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Complete report of Human Anatomy and Physiology with title Reflex In Human. Which made by: Name : Nur Fahmi Utami Reg. Num : 101404155 Class : ICP Group : II after checked by assistant and assistant coordinator, so the report was accepted.

Makassar,

May 2013

Assistant Coordinator

Assistant

Muh. Riswan Ramli, S.Pd

Muh. Riswan Ramli, S.Pd

Mengetahui, Lecture of Responsibility

Dr. Drs. A. Mushawwir Taiyeb, M.Kes ID : 19640416 198803 1 002

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background

The human body is composed of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. In the human body organized by the order, which order is covered by muscles which are also composed the body and protects the other organs in vivo. Conscious movement is a movement that really commands from the brain while unconscious movement suddenly occur which might be due to shock or the other. The higher sensitivity to something the higher the resulting movement in response to it. Ability to perform movements that can be done unconsciously, scientifically stimulation received, not transmitted to the brain but will be forwarded to the spinal marrow, so in marrow of the spine that will give a signal to the muscle to be able to move more quickly and unconsciously, in response to the stimulation received. Reflex is a fast, automatic, unplanned sequence of actions that occurs in response to a particular stimulus. four important somatic spinal reflexes are the stretch reflex (ex. Patella reflex), the tendon reflex (biceps and triceps), the flexor or withdrawal reflex (ex. Wink reflex), and the crossed extensor reflex (hell reflex). Based on that explanation so we would like to know how refleks of human. B. Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the types of human muscles and human joints. C. Benefit After done this experiment, the students known about the types of human muscles and human joints.

CHAPTER II PREVIEW OF LITERATURE


Reflex is an unconscious movement, which arises due to the stimulation. This reflex there is monosinap and polysinap. Implus trajectory than through the nervous

edge, also include the central nervous system. Hallmark reflex is the response that occurs lasted with quickly and not realized. Whereas reflex arc is trajectory the shortest of motion reflex. Neurons connector is the liaison between the sensory neuron and the motor neuron, if the neuron connectors are outside the brain, it is called reflex brain reflexes. If located in the spinal cord, the so-called reflex spinal reflexes (Mushawwir, et al, 2013). The gray matter is centrally located and shaped like the letter H. Portions of sensory neurons and mo-tor neurons are found there, as are interneurons that communicate with these two types of neurons. The posterior (dorsal) root of a spinal nerve contains sensory fibers entering the gray matter, and the anterior (ventral) root of a spinal nerve con-tains motor fibers exiting the gray matter. The posterior and anterior roots join, forming a spinal nerve that leaves the ver-tebral canal. Spinal nerves are a part of the PNS (Mader, 2004). Slamming on the brakes in an emergency is one example. When integration takes place in the spinal cord gray matter, the reflex is a spinal reflex. An example is the familiar patellar reflex (knee jerk). If integration occurs in the brain stem rather than the spinal cord, the reflex is called a cranial reflex. You are probably most aware of somatic reflexes, which involve contraction of skeletal muscles. Equally important, however, are the autonomic (visceral) reflexes, which generally are not consciously perceived. They involve responses of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. A stretch reflex causes contraction of a skeletal muscle (the effectors) in response to stretching of the muscle. This type of reflex occurs via a monosynaptic reflex arc. The reflex can occur by activation of a single sensory neuron that forms one synapse in the CNS with a single motor neuron. Stretch reflexes can be elicited by tapping on tendons attached to muscles at the elbow, wrist, knee, and ankle joints. An example of a stretch reflex is the patellar reflex (knee jerk). The second way the spinal cord promotes homeostasis is by serving as an integrating center for some reflexes. A reflex is a fast, automatic, unplanned sequence of actions that occurs in response to a

particular stimulus. Some reflexes are inborn, such as pulling your hand away from a hot surface before you even feel that it is hot (Tortora, 2009). Knee reflex, when the quadriceps tendon is located below the kneecap (patella) were hit hard, with a sudden would stretch the leg. This is because the impulse in an afferent neuron which then transported to the spinal cord. A synapse with motor neurons in the spinal cord causes the impulse moves along the axon to the neuron motoric extensor muscles in the legs. Cause a reflex contraction of the knee extensor muscles (Longenbaker, 2002). Flexor reflex stimulation most often raised by the end of pain, like a pin prick, heat or some other painful stimuli, therefore it is often called a reflex non siseptive, but also the stimulation of touch receptors can sometimes also evoke the flexor reflex and the weaker less time. If a part of the body other than one of the extremities induced by painful stimuli, this section, in a similar way, will be kept away from these stimuli, but the reflex may not be limited to the flexor muscles, although it is basically the same kind of reflex. Therefore, these reflexes are often called withdrawal reflex (McKinley, 2008). Spinal reflexes, or reflex arcs, occur when a sensory neuron transmits a danger signal like a sensation of burning heat through the dorsal root ganglion. An internuncialneuron (association neuron) in the spinal cord passes along the signal to a motor neuron (efferent fiber) that stimulates a muscle, which immediately pulls the burning body part away from heat (Rogers, 2011).

CHAPTER III METHODE OF EXPERIMENT


A. Place and Date Day / Date Time : Wednesday / 8th May 2013 : 15.30 17.30 CIT

Place

: Biology Laboratory 3th flour at Science and Mathematic Faculty of Makassar State University

B. Tools and Materials 1. Tools a. Pen 2. Materials a. Probandus b. Paper c. Picture of the muscles d. Picture of the joints C. Work Procedurs 1. Muscles
a. Provided all the tools and materials that will be used b. Observed the muscles type of probandus c. Drawn probandus muscle on the observations column

2. Joints
a. Provided all the tools and materials that will be used b. Observed the joints type of probandus c. Drawn probandus joints on the observations column

CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION


A. Result Kinds of Human Reflex Knee reflex Heel reflex Triseps reflex Bisep reflex There Nothing -

Wink of an eye reflex Stomach reflex B. Discussion

Based on experiment work done, there are seven different treatments in this experiment. The group data presented in the data of observations. 1. Knee reflexes (patella) At probandus in a state of distraction, hitting probandus knee slowly using a reflex hammer, and then there will be a reflex movement of probandus. Probandus in our group is Edy Kurniawan. Stimuli away from the response given. Move the reflex is included in monosynaps because it involves only one synapse away from the response of the stimulus. 2. 3. Heel reflex In this reflex, there is not reflex that happened at our probandus. Triceps reflex At probandus in optimal condition and distracted, hit the bottom of the upper arm probandus slowly by using a reflex hammer, then there will be a reflex response of probandus with excitatory away, shocked and surprised. Move the reflex is included in polysynaps because there are two synapse/ response of the surprised and shocked that shown by probandus. 4. Biceps reflex At probandus in optimal condition and distracted, hit the surface of the upper arm probandus slowly by using a reflex hammer, then there will be a reflex response of that probandus away with excitatory and shouted in surprise. This reflex is included in polysynaps because there are two synapse/ response shown by probandus done, namely surprised scream and shout. 5. Wink of an eye reflexes In this treatment, probandus shown the reflex of an eye. The eye of probandus were wink when we touched him with soft hammer. 6. Stomach reflex

At probandus in a state of involuntary limb probandus then stabbed with a pin, then the reflex arising from the response probandus whole body moving away and scream. This includes polysynaps reflex response or synapses where more than one that is the whole body moving and shouting.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSSION AND SUGGESTION


A. Conclussion Reflex is the involuntary movements caused by the stimulation of the body's defense mechanism and is occurring much faster than normal motion. There are monosinaps reflexes and polisinaps. Four important somatic spinal reflexes
are the stretch reflex (ex. Patella reflex), the tendon reflex (biceps and triceps), the flexor or withdrawal reflex (ex. Wink reflex), and the crossed extensor reflex (hell reflex).

B. Suggestion The suggestion for this unit is the allocation time can be better so that we could learn more.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Longenbaker. 2002. Anatomy and Physiology. United State of America: McGrawHill. Mader, Sylvia S. 2004. Understanding Anatomy and Physiology 5th Edition . McGraw-Hill. McKinley & Valerie Dean. 2008. Human Anatomy. New York: McGraw-Hill. Mushawwir,et.al. 2013. Guide Human Anotomy and Physiology . Biology Education, Mathematic and Science Faculty. State University of Makassar Rogers, kara. 2011. The Human Body, Bone and Muscle. New York: Britannica Educational Publishing. Tortora, Gerard & Derrickson, Bryan. 2009. Principle of Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition. United State of America: John Wiley and Sons, Inc (Wiley).