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# Total marks of part A: 71 Final Exam 2013: Modern Physics Solution

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Name:

Roll no:

Write your name and roll number in the space specied above. This exam comprises two parts, A and B . Part A comprises 23 questions. The most appropriate answer is to be circled on the question paper. Part A is to be lled on the question paper and returned. For answering part B , you will use the provided blue answer books. There are two questions in part B . Part A contains 15 pages including this page. Part B contains 2 pages.

## Fundamental constants and other useful information

c = Speed of light = 3.0 108 ms1 h = Plancks constant = 6.63 1034 Js h = Reduced Plancks constant = = 1.06 1034 Js 2 kB = Boltzmann constant = 1.38 1023 J/K R = Rydberg constant = 1.1 107 m1 me = Mass of electron = 9.11 1031 kg mP = Mass of proton = 1.67 1027 kg 1eV = 1.6 1019 J g = Acceleration due to gravity = 10.0 m s2 G = Gravitational constant = 6.67 1011 N m2 /kg2 1 = Coulombs constant = 9 109 N m2 /C2 40 2 2 d (x) TISE : + V (x) (x) = E (x) 2m dx2 2 2 d (x, t) d TDSE : + V (x)(x, t) = i (x, t) 2 2m dx dt

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PART A
Attempt all questions. Mark your answers on these sheets and return. All MCQs are three marks each.

1. A metal is held at zero voltage. The energy diagram at the metal-air interface is shown.

## Unfilled levels Filled levels

EF

Metal

Air

In thermionic emission, electrons are ejected from the metal surface because: (a) The work function increases. (b) The work function decreases. (c) The potential energy seen by the electrons in the air slopes downward. (d) Increasing temperature makes more electrons jump into unlled levels increasing the fraction of electrons with thermal energy beyond . (e) The Fermi level EF decreases. Answer 1: In thermionic emission, heating increases the thermal energy of the electrons. These electrons are raised from the lled to the unlled levels. Some of these excited electrons obtain enough energy to overcome the work function and can therefore be ejected into air.

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n (quantum number) EF i
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

e2 /2Cdot

Metal

## Quantum dot Oxide layer

The gure shows the energy diagram for a metal in which electrons ll energy levels upto EF . A thin insulating oxide layer separates the metal from a quantum dot with only ten quantized energy levels. The quantum dot is given a positive potential V0 with respect to the metal, enabling an electron to tunnel across the oxide layer. Which one of these plots shows the correct behavior of the tunneling current i from metal to the quantum dot. At V0 = 0, EF is at the same energy as the n = 7 quantum level.

(a)

(b)

(c)
e /2Cdot Only three peaks are observed

Vo

e /2Cdot

Vo

Vo

(d)
e /2Cdot Only four peaks are observed Vo

(e)
e /2Cdot Ten peaks are observed Vo
4

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Option (d) is the correct answer. The quantum dot is given a variable positive potential V0 . An electron added to the quantum dot raises its coulomb energy by e2 /2Cdot . Hence if energy is to be conserved and the electron transfer to the dot is to be favored, the starting energy of the dot must be lower by e2 /2Cdot , so that pickup of an extra electron is energetically permissible. If V0 = 0, the electron cannot tunnel into n = 7 as it will raise the overall energy of the dot. If, however, V0 = e/2Cdot , n = 7 is lowered in energy by e2 /2Cdot and electron tunneling to n = 7 becomes energetically permissible. The electron tunnel! While keeping its total energy constant. The quantum dot is a receptacle lowering its energy in anticipation of an incoming electron, which raises the energy back to the original. Hence four peaks corresponding to tunneling to n = 7, 8, 9, 10 are observed. 3. An electron is injected into a potential energy landscape from the left region I as shown below. It encounters a potential step. The energy of the electron is E and E < |V0 |. If the electron is to emerge in region III with a faster speed, the appropriate potential step is given by which of the following?

(a)
II E I E Vo III I

(b)
II Vo III

(c)
II E I Vo III I E

(d)
II Vo III

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Option (c) is the correct answer. If v is to go up in region III, k must increase. Since k E V , the dierence between E and V must be higher, which is the situation in Fig.(c). 4.

1 mm
A pendulum is a harmonic oscillator. It completes one round trip in 1 s. According to quantum physics, its minimum energy in Joules is, (a) Zero. (b) 6.63 1034 .

(c) I need to know the angle to answer this question. (d) 3.315 1034 . Answer 4: Minimum energy of a harmonic oscillator is, Emin. = where 1 , 2 (e) It is negative.

= h/2 and = 2/T , where T = 1 s is the time period of harmonic ( )( ) 1 h 2 2 2 T ( ) 1 h 2 T ( ) 1 6.63 1034 Js 2 1s 3.315 1034 J.

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5. Suppose the maximum angle of the pendulum discussed in the previous question is such that the bob goes to a maximum height of 1 mm. The mass of the pendulum is 1 gram and g = 10 ms2 . The bob starts oscillating and eventually comes to rest, losing all of its energy. Energy is lost in the form of a phonon when the oscillator makes a transition from the p th quantum level to (p 1) th quantum level. How many phonons are emitted in the process? (a) Negligible. (c) 1.5 1028 . (e) None of the above. Answer 5: We are given that, Height of bob = y = 1 mm = 103 m Mass of the pendulum = m = 1 g = 103 kg Acceleration due to gravity = g = 10 m/s2 . the maximum energy of the photon is, ( mgy = n + ( = n+ ( = n+ and the principle quantum number is, n = mgy 1 h 2 3 10 kg 10 m/s2 103 m 1 = 6.63 1034 Js 2 28 1.5 10 . ) 1 2 ) 1 h 2 2 2 T ) 1 h , 2 T (b) One. (d) 1.5 1033 .

As the pendulum loses all of its energy, the quantum number decrements by 1, i.e., from n to n 1 to n 2 to n 3 all the way to n = 0. On each decrement, phonon is emitted. Hence the total number of phonons emitted is 1.5 1028 . Therefore option (c) is the correct answer. Date: 16 May, 2013 7

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6. Snells law of refraction determines the bending of light across an interface. For sure, electrons are also waves and can be refracted. The corresponding law for electrons is called Bethes law and is given by, sin v2 = , sin v1 where is the angle of incidence measured from the normal to the interface, is the angle of refraction also measured from the normal, v1 is the speed of electron in the incident medium and v2 is the speed in the refracted medium. Now a beam of electrons is made to pass through two hollow cylinders with an applied voltage dierence. Which of the following diagrams show the correct trajectory of electrons?

Electron gun

Electron gun

Incident medium

Incident medium

+ + + + + +

+ + + + + +

refracted medium

+ + + + + +

+ + + + + +

refracted medium

(a) No bending.
Electron gun

Electron gun

Incident medium

Incident medium

+ + + + + +

+ + + + + +

refracted medium

+ + + + + +

+ + + + + +

refracted medium

## (d) No refraction takes place.

In the refracting medium, the electric potential is positive and hence the potential energy seen by the electron, V , is lower. This means that the dierence E V is larger, k is larger, and hence the speed is slower, v2 < v1 . Hence from Bethes law, sin < sin , < . The electron beam bends away from the normal. Hence option (c) is the correct answer. 7. A proton of rest mass m0 is accelerated to half the speed of light. Its de Broglie wavelength is, Date: 16 May, 2013 9

Total marks of part A: 71 3h/(m0 c). (c) 4h/( 3m0 c). (a) (b) 2h/( 3m0 c). (d) 4h/(m0 c).

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(e) A proton does not have a wavelength. Answer 7: From the de Broglie hypothesis we know that wavelength associated with the matter wave is, = h p h = , mv

since p = mv,

## where according to special relativity if m0 is the rest mass of the proton, m = m0

2

1 v c2 v2 h 1 2. = m0 v c Since we are given that, speed of proton v = c/2, 2h c2 = 1 2 m0 c 4c 2h 3 = m0 c 2 3h = . m0 c Hence option (a) is the correct answer. 8. An electron starts o in the region B , trapped in a well. The potential energy V (x) along position x is shown.

Region A

Region B

10

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Now suppose some time lapses. From a quantum viewpoint, which of the regions A or C , is the electron more probable to be found? (a) Region A. (b) Region C . (c) Equal probability of being found in A and C . (d) The electron absolutely cannot leave region B . (e) None of the above. Answer 8: As we know that when a quantum object encounters a wider barrier, the tunneling transmission probability is lower. If the barrier is thinner the tunneling probability is higher. In the given gure we can see that the barrier on the right is thinner. Therefore it is more probable to nd the electron in region C as compared to A. Hence option (b) is the correct answer. 9. A particle moving in a region of zero force encounters a precipicea sudden drop in the potential energy to an extremely large negative value. What is the probability that it will go over the edge, i.e., it will enter the negative potential energy region? (a) Almost zero. (c) 1/2. (e) None of the above. Answer 9: One need to think carefully about this. Consider the accompanying gure. (b) Almost one. (d) > 1/2.

Vo

The potential depression V0 is large. Lets nd the reection probability R. In region I, Date: 16 May, 2013 11

2 where k1 = 2mE

, and k2 =

2m(E +V0 )

## from these equations, A+B = = ( ) k1 B 1+ = k2 B = A R = = ik1 (A B ) ik2 k1 k1 A B k2 k2 ( ) k1 A 1 k2 k1 k2 k1 + k2 |B |2 k1 |A|2 k1 )2 ( k1 k2 . k1 + k2

( k )2 2 If V0 is very large, k2 k1 , R becomes k = 1. Since R 1, T = 0. There is zero 2 probability for the particle to fall over the edge and enter region II. Hence option (a) is the correct answer. 10. An LED (light emitting diode) emits light when electrons fall from a top set of levels (conduction band) to a bottom set of levels (called a valence band). These levels are separated by an energy gap Eg . An electric current supplies the electrons.

## Electron flow = Electron = Hole Hole flow

Date: 16 May, 2013 12

Eg= hf

Photon

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A current of 2.5 mA ows through an LED with Eg = 1.4 eV. Assuming that each current-carrying electron drops into a hole, thereby emitting a single photon, what is the power emitted in the light? (a) 5.6 1022 W. (c) 2.5 mW. (b) 3.5 mW. (d) 1.4 mW.

(e) The power cannot be calculated using the provided information. Answer 10: we are given that, Current through LED = I = 2.5 mA = 2.5 103 A Energy gap = Eg = 1.4 eV = 1.4 1.6 1019 J I I No. of electrons owing per unit time = = Charge of electron e I I No. of photons emitted per unit time = = Charge of proton e Energy of each photon = Eg . Hence power emitted in the light is, I Eg e 2.5 103 A 1.4 1.6 1019 J P = 1.6 1019 C = 3.5 103 J/s P = = 3.5 mW. Hence option (b) is the correct answer. 11. An electron is trapped inside a three-dimensional quantum dot. The energy is quantized in three dimensions according to, Enx ,ny ,nz ) ( n2 n2 2 2 n2 y z x + 2 + 2 , = 2m a2 b c

where a, b and c are the conning dimensions of the box(= dot) and nx , ny , nz are the three quantum numbers, each one of them being a positive integer.

13

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b c a
If a = b = c, the energy dierence between the ground and the rst excited state is, (a)
2 2 . 2ma2
2 2

(b) 9 2 . ma2

2 2

(c) 3 2 . ma2

(d)

2 2 . ma2

(e) There are more than one rst excited states all with dierent energies. Hence this question cannot be answered. Answer 11: We are given that, Enx ,ny ,nz ( ) n2 2 2 n2 n2 y x z = + 2 + 2 2m a2 b c 2 2 2 = (n2 + n2 since a = b = c. y + nz ) 2m x 2 2 2 (1 + 12 + 12 ) 2m 2 2 = 3 . 2m

For ground state (nx , ny , nz ) = (1, 1, 1), energy of the ground state will be, E (1, 1, 1) =

Similarly for rst excited state, (nx , ny , nz ) = (2, 1, 1), energy of the rst excited state will be, 2 2 2 (2 + 12 + 12 ) E (2, 1, 1) = 2m 2 2 = 6 . 2m Energy dierence for these two energy levels is, E (2, 1, 1) E (1, 1, 1) = 6 2 2 2 2 3 2m 2m 2 2 = 3 . 2m 14

## Date: 16 May, 2013

''

Quantum Dot'' `

Total marks of part A: 71 Hence option (c) is the correct answer. 12. A free particle has a wave function, (x, t) = Aei(2.510
11 x2.11013 t)

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where x is in metres and t is in seconds. What is the mass of the particle? (a) Mass can only be determined if A is known. (b) 0.012 kg. (d) 5.7 1016 kg. Answer 12: As we know that general equation of wave function is, (x, t) = Aeikxt . Comparison of this equation with the given wave equation of for the free particle yields, k = 2.5 1011 m1 = 2.1 1013 s1 . Mass of the particle can be calculated by the dispersion relation, k m k m = 2 2.5 1011 = (2.1 1013 )2 = 5.7 1016 kg. 2 = Hence option (d) is the correct answer. You dont really need to remember the dispersion relationship. Look at the TDSE in the absence of V : d d2 TDSE : (x, t) = i (x, t). 2 2m dx dt Inserting the supplied wave function into the above, the relationship 2 = k/m automatically pops out. Students are tempted to use E = and E = p2 /2m. The Date: 16 May, 2013 15
2

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former relationship does not hold for all particles, it is specic in its meaningit says that energy of a photon E is related to the frequency of the electromagnetic wave associated with the photon. Blindly using these relations is wrong! 13. A magic-eye was shown as a classroom demonstration. In this gadget, a beam of electrons is emitted from a cathode and moves horizontally towards a bowl shaped anode. When viewed from top, the electrons produced a characteristics glow as shown.

(a)
Anode

(b)
Beam of electrons Anode k = Cathode represents magnetic field out of the plane of the paper. show the direction of moving electrons.

## Cathode Electron glow

If the tube is placed inside a perpendicular magnetic eld pointing out of the plane of the paper, as shown in Fig (b), the view from the top will look like:
(a) (b) (c)

## Electron glow is shown shaded

(d)

(e)

Answer 13: on the beam of electrons. The force is given Lets nd out the direction of the force F = e . Using the right hand rule; pointing the ngers in the direction of by F vB , the thumb points against the direction v , and curling these into the direction of B Date: 16 May, 2013 16

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of force. (Against because of the negative sign, the electrons are negatively charged). In the leftward beam, the beam bends upwards and in the rightward beam, it bends downwards. Hence option (d) is the correct answer. 14. A beam of electrons accelerated through a potential dierence V0 is directed at a single slit of width a, then detected at a screen at a distance L beyond the slit. How far from a point directly in the line of the beam is the rst location where no electrons are ever detected? (a) L/(a V ). (b) Lh/(a 2meV ).

(c) The electrons are detectable everywhere. (d) L/a. (e) Lh/(2a 2meV ). Answer 14:

## Path dierence between ray I and II is, Path dierence = a sin , 2

and for destructive interference this path dierence must be /2. a sin = 2 2 a sin = z = sin tan = L a L z = . a

As is small,

Since =

h 2meV

,z=

L h a 2meV

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15. An electron of energy 1 eV is trapped inside an innite well of length 30 cm. What is the distance between two consecutive nodes of the electrons wavefunction? (A node is a point where the wavefunction goes to zero.) (a) There are no nodes in the electrons wavefunction. (b) The distance between consecutive nodes is zero. (c) 1.25 1018 m. (d) 6 1010 m. (e) None of the above. Answer 15: We are given that, Energy of electron = E = 1 eV = 1.6 1019 J Length of innite well = L = 30 cm = 0.3 m. ( ) The wave function is A sin nx . The consecutive nodes dier in space by x. At L a node, the argument of the sine function must dier in phase by . Hence , x = L/n. We just need to nd n, the state of the wave function.
n x L

## Date: 16 May, 2013

18

Total marks of part A: 71 The quantum number n is calculated as, n2 2 2 2mL2 2EmL2 n2 = 2 2 2EmL2 n = 22 En = = =

2.4 1017

## 2 1.6 1019 J 9.11 1031 kg (0.3 m)2 (1.06 1034 Js)2 2

= 4.9 108 . Thus the distance between two consecutive nodes is, x = 0.3 m 4.9 108 = 6 1010 .

Hence option (d) is the correct answer. 16. For the electron in the previous question, will quantum eects be visible? Please give a reason. [2 Marks]

Answer 16: Since the length of innite well is very large i.e. 30 cm, for a small amount of energy 1 eV, the number of nodes will be very large i.e. 4.9 108 . Since the number of nodes is very large, the waves are squeezed close together, the de Broglie wavelength is extremely small obscuring chances of observing the quantum wave behavior at the classical macroscopic scale. At such a high value of n, quantum eects are not visible. Another way of looking at this is that the wave function is such that the probability of nding the electron becomes equal everywhere, i.e. it imparting the electron a continuous quality rather than quantized. All of this ties in well with Bohrs corresponding principle. 17. An electron is trapped in an innite well of length L and ground state energy E1 . At t = 0, the wavefunction is, ) 1 ( 1 (x) + 22 (x) , (x, 0) = 5L Date: 16 May, 2013 19

## Total Time:3 hours

where 1 (x) and 2 (x) are normalized wavefunctions in the ground and rst excited states. The wavefunction at t = /E1 is given by:
(a)

Re ()
1

Re ()
2

(b)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

x/L
1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

-1

x/L

-2 -1

(d)

Re ()
2

(c)

Re ()
1

0.2 1 -1

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

x/L

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

x/L

-2

-1

Re ()
4

(e)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

x/L

Answer 17: We are given that, At t = 0 At any time t ) 1 ( (x, 0) = 1 (x) + 22 (x) 5L ) 1 ( 1 (x)eiE1 t/ + 22 (x)eiE2 t/ . (x, t) = 5L

20

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If E1 is the energy of ground state, energy of rst excited state will be E2 = 4E1 . ) 1 ( (x, t) = 1 (x)eiE1 t/ + 22 (x)ei4E1 t/ 5L ) 1 ( At t = 1 (x)ei + 22 (x)ei4 (x, t) = E1 5L ) 1 ( = 1 (x)(1) + 22 (x)(+1) 5L ) 1 ( = 1 (x) + 22 (x) . 5L Now we need to nd out what 1 (x) + 22 (x) looks like. The construction is seen in the series of diagrams below.

1(x)
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Invert

-A 1 (x)

1 (x)+ 2 2 (x)
2

2 2 (x)
1

## 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

-1

-1 -2 -2

Hence option (a) is the correct answer. 18. The potential energy prole in a certain region is shown.
to oo to oo energy E

21

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A particle of energy E exists inside this region. A sketch of the possible (real part) of the wavefunction is;

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

## (e) None of the above.

Answer 18: Option (d) is the correct answer. The wavefunction is zero at x b because of the innite potential and extends into the region x a. Furthermore, the value of k increases and wavelength decreases as we go from x = a to x = b. 19. Suppose a particle is in the ground state with wavefunction 1 (x). Which one of the following is the probability that the particle will be found in a narrow range between x and x + dx. Furthermore, the value of k increases and wavelength decreases as we go from x = a to x = b. (a) |1 (x)|2 dx. Date: 16 May, 2013 (b) x|1 (x)|2 dx. 22

dx x +

(c)

(d)

## x|1 (x)|2 dx.

(e) None of the above. Answer 19: Option (a) is the correct answer. 20. At time t = 0, the state for a particle inside an innite well is
1 (1 2

+ 2 ), where

1 and 2 are ground and rst excited states: with energies E1 and E2 respectively. We rst measure the position of the particle at time t = 0 and obtain the result x0 . Immediately after the position measurement, we measure the energy. What possible result(s) can we obtain for the energy measurement? (a) We can only measure either E1 or E2 . (b) We can obtain one of the energy values En = large integer. (c) We can only measure 1 (E1 + E2 ). 2 (d) We may measure any energy E =
n=1 n=1 n2 2 2 , 2ma2

## Cn En , where Cn are coecients so that

|Cn |2 = 1.

(e) None of the above. Answer 20: The correct option is (a). 21. A free particle has a wavefunction A(eikx + eikx ) and energy E . A is a normalization constant. Mark True of False against these statements. (a) The probability density does not change with time. (b) The probability density is constant in space x. (c) The de Broglie wave associated with the particle is in fact a standing wave. [6 Marks]

## Date: 16 May, 2013

23

Total marks of part A: 71 Answer 21: We are given the wavefunction of free particle, (x, t) = A(eikx + eikx )ei
Et

Et

Et

Et

## = A2 (1 + e2ikx + e2ikx + 1) = A2 (2 + e2ikx + e2ikx ). Using cos x =

eix +eix 2

|2 (x, t)|2 = A2 (2 + 2 cos(2kx)) = A2 (2 + 2 cos(2kx)) = 2A2 (1 + cos(2kx)) = 2A2 2 cos2 (kx)) = 4A2 cos2 (kx))

(a) True since p(x) = |2 (x, t)|2 is independent of time. (b) False since p(x) depends on x and changes with x. (c) True because the forward and backward propagating waves have equal amplitudes and the probability density does not change with time. 22. The uncertainty relationship for a particle moving in a straight line is px /2.
S

24

## Total Time:3 hours

If the particle is moving in a circle with angular momentum L, the uncertainty relationship becomes: (HINT: Distance becomes the arc length!) (a) L 2 . (b) LS 2 . (c) LR 2 . (d) L 2 . (e) None of the above. Answer 22: According to uncertainty principle, px .

If particle moves in a circle of radius r and angular momentum L, then L = pr L = pr L p = r and x = r. Using these values of p and x in uncertainty relation, L r r 2 L Hence option (a) is the correct answer. 23. In a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), the tunneling probability of electrons from metal surface to a prob tip is proportional to exp(2L), where L is the tip-sample distance and = 1 nm1 is the inverse of the penetration length. 2 .

25

## Tip L -L Metal surface

If the tip moves closer to the surface by L = 0.1 nm, the tunneling current, (a) remains unchanged. (b) increase by 22 %. (c) decrease by 22 %. (d) increase by 10 %. (e) decrease by 10 %. Answer 23: We are given that, Tip-sample distance = = 1 nm1 = 1 109 m1 Distance covered by tip = L = 0.1 nm = 0.1 109 m. Tunneling probability is, Ti = e2L . If tip moves closer to the surface by L, nal tunneling probability will become, Tf = e2(LL) . ratio of tunneling probabilities is, Tf e2(LL) = Ti e2L 2L = e = e210 = e0.2 = 1.22. Hence there is a 22% increase in the tunneling current and the correct answer is (b). Date: 16 May, 2013 26
9 0.1109

## Attempt all questions.

1. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle applies to photons as well as to material particles. Thus a photon conned to a small box of size x necessarily has a large uncertainty in momentum and uncertainty in energy. Recall that for a photon E = pc. (a) Estimate the uncertainty in energy for a photon conned to the tiny box of size x. [2 Marks] Answer 1 (a): We are given that, E = pc. Uncertainty in energy is, E cp. (1)

Uncertainty in momentum p for a photon conned to the tiny box of size x can be calculated by using the uncertainty relation, x p , 2 where is the reduced Plancks constant. p .

2x

## Total Time:3 hours

Using this value of p in equation (1) yields, ( ) E c 2x c E 2x (b) If E E , what is the eective mass of the photon? [2 Marks] Answer 1 (b): We are given that, E E c E= 2x Eective mass can be calculated by using energy-mass relationship, E = me c2 , where me is the eective mass of the photon. me = E c2 c 1 = 2 2x c = 2cx .

(c) This mass can be extremely large, if x is tiny. If x is suciently small, the large mass can create a large gravitational eld, suciently large to form a black hole. When this happens x is called the Planck length, and this is when gravity and quantum mechanics become inter mixed. For a black hole, not even light can escape.

## Total Time:3 hours

Launch an object M

Consider a star of mass M and radius R as shown above. If an object is to be launched from the stars surface so that it escapes the stars gravitational pull, it needs a minimum velocity vesc called the escape velocity. Show that vesc = 2GM R . [4 Marks] Answer 1 (c): We are given that, Mass of the star = M Radius of the star = R Let mass of the object = m, and let speed of the object to escape from the stars gravitational pull is vesc . In order to escape from the gravitational pull of star, kinetic energy of the object should be at least equal to the gravitational potential energy. K.E. = P.E. 1 2 mM mvesc. = G 2 R 2 GM 2 vesc. = R 2GM . vesc. = R
Date: 16 May, 2013 3

## Total Time:3 hours

Which is the required result. (d) If vesc = c, nothing can escape from this star, not even light. If we were to replace the star of mass M with a photon of the mass calculated in part (b), and conned to length x, and set R = x, calculate the Planck length in terms of G, Answer 1 (d): Using the relation of vesc derived in part (c) 2GM vesc = , R where vesc = c, c = and c. [3 Marks]

## 2GM R 2 GM c2 = . R Setting R = x and M = me , c2 = = = x2 = x = 2Gme. x 2G x 2cx G cx2 G c3 G . c3

(e) If G = 6.67 1011 N m2 /kg2 , nd the numerical value of Plancks length. [2 Marks]

## Total Time:3 hours

Answer 1 (e): x = = = G 3 c

2.62 1070 m2

## 6.67 1011 N m2 /kg2 1.06 1034 Js (3.0 108 ms1 )3

= 1.6 1035 m. (f) What is the diameter of a proton (about 2 fm = 2 1015 m) in units of Plancks length? [2 Marks] Answer 1 (f ): We are given that, Diameter of photon = 2 fm
15 m = 2 10 Diameter of photon 2 1015 m = 1.6 1035 m/Planck length in Plancks length

= 1.24 1020 Planck lengths. 2. The radioactive decay of certain heavy nuclei by emission of an alpha particle is a result of quantum tunneling. Imagine an alpha particle moving around inside a nucleus, such as thorium (mass number= 232). When the alpha particles bounces against the surface of the nucleus, it meets a barrier caused by the attractive nuclear force. The dimensions of barrier vary a lot from one nucleus to another, but as representative numbers you can assume that the barriers width is L 35 fm (1 fm = 1015 m) and the average barrier height is such that V0 E 5
Date: 16 May, 2013 5

## Total Time:3 hours

MeV. Find the probability that an alpha hitting the nucleus surface will escape. Given that the alpha hits the nuclear surface about 5 1021 times per second, what is the probability that it will escape in a day? The tunneling probability is T = e2L where = 2m(V0 E )/ and L is the barrier length. (1 MeV= 106 eV). [5 Marks] Answer 2: We are given that, Barrier length = L = 35 fm = 35 1015 m Barrier height = (V0 E ) = 5 MeV = 5 106 1.6 1019 J = 8 1013 J Tunneling probability = T = e2L , 2m(V0 E ) where = and mass of the nucleus = m = 4 1.67 1027 kg = 6.68 1027 kg. In order to calculate probability of escape T , lets rst calculate . 2m(V0 E ) = 2 6.68 1027 kg 5 106 1.6 1019 J = 1.06 1034 Js = 9.75 1014 m1 . Tunneling probability is, T = e2L = e29.7510 = e68.25 = 2.29 1030 .
Date: 16 May, 2013 6
14

m1 351015 m

## Total Time:3 hours

The probability that an alpha particle hitting the nucleus surface will escape is 2.29 1030 . If no. of hits per second = 5 1021 /s Probability of escape = T = 2.29 1030 5 1021 /s 24 60 60 s in a day = 9.89 104 = 9.89 102 %