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Motori per aeromobili AA 2010-2011

Dario Pastrone Dipartimento di Energetica/lato Macchine 011 090 4479 Dario.Pastrone@polito.it ESAME Lesame si compone di 2 parti Domande di teoria Commento di esercitazioni svolte Nel giorno dellappello si decide un calendario di esami. E quindi necessaria la vostra presenza: se non potete venire di persona mandate un vostro delegato. Si cerca di concordare la data, ove necessario si usa lordine alfabetico, a partire dalla lettera estratta. TESTI (vedi programma del corso) PROGRAMMA Conoscenza propulsori aerospaziali con elevato rapporto spinta/peso Airbreathing Progetto di Motori per aeromobili, Controllo prop. Chemical rockets Propulsione spaziale low thrust to weight ratio (ci sarebbero poi Combined/Composite + advanced, hypersonic.) On-design (performance and preliminary sizing) Off-design (component matching and performance)

Cosa vedremo in queste prime lezioni. AIRBREATHING Richiamo prestazioni Descrizione propulsori La Spinta e il suo costo
Introduzione La Spinta netta standard S Definizione di Stream force, dinalpia e termini di S Resistenza addizionale (Additional drag or Preentry thrust)
Che positiva Che recuperabile sulla carenatura

Spinta adattata
Che la S adattata massima (NB: ugello critico, date condizioni di volo/funzionamento) % dei termini di S e guadagno possibile con ladattamento
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Aerospace Propulsion
Reciprocating engines
+ propeller + compressor (thermojet)

Gas-turbine engines
Turboshaft + Propeller (helicopters) Turbojet (+ Afterburner) Turboprop Turbofan Propfan

Jet propulsion

Ramjet/Scramjet Propulsion Pulsojet, PDE Rocket Propulsion Composite/Combined cycles Other


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Propulsion: How can I generate thrust?


Action-reaction principle (Newton 3 law)

F = m* acc

T = mass flow rate* DV

What I need?
Action-reaction principle (Newton 3 law)
Pushing Energy source, engine, device Against Working fluid

Working Fluid
From outside (air) High mass flow rate, low acceleration
Propeller + engine Airbreathing engine (air/fuel about 50)

From inside (propellant) Low mass flow, high acceleration


Rocket

Propeller + Reciprocating Engine Airbreathing propulsion


Gas-turbine propulsion
Turboshaft + propeller Turbojet (+ Afterburner) Turboprop Turbofan Propfan

Ramjet/Scramjet propulsion Chemical rocket propulsion (next presentation)


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Airfoil
Momentum (flow deflection)

Pressure distribution
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Airfoil
Deflects flow but

Not efficiently for high turning angles

and transonic speeds


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Propeller

Rotating wing Limited speed M = 0.5 or 0.6


Separation Shock waves

Who drives the propeller ? Tell me nedeed power

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Propeller vs Jet Engines


Indicare le idee principali che si desidera trattare

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Aircraft Propulsion
Propeller + reciprocating engine Airbreathing propulsion
Gas-turbine propulsion
Turboshaft + propeller Turbojet (+ Afterburner) Turboprop Turbofan Propfan

Ramjet/Scramjet propulsion
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Gas-Turbine Engines
The core is the gas-generator:
generates hot pressurized gas looks like a steady-flow version of reciprocating engine high components efficiency required

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Gas-Turbine Engines
The hot pressurized gas can be used
To generate power turboshaft To be accelerated in a nozzle turbojet Bothturboprop, turbofan, propfan

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Gas-Generator components

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Axial Compressor and Turbine


Efficient for high mass flow rates Axial speed component of fluid almost constant Compressor may stall: flow turning can be higher in turbine stages larger pressure ratio 16 Variable inlet guide vane

Centrifugal Compressor
Only type ready for very first jet engines (large pressure ratio) Less efficient, higher frontal area, limited staging Still used for small gas turbines

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Combustor
Primary zone: slow, high fuel/air ratio (lean for low emission) Diluition zone

Turbine Compressor

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Aircraft Propulsion
Propeller + reciprocating engine Airbreathing propulsion
Gas-turbine propulsion
Turboshaft + propeller Turbojet (+ Afterburner) Turboprop Turbofan Propfan

Ramjet/Scramjet propulsion
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To make a Turbojet
Get a gas generator and add
Inlet (air intake), Nozzle, may be an afterburner.

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Inlets

21 Credit NASA

Nozzle

22 Credit NASA

Afterburner (reheat)

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Jet Propulsion 1910


Coanda-1910 The first jet-airplane, using a THERMOJET by Henri Coand, Romanian

Campini Caproni CC.2, 27 Aug 1940


Compressor

Ghost 50 Nozzle Reciprocating engine Combustor


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Jet propulsion 1939 - 44

He S3B (4,4 kN - Hans Von Ohain)

Jumo 004 (8,8 kN)

Heinkel He 178, 27 aug 1939

ME 262 "Schwalbe (1942, 1944)


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Jet propulsion 1941 - 46

Frank Whittle W1 3.8 kN

Gloster E28/39 Pioneer (April 14, 1941)

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Gloster Meteor:1944; 991 km/h in 1946

Goblin (10 16 kN)

Ghost 50

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First commercial turbojet


Derived from Goblin Thrust SLS 22.2 kN Mass-Flow-Rate (MFR) 43 kg/s Single spool / Centrifugal compressor Thrust-to-Weight (TW) 2.3 Turbine-Inlet-Temperature (TIT) 1070 K Ghost 50

First flight: 27 July , 1949 Top speed: 810 km/h Flight altitude: 12800 m Range: 2400 km Engines: Ghost 50 Mk1 Passenger seats: 36

Comet : 1952 (now Nimrod)

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Horizontal supersonic flight YF-100 using P&W J57 (1953)


Fixed geometry, Two spool 50 - 80 kN Commercial version J57 used on B 707 (1947: X-1 or diving XP-86)
YF-100

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GE J79, Variable geometry


To be in service till 2020 Single spool, 67 - 80 kN

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Super Sonic Transport (SST)


RR/Snecma Olympus 593 Afterburning turbojet
Two spool Thrust SLS + AB 169 kN, Dry 138 kN cruise (18300 m, M=2) 44.6 kN Mass 3386 kg (TW= 5) Cruise TSFC 1.21 kg/daN h Max temperature 1350 K Takeoff

Concorde: 1975-2003

Cruise

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100 seats, 13 seat-miles per gallon

Tupolev Tu-144 Konkordsky

Concorde: 1975-2003

1975-78
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From the Turbojet


Thrust = MassFlowRate * DeltaVelocity Propulsion efficiency High MFR, low DV Turbojet has high WE for subsonic flight Extract power before accelerating flow

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To the Turbofan and the Turboprop

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Aftfan

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Turbofan
Air bypass the gas generator Cold/hot mass flow = BPR Low air-speed High BPR (weight and installation losses) High air-speed Low BPR

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Turbofan
GE F110, BPR < 1 Supersonic, 100 140 kN Bypass flow: 3 stages Mixing

RR RB211, BPR = 4 Subsonic, 170 250 kN Bypass flow: 1 fan Mixing

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PW 4000 family

230-440 kN; Fan diameter 2.4, 2.5, 2.8 m


PW 4000 series

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GE 90 family Fan > 3 m (GE, Snecma, Avio, IHI) 330 - 570 kN BPR > 9

RR Trent family 240- 460 kN BPR up to 11

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Geared Turbofan PW1000G Mitsubishi Regional Jet Bombardier Cseries Certification due 2012

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Turboprop
1939-1942: Jendrassik Cs-1 world's first Turboprop designed by the Hungarian engineer Gyrgy Jendrassik, not unreliable. Widely used from 1955 (commuter regional airliners)
Vs TurboJet: less fuel, but heavier, more noise and less speed Vs Reciprocating engine: ligther and smaller (not for low power)

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Prop-fan

GE-36 UDF McDonnell Douglas MD-81

Progress D-27, Antonov An-70

Alias UDF (UnDuctedFan) or Open Rotor Counter-rotating swept blades Up to Mach 0.75 Low specific fuel consumption High cabin noise level

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Prop-fan

Rolls Royce RB2011 Pusher/puller for 150 seat aircraft Certification due 2017-2018

Pusher less noise: no inlet interference Preferred by GE-Snecma Also geared...


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Turboshaft

Pratt & Whitney of Canada PT6

1950 Alouette II powered by Artouste (Turbomeca)

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Thrust & Weight

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Life & Reliability

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TSFC kg/daNh

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Performance vs Mach number

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Ramjet
1908 : Patented in France by Ren Lorin. 1933 : ground test of the GIRD-08 ramjet engine was built by Yuri Pobedonostsev 1949 : Leduc 010 first ramjet-powered aircraft to fly Good performance M = 2 - 4

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Scramjet

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Scramjet flight tests


Nov. 16, 2004

L.A. - The X-43A aircraft flew at a speed of around Mach 9.6(11000 km/h) after a booster rocket took it to around 110,000 feet (33.5 kilometers) and then separated.A modified B-52 airplane had carried the experimental plane and its booster aloft

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Combined Engines

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