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Circuit 99 InfraRed Sensor (2m) Function This circuit is used as a demonstration.

. When infra red beam is broken an LED will be switched off. A motor could be switched on; a counter could be incremented etc. Circuit diagram

SW 1 9V R 1 R 4 R 6 R 10 9V

Q 2 C 2 R 2

C 3

R 5 C 5 R 7 C 4 L ED R 8 D 2 Q 6 Q 3 R 9

R 3 Q 1 C 1 0V

Q 4 D 1

C 6

Q 5


T r a n s m it t e r

R e c e iv e r

Components SW1 = Toggle Switch R3 = 2200 ohm R6 = 4700 ohm R9 = 10k ohm C2 = 220F C5 = 0.1F (Q1 = Transistor) = BC108 (Q3 = Transistor) = BC109 (Q5 = Transistor) = BC108 IC1 = 555 Timer R1 = 2700 ohm R4 = 100 ohm R7 = 2M ohm R10 = 470 ohm C3 = 220F C6 = 10F R2 = 27k ohm R5 =10k ohm R8 = 2200 ohm C1 = 0.01F C4 = 220 nF D1 = Diode (1N4148)

(Q2 = IR Transmitter) = SFH485 (Q4 = IR Receiver) = BP103B (Q6 = Transistor) = BFY51 LED = 5mm Standard LED

Transmitter Operation To achieve greater distance with IR, signals from the transmitter must be pulsed. The circuit consists of a 555 timer circuit configured in the astable mode

In astable mode i.e. output will go high (9V) and low (0V) at a pre-determined frequency set by values of R1, R2, and C1. Frequency is the number of times the transition occurs in a second; it is measured in Hertz, symbol Hz. The frequency required to transmit the IR signal is not critical, we will use R1 = 2700 ohms, R2 = 27k ohms, C1= 0.01F Frequency calculated 2500 Hz IR signal is transmitted via Q2 Receiver Operation The weak IR signal strikes the IR receiver diode. When IR strikes the diode its resistance falls slightly, so the voltage drop across it falls and when not in receipt of signal, its resistance rises. Therefore, when receiver is receiving a stream of pulses, the voltage at the junction of C3 andQ4 is continuously changing. This changing voltage is applied to the base of Q3. Transistor Q3 in conjunction with C5, R6, and R7 is configured as an amplifier. This small signal received is fed to the base of Q3 via C5. So signal appearing at the collector of Q3 is much bigger than the input signal at the base. The amplified signal is fed via C4 and R8, to a form of rectification circuit (D1, D2) This rectified signal will now charge up the capacitor C6, so voltage across it will increase. A connection is also made from the top of the capacitor to the base of transistor Q5. Transistor action. The circuit uses a transistor (BC108) as an electronic switch. When the voltage on the base of the transistor is less than 0.6V, transistor is switched off. No current can flow through the transistor from collector to emitter, so no current can flow through R9, so the voltage at junction of R9 and the base of Q6 is 9V. Q6 is switched on; the LED in series with R10 is lit. Thus as C6 charges up, its voltage is increasing, and when it reaches 0.6V, Q5 will switch on. The voltage at the junction of R9 and collector Q5 will drop to 0V. This junction is connected to the base of Q6, so this means it is switched off (0V) on the base. No current can flow through it so LED is now unlit.

Consider now the beam is broken, no IR pulses are received by the receiver, so no signal is appearing at the base of Q3, so no amplified signal is being fed to the rectifier. C6 now will start to discharge, and when it drops below 0.6V, Q5 will switch off. The voltage at voltage of R9 and base Q6 will now jump to 9V. This will now switch on Q6 and LED in series with R10, will light. Warning This is an extremely sensitive circuit and IR produced from other sources, i.e. an electric light bulb, or natural sources may harm its operation. So ensure all back ground light sources are screened from the receiver section.