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Roman Catholicism

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Roman Catholicism

On Church History

Roman Catholicism appeals to church tradition, while protestants appeal only to the Scriptures as authoritative. When the Roman Catholic church declares a "dogma" that contradicts the Bible we "protest" the change. Here is the church tradition before 200AD:
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90AD Clement of Rome, the fourth Pope, Corinthians 44 - The replacements of the apostles must be elected by representatives from the whole church. (This was not possible after 1054) 170AD Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.2 - Heretics allege truth was delivered not by written documents, but by oral tradition. Without this oral tradition you can't properly interpret the Scriptures. 170AD Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.3 - The apostles did not pass down any hidden wisdom, just the Scriptures. If an older written document contradicts the newer written document we believe the older. 170AD Irenaeus, Against Heresies 4.26 - Obey the presbyters who are in the church, -- those who possess the succession from the apostles; together with the succession of the episcopate, who have received the certain gift of truth. But it is also incumbent to hold in suspicion others who depart from the primitive succession. Avoid all who do not hold to the doctrine of the apostles, including presbyters. 170AD Irenaeus, Against Heresies 4.33 - The doctrine of the apostles, has been guarded and preserved without any forging of Scriptures, as a very complete system of doctrine. Neither receive addition to or suffer curtailment from its truths. Read the Word of God without falsification, lawfully and diligently explaining them in harmony with the rest of the Scriptures. 177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata book 2.4 - There never was any secret doctrine handed down by the apostles, just the Scriptures. Only the heretics say there is secret doctrine from the apostles which you must know to correctly understand the Scripture. 177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 2.17 - To be true, a thing must be proven scientifically, by comparison and testing. 177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 7.15 - True Christians do not divide the body of Christ, but heretics try to. 177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 7.16 - Do not accept any teaching that is not clearly taught in the Scriptures. It must be proven logically and completely from the Scriptures or it is just an opinion. Any one who divides the body of Christ with opinions is sinning against the body of Christ.

Titus 3:10-11 says after the second warning excommunicate any who cause divisions, because they are perverted and sinful. 1 Timothy says avoid foolish speculations about doctrine. Matthew, 2 Peter, and Jude warn of heretics rising up in the church causing division. 1 Corinthians 1 is an example of dividing over baptisms and in 1 Corinthians 3 we are told God will destroy all who do this. Galatians 1:18 says even if an angel changes doctrine he is to be accursed.

The Roman Catholic position is the seven sacraments infuse grace. Salvation comes by grace through Sacraments. Council of Trent 1547 Pope Clement I, Corinthians 32 - We are not justified by ourselves, nor by our own wisdom, or understanding, or godliness, or works which we have wrought in holiness of heart; but by that faith. St. Paul, Ephesians 2 - For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, not of works.

The Lord's Supper

The Roman Catholic position is that grace is infused by participation in the Eucharist, making one more justified and righteous. Council of Trent 1547 { Justin Martyr 110-165 Dialogue 70 - The Eucharist is bread which Christ gave us to eat, in remembrance of His being made flesh for the sake of His believers, for whom also He suffered; and to the cup which He gave us to drink, in remembrance of His own blood, with giving of thanks. { 177AD Clement of Alexandria, Instructor book 2.2 - They use water mixed with wine for communion, and the wine is just a symbol of the blood of Jesus, but it does sanctify both body and soul to those who take it in faith.

Infant Baptism
The Roman Catholic position is that grace to overcome original sin is mediated at baptism. Council of Trent 1547 { Justin Martyr, First Apology 61 - Baptism is "the manner in which we dedicated ourselves to God after we had been made new through Christ." Baptism is "for the remission of their sins that are past" and is done in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The apostles taught this rite is to show one has chosen to be born again and repented of his sins, and is illuminated in understanding. So it is called "the regeneration" or "illumination." We are instructed to pray for the remission of sins, then they are brought by us where there is water, and are regenerated in the same manner in which we were ourselves regenerated. { Justin Martyr, Dialogue 29 - Water baptism is of no need to one who has been baptized of the Holy Spirit. { St. Paul, 1 Corinthians 1.17 - Christ did not send me to baptize, but to preach the gospel.

The Roman Catholic position is that grace is infused by participation in penance, making one more justified and righteous. Council of Trent 1547 { Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 4.24 - The Gnostic heretic Basilides started teaching that after baptism, God forgives



Roman Catholicism

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involuntary sins but you must pay for all voluntary sins in order to be purged from them. Christians believe all sin is forgiven immediately upon repentance.

The Roman Catholic position is: when blessed the wine and bread physically turns into the flesh and blood of the Lord. Council of Lateran IV 1215

Irenaeus Against Heresies 1.13 - A Gnostic named Marcus - started teaching when he blesses the cup of wine the charis, or Holy Spirit, puts a drop of her own blood into the wine. Upon drinking this wine they are filled with the charis. Irenaeus stated all who follow such a demonic teaching are crack-brained.

The Roman Catholic position is purgatory is a place where you go after death to finish paying for your sins. Affirmed at the Council of Trent 1547
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Irenaeus Against Heresies 2.29 - Another Gnostic heresy is at death some souls enter an intermediate state to be purged of the animal nature before going into the pleroma (Heaven). Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 7.13 - The Christian knows when he dies, being already cleansed from all the sins of the soul, he will go to a much better place. II Maccabees 12 - The Roman Catholic position is giving money to the Jewish priests gets loved ones out of purgatory. Martin Luther taught that it referred to buying a sacrifice for the temple in accordance with the Law of Deuteronomy 21. Justin Martyr, Dialogue 5 - At death Christians go to heaven, and non-Christians go to hell. No mention is made of any other place. Origen, Cel 6:24-25 - Celsus says that the Christians teach a purgatory for purification among other Gnostic things. Origen refutes them all but seems to have never heard of a place for purification. After researching theScriptures he speculates there may be such a place and connects it with Gehenna in the valley of Hinnom.

Earning an indulgence means you spend less time in purgatory. Council Lateran I - Granted indulgences to crusaders.

The Roman Catholic position says all clergy must be celibate. Council of Lateran I 1123
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177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata book 3.6 - Forced celibacy is wrong. 177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata book 3.7 - Peter, Paul, Philip, and others were married. 177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata book 3.13 - Clergy must be married once but can never remarry. 177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata book 3.16 - Bishops should be married. Celibacy - In 1 Timothy 3 Paul says most bishops and deacons should be married. Eusebius 2:xvii started with the Therapeutae in Egypt patterned after the priests and priestesses of the Greeks, they drink no wine, eat no meat, and are celibate.

The Roman Catholic position says one may ask the saints to pray for them, and most use the sign of the cross.
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177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata book 7.7 - Mature Christians pray only to God, without thought for bodily position or set time. (e.g. sunrise prayers or on their knees) and their prayers are not selfish. 304AD Lactantius 7.67 - Those who make prayers to the dead will suffer for their impiety and rebellion against God since this is an unforgivable rite and a violation of sacred law.

Mary's Perpetual Virginity

The Roman Catholic and eastern Orthodox position is that Mary never had children and remained a Virgin all through her life.

230 AD Origen, Commentary on Matthew 10.17 - Those who wish to preserve the honor of Mary in virginity to the end, say, basing it on a tradition in the gospel according to Peter, as it is entitled, or "The Book of James," (Protevangelium Jacobi, c. 9) that the brethren of Jesus were sons of Joseph by a former wife, whom he married before Mary.

The Worship of Mary

The Catholic position is that Mary was conceived without original sin. This is referred to as the "immaculate conception" In Luke 1:46-47 Mary confesses that she needs a savior and therefore is not sinless. The "Assumption of the Virgin Mary" proclaimed dogma by Pope Pius XII in 1950. There is a movement from within Catholicism, referred to as "Co-Redemptrics" which says that Mary can forgive sin. This has not yet been



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made dogma. The Roman Catholic Church must go back to a Biblical standard; otherwise they cause the church to be divided.

177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata book 2.19 - Whoever shall attempt to do aught with presumption, provokes God.