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Samuel Ho Mr. Sunderland Foundations of America 5 12 April 2013 Works Cited "Archives of the West: William Swain Letter.

" PBS. PBS, 2001. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. We actually saw a video about this in school. The source is very helpful because it is a primary source about an unsuccessful miner in the Gold Rush. It shows that the Gold Rush was not at all a complete success story. In his words, he describes how many Native Americans were treated poorly in the Gold Rush. It is helpful because paints a vivid picture of the day in the life of an average miner as well as the struggles that the miners would face. PBS is reliable because PBS is quite prestigious. "California Gold Rush (1848 1858)." Open Collections Program: Immigration to the US, California Gold Rush, 1848-1858. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. This source is a very reliable source from a prestigious college that explains the growth and rise of the Gold Rush. It also explains the diversity of California racially. Specifically, it shows how the Chinese hid their gold and why they came in the first place. It also shows what the Chinese had to face during this time. In the beginning, the source gives some background info on the gold rush. It also showed that the Chinese were not allowed to become citizens of the United States for a very long time. It makes a conclusion that California has become a very diverse state. "The California Gold Rush, 1849." The California Gold Rush, 1849. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. This source is very reliable and it shows how the gold rush came about. It had

many quotes from people that were there during the gold rush. It also showed the cost of living in that area. It also had the story of a guy named Shufelt. He had many details on how to live during the gold rush. The quotes given were helpful because it gave a flavor of the life that one would live in that time period. It does give a broad overview of the Gold Rush along with many detailed quotes from the Gold Rush during that time. Since the prices of living are listed, it is very specific to the lifestyle of someone there. "The California Gold Rush: People & Events." PBS. PBS, 13 Sept. 2006. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. The PBS database is a good broad context source on the Gold Rush. It gave me some important population facts and a good understanding of the governmental facts and the Mexican American War. It also helped me to learn a little bit more about James K. Polk, which was also helpful. Since it talks about a relatively large period of time, it is very helpful because the more information, the better. PBS is reliable because PBS is quite prestigious. "California QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau." California QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. N.p., 14 Mar. 2013. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. The Census showed me many important percentages and numbers of today's population. It also helps me to understand and compare the two time periods that I am focusing on, which are the 19th century and the time period of today. The populations are always useful when comparing two time periods. The Census is reliable because it is a ".gov" website. Chan, Sucheng. "A People of Exceptional Character." Ethnic Diversity, Nativism, and Racism in the Gold Rush 79.2 (2000): 44-85. Print. A People of Exceptional Character by Sucheng Chan is a scholarly journal that has many helpful ideas about racism and the diversity of California during the Gold Rush. It will help me immensely because it shows how the

founding of gold brought many different people's together. It also explains the many different contributions that other races have made such as different methods of finding gold. The article also gives me many references to other books that I can check out, which is very useful. There is also a chart of the population of each ethnic group, which was pretty cool. "Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)." Open Collections Program: Immigration to the US,. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2013. The Chinese Exclusion act was a restriction on Chinese immigration for racial and economic reasons. Since I want to know about diversity of U.S racially, I need to know the restrictions of it as well. This will help me figure out what barriers there were for racial diversity and how those barriers were lifted, thus creating a diverse country. I consider the Harvard website to be reliable because it is Harvard University, which is a very prestigious school that has many reliable sources in order to keep it's good name. Goddard, George H. "Letter from George H. Goddard to Augustus Goddard." Letter to Augustus Goddard. 4 Apr. 1851. MS. California State Library, Mariposa, Caifornia. The Letter from George H. Goddard to Augustus Goddard shows the perspective from a London native and his struggles during this time. He is writing the letter to his brother, Augustus Goddard. George is describing his experience in the gold rush and his struggles. It doesn't seem like he is facing any struggles racially, but there are definitely some physical struggles, such as the difficulty of mining gold everyday and finding a place to live in the process. He describes the holes he has to dig in order to find the gold, which is clearly not easy. He is trying to sell his stuff to afford mining. It seems like the British settlers didn't face any racial issues because they were so similar to Americans.

"The Gold Rush of 1849." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. This source has many basic facts about how the Gold Rush began and spread throughout the 1840's and 50's. Everything was in chronological order, which was very helpful. It also showed the impact of the Gold Rush. It is reliable because it is a very well known and reliable website called history.com. History gives an extremely broad account of the Gold Rush. There aren't too many biases because most of what is shown on this sight is fact, which is a plus and a minus at the same time. It doesn't bring up the topic race as much as I would like, though. "History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes." History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes. University of Richmond, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. The University of Richmond article is very useful because it tells the story of a seventeen year old named Stephen Chapin David along with his brother, Josiah. They traveled to California in hopes of finding gold. They ended up buying a store and making a shop. Their adventures were in a journal that is in the Huntington Library currently. It helped be with my argument that the economy was helped by small business. The Richmond article is reliable because it was written by a university. "Levi Strauss." PBS. PBS, 2001. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. The PBS article about Levi Strauss helped be with my small business argument, which is that the American economy deeply benefited from small business, even to this day. It helped me learn of a successful merchant in the Gold Rush that initially came to the gold mines in order to sell his tents to the miners. Since there was no interest in tents, he decided to turn his fabrics into pants that were extremely durable. The pants became popular in the gold mines and are still popular to this day. PBS is reliable because it is a prestigious source.

Lindeloff, Bill. "Part Two - Religion Reclaimed Souls as Mining Camps Expanded." Part Two Religion Reclaimed Souls as Mining Camps Expanded. N.p., 18 Jan. 1998. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. The article by Bill Lindeloff is about religion in California during the Gold Rush. It was extremely helpful because it talked about many important subjects such as missionaries and different religions such as Mormons and Jews. I really enjoyed discovering a perspective on the religion in the Gold Rush. This source is reliable because the bottom has a copyright and that the author is a Bee Staff writer, which is reliable. McGrath, Roger, LT COL. "California Military History: California and the Civil War." California Military History: California and the Civil War. California Center for Military History, 24 Dec. 2008. Web. 8 May 2013. The article, California and the Civil war helped me immensely with my argument about California's contributions politically, especially in the war. It talks about California's contributions to the Civil War, which was one of the key wars to many aspects of today. Since I wanted to state California's contributions politically to society, I decided to use this. This is very reliable because it is a ".org" website. Paddison, Joshua. "1848-1865: Gold Rush, Statehood, and the Western Movement." Calisphere. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Mar. 2013. The University of California website shows very diverse perspectives of some race that wanted to go to the Gold Rush. This is essential to my project because I can figure out the racial diversity of the Gold Rush and, soon to be, America. The website I accessed is very reliable because most University based sources are reliable. The website talks about the many races that show up in the gold rush and what they have to face at this time. It makes the Gold Rush look like a place where many

races can be free, which may not necessarily be the case, but history is full of opinions. However, it does acknowledge the hardships of each race in the Gold Rush. Perez, Cris. "Ranchos of California." Ranchos of California. N.p., 23 Aug. 1982. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. The UC Berkeley article was very helpful because it helped me dearly with the "before" of my Gold Rush paper. It helped me learn more about the Ranchos that were given out by the government in order to boost the economy of Mexico. It also talked about Spain versus Mexico during their dispute over land, which was quite helpful. At the end and throughout, it talks about pueblos. The UC Berkeley article is very reliable because UC Berkely is a prestigious school. Pletcher, David M. "James K. Polk." PBS. PBS, 14 Mar. 2006. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. The PBS article helped me immensely because it talked about James K. Polk and how he handled the Mexican American War. Since he really wanted California, he was willing to go to great lengths to get it. He was even willing to threaten war. The article helped me understand James K. Polk's motives and the aftermath and the during of the Mexican American War. The PBS article is reliable because it is a prestigious website and David M. Pletcher is a professor at Indiana University, which is quite prestigious. Sims, Harold. The Expulsion of Mexico's Spaniards, 1821-1836. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh, 1990. Print. The Expulsion of Mexico's Spaniards is a very good book because it talks about the general law of expulsion of 1827, which is very helpful because I needed to know more about this law. I needed it for my "before" section of my political argument. It is essential because I am trying to compare this to today's government, which is very difficult. It is reliable because it is a book by the University of Pittsburgh.

Stanley, Jerry. Hurry Freedom: African Americans in Gold Rush California. New York: Crown, 2000. Print. Hurry freedom is a first hand account of an African American that tells his story of the California Gold Rush. Since he is African American, he will give me a perspective about another race besides the Chinese in the Gold Rush. The book is going to be helpful because the more perspectives, the better. The African Americans dealt with many hardships at this time, but I still think that the Gold Rush was a place where African Americans could be more free than anywhere else in the United States. This book will help me understand that concept. Starr, Kevin. "The Gold Rush and the California Dream." California History 77.1 (1998): 56-67. Web. <http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/25462462? uid=3739256&uid=2134&uid=4579741087&uid=2&uid=70&uid=3&uid=4579741077& uid=60&purchasetype=article&accessType=none&sid=21102039196097&showMyJstorPss=false&seq=1& showAccess=false>. The Gold Rush and the California Dream is a very good scholarly journal that I found on jstor.org that talks about many topics such as what the Native Americans went through at this time. It shows that the California area was dominated by Native Americans at one point, but not for long. It talks about the devastating effects that the Gold Rush had on the Native Americans. The scholarly journal is helpful because it gives me a perspective from the eyes of the Native Americans and what they had to deal with. The journal is very redundant about the hardships that the Native Americans dealt with at this time. The author also compares the Gold Rush to the Odyssey and the Iliad. Ward, Ray. "Imagining the West: The Gamble and the Myths of the California Gold Rush." Thesis. Wesleyan University, 2009. Http://wesscholar.wesleyan.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?

article=1308&context=etd_hon_theses. Apr. 2009. Web. Imagining the West: The Gamble and the Myths of the California Gold Rush is a very helpful thesis about the Gold Rush. I found many helpful facts such as the fact that African American rights was a topic that was raised many times during the Gold Rush. African Americans had many more rights in California than anywhere else because in California, there weren't as many black barriers. The thesis also shows how and why many races, such as the Chinese, came to America. The Chinese came in order to make some money for their families back home. Mexicans were already there since California was a Mexican territory for a very long time. The thesis proves that California became an extremely diverse state quickly. Yung, Judy, Gordon H. Chang, and H. Mark. Lai. Chinese American Voices: From the Gold Rush to the Present. Berkeley: University of California, 2006. Print. Unlike the journal of Wong Ming-Chen, Chinese American voices shows many accounts of people that were there during the Gold Rush. There are many different things in this collection such as folk songs, journals, speeches, and essays. Chinese American Voices will be essential to learning more about how the Chinese were feeling during the Gold Rush. The Chinese had many ways of passing time during the Gold Rush, which are shown in this collection. Although there was racial persecution, many races such as the Chinese were brought together, which brought about a very diverse and connected society.