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CAPACITOR SWITCHING DEVICE

Zero-Crossing Breaker vs Pre-Insertion Resistor

Misc/SS/Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion/Cover Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion

CAPACITOR SWITCHING DEVICE

Zero-Crossing Breaker vs Pre-Insertion Resistor

1. Method of Transient Control : 1.1. Zero-Crossing Breaker 1.2. Pre-Insertion Resistor 2. Design & Reliability : 2.1. Zero-Crossing Breaker vs Pre-Insertion Resistor 3. Computer Simulation of Capacitor Switching Transients : 3.1. Zero-Crossing Breaker vs Pre-Insertion Resistor 3.2. Summary & Conclusion 3.3. Reference : Pre-Insertion Resistors in HV Capacitor Bank Switching

Misc/SS/Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion/Index Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion

Method of Transient Control

1.1. Zero-Crossing Breaker 1.2. Pre-Insertion Resistor

Misc/SS/Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion/Index 1

Method of Transient Control

ZeroCrossing Breaker

1.1

+
Synchronous Closing Device

6 1 6 1 2 5 2

1. Circuit Breaker (single pole) 2. Synchronous Closing Device 3. Capacitor Bank 4. Voltage Transformer 5. Input Command 6. Output Command

THREE MUST CONDITIONS : 1. 2. 3. CLOSING of ALL 3 PHASES at a ZERO VOLTAGE is a MUST PRECISE TUNING and CONTROL of the 3 INDIVIDUAL POLES is a MUST NO DRIFT of TIMING CALIBRATION is a MUST

Misc/SS/Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion/Zerocrossing Breaker (Rev.1)

Method of Transient Control

Pre-Insertion Resistor

1.2

4 3

1 2 5 1

2 1. Pre-Insertion Resistor 2. Resistor Contact 3. Main Contact 4. Capacitor Bank 5. Substation

3 1. Pre-Insertion Resistor 2. Resistor Contact 3. Main Contact 4. Capacitor Bank 5. Substation

RESISTORS (1) are typically inserted into the capacitive-energizing circuit through the closing of RESISTOR CONTACT (2) for 5 ms to 15 ms, prior to the closing of the MAIN CONTACT (3).

Misc/SS/Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion/Preinsertion Resistor (Rev. 1)

Design & Reliability

2.1. Zero-Crossing Breaker vs Pre-Insertion Resistor

Misc/SS/Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion/Index 2

Design & Reliability Zero-Crossing Breaker vs Pre-Insertion Resistor


Description ZERO-CROSSING BREAKER

2.1

PRE-INSERTION RESISTOR

1. 2.

Specifically Designed and Tested for Capacitor Switching Number of Operating Mechanisms (spring loaded systems, shunt trips, motor operators) Allows Two or One Phase Closing of the Capacitor Bank (if one operating mechanism fails to operate) Key Factor for Successful Transient Suppression

No 3 (one per phase) Yes

Yes 1 (one for 3 phases) No

3.

4.

Capacitor Bank must be switched exactly when the voltage is crossing ZERO. Electronic circuitry must successfully detect when the voltage wave is crossing ZERO and order the mechanical mechanism that drives the interrupter to close. Complicated calculation are required to offset effects of external conditions, mechanical wear, etc.

Simple electrical principle of a resistor in the circuit. Key factor is simple physics.

5.

Reliability Factors

Synchronous closing system is hard to maintain within required precision. A highly precise electronic system tied to a mechanical device (interrupter) is not a guarantee for performance.

Highly reliable

Computer Simulation of Capacitor Switching Transients

3.1. Zero-Crossing Breaker vs Pre-Insertion Resistor 3.2. Summary & Conclusion 3.3. Reference : Pre-Insertion Resistors in HV Capacitor Bank Switching

Misc/SS/Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion/Index 3

Computer Simulation of Capacitor Switching Transients

3.1

Zero-Crossing Breaker
0 20.000k 0 00m 15.0 30.000m . 5 4 000m m 60.000 . 5 7 000m 00m 90.0 105.000m 2 10.000m 0m 135.00 k 7.200 0 20.000k 0 00m 15.0 30.000m . 5 4 000m m 60.000 . 5 7 000m 00m 90.0 105.000m 2 10.000m 0m 135.00 k 7.200 5 10.000k k 6.600 5 10.000k k 6.600 0 10.000k V c1 k 6.000 0 10.000k V c2 k 6.000 . 0 5 000k Vc 1 k 5.400 . 0 5 000k Vc 2 k 5.400

k 4.800

Vc 2

Vc 2

k 4.800

00k 50.0

Vc 1

k 4.200

00k 50.0

k 4.200

000k 100.

Vc 1

k 3.600

000k 100.

k 3.600

000k 150.

k 3.000

000k 150.

k 3.000

000k 200.

k 2.400

000k 200.

k 2.400

000k 250.

k 1.800

000k 250.

k 1.800

000k 300.

k 1.200

000k 300.

k 1.200

000k 350. c I1 000k 400. c I1 c I1

0 600.0

000k 350.

0 600.0

c1 I

000k 400.

c I2

c I2 c I2

c2 I

000k 450.

600.000

000k 450.

600.000

000k 500.

. 1 200k

000k 500.

. 1 200k

000k 550.

. 1 800k

000k 550.

. 1 800k

000k 600. 0 00m 15.0 30.000m . 5 4 000m m 60.000 . 5 7 000m 00m 90.0 105.000m 2 10.000m 0m 135.00

. 2 400k

000k 600.

. 2 400k 0 00m 15.0 30.000m . 5 4 000m m 60.000 . 5 7 000m 00m 90.0 105.000m 2 10.000m 0m 135.00

Voltage and Current for Energization of 1st Bank Zero-crossing Breaker Bank 1 Energization Bank 2 Transient Bank 2 Ringing Peak Current 942A 5021A 419A Frequency 944Hz 16,807Hz 672Hz Peak Voltage 120kV (1.28pu) 108kV (1.15pu)

Voltage and Current for Energization of 2nd Bank Zero-crossing Breaker Bank 2 Energization Bank 2 Ringing Peak Current 5228A 420A Frequency 16,667Hz 670Hz Peak Voltage 108kV (1.15pu)

Pre-Insertion Resistor
0 20. 0 00k m 0 . 15 0 m 0 . 30 0 m 0 . 45 0 m 0 . 60 0 m 0 . 75 0 m 0 . 90 00 0m 00 5. 10 0m 00 0. 12 0m 00 5. 13 0k 20 7. 0 0 20k 0. m 0 . 15 0 m 0 . 30 0 m 0 . 45 0 m 0 . 60 0 m 0 . 75 0 m 0 . 90 00 0m 00 5. 10 0m 00 0. 12 0m 00 5. 13 0k 20 7. 0 5 10k 0. 0k 60 6. 0 5 10k 0. 0k 60 6. 0 10k 0. Vc 1 k 0 . 50 0 0k 40 5. k 0 . 50 0 Vc 1 0k 00 6. 0 10k 0. Vc 2 0k 40 5. Vc 2 0k 00 6.

0k 80 4.

Vc 2

Vc 2

0k 80 4.

0k 00 5 0. Vc 1 k 0 . 10

Vc 1

0k 20 4.

0k 00 5 0.

0k 20 4.

0k 60 3.

k 0 . 10

0k 60 3.

k 0 . 1 50

0k 00 3.

k 0 . 1 50

0k 00 3.

k 0 . 20

0k 40 2.

k 0 . 20

0k 40 2.

k 0 . 2 50

0k 80 1.

k 0 . 2 50

0k 80 1.

k 0 . 30

0k 20 1.

k 0 . 30

0k 20 1.

k 0 . 3 50

0 00 0. 60

k 0 . 3 50

0 00 0. 60

k 0 . 40

c I1

c I1

c I1

c I1

k 0 . 40

c I2

c I2

c I2

c I2

k 0 . 4 50

0 . 60

k 0 . 4 50

0 . 60

k 0 . 50

-1 0 k 2 .

k 0 . 50

-1 0 k 2 .

k 0 . 50

-1 0 k 8 .

k 0 . 50

-1 0 k 8 .

k 0 . 60 0 m 0 . 15 0 m 0 . 30 0 m 0 . 45 0 m 0 . 60 0 m 0 . 75 0 m 0 . 90 00 0m 00 5. 10 0m 00 0. 12 0m 00 5. 13

-2 0 k 4 .

k 0 . 60 0 m 0 . 15 0 m 0 . 30 0 m 0 . 45 0 m 0 . 60 0 m 0 . 75 0 m 0 . 90 00 0m 00 5. 10 0m 00 0. 12 0m 00 5. 13

-2 0 k 4 .

Voltage and Current for Energization of 1st Bank at 80 Ohms Pre-insertion Resistor Bank 1 Energization Bank 1 Transient Bank 2 Energization Bank 2 Transient Bank 2 Ringing Peak Current 835A 404A 1100A 1520A 235A Frequency NA 948Hz 809Hz 16,400Hz 670Hz Peak Voltage 97kV (1.03pu) 101kV (1.07pu) 114kV (1.21pu) 97kV (1.03pu)

Voltage and Current for Energization of 2nd Bank at 80 Ohms


Pre-insertion Resistor Bank 2 Energization Bank 2 Transient Bank 2 Ringing Peak Current 1100A 1820A 235A Frequency 892Hz 16,529Hz 672Hz Peak Voltage 98.7kV (1.05pu) 98.3kV (1.05pu)

In addition, the I2t for the 80 ohm pre-insertion resistor is 330A2s.


Misc/SS/Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion/Computer Simulation

Computer Simulation of Capacitor Switching Transients

3.2

Summary
Single-Bank Simulation Case PEAK CURRENT ZERO-CROSSING BREAKER (1 ms error) 942 A FREQUENCY 944 Hz PEAK CURRENT 5021 A FREQUENCY 16.807 Hz Back-to-Back PEAK VOLTAGE

1.28 pu

PRE-INSERTION RESISTOR (80)

835 A

948 Hz

1820 A

16.529 Hz

1.22 pu

Remarks : All above values are summarized from the most significant data.

Conclusion
Simulation Case Mitigation of CURRENT TRANSIENTS Mitigation of VOLTAGE TRANSIENTS Remarks

ZERO-CROSSING BREAKER (1 ms error)

Successful

Good

TRANSIENTS will INCREASE, if TIMING CALIBRATION DRIFTS

PRE-INSERTION RESISTOR (80 )

Successful

Significant

Misc/SS/Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion/Summary (Rev. 1)

3.3

Pre-Insertion Resistor in HV Capacitor Bank Switching

Prepared for : Western Protective Relay Conference October 19 - 21, 2004 Spokane, WA

Misc/SS/Zerocrossing vs Preinsertion/Reference