, com base nas orientaes de vocabulrio e de gramtica apresentadas durante o curso, sugiro que vocs continuem acompanhando os sites em ingls do Senado Federal e da Cmara dos Deputados e as provas de ingls do CESPE, da ESAF e da FGV para se prepararem. Estou certa de que com as nossas aulas e o acompanhamento de questes de concursos atuais, o seu sucesso garantido. Bons estudos e boa prova queridos alunos.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

INCREMENTANDO O VOCABULRIO PARA O CONCURSO DO SENADO FEDERAL

Os textos a seguir foram retirados do site do Senado Federal. Lembre-se de no ler o texto no primeiro momento. Vamos estudar um pargrafo de cada vez, identificando as palavras-chave e os pontos gramaticais que foram apreendemos nas aulas anteriores. Ao final do texto voc vai encontrar o quadro de vocabulrio-chave para facilitar a reviso antes da prova.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE TEXTO 01

The Brazilian Parliament is called National Congress. Besides the prerogative of making laws, the National Congress is responsible for the oversight of every accounting, financial and budgetary operation regarding not only the Unions moneys and properties but also any of the Unions branch departments or federal agencies moneys and properties. Brazil has a bicameral legislative assembly, composed by the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. As the country adopts the bicameralism, a bill laid before any of the houses must be revised by the other; in therefore, the apart from process. subjects The within private follow a competence of each house, the legislative process grants both houses participation lawmaking sittings Parliamentary Calendar, which is different from the calendar year. The Congress works in a four year basis, planned to coincide with the deputies term. This period is called Legislatura in Portuguese, a false friend to Legislature, in English. However, the sittings do not take place at the whole period. The National Congress recesses so that its members may visit their states and feel the needs of the people they represent. For this reason, each Congress is divided in four Sessions. Hence, each Session begins on February 2nd stops on July 17th, restarts on August 1st and ends on December 22nd. In addition to its intrinsic power of law making, the Legislative Branch supervises the allocation and use of public resources. As people and states representatives, respectively, the Chamber and the Senate, as well as any of their Committees, may question www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 3

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Ministers of State - or any public officer in charge of branch departments or federal agencies subordinated to the President about their acts. The public officer called by any of the houses of the Legislative Branch must release all the requested information under penalty of being dismissed or temporarily removed from civil service. Similarly, the National Congress must verify if public funds are spent according to the law. The Congress is aided by the Federal Court of Account to perform this duty and might request information from any person managing public monies, assets and values.

Analisando o texto: Ttulo e 1 Pargrafo

Comentrios: Vejamos as palavras-chave do primeiro pargrafo do texto: The Brazilian Parliament is called National Congress. Besides the prerogative of making laws, the National Congress is responsible for the oversight of every accounting, financial and budgetary operation regarding not only the Unions moneys and properties but also any of the Unions branch departments or federal agencies moneys and properties. O texto diz que o Parlamento brasileiro chamado (is called, voz passiva formada pelo verbo be + passado particpio do verbo call) Congresso Nacional. Alm da prerrogativa de fazer leis (besides um conectivo que tem idia de adio ver mais no www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 4

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE quadro contbil abaixo), pela o Congresso fiscalizao financeira Nacional (oversight) de responsvel cada e (is

responsible)

operao

(accounting),

(financial)

oramentria

(budgetary) em relao no s aos recursos e bens da Unio, mas tambm dos recursos e bens de (but also, outro conectivo de adio) qualquer um (any) dos rgos (branch departments) ou agncias federais (federal agencies).

PALAVRAS CONECTIVAS DE ADIO Besides (that), In addition to (that), On top of that, Moreover Aside from (that), But also .... As well as ... Alm disso, Ainda por cima, Alm do mais, Mas tambm.... Bem como....

2 Pargrafo

Comentrios: Brazil has a bicameral legislative assembly, composed by the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. As the country adopts the bicameralism, a bill laid before any of the houses must be revised by the other; therefore, apart from subjects www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE within private competence of each house, the legislative

process grants both houses participation in the lawmaking process. The sittings follow a Parliamentary Calendar, which is different from the calendar year. The Congress works in a four year basis, planned to coincide with the deputies term. This period is called Legislatura in Portuguese, a false friend to Legislature, in English. O Brasil tem uma assemblia legislativa bicameral (bicameral legislative assembly), composta pela Cmara dos Deputados (Chamber of Deputies) e pelo Senado Federal (Federal Senate). Como (as) o pas adota (adopts, presente simples do verbo adopt) o bicameralismo, um projeto de lei (a bill) lanado (laid, passado simples do verbo lay) em uma das casas deve ser (must be) revisto (revised, passado simples do verbo revise) pela outra, pois (therefore), com exceo (apart from) de assuntos de competncia privativa de cada casa (within private competence), o processo legislativo concede participao s duas casas no processo de criao das leis (lawmaking). As sesses (the sittings) seguem (follow) um calendrio parlamentar, que (which) diferente do ano civil (calendar year). O Congresso trabalha (works, presente simples de work) em uma base de quatro anos, planejada (planned) para coincidir com o mandato dos deputados (deputies term). Este perodo chamado (is called) de "Legislatura" em Portugus, um falso amigo da palavra Legislature, que em ingls significa Assemblia Legislativa.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 3 Pargrafo

Comentrios: However, the sittings do not take place at the whole period. The National Congress recesses so that its members may visit their states and feel the needs of the people they represent. For this reason, each Congress is divided in four Sessions. Hence, each Session begins on February 2nd stops on July 17th, restarts on August 1st and ends on December 22nd. No entanto (however um conectivo de contraste. Veja mais no quadro abaixo), as sesses (the sittings) no se realizam (do not take place) em todo (whole) o perodo. O Congresso Nacional entra em recesso (recesses, presente simples do verbo recess) para que (so that) seus membros possam visitar (may visit, may indica possibilidade) seus estados e sentir (feel) as necessidades (needs) do povo que representam. Por esta razo, a legislatura dividida (is divided, voz passiva, be+ passado particpio de divide) em quatro sesses. Assim, cada sesso comea (begins) em 02 de fevereiro e para (stops) em 17 de julho, reinicia (restarts) em 01 de agosto e termina (ends) em 22 de dezembro.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PALAVRAS CONECTIVAS DE CONTRASTE While But However, .. Though... Even so Still In spite of Despite Although Even though ... Unlike No obstante Apesar de (disso) Embora Ainda que Ao contrrio de Enquanto (que) mas... porm no entanto Mesmo assim

4 Pargrafo

Comentrios: In addition to its intrinsic power of law making, the Legislative Branch supervises the allocation and use of public resources. As people and states representatives, respectively, the Chamber and the Senate, as well as any of their Committees, may question Ministers of State - or any public officer in charge of branch departments or federal agencies subordinated to the President - about their acts. The public officer called by any of the houses of the Legislative Branch must release all the requested 8

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE information under penalty of being dismissed or temporarily removed from civil service.

Alm de (in addition to, conectivo de adio) seu poder intrnseco de fazer as leis, o Poder Legislativo supervisiona (supervises) a alocao (allocation) e uso (use) dos recursos pblicos (public resources). Como representantes das pessoas e dos estados, respectivamente, a Cmara e o Senado, bem como qualquer de suas comisses, podero questionar (may question) os Ministros de Estado (Ministers of State) - ou qualquer funcionrio pblico (public officer) encarregado (in charge) de rgos ou agncias federais subordinadas (subordinated) ao Presidente sobre seus (their) atos (acts). O funcionrio pblico chamado (called, passado simples de call) por qualquer uma das casas do Poder Legislativo deve liberar (must release) todas as informaes solicitadas (requested, passado simples do verbo request), sob pena pblico (under penalty) de ser demitido (of being dismissed) ou (civil service). removido (removed) temporariamente (temporarily) do servio

5 Pargrafo Comentrios: Similarly, the National Congress must verify if public funds are spent according to the law. The Congress is aided by the Federal Court of Account to perform this duty and might www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 9

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE request information from any person managing public monies, assets and values. Da mesma forma (Similarly), o Congresso Nacional deve verificar (must verify) se (if) os recursos pblicos (public funds) so gastos (are spent, voz passiva, be+passado particpio de spend) de acordo com a lei. O Congresso auxiliado (is aided, voz passiva, be+passado particpio de aid) pelo Tribunal de Contas da Unio (Federal Court of Account) para executar (perform) esta funo (duty) e pode (might, indica possibilidade/probabilidade) solicitar (request) informao a qualquer (any) pessoa responsvel por gerenciar (managing) recursos, bens e valores pblicos.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE DO TEXTO responsvel (is responsible) fiscalizao (oversight) contbil (accounting) financeira (financial) oramentria (budgetary) mas tambm (but also) qualquer um (any) rgos (branch departments) agncias federais (federal agencies) chamado (is called) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 10

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE alm (besides) assemblia legislativa bicameral (bicameral legislative assembly) Cmara dos Deputados (Chamber of Deputies) Senado Federal (Federal Senate) como (as) adota (adopt) projeto de lei (a bill) lanado (laid, passado simples do verbo lay) deve ser (must be) revisto (revised, passado simples do verbo revise) pois (therefore) com exceo (apart from) competncia privativa (within private competence) criao das leis (lawmaking) sesses (the sittings) seguir (follow) que (which) ano civil (calendar year) planejada (planned) mandato dos deputados (deputies term) chamado (is called) Assemblia Legislativa (Legislature) no entanto (however) sesses (sittings) no se realizam (do not take place) em todo (whole) entrar em recesso (recesses, presente simples do verbo recess) para que (so that) possam visitar (may visit, may indica possibilidade) sentir (feel)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE necessidades (needs) dividida (is divided, voz passiva, be+ passado particpio de divide) comear (begin) parar (stop) reiniciar (restart) terminar (end) alm de (in addition to) supervisionar (supervise) alocao (allocation) uso (use) recursos pblicos (public resources) podero questionar (may question) Ministros de Estado (Ministers of State servidor pblico (public officer) encarregado (in charge) subordinada (subordinated) seus (their) atos (acts) chamado (called, passado simples de call) deve liberar (must release) solicitada (requested, passado simples do verbo request) sob pena (under penalty) ser demitido (of being dismissed) removido (removed) temporariamente (temporarily) servio pblico (civil service) da mesma forma (Similarly) deve verificar (must verify) se (if) recursos pblicos (public funds)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE so gastos (are spent, voz passiva, be+passado particpio de spend) auxiliado (is aided, voz passiva, be+passado particpio de aid) Tribunal de Contas da Unio (Federal Court of Account) executar (perform) funo (duty) poder (might, indica possibilidade/probabilidade) solicitar (request) qualquer (any) gerenciar (managing)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

TEXTO 02

The elaboration of laws is fruit of a number of procedures previously established that support the politicians in their task to legislate and control. These procedures are denominated Legislative Process. The norm that orients the legislative process in the Chamber of Deputies is the House Rules. The origin of the legislative process in the National Congress happens with the introducing of the following propositions: law project, resolution, legislative decree, provisional decree and proposal of amendment to the Constitution. The parliamentarians have the initiative to the lawmaking process, as well as the President of the Republic, the Supreme Court, the Higher Courts, the Republic's General Attorney and citizens. All propositions are discussed in the two Houses and pass by various stages of analysis and voting. The analysis of constitutionality, admission and merits are made in the Committees. Those subjects over which the Committees do not have conclusive power are deliberated in the House Floor, highest organ of good part of the decisions of the Chamber of Deputies. Conclusive Power is the discussion and voting of a law project by the Committees, when the jurisdiction of the Floor is dispensed, except for those cases when there is recourse of one tenth of the members of the House. After the National Congress deliberations, there is still the Executive deliberation, that is, the President of the Republic may sanction (approve) or veto (prohibit) the proposition. In the first www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 14

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE case, the project becomes a law. In the case of the veto, the project is sent back to the Congress, that decides for the maintenance or the fall of the veto. If the project is sanctioned, it goes to a complementary phase in which the President of the Republic has a 48 hours term to promulgate it.

Analisando o texto: Ttulo e 1 Pargrafo

Comentrios: Vamos destacar as palavras-chave do pargrafo: The elaboration of laws is fruit of a number of

procedures previously established that support the politicians in their task to legislate and control. These procedures are denominated Legislative Process. The norm that orients the legislative process in the Chamber of Deputies is the House Rules. A elaborao de leis fruto (is fruit) de uma srie (a number) de procedimentos (procedures) previamente (previously) estabelecidos (established, passado simples do verbo establish) que suportam (suport) os polticos (politicians) na sua tarefa (task) de legislar (legislate) e de controle (control). Estes procedimentos so denominados (are denominated) Processo Legislativo (Legislative Process). A norma (norm) que orienta (orients, presente simples de orient) o processo legislativo na www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 15

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Cmara dos Deputados o Regimento Interno (House Rules).

2 Pargrafo

Comentrios: The origin of the legislative process in the National Congress happens law decree with and the introducing resolution, of of the following decree, to the propositions: provisional Constitution. A origem do processo legislativo no Congresso Nacional acontece (happens, presente simples de happen) com a introduo (introducing) (propositions): (resolution), provisria das projeto decreto seguintes de lei e legislativo decree) (following) (law project), de (legislative proposta proposies resoluo medida emenda project, legislative amendment

proposal

decree),

(provisional

Constituio (proposal of amendment to the Constitution).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 3 Pargrafo

Comentrios: The parliamentarians have the initiative to the lawmaking process, as well as the President of the Republic, the Supreme Court, the Higher Courts, the Republic's General Attorney and citizens. Os parlamentares tm a iniciativa (initiative) ao processo legislativo, bem como (as well as) o Presidente da Repblica (President of the Republic), o Supremo Tribunal Federal (Supreme Court), aos Tribunais Superiores (Higher Courts), ao Procurador-Geral da Repblica (Republic's General Attorney) e aos cidados (citizens).

4 Pargrafo

Comentrios: All propositions are discussed in the two Houses and pass by various stages of analysis and voting. The analysis of constitutionality, admission and merits are made in the Committees. Those subjects over which the Committees do not have conclusive power are deliberated in the House Floor, highest organ of good part of the decisions of the Chamber of Deputies. Conclusive Power is the discussion and voting of a law www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 17

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE project by the Committees, when the jurisdiction of the Floor is dispensed, except for those cases when there is recourse of one tenth of the members of the House. Todas as proposies (propositions) so discutidas (are discussed) nas duas Casas e passam por (pass by) vrias fases (stages) de anlise (analysis) e votao (voting). A anlise (analysis) da constitucionalidade (constitutionality), de admisso (admission), e os mritos (merits) so feitos (are made, voz passiva, be+passado particpio do verbo make) nas comisses (committees). Os assuntos (subjects) sobre os quais (over which) os Comits no tm (do not have) poder conclusivo (conclusive power) so deliberadas (are deliberated) no Plenrio (House Floor), rgo mximo (highest, forma superlativa de high) de boa parte das decises da Cmara dos Deputados. Poder Conclusivo a discusso e votao de um projeto de lei pelas Comisses, quando a competncia (jurisdiction) do Plenrio (House Floor) dispensada (is dispensed), exceto (except) para os casos (cases) quando (quando) houver (there is, verbo haver, there be) recurso (recourse) de um dcimo (one tenth) dos membros da Casa.

5 Pargrafo

Comentrios: After the National Congress deliberations, there is still the Executive deliberation, that is, the President of the Republic may sanction (approve) or veto (prohibit) the proposition. In www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 18

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE the first case, the project becomes a law. In the case of the veto, the project is sent back to the Congress, that decides for the maintenance or the fall of the veto. If the project is sanctioned, it goes to a complementary phase in which the President of the Republic has a 48 hours term to promulgate it. Aps (after) as deliberaes do Congresso Nacional, h ainda (there is still) a deliberao executiva, isto , o Presidente da Repblica pode sancionar/sanction (aprovar/approve) ou vetar/veto (proibir/prohibit) a proposio. No primeiro caso (first case), o projeto se torna (becomes, presente simples do verbo become) lei. No caso do veto, o projeto devolvido (sent back, passado simples do verbo send back) ao Congresso, que decide (decides) pela manuteno (maintenance) ou queda (fall) do veto. Se o projeto for sancionado (sanctioned), ele vai (goes, passado simples de go) para uma fase complementar (complementary) em que o Presidente da Repblica tem (has, presente simples de have) um prazo de 48 horas para promulg-lo (promulgate).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE DO TEXTO fruto (is fruit) uma srie (a number) procedimentos (procedures) previamente (previously) estabelecidos (established, passado simples do verbo establish) suportar (suport) polticos (politicians) tarefa (task) legislar (legislate) controle (control) so denominados (are denominated) Processo Legislativo (Legislative Process) norma (norm) orienta (orients, presente simples de orient) Regimento Interno (House Rules). acontece (happens, presente simples de happen) introduo (introducing) seguintes (following) proposies (propositions) projeto de lei (law project) resoluo (resolution) decreto legislativo (legislative decree) medida provisria (provisional decree) proposta de emenda Constituio (proposal of amendment to the Constitution) iniciativa (initiative) bem como (as well as) Presidente da Repblica (President of the Republic) Supremo Tribunal Federal (Supreme Court) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 20

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Tribunais Superiores (Higher Courts) Procurador-Geral da Repblica (Republic's General Attorney) cidados (citizens) proposies (propositions) so discutidas (are discussed) passar por (pass by) fases (stages) anlise (analysis) votao (voting) constitucionalidade (constitutionality) admisso (admission) mritos (merits) so feitos (are made, voz passiva, be+passado particpio do verbo make) comisses (committees) assuntos (subjects) sobre os quais (over which no tm (do not have) poder conclusivo (conclusive power) so deliberadas (are deliberated) Plenrio (House Floor) mximo (highest, forma superlativa de high) competncia (jurisdiction) dispensada (is dispensed) exceto (except) casos (cases) quando (quando) houver (there is, verbo haver, there be) recurso (recourse) um dcimo (one tenth) aps (after) h ainda (there is still) sancionar (sanction) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 21

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE aprovar(approve) vetar (veto) proibir (prohibit) primeiro caso (first case) se torna (becomes, presente simples do verbo become) devolvido (sent back, passado simples do verbo send back) decidir (decide) manuteno (maintenance) queda (fall) sancionado (sanctioned) vai (goes, passado simples de go) complementar (complementary) tem (has, presente simples de have) promulg-lo (promulgate it)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

ALGUMAS QUESTES DA LTIMA PROVA

Department of Sociology Sociology is the study of the way humans influence each other through groups, organizations, and societies. Sociologists investigate social change as well as the causes and consequences of human behavior in a variety of contexts, from families to political movements to hospitals. Often combining scientific and humanistic perspectives, sociologists analyze survey data, carry out in-depth interviews, ethnographic studies and content analyses. The Sociology major at Pomona College emphasizes social theory and research, culminating in the senior exercise, which allows each student to carry out an original research project with the advice of one or two faculty members. Many sociology majors are able to study abroad for a semester during their junior year, for example, in Spain, Brazil, Greece, South Africa, and the Dominican Republic. (http://www.sociology.pomona.edu)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

1.

(FGV/SENADO/2008)

In

as

well

as

the

causes

and

consequences (lines 3-4) as well as is used to indicate (A) manner. (B) time. (C) addition. (D) consequence. (E) cause. Comentrios: A expresso as well as usada para indicar.... Vejamos a frase: Sociologists investigate social change as well as the causes and consequences of human behavior in a variety of contexts.. O texto diz que os socilogos investigam a mudana social (social change) bem como (as well as) as causas e conseqncias do comportamento (behavior) humano em uma variedade de contextos. A expresso as well as indica: (A) manner. = maneira (B) time. = tempo (C) addition. = adio (D) consequence. = consequncia (E) cause. = causa As well as indica adio, alm de investigaram a mudana social, os socilogos investigam as causas e conseqncias do comportamento humano. Logo, a resposta a letra C.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

2.

(FGV/SENADO/2008)

The

underlined

word

in

Often

combining. (lines 5-6) is the opposite of (A) always. (B) seldom. (C) also. (D) never. (E) somewhat. Comentrios: A palavra grifada (underlined) em Often combining. o oposto de Para responder esta questo, bastaria saber a seqncia dos advrbios de freqncia da aula 02. Veja o quadro: ADVRBIOS DE FREQUNCIA

+
always: sempre often: frequentemente usually: habitualmente sometimes: s vezes seldom/rarely: raramente never: nunca

O contrrio de often seldom. Logo, a resposta para a questo a letra B.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The underlined expression in each student to carry out (line 11) can be replaced by (A) finish. (B) undertake. (C) support. (D) continue. (E) spread. Comentrios: A expresso sublinhada em each student to carry out (linha 11) pode ser substituda (can be replaced) por: No texto, a expresso carry out aparece na frase: ...which allows each student to carry out an original research project with the advice of one or two faculty members. Significa que cada (each) estudante pode realizar (carry out) um projeto de pesquisa (research project) original com a orientao (advice) de um ou dois membros da faculdade. Nas opes de resposta temos: (A) finish. = terminar (B) undertake. = realizar (C) support. = apoiar (D) continue. = continuar (E) spread. = espalhar

Logo, a resposta a letra B.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

4. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The verb form in Many sociology majors are able to (line 13) can be replaced by (A) must. (B) should. (C) will. (D) could. (E) can. Comentrios: O verbo na frase Many sociology majors are able to pode ser substitudo por... O verbo be able to significa ter capacidade, poder fazer algo. As opes de resposta so: (A) must. = indica dever/obrigao (B) should. = deveria/indica sugesto (C) will. = este o verbo auxiliar do futuro e no tem significado sozinho. Exemplo: You will pass on the exam. Voc passar na prova. (D) could. = poderia/indica possibilidade. a forma passada do verbo can. (E) can. = poder/indica capacidade, poder fazer algo. Logo, a resposta a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE DO TEXTO social change mudana social as well as bem como behavior comportamento manner: maneira time: tempo addition: adio consequence: consequncia cause: causa always: sempre often: frequentemente usually: habitualmente sometimes: s vezes seldom/rarely: raramente never: nunca can be replaced pode ser substituda () por: carry out: realizar each: cada research project: projeto de pesquisa advice: orientao, conselho finish: terminar undertake: realizar support: apoiar continue: continuar spread: espalhar be able to: ter capacidade, poder fazer algo. must: indica dever/obrigao www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 28

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE should: deveria/indica sugesto will: este o verbo auxiliar do futuro e no tem significado sozinho. Exemplo: You will pass on the exam. Voc passar na prova. could: poderia/indica possibilidade. a forma passada do verbo can. can: poder/indica capacidade

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

8 Questions To Ask Before Using YouTube As A Communications Tool As communications professionals, its very easy to get caught up in the hype and excitement about all the new online communications tactics we have available to us today. YouTube is a great example. Its tempting to view tools like this as a silver bullet for our communications woes. YouTube used to be primarily a great source for videos of music and kids hurting themselves on skateboards. No longer. Its becoming a more common tool for corporate communications. Your management may want to rush out, jump into the deep end and start using YouTube to communicate directly with people. If you can, you should get them to pause and consider several questions first: What are your objectives? Whos your target audience? Are you looking for sustained interest? How will you measure success? Do you have a good visual for video? How will you handle comments? Will you allow ratings? Will you let people embed the video? This is a basic list of fundamental questions you should answer before you launch into using videos on YouTube (or another video site) as a communications tactic. This is just a start, and some of these questions should already be part of your communications planning process. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 30

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (adapted from http://davefleet.com/2008/03/8-questions-to-askbefore-usingyoutube- September 24th, 2008)

5. (FGV/SENADO/2008) As regards YouTube, the author believes one should be (A) wanton. (B) wanting. (C) wary. (D) weary. (E) worried. Comentrios: No que se refere ao (as regards) YouTube, o autor acredita (believes, presente simples do verbo believe) que o usurio dever ser... Vejamos o que o texto diz: Your management may want to rush out, jump into the deep end and start using YouTube to communicate directly with people. If you can, you should get them to pause and consider several questions first: What are your objectives? Whos your target audience? Are you looking for sustained interest? How will you measure success? Do you have a good visual for video? How will you handle comments? Will you allow ratings? Will you let people embed the video?...

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Sua direo/gesto (management) pode querer sair correndo, conhecer o desconhecido (jump into the deep), e comear a usar (start using) o YouTube para se comunicar diretamente com as pessoas. Se (if) voc puder, voc deve (should) lev-los (get them) a refletir (consider) acerca de vrias questes primeiro: Quais so (are) seus objetivos? Quem (is) seu pblico-alvo? Voc est procurando (are you looking) por interesse sustentado? Como voc medir (will measure) o sucesso? Voc tem (do you have) um bom visual para vdeo? Como vai lidar (will you handle) com os comentrios? Voc vai permitir (will you allow) que as classificaes? Voc vai deixar (will you let) que as pessoas incorporar o vdeo? O autor afirma que o usurio do YouTube dever refletir e se questionar bastante, certo? Agora vejamos as opes de resposta para descobrir como o usurio deve ser : (A) wanton. = desenfreado (B) wanting. = desejoso (C) wary. = cuidadoso (D) weary. = cansado (E) worried. = preocupado A alternativa que mais se aproxima da descrio do autor de como deve ser o usurio do YouTube a letra C, cuidadoso. Logo, a resposta a letra C. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 32

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

6. (FGV/SENADO/2008) When tools are viewed as a silver bullet (lines 4 and 5) this means they are as seen as being able to (A) cause distress. (B) shift tactics. (C) offer solutions. (D) induce errors. (E) generate funds. Comentrios: Quando ferramentas (tools) so vistas como uma bala de prata (linhas 4 e 5) isto significa que elas esto sendo vistas (are seen, voz passiva, verbo be+ passado particpio de see) como capazes de (be able to = ser capaz de...). .................. O texto diz que: Its tempting to view tools like this as a silver bullet for our communications woes. tentador ver ferramentas como esta como uma bala de prata para os problemas das nossas comunicaes.

A expresso bala de prata adotada como uma metfora para designar uma soluo simples para um problema complexo com grande eficincia. Vamos escolher a melhor alternativa para traduzir o que significa uma ferramenta considerada bala de prata: (A) cause distress. = causa preocupao (B) shift tactics. = muda as tticas www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 33

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (C) offer solutions. = oferece solues (D) induce errors. = induz a erros (E) generate funds. = gera recursos A melhor opo a letra C, certo? Logo, a resposta a letra C.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE DO TEXTO as regards: no que se refere ao believe: acreditar management: direo/gesto jump into the deep: conhecer o desconhecido start using: comear a usar if: se consider: refletir measure: medir handle: lidar allow: permitir let: deixar wanton: desenfreado wanting: desejoso wary: cuidadoso weary: cansado worried: preocupado tool: ferramentas ser vista: be seen be able to: capazes de www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 34

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE tempting: tentador view: ver silver bullet: bala de prata communications woes: problemas de comunicao cause distress: causar preocupao shift tactics: mudar as tticas offer solutions: oferecer solues induce errors: induzir a erros generate funds: gerar recursos

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 06 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

AGRADECIMENTOS

Querido aluno,

Com esta Aula 06 encerramos nosso curso e concluo minha tarefa de tentar ensinar a vocs como estudar e como fazer provas de ingls para concursos da maneira mais eficiente possvel. Para isso, o foco foi o que realmente cai em prova. Meu trabalho aqui foi o de facilitar seu estudo, sem rodeios, usando textos de provas recentes da FGV, ESAF e CESPE. V tranqilo para a prova e confie no seu conhecimento. No se assuste quando se deparar com palavras desconhecidas e que no so parecidas com o portugus. Tente resolver a questo por outro ngulo. O importante no desistir e tentar resolver a questo com outras palavras-chave ou com conhecimento de gramtica ou com a simples intuio. Bom estudo e BOA PROVA!!! Forte abrao, Aline Andrade

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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