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FDDI

FOOTWEAR DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE


MINISTRY OF COMMERCE, GOVT. OF INDIA

(CLOSING HANDOUT) BASIC UPPER ASSEMBLY

A-10/A, SECTOR-24, NOIDA-201301, (U.P) INDIA Tel.: 91-120-2412456, 2412557, 2412534 Fax: 91-120-2412556, 2411301

GUIDANCE:Mr. Rajeev Lakhara,IRS Managing director Mr. V.B. Parvatikar Director (Technical) Mr. Shashi Bhushan Shukla, IRS Secretary Mr. B.S Katiyar Dy. Director (Technical)

HANDOUT PREPARATION TEAM:Mr. Deepak Choudhary. (H.O.D) Mr. K. Louis, (Senior faculty) Mr. Chandra Shekhar (Technical faculty) Mr. Sanjeev Kumar Mishra. (Technical faculty)

INTRODUCTION TO SEWING AND SEWING MACHINES

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INTRODUCTION TO SEWING
INTRODUCTION
Sewing is the result of successive number of stitches on a component, having specified stitch length and no. of stitches per unit. Unit can be defined either as centimeter of inch as per the specification given by the buyer. While doing the stitching lock should be provided during starting and end of the edge so that stitch may not open from corners. While locking maximum three and minimum two stitches should be overlapped. But in the case of decoration stitches locking is not suitable if stitching is done by heavy thread. In this case it is very essential to look in to the needle and thread combination along with the suitable sewing machine. Heavy thread is always used with higher size of needle and heavy duty machine for stitching. Higher size needle will produce wider hole into the material and this will be filled up by the heavy thread. In this case we do not lock the thread from starting and end, the thread ends will treat by knots and pasting.

INTRODUCTION TO STITCHING OPERATIONS


While doing the stitching we need the following things:- Operator - Material to be stitched - Stitching Machine Needle and thread are selected according to the material, operation and specification given.
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MANPOWER
operators perform the given job with their hands and skill. They may be rated as high skilled, skilled, semi-skilled and un-skilled as per their performance. - An operator is called High Skilled, when he is able to perform any kind of relating job with good quality and productivity. - An operator is called Skilled, when he is able to perform only one kind of relating job with good quality and productivity. - An operator is called Semi-Skilled when he is able to perform only one kind of relating job with average quality and productivity. - An operator is called Un-Skilled when he is required basic training to perform any kind of relating job with average quality and productivity.

Material The use of material depends upon the purpose, fashion and design of shoe. It may be leather, textile or synthetic. Leather is a natural material having all the qualities and characteristics to make an ideal shoe. It requires different kinds of needle and needle points during stitching because fibrous structure of leather makes it compact. Selection of right threads and needle for a particular material is essential to perform various stitching operations. Textile of also known as fabric material, generally used for lining and school shoes. It is weaved by warp and wept fibers. The fibrous structure makes the surface soft and breathable during wear. Light duty sewing machines and Round point needle is used to stitch this material.
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Synthetic material is a man made material. It has fibrous backing and soft structure This type of material is stitched with the help of light duty medium m/c and round point needle. The light duty sewing machine is suitable to avoid the pressure roller impression. SEWING MACHINES
Sewing machines used in the footwear industry may be light, medium and heavy duty according to the operation need and material being used in the shoe making. The terms light, medium and heavy duty is mostly related with the machine mechanism, motor, balance wheel and feeding system of sewing machine. - Light duty machine is mostly used in textile industry and to stitch lighter material in footwear industry also. This type of machines have light mechanism and feeding system in order to feed soft and thin material while stitching. This machine can be used for functional and decoration stitch. It is mostly used in soft and this leather that is goat, glace kid and sheep. - Medium duty machines have mechanism suitable of medium kind of materials. This machine is mainly used for joining the two components or stitching in layers. This type of machine is used to perform functional and decoration stitching.

- Heavy duty machine is used to feed the heavy and thick material. This type of machines have strong mechanism and feeding system. This type of machine is mainly used for decoration purpose.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF STITCH


There are two types of stitches used in upper closing room, which are performed by the different sewing machines. After fitting the two components together, stitching
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operation becomes essential to provide strength during lasting pulls and wearing the shoe. Functional stitch is carried out for the joining and strengthens purpose and decoration stitching is carried out to enhance the appearance of the upper. The two types of stitching used in the closing room are as follows:1. 2. Chain Stitch and Lock stitch.

1. CHAIN STITCH In this type of stitch only one thread makes a lock into the centre of the material. The machine makes a series of loops with the same or a different colour thread interloped each loop with the previous loop. Strobel machine is used for the single thread chain stitching . This type of seam is not a strong seam, as any breakage of thread loop in between the seam will cause opening the whole stitch all around the component.

CHAIN STITCH

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2. LOCK STITCH In this type of stitch two thread(top thread and bottom thread) makes a lock into the centre of the material. At the time needle blade goes inside the machine, hook point takes the top thread from the needle and with the help of bottom thread makes a lock into the centre of the material. This type of stitch is considered a strong seam. In this type of stitch any breakage of the thread in between the seam does not hamper the seam strength in short but definitely cause seam failure in future.

LOCK STITCH

SEWING M/C CLASSIFICATION


Sewing machine can be classified in the following manners:According to the Design/Shape of the Head (i) Flat bed (ii) Post bed (Post, left to the needle and Post, right to the needle) (iii) Cylinder arm Stitch Formation (i) (ii) Lock Stitch Chain Stitch

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NO. OF NEEDLES - Single Needle - Double Needle - Multiple Needles TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION - Light duty machine - Medium duty machine - Heavy duty machine

Transportation System
Bottom/Lower Feed:a) Drop Feed b) Roller Feed c) Needle Feed Top Feed:a) b)

Pressure Foot Pressure Roller

TYPE OF HOOK a) Vertical hook (for heavy stitching) b) Horizontal hook:i) Oscillating ii) Rotary

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SPECIAL DEVICES - Inching devices - Needle positioning - Thread Trimming - Lining Trimming

DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEWING MACHINES


FLAT BED SEWING MACHINES 1.INTRODUCTION This machine is mainly used for stitching the leather and other material in the production process of footwear manufacture. This type of machine mainly makes a lock stitch seam. This machine can have trimmer attachment for trimming thread and lining. This machine can have quick stop motors with inching devices and variety of guides for edge stitching. The speed of this machine can be from 1400 rpm to 2800 rpm.

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TYPES OF FLAT BED SEWING MACHINES 1. FLAT BED SINGLE NEEDLE SEWING MACHINE a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) This machine is used for single row stitching. This machine can be light, medium or heavy duty. This machine can have electronic or clutch motor. This machine can have a trimming device for threads and lining. It can accommodate several sizes of threads and needles. This machine mainly produces a lock stitch . This machine can be single, twin or multiple needle. This machine can have variety of guides for ease in stitching. This machine motor speed is usually 1400-2800rpm. This machine can be used for constructive and decorative purpose. This machine can have vertical and horizontal hook movement.

2. FLAT BED DOUBLE NEEDLE SEWING MACHINE Twin needle flat bed machine is used for quality and productivity during shoe making. Cost wise it is similar to the post bed single needle but amount of quality and productivity assures the cost benefits. This machine produces normal lock stitch formation. In this type of machines bobbin winder is located any where at the top of the sewing machine arm or on the side of the machine head near the balance wheel. In this machine two needles are used for two row of stitching. The first seam works as functional seam and the second seam is used as decoration seam. In the double needle stitching machines two hook assemblies are fixed under the needle and two bobbin cases are used to pick up the top threads. From the following points we can understand that the flat bed double needle is more useful for the quality work:- It gives quality stitching as compared to the single needle needle stitching machine. - It improves quality and productivity. - It makes double row stitching very neat and clean.
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3.ZIG-ZAG MACHINE This machine is mainly used for ZIG-ZAG seam. With the help of this machine we can join the components without any allowance. This machine is also used for decorative seam. The stitch length and width is selected according to the type of material and stitching required. This machine has the facility of stitch length and width regulator.Normally stitch width is 6mm for leather, 8mm for synthetic, and 10mm for fabrics. While working on the ZIG-ZAG stitching machine following points must be remembered:- Never use a P point needle on a ZIG-ZAG machine. - It is not a strong seam and must be re-inforced. 4.CORDING MACHINE This machine is used for decorating the shoe upper by providing the bold look on shoe uppers during cording. This machine has two needles and only single hook assembly or bobbin case. Hook picks up the top thread from the both of the needles and makes a lock into the centre of the material. On the top side of the material twin needle stitch the component by set distance and below a cord , there is a zig-zag kind of seam. The main feathers of this machine are:It has two pressure roller. It has two needles and one hook assembly. This machine produce a lock stitch formation. This machine has a small tube on the throat plate, which act as a guide for cord.

5.GIMPING AND PERFORATING MACHINE This machine is used for gimping and perforating the shoe upper components. This machine works with gimping and perforating too and get fixed in place of needle in the similar kind of machine. From top side the cutting or perforating pressure can be adjusted and below a polypropylene board is fixed to avoid any kind of damage of sharp edge of tools. The operator can adjust distance of gimp and perforation accordingly. The main features of this machine are:FDDI / TRAINING / HANDOUT / CLO / 01.04.2008

- With the help of this machine we can adjust punch holder, punch/gimp length adjustment and pressure device. - This machine is mainly used for decorative purpose only. POST BED SEWING MACHINE This type of sewing machine has additional part called post, which is situated on the tabletop. The top surface of the post is worked as base of material, which provides support to the material during stitching. Post may be designed as right or left to the needle according to the need. Post bed sewing machine is used for both stitching on flat or curved components from two dimension to three dimensions. This machine is commonly used for constructive and decorative purpose. While stitching small and wider upper components on the post bed machine, one can realize the need of different posts. The medium and higher posts of this machine, helps in hanging the three-dimensional shapes of components all around the post and avoids any kind of upper material loss and unnecessary stretch of material during stitching. Top line stitching, quarter and vamp attaching, Derby lock stitching becomes easy in this machine. The speed of the machine is 2800 RPM with ordinary clutch motor. Speed can be increase up to 4000-6000 RPM by changing the necessary motor. This machine produces lock stitch formation and stitch length can be adjusted accordingly.

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TYPES OF THE POST For increasing the productivity and getting the quality products, we need variety of the machines in the closing department. For getting the quality products and productivity, we need different styles of post bed machines. Normally, there are two types of post are found in the footwear industry. These are as follows:- Stable Post - Moveable Post Stable posts are found in the upper closing room to stitch the upper components together, where as, the moveable post are mostly found in lasting room to stitch complete shoes. Stable post are normally straight in shape, where as the moveable posts are round in shape.

Stable posts are found in three types:- Normal Post - Medium Post and - Higher post NORMAL POST This type of post is used in the normal upper components in 2-D or 3-D shapes. The height of this post is normally 16-17 CM and an average style and design of shoe upper can easily be stitched in this post. The longer and wider components are not suitable to stitch in this post because during stitching the grain structure may spoiled by turning the components. MEDIUM POST This type of post is used for stitching the ankle or higher ankle boot style upper components in 2-D or 3D shapes. The height of this post is normally 22CM -29CM. HIGHER POST This type of post is most suitable for stitching the long knee boot style upper components in 2-D or 3-D shapes. The height of this post is normally 30-40CM.
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TYPES OF POST BED MACHINES POST BED SINGLE NEEDLE SEWING MACHINES The main purpose of developing this machine is to stitch the upper components which are very difficult to stitch in the FLAT BED SINGLE NEEDLE STITCHING MACHINE with quality and productivity. This machine is more costly than FBSN sewing machine due to the provision of extra post in the machine mechanism. In this machine cost of maintenance is also very high due to the post and the assemblies fixed inside the post. This machine is mainly used for single row stitching for curved stitching work e.g. Top line stitching, vamp and quarter stitching , derby lock stitching etc. this machine can be light, medium or heavy duty according to the operation need and the material being used during stitching.

POST BED DOUBLE NEEDLE SEWING MACHINES


Double row stitching with single needle machine can not give good quality and productivity. So for increasing the quality and productivity, we have to use double needle stitching machine. This machine is costlier than PBSN sewing machine. Cost of maintenance is also high due to the two set of hook assembly, needle etc. The thread guide and the needle plate have the maximum wear and tear during stitching on this machine. - This machine is used for double row stitching for curved stitching work. - It improves quality and productivity.

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BINDING AND BARTACKING MACHINES CYLENDER ARM MCHINE:-

The cylinder bed machine is used for stitching flat and curved components in two dimension and three dimensions. This machine is commonly used for construction and decoration purpose(specially top line treatment u-binding). This machine is found most suitable for full shoe repairing. This machine is normally found as single needle, double needle. This machine can have light, medium and heavy duty mechanism. This machine has special horizontal arm for complete upper inserting for binding or repairing work. The arm may be right or left to the needle. For inserting the binding, there is a provision of special tube called binding tube. The tube is available in different width according to the width of the binding specified by the designer. This machine produce a lock stitch formation. Speed of this machine is 1400 rpm. This machine has a cylinder arm for ease of handling work The main features of this machine are:FDDI / TRAINING / HANDOUT / CLO / 01.04.2008

This is unison feed machine, this machine has:(i) (ii) Two pressure foot-inner foot for applying force on binding and outer foot for applying force on component called walking foot. Needle feed.

(iii) Needle feed produce a consistent stitch length. The length of the arm is approximately 27-28 CM. It has binding tube for stitching binding on the upper. Tube can be selected according to the binding width and upper thickness.

BAR TAKER MACHINE


This type of sewing machine is used for stitching complicated operations like derby lock and for logo stitching on shoe upper components. The main features of this machine are:- This is multi directional stitching machine. - This machine produces lock stitch formation. - The length of the arm is approximately about 30-35CM depending upon the mechanism of the machine.

OTHER MACHINES:THERMOFOLDING MACHINE:Folding operation can be done manually or with the help of the machine. As we know folding operation is considered to be the main bottleneck in the closing department. Manual folding takes a lot of time and requires good amount of skill during folding as compared to the machine folding. Though, machine folding is not easy and also needs skill operator. Machine folding is more suitable for high productivity and quality work.
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Now a days thermo folding machines are available with some additional advantages of folding as per the requirement of the design. Polyamide hot melt adhesive is used for this machine. Melting temperature of this machine is 220*C and setting time is 2 seconds.

TYPES OF FOLDING:- Straight edge folding. - Convex curve edge folding - Concave curve edge folding Straight folding is done on straight edge of the component and maximum productivity can be obtained on this type of edge by this machine. Concave folding is done on concave curves edges of the component and less productivity can be obtained as compared to straight folding by this machine. Convex folding is done on convex curves edges of the components and less productivity can be obtained as compared to straight folding by this machine.

EYELETING MACHINE:This machine is used for fixing the eyelets in the uppers. Eyeleting can be visible or invisible. Machine has the provision for keeping the eyelets and the eyelets automatically drop down into the channel with every stroke of machine. In this machine there is a provision of guide for fixing the eyelets at the right position.

SEAM REDUCING MACHINE:The main purpose of this seam is to flat the closed seam. This machine is used for reducing the excess leather. The machine has a post on which a spring-loaded anvil is fixed. Feed roller and a cutter are located on the top of the anvil. Feed roller feeds the seamed components by keeping the seam straight. Cutter rubbed down the excess material of the seam according to the setting provided.

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STROBBEL MACHINE:This machine produces the chain stitch and only one thread is used during stitching . This machine is used to stitch socks with the upper at the lasting margin edge for forced lasting. Strobbling is used during injection and direct vulcanization shoe constructions, where strobbel upper is force lasted into the last and sole is attached ,injected or vulcanized.

AUTOMATIC STITCHING MACHINE:Auto stitching machine are fully computerized machines. These machines need lot of investment. In these machines upper style is digitized and components are fixed into the pallets for stitching. The stitching pallets base is moveable in multidirection and produces higher quality and quantity. In this type machine braided thread is used to prevent the thread from fraying. Main features of these machines are:- Maintenance cost of these machines are very high due to the high technology and parts used. - These machines are very expensive as compared to the normal stitching machines. - These machines are suitable only for big and continuous orders of one particular article. - Productivity and quality of these machines are very high.

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SAFETY POINTS WHILE STITCHING ON THE SEWING MACHINE TOWARDS THE OPERATOR: Wear approved footwear and clothing with in the workshop. Wear hair band of tie your hair in case of hair longer than shoulder length. Avoid wearing loose clothing. Sit squarely on your chair within the reach of material and machine. Your thighs should be parallel to the floor when seated. Keep your fingers and yourself away from the moving parts of the machine. At a time, one operator should work on the machine. In case of an accident, no matter how minor it is , report it to your supervisor. Know your fire drill. Do not try to make your own electric repairs. Do not push the work through your hands, let the machine feed the work. Strictly follow the operating position.

TOWARDS THE MACHINE


Proper oiling and cleaning of the machine After finishing the work machine should be properly covered. Instructions of operating the machine should be properly followed. After finishing the work, put a piece of material under the pressure roller. After finishing the work power of the motor should be released by pressing the tredle but it should be remembered before releasing the power top thread should be removed. Ensure that proper threading and needle insertion has been done.
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GOOD WORKING HABITS WHILE STITCHING: While stitching work place should be properly cleaned. Switch of the machine when not in use. Regular oiling of the machine. M/c should be properly covered after finishing the work. Release the power of the machine after finishing the work. Put a piece of the material under the pressure roller after finishing the work. All the tools should be properly placed. Pay full concentration on the work. Use both hands to pick up the components simultaneously. Before starting the work ensure that proper threading and needle insertion has been done.

BENCH LAYOUT: Keep work within arms reach. 1. 2. 3. 4. With arms straight men have an average reach of 46 cm. With arms straight women have an average reach of 43 cm. With elbow bent men have an average reach of 30 cm. With elbow bent women have an average reach of 27 cm.

Keep both hands on the work. Avoid keeping one hand on the balance wheel. Stake components in the position they would be stitched. This avoids wastage of time. Pick up the components simultaneously whenever possible. Keep your tools in a fixed location.
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1. Inside the arm. 2. between the head and bobbin winder. Your should wind extra bobbin while stitching. Inspect your work whenever you are cutting threads or trimming. Your work station should be adjusted to prevent reaching to the floor. Work should be kept within your reach on the bench.

MACHINE PARTS AND FUNCTIONS


We can divide the machine parts and functions in two parts: UNDER THE TABLE ABOVE THE TABLE

UNDER THE TABLE:1. POWER SWITCH:- To switch on and off machine. 2. KNEE PRESS:- It is used for raising the pressure wheel and releasing the tension discs. 3. MOTOR:- It generates the required power according to the machine speed. 4. PITSMAN ROD:- It connects the treadle with the clutch. 5. DRIP TRAY:- It collects the excess oil and dust of materials(leather, thread etc.). 6. TEADLE:- It works as an accelerator, like depressing front part of the treadle will start and depressing back part will stop the machine. 7. MACHINE STAND:- Hold the machine in vertical position and allows height adjustment accordingly.
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8. TRANSMISSION:- It transfers the power to balance wheel via V-belt.

ABOVE THE TABLE


1. BALANCE WHEEL:- It transmits the power through V-belt to the machine mechanism. It helps to keep the machine in motion. 2. BOBBIN WINDER:- It is used for winding the bobbin. 3. CHECK SPRING:- It tightens the lock during the stitch formation. 4. STITCH REGULATOR:- To alter the length of stitch. 5. FACE PLATE:- Covers all side shafts like needle bar, pressure roller bar for safety & maintenance purpose. 6. PRESSURE ROLLER:- It provides the pressure to hold the material from top and helps in feeding the material. 7. PRESSURE ROLLER LIFTER:- It is used to lift the pressure roller. 8. TAKE UP LEVER:- It controls the thread for stitch formation, i.e. It provides the thread before making the lock and takes the extra thread after completion of the lock. 9. TENSION DISC:- It is used to adjust the top tension for a good stitch formation according to the material. 10. THREAD GUIDE:- It gives the direction to the thread and straightens it. 11. THREAD STAND:- It keeps thread cones for top threading and bobbin winding.
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12. SHUTTLE/HOOK:- It picks up the top thread from the needle with the help of the hook point and enlarge it which helps in making the lock. 13. NEEDLE PLATE:- It provides the space for bottom feed, provides base to the material being stitched and gives passage to the needle for its up and down movement. 14. NEEDLE PLATE SCREW:- To hold the needle plate in its required position.

15. TABLE TOP:- It provides place for the machine head, bobbin winder, thread stand, inching scale, rubber pads and machine rest. It also provides space for the material. 16. MACHINE ARM:- Machine arm provides the space for the material during stitching. 17. MACHINE HEAD:- It consists entire top mechanism. 18. MOTOR BELT:- It transfers power by connecting balance wheel with the pulley.. 19. LIGHT:- It provides lighting on the sewing area. 20. FEED WHEEL:- It feeds the work for stitching. 21. NEEDLE BAR:- It holds the needle and drive the needle in and out of the material. 22. NEEDLE BAR SCREW:- It holds the needle in its right position.

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NEEDLE CHANGING OR REPLACING


Before changing or replacing the needle we need: An additional needle A small screw driver The procedure of changing or replacing the needle is as follow:1. Before starting the work, make sure machine is switched off. 2. Additional needle should be placed on the bed of the machine to the left of the needle bar. 3. Screw driver should hold in the right hand. 4. It should make sure the needle in the machine is above the throat plate. 5. Hold the needle bar with the first finger and thumb of the left hand. 6. Undo the needle screw by turning anti-clockwise to a turn. 7. Remove the needle from the needle bar by pulling down then out. 8. Needle should be placed down on the bed of the machine and pick up the additional needle. 9. While inserting the needle into the needle bar long groove face should be outside of the machine and the clearance cut face should be towards the hook. 10. Needle should be placed into the needle bar up to the shank, as far as it will go. 11. Re-tighten the needle screw by turning clockwise with the screw driver.

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NEEDLE AND THREAD

NEEDLE PARTS AND FUNCTIONS


BUTT: It facilitate the easy entry of needle into the needle bar. SHANK:- It provides firm seating for the needle in the needle bar for the stability during stitching. The shank diameter varies according to the needle system. SHOULDER:- From shank needle tapers gradually and this tapered area is called Shoulder. This tapering gives more strength to the needle and reduces vibrations at high speed. In another word we can say this is the reduction point from butt to blade.

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BLADE/SHAFT:- It is found in between the shank and eye of the needle. The shape and diameter of the blade determines the penetration strength and size of the perforation. It is a thinned portion of the needle to assist easy passage of the needle through the material. LONG GROOVE:- While inserting the needle into the needle bar, long groove face should be on the threading side along the blade of the needle. The function of the long groove is to protect the thread as it passes through the material. CLEARANCE CUT:- This is just above the eye of the needle. At the time of inserting the needle into the needle bar clearance cut face should always be towards the hook. It helps in making the good lock formation as the hook point comes closer to the needle to pick up the top thread, it provides the space to the hook point and reduces the chances of damage to needle and hook point. EYE:- This is used for passing the thread into the needle. As we know thread passes through the needle eye 25-30 times before it forms a stitch. So while choosing the needle, it should be remembered eye of the needle should be highly polished to make it smooth.

SHORT GROOVE/HEAD GROOVE:- It is found between the eye and point of the needle. It protects the thread, when it goes into the material. It also protects the thread from undue frictions.

POINTS:- This makes a hole into the material. Needle points are found in many shapes and varieties. For example:- for making Zig-Zag seam we should use LR point and for making back seam we should use P point needle.

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NEEDLE CLASSIFICATION
Needle can be classified on the following basis: Needle System, Needle size, and Needle point.

Classification on the basis of the Needle System


It refers to the fitting measurements of the needle into the sewing machine, which enables it to be suited for a particular model/type of machine. The measurements, which are taken into account while constituting a needle system, are: Shank length, Shank diameter, Blade length, Needle length, and Clearance cut. 134 is the basic needle system and all the other system are studied in comparison to 134 system. 134 System Needle:Needle length Shank diameter Machine used -: 38.5mm -: 2 mm -: Normal flat bed and post bed machines

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134-35 System Needle:Needle length -: 42.0mm Shank diameter -: 2 mm Machine used -: Cylinder bed m/c(335) In this system needle length is bigger than the 134 system needle but the shank diameter is the same

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438 System Needle:Needle length -: 38.5mm Shank diameter -: 2 mm Machine used -: Zig-Zag machine(418) This system needle has longer clearance cut to enable the hook to pick up the loop better on both the sides.

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134kk System Needle:Needle length -: 38.5mm Shank diameter -: 2 mm Machine used -: Heavy duty machines In this needle system shank length is reduced and blade length is increased. This system needle is suitable in the case of using material heavier than 1.2-1.5mm. But it should be remembered 134kk system needle should not be used in high speed machines as due to the longer blade and shorter shank, strength of the blade is reduced

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34 System Needle:Needle length -: 38.5mm Shank diameter -: 1.6 mm Machine used -: Bar Taker Machine(3336) In this needle system shank diameter is reduced to 1.6mm but needle length is the same. As we know bar taker machines are mainly used for making Derby lock.

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NEEDLE SIZE/THICKNESS It depends upon the diameter of the needle blade just above the needle eye. Needle size could be indicated by the number metric (N.M.) system or Singer/Simon co. system. In the case of NM system, thickness is indicated in 100th of a mm. For example if blade diameter is 0.8 mm, then needle size is 0.8*100 = 80. The lower the needle size, the finer the needle blade. NM size is the European size, which is usually used in Australia, and the Simon co. system is the American size.

Number Metric(NM) Singer/Simon Co. System

60 8

65 9

70 10

75 11

80 12

85 13

90 14

100 16

NEEDLE POINTS The purpose of needle point is to perforate the material either by pushing aside the fibers or by cutting through the material, thus making way for the top thread to be passed down and being taken up by the hook in the process of stitch formation. That is why the needle is tapered in order to open the hole to the size of the blade diameter.
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In case of synthetics/fabrics, needle should perforate the material by pushing aside the fibers so that the fibers are not cut and damaged. So, we use round point needle for synthetics/fabrics. In the case of leather or similar material, due to the hardness and thickness of the material, needle could not perforate the material, unless and until material is cut through. So, we use cutting point needles for leather/similar materials. Since, when cutting point will cut the material, a hole will be formed of a particular shape, so cutting points are classified according to the shape and position of the cutting edge.
BENEFITS OF USING THE NEEDLE WITH CUTTING POINTS: Realization of a specific seam appearance. Easier penetration of the material with less needle heating. Needle points can be divided into two categories. These are as follows: Round Point Cutting Point If O represents the blade diameter, indicates threading direction, indicates seam direction. It should also be remembered s means narrow and ss means extra narrow. Round Point Needles:Round point needle is used for soft and light materials like synthetics/fabrics to perforate the material by pushing aside the fibers so that the fibers are cut and damaged.
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ROUND POINT NEEDLE

CUTTING POINT NEEDLES:Cutting point needles can be classified as follows:1. Cutting point needles with 2 cutting edges. 2. Cutting point needles with 3 cutting edges. 3. Cutting point needles with 4 cutting edges. 1. CUTTING POINT NEEDLES WITH TWO CUTTING EDGES:Cutting point needle with two cutting edges is mainly used for stitching the leather/similar material. Due to the harness of the leather round point needle could not perforate the material, unless and until material is cut through. So for cutting the material we use cutting point needle with tow cutting edges. The types of different needle points with two cutting edges are as follows:1. P/Wedge point P point needle is used when density of stitch is high. This type of point is mainly used for back seams where we need high density stitching. This type of seam is very strong.

P family includes P, Ps, Pss, PCL, PCR etc. Standard:- Distance between stitches: 6 to 8 stitches/cm.
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P/Wedge needle point

2. S/Cross point needle:- S point needle is mainly used for decorative stitching. This is a straight seam. S family includes S, Ss. Standard:- Distance between stitches: 3 to 4 stitches/cm.

S/Cross needle point 3. LR/Reverse twist point:- This point is mainly used for the production purpose. This point makes the stitches at the angle of 45*. This point is mainly used for joining vamp to quarter, toe cap to vamp, quarter to counter etc. Standard:- Distance between the stitches: 5 to 6 stitch/cm

LR/Reverse twist point

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4. LL/Twist Point:- This point is also used for production purpose. This point makes the stitches at the angle of 135*. This point is used with LR point in double needle stitching machines. This point is also used for joining vamp to quarter, toe cap to vamp, quarter to counter etc. Standard:- Distance between the stitches: 5 to 6 stitch/cm

LL/Twist point 2.CUTTING POINT NEEDLE WITH 3 CUTTING EDGES:Cutting point needle with 3 cutting edges is mostly used for hard and dry leathers. As we know dry and hard material has more resistance against the perforation by the needlepoint, so we should use cutting point needle with 3 cutting edges. The type of cutting point needle with 3 cutting edges is as follows:TRI/D (Triangular Point) Needle:- This point has three cutting edges and used for hard and dry leathers.

TRI/D (Triangular) Point

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CUTTING POINT NEEDLE WITH 4 CUTTING EDGES:This type of needle points are mainly used for the extra hard and dry leathers. The reason is that extra hard and dry leather has more resistance against the perforation by the needlepoint. So for stitching on the extra hard and dry material we should always use such type of needle point which can perforate the material easily without breaking the needle. So four cutting point needle are found most suitable for this kind of material to be stitched. The four cutting edges needle points are found in many types. These are as follows:1.SPEAR POINT:- This type of needle point is the variation of P/WEDGE POINT needle and mainly used for stitching the extra hard leather and similar material. This type of needle point is also used for stitching back seam in extra hard material where stitch density is high.

SPEAR POINT

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2.DI/DIA(DIAMOND)POINT:- This type of needle point is mainly used for decorative purpose. This point is the variation of the S point needle and used for extra hard and dry leathers.

DIAMOND POINT 3.VR POINT:- This point is the variation of LR point and used for the extra hard leather/similar material for the production purpose. This point also stitches the components at the angle of 45*. This point is used for stitching the vamp with the toecap, vamp with the quarter, quarter with the counter etc.

VR POINT

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4.VL POINT:- This point is the variation of LL point. This point stitches the components at the direction of 135*. This point is used with VR point on the double needle stitching machine. This point is also used for extra hard leather/similar material.

VL POINT COMBINATION POINT OF ROUND AND CUTTING POINT:SD1(TRI) TRIANGULAR TIPPED ROUND POINT:SD1 is basically a round point needle with a triangular tip. In this point cutting edges are found very short. In this point only 10% of the stitch hole is cut by the triangular tip and the remaining 90% of the stitch hole is cut by the round point (R point). This point basically makes a straight seam. Standard for stitching:Distance between the stitches:- 6 to 8 stitches/cm.

SD1 POINT
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RELATION OF NEEDLE POINT WITH SEAM:NEEDLE POINT P,PS,PSS,PCL,PCR,PCLs,PCRs SEAM When ever stitch density is high e.g. French binding, Italian binding, Lapped seam, Closed seam. When ever stitch density is less e.g. for decorative seams. For lapped seams, seams, zig-zag seams. decorative

S, Ss LR, LL, LRs, LLs

R SD1 Spear Diamond(DIA)

Fabrics, very soft and fine leather, elastics and bindings. Synthetics, French bindings, elastics and fine leathers When ever stitch density is high on hard leathers. For decorative stitching on hard leathers.

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SELECTION OF NEEDLE:Selection of needle depends on the: Machine Material Seam Thread We can not use one needle system in all type of machines. As we know 134-35 system needle is used in cylinder arm machine and 438 system needle is used in zig-zag machine. Size of the needle and its cutting points changes for different thickness of the material and seams. As we know leather requires a cutting point needle while synthetic materials require round point needle. It should also be remembered if material is soft and thin, lower size of the needle should be used and if material is hard and thick, higher size of the needle should be used. As needle point also varies with the thickness of the material if we use heavy material, we should use VR, VL, DIA etc. needle points. Similarly selection of the needles also depends upon the size of the thread and seam types. For heavy threads we need thicker needle and for thinner threads we need thinner needle. Appearance of the seam also affects the selection of the needle as for Close seam and French seam we need P point needle and for decorative seam we need S point needle. So we can say selection of the needle depends upon the Machine, Material, Seam and Thread.

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NEEDLE POLICY:It is a system of issuing the needle against the broken needles, while sewing the upper, record of broken needle is maintained to ensure the safety of the wearer. When needle is being used for stitching and it breaks, some tiny part of the needle may be left in the upper and can hurt the wearer. The supervisor should issue the new needle after receiving all the broken parts back. Supervisor should maintain the record of all the operation on which, the needle breaks. All the broken needle should be assembled in a file. This system also helps in planning the quantity of the needle to be required for the production of a particular style and material. RELATION OF NEEDLE AND THREAD:While stitching, it is very important to know about the needle and thread relation. If the thread and needle relation is not correct, we can not get good stitching results. The relationship of the needle and thread can be explained with the help of the following table:For Light Leather:Number 65-70 Metric(NM) Singer/Simon 9-11 Co. System Thread Size 80 80-90 12-14 60 90-100 14-16 40 110-120 18-19 30 120-130 19-21 20 130-140 21-22 15 140-160 22-23 10 160-170 23-24 8

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For Heavy Leather:Number 70-80 Metric(NM) Singer/Simon 10-12 Co. System Thread Size 80 90-100 14-16 60 100-110 16-18 40 120-130 19-21 30 130-140 21-22 20 140-160 22-23 15 160-180 23-24 10 180-200 24-25 8

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SEAMS AND SKIVING

SEAM
Seams are the result of a sewing operation, which forms a number of stitches on the material using a continuous thread. The successive linear formation of such stitches is called a SEAM. It can be done by hand or by machine. PURPOSE OF SEAM:There are three main purpose of the seam: Joining the components Reinforcing the components Decorating the components When we join the two components together with the help of the adhesive, it also requires to be fixed at the same place throughout the life of the shoe. By stitching with thread it becomes permanent and life of the joint increases by the seam. When two components are directly put under the sewing machine without attaching by adhesive and seam is took place directly is known as direct stitching. This kind of seam reinforces the joint between two components and decreases the cost and weight of the shoe. Skilled operators are required for such type of job. Seams are also used for decoration purposes, where heavy and bold look is given to the shoe uppers. Thicker thread and needle is used on heavy duty machines to perform the cable seam and in case of fancy stitching, finer thread, thinner needle and light duty sewing machine is used. TYPES OF THE SEAMS:FUNCTIONAL SEAM:Functional seams provides the strength to the two components by stitching them together. While stitching it should be remembered all the things like needle size, point, thread size and stitching machine are correct or not. Seam should always be reinforced with the lock of 2 or 3 stitches at the start and end. The suitable reinforcement tape is also been used for providing extra strength to the seam. Different needle points enhance the appearance of the seam and helps in obtaining the required stitch length as per the buyers specification. DECORATIVE SEAM:Decorative seam is normally provided on the single component with the required combination of needle size, point, thread and stitching machine. It is always reinforced with the lock of 2 or 3 stitches at the start and end of the seam in case of fancy stitching and never been locked in case of cable stitching. The suitable reinforcement tape is also been used for providing extra strength to the seam. Different needle points enhance the appearance of the seam and helps in obtaining the required stitch length as per the buyers specification.

TYPES OF THE FUNCTIONAL SEAM:Closed Seams:This type ;of seam is mostly used to stitch quarter or counter back seams. Sometimes it is also used for front seams, where mudguard/vamp is cut in two pieces and stitched by placing the components grain to grain or flesh to flesh depending upon the design. The different types of close seam are as under:DDI / TRAINING / HANDOUT / CLO / 01.04.2008 PLAIN CLOSED SEAM:The components are placed face to face together(grain side) and stitched usually by keeping the distance of 1.5mm from the edge. This Distance is mostly maintained for leather material but can alter from 3 to 6 mm in case of synthetic material. The seam is then opened and rubbed down in case of leather and pressed in case of synthetic material. This is usually done on a flat bed machine. Use of guide is effective. As we know closed seam have to under go tension both during wear and lasting. Hence it is very important to use the right thread and stitch density. For extra strength seam is reinforced from the back side. Always use P point needle for back seam or close seam. Check the needle on regular basis for blunt tip or any kind of burr. Do not use a thread heavier than 40. Thickness of both the components must be matched otherwise the seam will roll. Skiving done must be uniform. Edge distance must be uniform. Seam must be level at top and lasting margin. Always start stitching from top line. Reinforced the seam properly with lock.

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BROOKLYN SEAM:When plain closed seam is rubbed down and reinforced with reinforcement tape, it is called Brooklyn seam.

FRENCH OR SILKED SEAM:The closed seam is rubbed and a woven tape is attached to the reverse side/flesh side with two rows of stitchingone on each side of the seam on the reinforcement tape. Such a seam is called a French/Silked seam. This type of stitching is mostly done by double needle stitching machine.

Reversed Closed Seam/Open Seam:It is similar to a closed seam except that the pieces are placed flesh-to-flesh and stitched. The edges are left unskived to give a bold look. The edges are inked. A reinforcement tape or backer must be use

Plain Closed Seam

Reverse Closed Seam

WELTED SEAM:It is a variation of a closed seam, used on a light material to overcome the tension problem. But the main purpose of this seam is to protect the back seam during a rough and tough wear of the shoe in jungle or fields, where the person is passing from the bushes and dry branches of small plants. A strips of material is placed in between the component and stitched with the edges.

WELTED SEAM

PIPED SEAM:It is a variation of a welted seam for the same purpose but the look and the fashion is more emphasized in this kind of seam. In this, a piping of the same or contrasting colour is inserted and stitched in between the two components for the purpose of design or decoration.

PIPED SEAM BLIND SEAM:Is used when the stitching holding the two pieces is not to be seen. The edge of the bottom component is underlay skived on the grain side. The

BLIND SEAM top component is stitched face to face on the stitch mark. Adhesive is applied on the part of the bottom component. Then the top piece is pulled back and stuck. It is usually used to join mudguard to vamps.

LAPPED SEAM:It is mostly used for joining vamps to quarters, toecap to vamps, aprons to wings etc. The edge of one component is placed over the top of another and stitched through both components. The underlay piece has an allowance of 8-10 mm for men and 6 mm for ladies shoe, and is underlay skived and the top component can either be raw edge, folded or gimped. The pieces are stitched together usually with a single row but double row stitch can also be done for the decoration purpose. The first stitch will always on the full thickness of material. The skiving must be 2-3 mm behind the stitching row for full strength. The skiving must be thin on the underlay edges to avoid print through after lasting. The edge of the top piece must be skived too thin, otherwise it will tear with strain

. LAPPED SEAM BUTTED SEAM:This stitching is made by stitching two pieces together without having any allowance by facing both pieces in same way. This is done on the Zig-Zag machine. Normally the stitch throw is 6mm for leather, 8 mm for synthetics and 10mm for fabrics.

BUTTED SEAM

This can be done by hand for decorative purpose as in the case of moccasin plug stitching by hand. Following points relating to butted seam should be remembered: Never use a P point needle on a Zig-Zag machine. It in a strong seam and must be re-inforced in some way.

DECORATIVE STITCHING:Decorative stitching can be of three types:CABLE STITCHING:In this type of stitching we use heavy duty machine. In this type of stitching we do not make a lock at the start and end of the seam. In this type of seam we pull the top thread downside and paste it with adhesive or reinforcement tape. As we know this type of stitching is mainly used for decorative purpose and for bold look. CORDING:This type of seam is used for decorative purpose. This type of seam is mainly used for raised effect. This can be done with the help of air cording machine where no thick cord is used. FACNY STITCHING:This type of stitching is mainly used with thin thread and thin needle for decorative purpose. This type of stitching is mainly used for decorative purpose. In this type of stitching we lock the seam at the start and end for giving reinforcement to the seam.

SKIVING
Skiving is the process of reducing the thickness of the material either from the grain or flesh side of the material. Skiving operation is carried out for making the closing operations much easier at different levels. When we join or attach the two components together without any skiving, it doubles the substance and creates problems for the next operations to perform during shoe making and cause discomfort to the wearer. So we can say skiving is the very important process and with the help of skiving we can achieve the good results. With the help of skiving we perform the various treatment in upper closing like Back Seam, Folding, Cording, Binding, Bagged Top Line, French Binding etc. For doing various types of seams we need various types of skiving. In the case of leather, skiving operation is much easier to perform than on synthetic material. Skiving is not being done on textile due to its nature and feel. Skiving operation is performed in the following ways: Manual Hand Skiving Machine Skiving MANUAL HAND SKIVING:This skiving is normally done in small units to make uppers and samples, as they can not spend on machines. But this method of skiving is not suitable for big orders. In other words we can say this method of skiving is suitable for the local shoe industry. The reason is that local shoe manufacturers are producing uppers in small quantity. and facing financial backlogs. Various tools and accessories are used during this skiving are,
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Rampi, Work Stone and sharpening stone. This type of skiving is mostly done on piece rate bases by the operators and hence the quality and the material is needed to be check during skiving. The work stone should be neat and clean before placing the component over it. For doing the hand skiving operations hand tools are operated in a skilled manner. So in other words we can say hand skiving needs high skilled operator. Normally an operator can do approx. 80-90 pairs in eight hours shift with quality. The tooling and accessories cost for this skiving is less even a common cobbler can afford to buy these tools. So it is a very good system of skiving for local manufacturers who can not invest much on infrastructure. MACHINE SKIVING:Hand skiving has limited scope and can not be used for mass production in current scenario of footwear industry. This makes the skiving work unsystematic and requires more time and skill to perform it. This also decreases the productivity and increases the operation cost. That is why mechanization came into existence and skiving becomes very convenient with the skiving machine. Two types of skiving machines are available in the footwear industry are:

Single Step Skiving Machine. Three Step Skiving Machine

Single Step Skiving Machine:The skiving machine makes the work easy and increases the productivity; hence it is suitable for the mass production in the footwear industry. With the help of this skiving machine we can do only one type of skiving at a time in one setting. The different machine parts involved to make the required skiving are:DDI / TRAINING / HANDOUT / CLO / 01.04.2008

Pressure Foot Bell Knife Feed Roller Sharpening Stone Skiving Guide Top Lever There are various kinds of pressure foot exists in closing room to obtained different kinds of skiving. The main function of the pressure foot is to press the material and determined the width and angle of skiving been done. The design and the shape of the pressure foot vary according to the type of skiving required: Parallel shape of pressure foot is requires for folding skiving. Flat fore part of the pressure foot is requires for raw edge and underlay skiving. Grooved in between the pressure foot is requires to make grooved skiving. Teflon material pressure foot or Teflon tape wrapped foot is used for skiving on synthetic material. BELL KNIFE:Bell knife is called so because it is having a shape of bell. The idea behind giving bell shape is to increase the life of the knife, which is continuously wearing off during sharpening process. The sharpening of the knife is frequently required to obtained the quality skiving. The bell knife always moves away from an operator during skiving, which keeps the dust particles away from an operator.

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FEED ROLLER:The main function of the feed roller is to feed the material by gripping the flesh side of the material without damaging it. There are different types of feed rollers available with machine mechanism for different types of material to be skived. Following are the types of the feed rollers available to suit the particular material. METELLIC ROLLER:- This type of feed roller is used for thick and thermoplastic material to be skived. For example:- Toe puff, Counter, Thick leather etc. EMERY ROLLER:- This type of feed roller is used for medium thick leather. RUBBER ROLLER:- This type of feed roller is used for fine and thin material.

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EDGE AND TOPLINE TREATMENTS FOLDING Folding is the process of turning over the edge of a component, which has already been skived or unskived in case of thin and soft material. It is a kind of edge treatment normally done on edges and on the top line to enhance the look of the shoe. Sometimes this operation is also called BEADING. Folding could be done by hand or by thermo-folding machine depends on the infrastructure and production. The amount of folding is depending upon the material, normally the folding allowance is 4mm and it can vary according to the material type. Before folding reinforcement tape is attached as per the requirement of design and buyer. FOLDING METHODS: By hand By machine Hand folding (Manual):This type of folding is carried out manually by hand with the help of the hand tools. For doing the folding with quality we need the high skilled operator. Folding allowance is given 4-5 mm and skiving is carried out half the thickness of the material and width of the skiving is twice the folding width plus 1mm rolling allowance in the case of thick material. The folding edges are mostly reinforced with 2mm reinforcement tape. Machine Folding :Folding can be done by machine. It reduces the time and labour because it automatically applies adhesive, make cuts and pleats and attach
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reinforcement tape along with the folding. Polyamide hot melt adhesive is used in this machine, which is flexible and not very hard in nature like other hot melt cement. With the help of the folding machine we can increase the quality also. Melting temperature of the machine is 220*c and the setting time is 2 second. TYPES OF FOLDING: STRAIGHT EDGE FOLDING CONCAVE CURVE EDGE FOLDING CONVEX CURVE EDGE FOLDING STRAIGHT EDGE FOLDING:Folding on the straight edge of the component is called straight folding. This kind of folding is easy in nature and enhances the productivity. Material type and quality skiving plays an important role during folding. Method: Select a 10 * 4 CM straight strip. Use skiving machine for fold skiving. Normally the fold skiving is double the width of the folding margin provided in the pattern. If the folding margin is 5mm then the folding skiving width will be 10mm, but in the case of thick material 1 mm rolling allowance is also given during skiving. Apply suitable adhesive on the skiving area of the component and place the component on the work stone. Hold the component with your left thumb and fingers, and start hammering by folding hammer with your right hand.
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The index finger of left hand will used to turn over the edge of the component and rest fingers will work as a guide during folding. CONCAVE CURVE FOLDING:Concave curve are those areas, where less material is to be folded. So nicks/cuts are given before folding, which helps the area to expand to some extent and folding takes place. But the nicks/cuts are to be given in equal distance from each other and the depth should be less than half of the folding margin. During folding on the concave curves, one should follow the right techniques in order to achieve quality and productivity. Method:Nicks or cuts are given on the concave curve at a distance of 2mm with scissor tip in order to widen the edge to achieve proper folding. Length of the nicks should only be 1.5 to 2 mm to avoid the visibility from topside. The cuts should not be deep more than half the width of the folding allowance. Apply the suitable adhesive on the edge of the skived component. If we are using the latex adhesive, apply only one coat of adhesive on the edge of the component and proper drying time should be given. Keep piece over to the work stone and hold it with your left hand, with the help of thumb and fingers. Hammering should be done with another on the folding margin. While folding index finger should be used to turn over the edge of the component. CONVEX CURVE FOLDING:In the convex curve excess material is to be folded, so pleats are given.
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During folding on the convex curve, one should follow the right techniques in order to achieve quality and productivity. Pleats should be given in equal distance. METHOD:Pleats are given on the convex curve at a distance of 2 mm with the help of the prickers tip in order to flattened the skived surface to achieve the proper folding. The width of the pleats depends on the nature of the material. Apply adhesive on the skiving area. In the case of latex adhesive, it is advisable that it should apply only one coat on the material surface. Keep the piece over the work stone and hold it with your left thumb and index finger. The first finger is used to turn over the edge of the component over the skiving area and with the right hand do the hammering. Pleating should be given during folding with the help of left index finger or by tip of the pricker. RAW EDGE:This is the cheapest type of edge treatment. The edge of the component is left as cut in the clicking department. On these edges colour is applied to match the colour and shade of the upper leather. Raw edge could be skived to neaten the edge. This raw edge could be edge inked/coloured by a matching /contrasting colour. Usually edge inking is done prior to skiving, as it is difficult to colour on a thin edge. If some component need to be edge inked after stitching, then each piece has to ink individually with a felt pen, wax crayon, or a small sponge.
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Gimped edge could be coloured by pressing them against a sponge saturated with ink. Edge inked could be carried out by holding the components with a clamp and then colouring them by brush/sponge/spraying. BAGGED TOPLINE:In this top line the upper is shallow fold skived. As we know in the shallow fold skive, depth of the skive tapers down at 35* angle and the width of the skive is twice the bagging allowance. If bagging is needed 4mm, skiving will be done on 8 mm. Reinforcement tape is given on the flesh side of the upper. The lining is stitched face to face with the outside section of the upper. Then the seam is stuck down towards the inside of the upper section and then lining is folded over the top line with the seam below the edge of the upper. Upper and lining should be securely bonded otherwise edges will be loose and bulky. Lining should be tightly pulled down while turning over and securely bonded otherwise lining will appear loose. Adhesive must be evenly spread to avoid bumps.
FRENCH BINDING:-

A strip of binding approx. 15mm wide is stitched face to face with the upper top edge. The reinforcement is given on the flesh side of the upper at the edge. The binding is folding over the edge, stuck and hammered down and then stitched by a row of top line. It produces a top line, which is strong and does not stretch. It is suitable for most top lines especially court shoes. Operation Method: Stitch component edge and binding edge by placing them face to face (grain to grain) with suitable reinforcement tape.
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Apply suitable adhesive on binding and components edge. Proper drying of adhesive. Turn the whole binding on the other side of the component by maintaining the equal and even turn. Attach the lining by maintaining desired trimming allowance and stitch the top line from the turning of the binding. PURPOSE OF SKIVIING:The purpose of skiving is to: Improve the appearance of the footwear, by removing any sort of bulkiness caused by the over lapping of component or by joining of components. To make footwear more comfortable. To help in better adhesion. To make stitching operations much easier by reducing bulkiness. To aid construction during lasting. To reduce substance at edge to make turning over easier. Make entire area workable. When lining is inserted, to avoid the edge being bulky and uncomfortable. On bindings-to avoid the bound edge being bulky. Incorrect skiving not only reduces the quality of the upper but also reduces the life of the footwear. It accounts for high re-work and rejection rate. Whatever of the purpose and importance of skiving, this operation has been practiced even before the advent of the machines. It was done manually, with the help of a hand skiving knife.
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Whatever process may be used for skiving, the principles of skiving remain the same. The reduction of material is mostly on the flesh side but in some cases, the grain surface may also be skived. TYPES OF SKIVING:SKIVING

Raw Edge Skive

Folding Skive Underlay skive

Open raw edge

Close raw edge

Hollow

Shallow

OPEN RAW EDGE:1. Open raw edge is used when the upper sections are to be left with raw edge, especially on heavy leathers with/without any short of edge treatment such as gimping/punching/binding to give a smooth and uniform finish/look along the edge of the component and to remove loose fibers from the edge.
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2. The depth of the skive is normally 1/3rd of the material thickness and width of skive must not be more than edge stitching distance, i.e., 1.5-2.00 mm.

OPEN RAW EDGE SKIVE CLOSE RAW EDGE: Used in case of closed seams in order to give smooth and uniform finish by removing excess bulkiness from the edges. Angle of the skive is 35*degree. Width of the skive is 2-3mm and depth is 2/3rd of the material thickness. Width and depth of the skive could vary depending upon the material thickness and strength. On thin and soft materials, there is no need to go for closed edge skive. Care must be taken not to affect the strength of the material.

CLOSE RAW EDGE SKIVE


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FOLDING SKIVING:It is necessary to remove the bulk so that the leather returns to its original thickness after folding over. Folding skiving is of two types:1. HOLLOW FOLD SKIVE: Is done in case of heavy leathers. Depth of skive is half of the material thickness. Width is usually twice the folding margin plus 1mm roll over allowance.

HOLLOW FOLD SKIVE 2. SHALLOW FOLD SKIVE: Is done in case of soft leather. For this, width of the skive is twice the folding margin. Skiving depth tapers down at 35* angle leaving 1/3rd of the material thickness at the tapered edge.

SHALLOW FOLD SKIVE


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UNDERLAY SKIVE: It is done on the bottom component where two components (top and bottom) are to be stitched together by overlapping. It is done to avoid any bumps on the upper, which could cause problems in stitching as well as print-through after lasting. Normally, underlay skive is done on the flesh side, but in case of unlined footwear/blind seam, it can be done on the grain side of the component, to give a better appearance inside the footwear. Skiving depth must taper down gradually to the finest possible edge to prevent a print-through after lasting. Skiving width must be 2-3 mm behind the stitch marking line/underlay margin, so that at least the first row of stitching comes on full thickness of both the material, to give enough strength and durability to the seam. Hence, it is necessary to do stitch marking before underlay skiving.

UNDERLAY SKIVE
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EDGE AND TOPLINE TREATMENTS FOLDING Folding is the process of turning over the edge of a component, which has already been skived or unskived in case of thin and soft material. It is a kind of edge treatment normally done on edges and on the top line to enhance the look of the shoe. Sometimes this operation is also called BEADING. Folding could be done by hand or by thermo-folding machine depends on the infrastructure and production. The amount of folding is depending upon the material, normally the folding allowance is 4mm and it can vary according to the material type. Before folding reinforcement tape is attached as per the requirement of design and buyer. FOLDING METHODS: By hand By machine Hand folding (Manual):This type of folding is carried out manually by hand with the help of the hand tools. For doing the folding with quality we need the high skilled operator. Folding allowance is given 4-5 mm and skiving is carried out half the thickness of the material and width of the skiving is twice the folding width plus 1mm rolling allowance in the case of thick material. The folding edges are mostly reinforced with 2mm reinforcement tape.
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Machine Folding :Folding can be done by machine. It reduces the time and labour because it automatically applies adhesive, make cuts and pleats and attach reinforcement tape along with the folding. Polyamide hot melt adhesive is used in this machine, which is flexible and not very hard in nature like other hot melt cement. With the help of the folding machine we can increase the quality also. Melting temperature of the machine is 220*c and the setting time is 2 second. TYPES OF FOLDING: STRAIGHT EDGE FOLDING CONCAVE CURVE EDGE FOLDING CONVEX CURVE EDGE FOLDING STRAIGHT EDGE FOLDING:Folding on the straight edge of the component is called straight folding. This kind of folding is easy in nature and enhances the productivity. Material type and quality skiving plays an important role during folding. Method: Select a 10 * 4 CM straight strip.

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Use skiving machine for fold skiving. Normally the fold skiving is double the width of the folding margin provided in the pattern. If the folding margin is 5mm then the folding skiving width will be 10mm, but in the case of thick material 1 mm rolling allowance is also given during skiving. Apply suitable adhesive on the skiving area of the component and place the component on the work stone. Hold the component with your left thumb and fingers, and start hammering by folding hammer with your right hand. The index finger of left hand will used to turn over the edge of the component and rest fingers will work as a guide during folding. CONCAVE CURVE FOLDING:Concave curve are those areas, where less material is to be folded. So nicks/cuts are given before folding, which helps the area to expand to some extent and folding takes place. But the nicks/cuts are to be given in equal distance from each other and the depth should be less than half of the folding margin. During folding on the concave curves, one should follow the right techniques in order to achieve quality and productivity. Method:Nicks or cuts are given on the concave curve at a distance of 2mm with scissor tip in order to widen the edge to achieve proper folding. Length of the nicks should only be 1.5 to 2 mm to avoid the visibility from topside. The cuts should not be deep more than half the width of the folding allowance. Apply the suitable adhesive on the edge of the skived
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component. If we are using the latex adhesive, apply only one coat of adhesive on the edge of the component and proper drying time should be given. Keep piece over to the work stone and hold it with your left hand, with the help of thumb and fingers. Hammering should be done with another on the folding margin. While folding index finger should be used to turn over the edge of the component. CONVEX CURVE FOLDING:In the convex curve excess material is to be folded, so pleats are given. During folding on the convex curve, one should follow the right techniques in order to achieve quality and productivity. Pleats should be given in equal distance. METHOD:Pleats are given on the convex curve at a distance of 2 mm with the help of the pickers tip in order to flattened the skived surface to achieve the proper folding. The width of the pleats depends on the nature of the material. Apply adhesive on the skiving area. In the case of latex adhesive, it is advisable that it should apply only one coat on the material surface. Keep the piece over the work stone and hold it with your left thumb and index finger. The first finger is used to turn over the edge of the component over the skiving area and with the right hand do the hammering. Pleating should be given during folding with the help of left index finger or by tip of the pickers.

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RAW EDGE:This is the cheapest type of edge treatment. The edge of the component is left as cut in the clicking department. On these edges colour is applied to match the colour and shade of the upper leather. Raw edge could be skived to neaten the edge. This raw edge could be edge inked/coloured by a matching /contrasting colour. Usually edge inking is done prior to skiving, as it is difficult to colour on a thin edge. If some component need to be edge inked after stitching, then each piece has to ink individually with a felt pen, wax crayon, or a small sponge. Gimped edge could be coloured by pressing them against a sponge saturated with ink. Edge inked could be carried out by holding the components with a clamp and then colouring them by brush/sponge/spraying. BAGGED TOPLINE:In this top line the upper is shallow fold skived. As we know in the shallow fold skive, depth of the skive tapers down at 35* angle and the width of the skive is twice the bagging allowance. If bagging is needed 4mm, skiving will be done on 8 mm. Reinforcement tape is given on the flesh side of the upper. The lining is stitched face to face with the outside section of the upper. Then the seam is stuck down towards the inside of the upper section and then lining is folded over the top line with the seam below the edge of the upper. Upper and lining should be securely bonded
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otherwise edges will be loose and bulky. Lining should be tightly pulled down while turning over and securely bonded otherwise lining will appear loose. Adhesive must be evenly spread to avoid bumps.
FRENCH BINDING:-

A strip of binding approx. 15mm wide is stitched face to face with the upper top edge. The reinforcement is given on the flesh side of the upper at the edge. The binding is folding over the edge, stuck and hammered down and then stitched by a row of top line. It produces a top line, which is strong and does not stretch. It is suitable for most top lines especially court shoes. Operation Method: Stitch component edge and binding edge by placing them face to face (grain to grain) with suitable reinforcement tape. Apply suitable adhesive on binding and components edge. Proper drying of adhesive. Turn the whole binding on the other side of the component by maintaining the equal and even turn. Attach the lining by maintaining desired trimming allowance and stitch the top line from the turning of the binding.

ITALIAN BINDING:Italian binding is a kind of offset U-binding. This is constructed in two ways:DDI / TRAINING / HANDOUT / CLO / 01.04.2008

In the first method the binding is stitched directly in cylinder bed machine with the help of binding tube on top of the component. Then lining is attached from inside and stitching is done from outside as per the specification. After stitching, excess trimming margin is trimmed off from lining. In the second method the binding is stitched directly with post bed single needle machine on the given marking over the component. Later this binding is pasted, turned inside and stitched. Then the lining is fixed from inside and stitching is done from outside as per the specification. After stitching, excess trimming margin is trimmed off by leaving 1.5-2.00 mm allowance. Quality Check Points: Check the quality of previous operation like skiving and splitting of binding as per specification. Adhesive and reinforcement should be selected as per specification. Adhesive pot should be neat and clean and must have lid on it. All the concern tools are required to be kept in proper place. Master pattern/sample should be taken against necessary checks. In case of using U-binding machine, check for suitable binding tube. ENGLISH BINDING:In this case a strip of binding is stitched over the edge of the upper in cylinder bed machine. The binding could be of leather, fabric or synthetic. The binding should be of 0.5mm to 0.6mm thickness. The strip width can vary but 10 to 13 mm for normal purposes. It is also known as slipper
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bound edge. Binding is reinforced most of the time for extra strength so that binding do not loose it shape or burst due to too much stretch while inserting last, last slipping, or during wear. This is done by a cylinder arm machine having a special tube attached to it. The selection of tube depends on the binding width and the thickness of the material + 1mm seam allowance. This treatment of top line is moderately strong and stretch resistant. QUALITY CHECK POINTS: Check the quality of the previous operation like skiving and splitting of binding as per the specification. Adhesive and reinforcement should be selected as per specification. Adhesive pot should be neat and clean and must have lid on it. All the concern tools are required to be kept in proper place. Master pattern/sample should be taken against necessary checks. Check suitable binding tube, during U-binding operation. GIMPED EDGE:Gimped edges are mostly given for decorative purpose. Usually 4 mm trim off allowance is given at the edges for gimping. The gimping can be achieved in the components while cutting the components by having the gimped edges on cutting knives.
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QUALITY CHECK POINTS: Check for the right quality of material against any loose substances on the flesh side of material. All the concern tools are to be kept in proper place in case of manual gimping. Check suitable colour and pot for edge inking operation. The gimping tool should be checked against the gimping specification and sharpening in case of using perforating machine. The gimping scissor should be checked against the gimping specification and sharpening in case of manual gimping. Clicking knives are required to be checked against any damage before cutting.

GIMPED EDGE GIMPED AND PUNCHED EDGE:The edge are gimped and punches are provided for the decorative purpose. The punches follow a particular pattern. Gimping and punching can be achieved either by perforating machine or by knives while cutting the component. The edge is particularly found in brogue shoes.
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QUALITY CHECK POINTS: Check for the right quality of material against any loose substances on the flesh side of the material. All the concern tools are to be kept in proper place in case of manual gimping and punching. Check suitable colour and pot for edge inking operation. Check suitable reinforcement tape to be fixed under the punching. Gimping and punching tool should be checked against the gimping specification and sharpening in case of using perforating machine. The gimping scissor should be checked against the gimping specification and sharpening in case of manual gimping. The punching tool should be checked against the punching specification, if it is performed separately in case of manual punching. Clicking knives are required to be checked against any damage prior to cutting.

GIMPED AND PUNCHED EDGE

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SLIIP BEADING:Slip beading is a kind of top line treatment, which is designed on higher back heights. Normally, it is a need of design and designers imagination to produce higher top line on the shoe. The extra back height causes discomfort to the wearer during walking. To avoid discomforts on such styles helped to invent such top line treatment, where foam padding is provided to produce a comfortable shoe. A strip of folded material approx.10-20mm wide is stitched between the outside top line and lining so that folded beading protrudes slightly. The beading is usually of contrasting color, and outside is normally gimped. QUALITY CHECK POINTS : Top line components are to be checked for raw edge skiving and neat edges. Edge colour should match the required specification. In case of spray inking, spray gun should be check against cleaning and quantity. Specified foam should be inserted in between the slip beading. Proper marking should be done on slip beading with the marking patterns.

figure

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GHILLIE TOP LINE:This type of top line treatment is also done for decorative purpose. Some time designers imagination sketches the different design and result may have a shoe, which may belongs to the ultimate fashion but could not stay on feet without any top line fastening. This edge is designed in such a way that a lace can be threaded through the top line allowing it to be pulled to the required tightness. A cut strip is folded and stitched to the inside of the top line and lace is threaded through the tubular strip. QUALITY CHECKS: Top line components and strips are required to be check for necessary skiving and neat edges. Edge colour should match the required specification. Specified foam can be inserted in between the top line rope during beading. Proper marking should be done on strip with the marking patterns. In case of raw edge strips, specified edge inking should be done.

figure

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TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM:As we know in the factories various transportation systems are used as per the capacity of the factories. We have to transport raw material, work in progress and finished goods from one place to another place or from one operation to another operation. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS USED IN THE CLOSING DEPARTMENTS: BASKET/BINS SYSTEM TROLLEYS SYSTEM CONVEYOR SYSTEM BASKET/BINS SYSTEM:In this method basket or bins are used to move the material from one workstation to another. we put the batch of 10-12 prs in one basket. In this method a full time feeder is required to move the basket to different workstations that collect the basket from the operator when he finishes his operation and then move it to another operator for the next operation. The main features of this system are: In this system we can arrange the machines in any order, however it is best to have some sort of sequence . Baskets are inexpensive. We make the batch size of 10-12 prs which determine the basket size. Baskets are heavy to carry around. Both supervisor and the operators become tired by the end of the day. In this system there is a chance of missing any one of tray during processing.
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In this system more than one style can be loaded. TROLLEYS:For transporting the goods from one workstation to another trolleys are used. Transporting the goods with the help of trolleys is very easy and one trolley can contain several trays. As we know in one basket we can put 10-12 prs in one basket. It should be remembered in one trolley we should put one style of upper. Trolleys are moved to different workstation after the completion of work at one work station. In one trolley we can put three trays. As we know in each tray we put 10-12 prs. It means in one trolley we can put 30-36 prs. The footwear being processed should have a sequence card made for each individual style. This is placed on the side of each trolley. Only that style of footwear could be loaded on that particular trolley. In this system supervisor and operator do not feel tired by the end of the day. Handling frequency is less than that of the basket system. In this system operator completes 30-36 prs before the trolley is moved on. CONVEYOR SYSTEM:In the basket and trolley system require too much of manual movement which cause too much wastage of time and loss of production. To over come this type of difficulty in handling of the goods gravity conveyor or powered conveyors are now commonly used in many factories. Material can be moved from one operation to another operation under gravity flow or through a powered conveyor.
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GRAVITY CONVEYOR:This is the best method of transporting the goods from one place to another place. In this system power is not used. This type of conveyor can be easily installed. Material is moved from one workstation to another workstation under gravity flow by manual push. Gravity conveyor can have skate wheel or roller to convey the good to different location under the gravity flow. This type of conveyor can be installed according to the production requirement and according to the need like light, medium and heavy weight. This conveyor can have variety of length and width. In closing section such conveyor can be classified as feeder-operatoroperator as feeder just feeds the work initially than operator himself moves the work by manual push to next operator after completion of the work. The main features of this type of transporting system are:FEEDER-OPERATOR-OPERATOR:In this type feeder is concerned only with the initial placing of work on the transporter, and with removing it on completion. In this type operators are responsible for the routing of the work, they must be given clear instructions on the operational sequence. ADVANTAGES: A full time feeder is not required. Less expensive than the motorized type. DISADVANTAGES: In this system operators are responsible for the routing of work can lead to errors.
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Accurate work loading, which is not always possible with fluctuations in styles. Bottlenecks & Shortages are hard to see. It is hard to control In this system machines are arranged in a sequence. Operators have the advantage to be selective about their job lots. MOTORIZED TRANSPORTER:Such transporter requires power driven roller or belt. This type of conveyor can handle heavier load and can be driven at various speed. These roller and belts also provides a solid surface for people working this type of conveyor. This type of transporter in closing section requires a full time feeder who feeds the work to different operators and receive the finished work through the powered belt. In this conveyor we use the Feeder-Operator-Feeder system. FEEDER- OPERATOR- FEEDER SYSTEM:In this system conveyor belt is used for transferring the goods from dispatching point to the workstations. A series of workstations are situated on either side of the conveyor belt whose distance in between is determined by the size of the tables as well as size of the boxes. In this system a motorized continuous moving belt that allows for the return of the boxes to the feeder position. Two boxes are feed at one time, one being worked on and the other in reserve. The main advantages and disadvantages of this system is :-

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ADVANTAGES: In this system we can reduce the work in progress. Process time is shorter than the other system. Operators productivity is increase by this system. More than one style can be loaded at one time. Bottlenecks can be identified easily. Complete control over the progress of work. Operators can leave their workstations without upsetting the workflow. A supervisor can inspect the work from every operation at one central position. DISADVANTAGES: In this system a full time feeder is required. It is very expensive than the gravity conveyor.

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DERBY UPPER
The main features of this shoe is that Quarter overlays the Vamp. This shoe is designed for easy entry of the foot in the shoe. It is an open throat laced shoe, with a tongue cut in one piece with vamp or separately. The derby shoe has many variations.

COMPONENTS:Here we are considering the all the upper and lining components are of leather and tongue is one piece with vamp. Interlining is attached with upper material if upper material has enough strength then interlining may not be required. The components of derby shoe are as follows:UPPER: Two vamp with tongue attachment (1for left foot and 1 for right foot).
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Four quarters ( 2 for inside and 2 for outside). LINING: Two vamp lining ( 1 for left foot and 1 for right foot). Four quarter lining ( 2 for inside and 2 for outside foot). Two tongue lining (1 for left foot and 1 for right foot). Two heel grip ( 1 for let foot and 1 for right foot). INTERLIINING: Two for vamp Four for quarter The sequences of operations for making Derby Upper are as follows: Sorting Quality checking. Skiving upper and lining components:1. underlay on vamp 2. folding skiving on top line of quarter. 3. close raw edge skiving on quarter. 4. open raw edge skiving on quarter (in case of thick leather). 5. open raw edge skiving on tongue. 6. underlay skiving on vamp lining. Interlining attachment on quarters and vamp. Stamping on the components. Edge inking on the top line of quarters and tongue. Back seam on quarters by single needle flat bed machine. Seam rubbing and taping. Attachment of quarter lining with heel grip. Stitch quarter lining with heel grip with single needle flat bed machine. Folding on the top line by hand or by m/c. Attachment of vamp lining with tongue lining.
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Stitching of vamp lining with tongue lining. Attachment of vamp and tongue lining with vamp leaving trimming lining. Stitching on the tongue with single needle flat bed machine. Trimming of tongue lining Attachment of quarter with quarter lining on the top line area leaving trimming allowance. Stitching of quarter with quarter lining on the top line with post bed single needle stitching machine. Trimming of quarter lining on the top line area. Attachment of the vamp with the quarter. Stitching of vamp with quarter with double needle post bed machine. Derby lock stitching. Stitching of vamp lining with quarter lining. Eyelet attachment by hand or by machine. Thread burning and trimming. Quality checking of the upper. Packing. QUALITY CHECK POINTS: Edge stitching should not be more than 1.5mm to 2.00mm from the edge. Double row of stitching distance should be 1.8mm from the edge. For lapped seam and top line stitching, stitch density should be 44.5stitch/cm. Derby lock should at stitch mark. There should not be any top tension and bottom tension. Eyeleting should be correct. Correct size and color of eyelet must be used.
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Distance for eyeleting is 10mm from the top and 15mm between the eyelets. Thread colour should match the colour of leather or as per the sample given. Folding should be neat and clean. Lining should not be too short at the lasting edges. Lining must be trimmed smoothly. No wrinkle in lining or tongue.

OXFORD UPPER
Oxford shoe is shoe style for men with closed front and the eyelet tabs are stitched under the vamp. It can be plain oxford, full brogue and semi brogue versions. The main features of oxford shoe is that vamp overlays the quarter. It is an open throat lace shoe with three or more eyelets. Oxford shoe have many variations in design. Toecap oxford is a variation of oxford shoe.

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SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS: Sorting Quality checking. Skiving upper and lining components:1. underlay skiving on quarters 2. underlay skiving on eyelet facing. 3. underlay skiving on tongue. 4. underlay skiving on vamp. 5. fold skiving on top line of quarter . 6. fold skiving on top line of eyelet facing. 7. fold skiving on toe cap. 8. close raw edge skiving on counter. Interlining attachment on toe cap, quarters and vamp. Stamping on the components. Closed seam on counter. Back seam rubbing and taping. Attachment of counter with the quarter by applying adhesive. Stitching of counter with the quarter with the help of double needle flat bed machine. Attachment of quarter with the eyelet facing by applying adhesive.\ Stitching of quarter with the eyelet facing with the help of double needle flat bed machine. Application of adhesive on the toe cap. Folding of toe cap. Adhesive application on the vamp. Folding of the vamp. Adhesive application on the forepart of vamp. Attachment of toe cap with vamp.
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Stitching of toe cap with vamp with the help of double needle flat bed machine. Folding of eyelet facing, quarter and counter top line. Attachment of quarter lining with heel grip. Stitching of quarter lining with heel grip with the help of single needle fat bed machine. Attachment of quarter and heel grip lining with counter, quarter and eyelet facing by leaving trimming allowance. Stitching of top line with the help of single needle post bed machine. Attachment of tongue with tongue lining by applying adhesive leaving trimming allowance. Stitching of tongue with tongue lining. Trimming of the quarter, counter and eyeleting facing top line lining. Trimming of the tongue lining. Stitching of the vamp lining with the quarter lining. Attachment of tongue. Stitching of tongue with the upper. Thread burning and trimming. Quality checking . Packing. COMPONENTS:Oxford shoes have following components:UPPER: Two toe cap (one for left foot and one for right foot). Two vamp (one for left foot and one for right foot). Four quarters (2 inside and 2 outside). Four eyeleting facing (2 for left and 2 for right).
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Two counters (one for left and one for right). Two tongue (one for left and one for right). LINING: Two vamp lining ( one for left and one for right foot). Four quarter lining (two for inside and two for outside). Two heel grip (one for right and one for left). Two for tongue (one for right and one for left). INTERLINING: Two for vamp. Four for quarters. Four for eyelet facing. Two for counters. QUALITY CHECK POINTS: Edge stitching should not to be more than 1.5-2.00mm from the edge. Double row stitching distance should be 1.8mm from the first row. For back seam and French seam, stitch density should be 5-5.5st./cm. For lapped seam and top line stitching stitch density should be 44.5st./cm. For toe cap to vamp stitching, first row stitching at 1.5mm from the edge. There should not be any slip stitching. There should not be any top tension and bottom tension. All the uppers should be neat and clean. Eyeleting must be proper. Correct size and colour of eyelet must be used.
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Distance for eyeleting is 10mm from the top and 15mm between the eyelets. For close seam p point needle must be used. Thread colour should match the colour of the leather or as per the sample given. Ticket no.40 for top thread and ticket no. 60 for bottom thread should be used. Folding should be neat and clean. Lining should not be too short at the lasting edges. Lining must be trimmed smoothly.

THREAD Threads are made from fibers and fibers used to make industrial sewing threads come from two major sources: fibers could be man-made or natural. The ones used commonly in shoemaking are:NATURAL FIBERS:Come from plants and animals and are spun or twisted into yarns. Cotton is the most common natural fiber used to make thread. Other natural fibers include silk, wool, jute, and linen. Natural fibers are generally not as uniform as synthetic fibers and are affected by climatic changes. SYNTHETIC FIBERS:Synthetic fibers are made from various chemicals or regenerated from cellulose such as wood pulp and cotton waste. We select our synthetic
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fibers based on their sewing ability, seam performance, colorfastness and pricing etc. Examples are: polyester, nylon etc. THREAD TWIST:Fibers are twist together to make yarns/filaments. This twist produces strength and flexibility. This twist, which consolidates the fibers, is the first/singling twist. This twist is balanced by a reverse twist when two or more yarns are joined together to form a ply. Two or more plies are joined together to form a thread. This reverse twist could be either clockwise or anti-clockwise.Clockwise twist produces a Z-twist and an anti clockwise twist produces S-twist. The twist of the thread is known by the finishing twist.

TWISTING Which thread to use depends upon the movement of the hook. In the closing room, all machines have hooks with clockwise movement, so a thread with a clockwise twist (Z) should use. If we use S twist thread, it will be untwist and break.
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Thread are mainly produced in 2 or 3, sometimes 4 ply, i.e., 2,3, or 4 yarns are twisted to form 2,3, or 4 ply thread. For heavier threads, these twisted threads are further twisted to form cords but the important point to remember is that the twist directions reverse every time. So, 3 S twist yarns will be Z-twisted to form a 3-ply Z-twisted thread. Level of the twist depends upon the fiber. THREAD NUMBERING/SIZING SYSTEM:There are two methods to size a thread:A. Fixed Length System A. FIXED LENGTH SYSTEM:It is the weight in grams of a fixed length of thread, i.e. numbering by weight. So, the coarser the thread, the higher the number. This system is used for silks and rayons. B. FIXED WEIGHT SYSTEM:It is the length in meters of a fixed weight of thread, i.e. numbering by length. So, the finer the thread, the higher the number. The threads are classified in to size groups known as ticket number B. Fixed Weight System

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THREAD CONSUMPTION:Thread consumption can be measured in the following ways: Measure the actual amount of thread consumed in a specified length of seam. Thread consumption can be calculated by using the following formula:2 * (material thickness + stitch length) * stitch/cm + 10-15% wastage allowance

THREAD IDENTIFICATION:The natural fiber thread will produce a flame and burn slow if exposed to a flam. The synthetic thread, if exposed to flame, will produce smoke with little flame, the end tends to form a small ball/knot and it will burn quickly.
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TWIST IDENTIFICATION:The direction of twist can be identified by holding a thread between the thumb and forefinger of the left and with the thumb and forefinger of right hand, twist the thread towards you. If the thread loosens or unwinds, the thread will be S twist if the thread tightens it will be Z twist. PROPERTIES OF THE THREADS:Main qualities of thread required for footwear are:FDDI / TRAINING / HANDOUT / CLO / 01.04.2008

1. Strength:Thread should be strong enough so as to able to penetrate two or more layers of leather without breaking. 2. Stretchiness:Thread should be stretchable enough to with stand all shoe making operations without breaking but should not stretch too easily. 3. Elasticity:Thread should be elastic enough so that the seam can recover well after stretching and not become loose in wear. 4. Thread should be resistance to bacteria. 5. Thread should be resistance to needle heat. 6. Thread should be resistance to damage from sunlight. 7. Thread should have colour fastness property. 8. Good abrasion resistance properties. 9. Retain a good appearance in finished seams. 10.No shrinkage/expansion when exposed to heat or wet. 11.Good loop formation property. 12.Uniform thickness to avoid snagging during stitching.
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13.Choosing the right thread is very important for thread performance during sewing because it takes approximately 40 times of flexing for a piece of thread to form a stitch. The choice depends upon the type of: Seam Material Needle and Purpose

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