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PGIE

ndice 1.
Memria

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Ps-Graduao em Informtica na Educao Laboratrio de Teleducao

r Estruturas de memria r Memria do Homem X Memria da Mquina

Aquisio de conhecimento
ltima atualizao: domingo 8 de fevereiro de 1998 18:45

2.

Solues Tecnolgicas apropriadas para as necessidades dos alunos em sala de aula Mapas Conceituais Conhecimento e hipertexto Aprendizagem Bibliografia Autores

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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Estruturas de memria
O modelo de armazenamento da memria, segundo muitos psiclogos, constituda basicamente pela memria de curta durao, tambm chamada de memria de trabalho, a memria de longa durao e um sistema de gerenciamento que determina quais as informaes presentes na primeira e que devem ser armazenadas na segunda. Muitos autores ainda reconhecem a existncia de um sistema de busca das informaes armazenadas. Segundo Ralph Gerard (apud Psychology 250H, 199?), o processo de armazenamento de uma informao na memria pode ser descrito pela seguinte seqncia de etapas: q Entrada da informao e armazenamento sensorial A aquisio da informao ocorre neste primeiro estgio e desaparece em poucos segundos. Portanto, rapidamente deve ser tomada um deciso sobre qual informao dever ser transferida para a prximo local de armazenamento de memria e qual a informao que deve ser esquecida. O agrupamento de pedaos de informao em fragmentos altamente ordenados ("chunks") diminuem a carga da memria, mas por outro lado impedem a aprendizagem efetiva. Nossa memria de curta durao ou "memria de trabalho" tem uma capacidade limitada. Podemos manter um certo nmero de unidades discretas de informao na memria de trabalho para processamento a qualquer momento. Mas, segundo Dixon, se a informao for agrupada de forma que cada unidade individual contenha uma grande quantidade de itens, podemos realizar um processamento bem mais complexo. q Transferncia da informao a partir do armazenamento sensorial A informao que ns prestamos ateno (ou corresponde a uma experincia significativa) passa para o segundo nvel de armazenamento, a memria de curto prazo. r Armazenamento primrio ou memria de curto prazo A informao aqui armazenada um reflexo dos estmulos originais. Alguns estudos sobre o que determina a natureza da informao armazenada na memria de curto prazo descobriram que a informao fundamentalmente acstica. A durao da informao nesta etapa curta e usualmente desaparece aps 15 segundos. A informao pode ser copiada ou transferida daqui para a memria de longo prazo. Quais as informao que sero lembradas ou esquecidas dependem dos eventos que ocorreram antes e depois da informao assim como o conhecimento anterior sobre um determinado tpico afeta a habilidade de codificar e lembrar de uma nova informao relacionada a este tpico. Isto indica que, aqueles que possuem conhecimento sobre um tpico antes de expostos a uma nova informao relacionada a este tema, esto melhor capacitados para codificar e lembrar da informao do que aqueles com pouco ou nenhum background. Este processo chamado interferncia pr-ativa. Os eventos que ocorrem aps o armazenamento da informao e que tambm podem afet-la so denominados

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interferncia reativa. r Memria de longa durao Contm as informaes que ns temos disponveis de maneira mais ou menos permanente e possui uma capacidade de armazenamento ilimitada. Dois tipos de memrias so aqui armazenadas: a episdica (recordaes de experincias pessoais ou eventos, associadas a um tempo e/ou lugar particular) e a semntica (informao que no est associada a um tempo ou lugar particular e inclui nosso conhecimento sobre palavras, linguagem e smbolos, seus significados, relaes e regras de uso). Alguns estudos revelaram que a informao fundamentalmente semntica por natureza. A reteno da informao na memria de longa durao muito mais eficiente se ns identificarmos temas super ordenados que reunam e organizam outros itens discretos de informao, denominados esquemas por Chandler. Em termos gerais, um esquema pode ser visto como uma construo cognitiva que categoriza a informao de forma que ela possa ser tratada. Alm de serem os blocos fundamentais do conhecimento, os esquemas tambm tem a funo de reduzir a sobrecarga da memria de trabalho. Por exemplo, podemos rapidamente ler este texto porque as palavras correspondem a esquemas previamente adquiridos. Ns no temos de olhar detidamente sobre a forma de cada letra e usar a memria de trabalho para combinar esta imensa variedade de formas em uma frase com significado. S temos que olhar algumas formas e usar nossos esquemas altamente sofisticados, adquiridos ao longo de muitos anos, para preencher o resto. Assim, ns essencialmente ignoramos a memria de trabalho e fazemos uso da memria de longa durao. Entretanto, uma criana aprendendo a ler, sem esquemas complexos, ter grandes dificuldades para processar toda esta informao atravs da limitada memria de trabalho. Um segundo mecanismo que reduz dramaticamente a carga da memria de trabalho o processamento automtico. O processamento automtico permite que a informao seja automaticamente processada, com pouco ou quase nenhum esforo consciente. Enquanto a aquisio de esquemas o componente essencial na soluo de problemas e exerccios semelhantes quelas j aprendidos, a automao parece ser o ingrediente chave quando se lida com novos problemas. Assim, a aquisio de esquemas e a automao so os fatores principais no desempenho de habilidades e na aprendizagem. Embora estes conceitos acima sejam largamente aceitos, o ensino raramente estruturado tendo isto em mente. Os programas de treinamento freqentemente sobrecarregam a memria de trabalho dos aprendizes e dificultam a aquisio de esquemas e a automao. q Chamada da informao a partir da memria: O retorno de uma informao armazenada consiste de um processo reconstrutivo complexo. Este processo baseia-se na memria de trabalho. A memria de trabalho consiste de processos de deciso que determinam qual a informao ativada na memria de longa durao e qual a informao retida na memria de curta durao. As memrias so progressivamente alteradas ao longo do tempo.

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Como a memria altamente associativa e influenciada pelos eventos que ocorrem antes e depois do processo de codificao, tendemos, ao longo do tempo, a ter fragmentos incompletos de memria. Ns refabricamos ou reconstrumos as memrias para preencher estas lacunas com informaes parecidas com uma dada memria. O argumento de que a inteligncia humana hereditria ou determinada pelo ambiente baseada na hiptese de que no existe uma maneira de algum intencionalmente aumentar sua inteligncia. O desenvolvimento do conceito de estratgia nos permite acreditar que a inteligncia de uma pessoa determinada pelo que esta pessoa faz, a partir do qual surgem novos conceitos de aprendizes e educao (Murayama, 1995). No entanto, o autor questiona os efeitos e limitaes do ensino de estratgias. A descoberta de estratgias poderia naturalmente conduzir os professores e pesquisadores idia de que qualquer poderia tornar-se um bom aprendiz somente adquirindo boas estratgias. Do ponto de vista da aprendizagem, no modelo de armazenamento admite-se que o desempenho da arquitetura bsica, incluindo capacidade de armazenamento e velocidade de transferncia, no varia ao menos por um perodo de tempo considervel. A eficincia da aprendizagem suposta como permanecendo fixa. Quanto mais voc aprende, mais tempo ser despendido na aprendizagem, ou seja, a eficincia da aprendizagem no considerada como dependente da vontade do aprendiz. J no modelo de processamento (Murayama, 1995), a eficincia da aprendizagem pode ser aumentada alterando o mtodo de processamento. A aprendizagem torna-se mais eficiente com processamento mais aprofundado e os estudantes podem escolher o quo profundo eles gostariam de ir no processamento da informao recebida. Isto significa que a cognio humana controlvel e possvel aprender melhor adquirindo melhores estratgias. Os psiclogos tendem a considerar a aprendizagem como um fenmeno ocorrendo em mentes individuais e considerado o que adquirido como um resultado da aprendizagem somente nos nveis de conhecimento e habilidades. Aprendizagem considerada como a habilidade de tornar-se capaz de responder uma questo que no era capaz de responder antes. Segundo Novak (1984), existem duas formas para ampliar a capacidade de reteno da memria de longa durao: a memorizao (transferncia de um novo conhecimento da memria de curta durao para a memria de longa durao) e incorporao (estabelecimento de relaes entre o novo conhecimento e o conhecimento j existente e estabelecendo um local apropriado em sua memria de longa durao). Admitindo que o aprendizado envolva tanto a memorizao quanto a incorporao, importante desenvolver estas duas habilidades. No entanto, a habilidade de incorporao, para a maioria dos estudantes, muito menos desenvolvida que a memorizao. O autor sugere que a estruturao da informao pode auxiliar neste processo e prope a construo de mapas conceituais. O processo de aprendizado envolve o uso da memria de curta durao para estabelecimento de uma definio clara de cada conceito e para
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determinar sua localizao adequada no mapa conceitual, isto , a relao do novo conceito com os conceitos anteriormente aprendidos. interessante verificar que o mesmo autor afirma que, quando um conceito estiver claramente compreendido e corretamente localizado no respectivo mapa conceitual, tanto o mapa quanto as definies podem ento serem memorizados. Esta idia parece confrontar diretamente a teoria construtivista, pois considera como aprendizado a simples incorporao de um conceito novo a uma estrutura pr-existente, sem necessariamente adquirir um significado para o aluno.

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Mapas Conceituais Mapas Conceituais so representaes grficas semelhantes a diagramas, que indicam relaes entre conceitos ligados por palavras. Representam uma estrutura que vai desde os conceitos mais abrangentes at os menos inclusivos. So utilizados para auxiliar a ordenao e a seqenciao hierarquizada dos contedos de ensino, de forma a oferecer estmulos adequados ao aluno. Os recursos esquemticos dos mapas conceituais, que representam um conjunto de conceitos interrelacionados numa estrutura hierrquica proposicional, servem para tornar claro para professores e alunos as relaes entre conceitos de um contedo aos quais deve ser dada maior nfase. (NOVAK, 1996: 33) Segundo GAINES e SHAW (1995), os mapas conceituais podem ser descritos sob diversas formas, conforme o nvel de anlise considerado: q sob uma perspectiva abstrata, os mapas conceituais constitudos por nodos ligados por arcos podem ser vistos como hipergrafos ordenados. Cada nodo tem um identificador nico e um contedo, enquanto as ligaes entre nodos podem ser direcionadas ou no direcionadas, representados visualmente por linhas entre os ns, com ou sem flechas nas extremidades. q da perspectiva de visualizao, os mapas conceituais podem ser vistos como diagramas, construdos atravs do uso de signos. Cada tipo de nodo pode determinar (ou ser determinado) pela forma, cor externa ou de preenchimento, enquanto as ligaes podem ser identificadas pela espessura da linha, cor ou outras formas de representao. q sob a perspectiva da conversao, os mapas conceituais podem ser considerados como uma forma de representao e comunicao do conhecimento atravs de linguagens visuais, porque esto sujeitos interpretao por alguma comunidade de referncia. Esta interpretao permite o estabelecimento de um paralelo entre a linguagem natural e a linguagem visual - as estruturas gramaticais e suas estruturas adquirem significado segundo so utilizadas em uma determinada comunidade. Os mapas conceituais podem ser teis para a elaborao de material didtico em hipermdia, cuja estruturao estiver baseada na teoria de aprendizagem significativa, uma vez que os recursos utilizveis de som e imagem, bem como de texto, podem agir como organizadores prvios que serviro como subsunores para o aluno, ou seja, serviro de ligao entre os conceitos existentes e as novas informaes apresentadas (RORATO, 1997). Por organizadores prvios entende-se os materiais introdutrios apresentados ao aluno, num nvel mais alto de abstrao e servem como pontes cognitivas fazendo ligao entre conceitos que o aluno j possui e os novos que ele precisa saber (MOREIRA, 1993, p.14). No processo de aprendizagem significativa essencial a interao entre idias, que podem ser expressas simbolicamente, de modo no-arbitrrio e substantivo, isto , no-literal, com aspectos especficos j presentes na estrutura cognitiva do indivduo. Assim, o conhecimento que o aluno possui - conhecimentos prvios - o fator isolado mais importante que influenciar na aprendizagem subseqente (AUSUBEL, 1978: 56). Os conhecimentos prvios, denominados subsunores, constituem conceitos bastante integrados estrutura cognitiva, so elementos centrais para estruturao e construo do conhecimento, com os quais a nova informao interage, resultando numa mudana tanto da nova informao quanto do subsunor ao qual se relaciona. Se os subsunores so elementos preponderantes para que haja aprendizagem significativa, da mesma forma o material oferecido ao aluno deve ser potencialmente significativo, isto , relacionvel aos conceitos j existentes na sua estrutura cognitiva(Moreira, 1993: 9-10).

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AUSUBEL(1978) sustenta que cada disciplina tem seus prprios conceitos e mtodos idiossincrticos de investigao, porm os conceitos podem ser identificados e ensinados ao aluno de maneira que formem um conjunto de informaes estruturadas hierarquicamente. De acordo com AUSUBEL (LEUNG, 1997; MIHKELSON, 1996), uma dada estratgia de ensino no assegura necessariamente uma aprendizagem com significado. Tanto os antecedentes do estudante quanto a abordagem do ensino determinam a efetividade da estratgia. Os resultados cheios de significado surgem quando uma pessoa consciente e explicitamente estabelece ligaes deste novo conhecimento com os conceitos relevantes que ela j possui. Ausubel sugere que, quando a aprendizagem significativa ocorre, ela produz uma srie de alteraes dentro da estrutura cognitiva, modificando os conceitos existentes e formando novas conexes entre os conceitos. Por isso que a aprendizagem significativa permanente e poderosa enquanto a aprendizagem rotineira facilmente esquecida e no facilmente aplicada em novas situaes de aprendizagem ou soluo de problemas. A estruturao do conhecimento na mente humana tende a seguir uma estrutura hierrquica na qual as idias mais abrangentes incluem proposies, conceitos e dados menos inclusivos e mais diferenciados (MOREIRA, 1993: 33). A aprendizagem significativa pressupe que as informaes a serem apresentadas ao aprendiz devem ser potencialmente significativas, isto , relacionveis com os conceitos subsunores j existentes na sua estrutura cognitiva e que o mesmo deve manifestar disposio de relacionar essas novas informaes aos conceitos j existentes. De acordo com esta teoria, a aprendizagem pode ser facilitada atravs dos seguintes princpios: diferenciao progressiva e reconciliao integrativa (MOREIRA & MASINI, 1982: 21 - 22). A diferenciao progressiva o princpio segundo o qual o contedo a ser apresentado aos alunos deve ser programado de maneira que os conceitos mais gerais da disciplina ou contedo sejam apresentados em primeiro lugar, e, pouco a pouco, introduzidos os conceitos mais especficos. O princpio da reconciliao integrativa postula que a programao do material a ser apresentado ao aluno deve ser feita de maneira que haja explorao de relaes entre idias, apontando semelhanas e diferenas entre conceitos relacionados. Um hiperdocumento, por exemplo, constitui-se de uma srie de documentos que possuem interligaes entre si, isto , esto conectados atravs de ligaes, cuja leitura feita pelo usurio de forma dinmica. Pode-se utilizar os recursos de hipermdia, com fins educacionais, desde que o usurio seja conduzido pelos textos seguindo uma estrutura hierarquizada, estabelecida no programa, para que no se perca na navegao e passe por todos os pontos importantes da nova informao recebida. (Schwabe, 1993 apud KAWASAKI, 1996). Do ponto de vista educacional, vrios autores concordam com a necessidade de cercear a liberdade de navegao pelo hipertexto educacional como forma de se garantir a eficcia do mesmo e tambm como forma de se evitar que o aluno passe apenas superficialmente pelo material, deixando de passar por pontos importantes para sua aprendizagem (KAWASAKI, 1996: 15). Para elaborao de documentos hipermdia, segundo os princpios gerais da teoria de aprendizagem significativa, se faz necessrio a identificao dos conceitos gerais mais inclusivos da disciplina e, a partir deste ponto, definir-se que conjuntos de informaes devem constar do material a ser elaborado. aconselhvel tambm que se programe o documento de maneira que o aluno seja induzido a navegar pelo hipertexto hierarquicamente, isto , de forma que o aprendiz passe por todos os nveis do software desde as informaes mais inclusivas at as mais especficos.
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Prope-se a seguinte estruturao para a construo de um mapa conceitual seguindo o princpio de diferenciao progressiva, adaptado de KAWASAKI (1996): q escrever dentro de um retngulo o conceito principal do contedo a ser apresentado em forma de hiperdocumento; q ao redor do primeiro retngulo, dispor outros retngulos contendo nomes de outros assuntos diretamente relacionados ao conceito principal; q ligar cada retngulo ao primeiro por meio de setas direcionais ou bidirecionais e escrever junto a cada seta uma palavra de ligao que sugira a relao entre os dois conceitos; q se houver dois conceitos ou mais, ligados ao conceito principal e que possuam alguma relao entre si, lig-los entre si atravs de setas direcionais ou bidirecionais e escrever a relao existente entre os conceitos; q repetir o procedimento at que todos os conceitos relevantes para o objetivo proposto tenham sido representados. White e Gunstone ( apud NASA Class Room of the Future Project, 1997) propem uma seqncia de etapas que auxiliam a construo de um mapa conceitual : 0. Escreva os termos ou conceitos principais que voc conhece sobre o tpico selecionado. Escreva cada conceito ou termo em um carto 1. Revise os cartes, separando aqueles conceitos que voc NO entendeu. Tambm coloque de lado aqueles que NO ESTO relacionados com qualquer outro termo. Os cartes restantes so aqueles que sero usados na construo do mapa conceitual. 2. Organize os cartes de forma que os termos relacionados fiquem perto uns dos outros. 3. Cole os cartes em um pedao de papel to logo voc esteja satisfeito com o arranjo. Deixe um pequeno espao para as linhas que voc ir traar. 4. Desenhe linhas entre os termos que voc considera que esto relacionados 5. Escreva sobre cada linha a natureza da relao entre os termos. 6. Se voc deixou cartes separados na etapa 3, volte e verifique se alguns deles ajustam-se ao mapa conceitual que voc construiu. Se isto acontecer, assegure-se de adicionar as linhas e relaes entre estes novos itens. Os mapas podem tornar-se muito complexos e requererem um bom tempo e muita ateno para sua construo, mas eles so teis na organizao, aprendizagem e demonstrao do que voc sabe algum tpico particular. Um exemplo de um mapa conceitual, adaptado de NOVAK (1996), pode ser a conceituao de energia, em uma aula de fsica ou a descrio. Pode, tambm, ser considerado um nvel do hipertexto e ser interligado a outros mapas conceituais sobre o assunto ou assuntos correlatos. Os mapas conceituais assim construdos ficam com uma estrutura aproximadamente hierrquica. Para distinguir-se o conceito mais abrangente, basta procur-lo no topo da lista. Sua construo deve permitir que a passagem de um bloco de informaes para outro s seja possvel depois que o aluno tiver subsunores adequados para seguir em frente, utilizando-se de exerccios que possibilitem medir o nvel de aprendizagem do indivduo, definindo o roteiro principal do programa, isto , aquilo que o aluno deve realmente estar apto a fazer aps estudar aquele roteiro. Segundo KAWASAKI (1996), a escolha de determinadas informaes em detrimento de outras, depende de trs fatores:

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adequao de uma mdia para apresentar determinado tipo de informao, j que uma mesma informao pode ser apresentada de diversas formas; perfil dos aprendizes: alunos no alfabetizados ou deficientes visuais, por exemplo, podem determinar a elaborao de um software totalmente narrado; recursos materiais disponveis para a utilizao do programa. A utilizao de material muito sofisticado alm de necessitar mais tempo e pessoal especializado requer equipamento adequado.

Para o mesmo autor, importante: escolher o tema a ser abordado; definir o objetivo principal a ser perseguido; definir a apresentao dos tpicos, colocando-os numa seqncia hierarquizada com as interligaes necessrias; dar conhecimento ao aluno do que se espera quanto ao que ele poder ser capaz de realizar aps a utilizao do processo de aprendizagem; permitir sesses de feedback, de modo que ao aluno seja possvel rever seus conceitos, e ao professor avaliar o instrumento utilizado, de modo a enfatizar sempre os pontos mais relevantes do assunto, mostrando onde houve erro e promovendo recursos de help. Deste modo, os mapas conceituais so excelentes recursos que auxiliam na aquisio de novos conhecimentos e podem ser usados por professores e alunos de maneira tradicional, isto , no quadro de giz e no caderno, mas melhor ainda quando utilizados no computador que possibilita a interatividade, bem como um atendimento personalizado, num ritmo estabelecido pelo aluno. Alguns autores (GAINES e SHAW, 1995) esto preocupados com o desenvolvimento de ferramentas que auxiliem na construo dos mapas conceituais. Uso dos mapas conceituais no ensino

Como uma ferramenta de aprendizagem, o mapa conceitual til para o estudante, por exemplo, para: q fazer anotaes q resolver problemas q planejar o estudo e/ou a redao de grandes relatrios q preparar-se para avaliaes q identificando a integrao dos tpicos. Para os professores, os mapas conceituais podem constituir-se poderosos auxiliares em suas tarefas rotineiras, tais como: q ensinando um novo tpico: Na construo de mapas conceituais, os conceitos difceis so clarificados e podem ser arranjados em uma ordem sistemtica. O uso de mapas conceituais pode auxiliar os professores manterem-se mais atentos aos conceitos chaves e relaes entre eles. Os mapas podem auxili-lo a transferir uma imagem geral e clara dos tpicos e suas relaes para seus estudantes. Desta forma torna-se mais fcil para o estudante no perder ou no entender qualquer conceito importante. q reforar a compreenso: o uso dos mapas conceituais refora a compreenso e aprendizagem por parte dos alunos. Ele permite a visualizao dos conceitos chave e resume suas inter-relaes. q verificar a aprendizagem e identificar conceitos mal compreendidos: os mapas conceituais tambm podem auxiliar os professores na avaliao do processo de ensino. Eles podem avaliar

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o alcance dos objetivos pelos alunos atravs da identificao dos conceitos mal entendidos e os que esto faltando. avaliao: a aprendizagem do aluno (alcance dos objetivos, compreenso dos conceitos e suas interligaes, etc.) podem ser testadas ou examinadas atravs da construo de mapas conceituais.

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MEMRIA

MEMRIA DO HOMEM X MEMRIA DA MQUINA FISIOLOGIA DA MEMRIA: Pesquisas recentes (1) em neurobiologia tratam da interao de hormnios e neurotransmissores na modulao de acmulo de dados na memria. Neuro- transmissores so substncias que conduzem sinais entre as clulas nervosas, ex. glutamato encontra-se em todo crebro e possui a funo de excitar as clulas. A neurobiologia pode ajudar na compreenso da condio da mente humana, apesar de ainda se ressentir da falta de respostas precisas para problemas complexos. Existem vrios bilhes de neurnios nos circuitos do crebro humano, aproximadamente dez trilhes de sinapses, que so ligaes formadas entre neurnios. Os axinios, que so extenses dos neurnios, formam uma rede muito complexa, chamada tambm de circuitos neurais, que se estendem a todas partes do corpo, constituindo o sistema de comunicao entre corpo X crebro X corpo. Os axinios podem atingir milhares de quilmetros (2). Na determinao das redes neurais somente uma parte especificada pelos genes(3), outra pode ser criada e modificada pelo exerccio da interao com o meio e convivncia cultural, durante toda vida do indivduo. Portanto, as conexes cerebrais podem aumentar, o que representa a possibilidade do desenvolvimento da inteligncia, memria e criatividade. Cada clula do crebro ativa um "programa"(4) que aciona a produo de substncias, chamadas de neurotransmissores, que passam de uma clula para outra, atravs de "microtubos"(5), carregando ordens e tarefas. Provas bioqumicas e eletrofisiolgicas(6) mostram que existem interaes entre vrios sistemas dentro crebro que se responsabilizam pelo comportamento dos neurnios nos processos de aprendizagem e memria. O sistema nervoso uma rede muito complexa(7), que se desenvolve de forma axiomtica e espacial, regula a entrada de informaes e alteraes ocorridas e registradas pelo corpo, fundamentalmente atravs dos sistemas sensrios (viso, tato, olfato, audio e paladar), assim como, atravs da mesma rede, o crebro d a sada das ordens para o corpo, emitindo substncias qumicas, que mantm os padres fisiolgicos do organismo e, ainda, permite a exteriorizao das respostas das interaes. Os estudos psicolgicos da linha do processamento de informaes(8) mostram que a tendncia do ser humano de sempre estabelecer relaes entre duas ou mais coisas e, frente a uma relao e um novo estmulo, projeta a correlao, surge uma nova associao e atualizao da rede semntica, elaborando e reestruturando seus modelos mentais e suas estruturas cognitivas. a tomada de conscincia e a aquisio do conhecimento, que fica gravado na memria. O processo conclui quando a resposta, soluo do problema ou transformao simbolicamente externada atravs da expresso de uma linguagem qualquer escolhida como a falada, escrita, desenhada ou, simplesmente, expressada por um gesto ou comportamento. O conhecimento a representao mental da experincia adquirida, normalmente registrado na memria atravs das impresses emitidas pelo corpo associadas ao processo cognitivo ocorrido no crebro. So imagens mentais ligadas intrinsecamente sensaes, emoes e sentimentos, que, quando revividos ativam todo complexo relativo quela experincia.

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MEMRIA

interessante notar que a noo de "rede" gerada pelo emaranhado de neurnios semelhante rede virtual da Internet. Roy Ascott criou o termo "cibercepo" para designar a percepo ampliada pelo uso do computador: "...a medida que interajo com a rede reconfiguro a mim mesmo"(9). Estamos todos, usurios da rede, sofrendo um processo de transformao de nossa conscincia, na expanso da noo do "eu". Vemos nosso poder de percepo, cognio e memria expandidos telematicamente num "mundo-mente" (world-mind). O impacto da telepresena, o conhecimento facilmente distribudo, a criatividade colaborativa so vantagens proporcionadas pelos ambientes virtuais, que jamais poderiam ser atingidos pela velha cultura da representao com seus discursos tradicionais e teorias no criticveis(10). A cultura hoje est mais viva, se atualiza com facilidade. O ponto de ruptura a tentativa de construo de uma realidade mais justa, democrtica, que integra pessoas, lugares, mas acima de tudo mentes. "O espao telemtico da Net real para nossos sentidos e metafisicamente ausente do espao clssico. No existe na superfcie, somente na profundidade"(11). A Internet no apenas uma rede, mas uma rede de redes em todas dimenses(12), que cresce constantemente pela adeso de novos "ns" e redes. Pode ser comparado a um enorme complexo virio, composto por super- auto-estradas, estradas, avenidas, ruas, etc. Na verdade a Internet uma complexa malha de computadores interligados. A metfora do "buraco de minhoca" (wormhole)(13) hoje usada pela fsica na compreenso da topologia do espao sideral, onde um buraco de minhoca representa uma ligao, um tubo, entre dois lugares distantes no universo, permitindo, assim, o rpido trnsito das partculas. A mesma metfora nos traz tambm a noo de que modificaes biolgicas criadas por efeito da aprendizagem num circuito de neurnios, podem ser imaginadas como uma rede de microtubos "escavados" ou "linkados" pela fora da nossa vontade de aprender, por onde circularo livremente as informaes de nossas representaes neurais. Essa metfora pode ser tambm empregada no sentido da rede digital, quando desejamos nos conectar com um novo lugar, se aquela conexo no existia anteriormente possvel gerar o caminho para chegar l, permitindo um rpido contato entre as pessoas. interessante notar que o processo cognitivo em nosso crebro semelhante: no existia aquela ligao dos neurnios que surge atravs de acomodaes biolgicas correspondentes ao conhecimento adquirido, " um tipo de tunelagem cognitiva, como nos coloca Ascott. A questo da inteno de conectividade tem a ver tambm com outro princpio da Fsica. Na fsica quntica se fala que as partculas magnticas alteram seu comportamento quando observadas(14). o pensamento entendido como forma de energia, a "fora do pensamento" que hoje j est sendo captada por sensores e brevemente aproveitada como interfaces entre o homem e as mquinas. Para Ascott e Penrose (15) a operao mental no mecanismo de tomada de conscincia e aquisio do conhecimento dentro do crebro se d tambm atravs de fenmenos qunticos que impulsionam os neurotransmissores atravs de "microtubos" entre os neurnios, gerando novas sinapses, novas conexes, estendendo o poder mental. Da mesma maneira que o computador expandiu enormemente os meios de comunicao, est, tambm expandindo nossa concepo de "mente". visvel a transformao da nossa
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MEMRIA

cultura que caminha na direo da bioeletrnica, da ciberespiritualidade e, de uma forma geral, a complexidade dos sistemas auto-organizveis e autoconscientes como estamos vivenciando, ns, alunos do CPGIE, nestas pesquisas cooperativas e colaborativas. Desta forma conclumos acreditando na eficincia do aprendizado via computador, por que parte de um aprendizado natural no-racionalizado. Corresponde a uma etapa anterior de atividade intelectual exposio racional, que formada por interaes normais da vida como as tentativas acerto e erro, imaginao, fantasia, bricolage mental, experincias cotidianas, etc. Por isso o aprendizado via computador muito mais eficiente no sentido de ficar gravado na memria, alm de ter maior amplitude, maior possibilidade de atingir a um nmero maior de pessoas.

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COGNITIVISMO Home Page 01 - VISO HISTRICA

Ambientes Computacionais
Com o desenvolvimento da tecnologia, foram criados novos ambientes de aprendizagem nas escolas. Assim por exemplo, na Universidade de Southampton (URL:www.http://ilc.tsms.soton.ac.uk) encontra-se o Centro de Aprendizagem Interativo que usa ambientes de aprendizagem estruturados denominados microcosmos onde utilizada a multimidia com textos, vdeos, figuras, e onde os alunos podem fazer suas pesquisas. Como um ambiente j estruturado, leva os alunos atravs de rotas pr-definidas, que so ideais para obter informao a partir de fatos que no se modificam rapidamente com o tempo, e para os iniciantes. Neste centro de aprendizagem interativa se estuda a forma como estes recursos esto ajudando efetivamente na aprendizagem. Para a construo destes recursos de aprendizagem necessrio passar por vrios estgios como coletar informaes, digitalizar e estruturar os recursos atravs dos links, que podem ser modificados e acrescentados com novos recursos em qualquer tempo. Qualquer coisa que pode ser produzida em um ambiente Windows, desde um simples texto ou desenho que formam um banco de dados, que podem por sua vez ser agrupados e ligados numa variedade de assuntos num ambiente de hipermidia. Os alunos trabalham em assuntos e nveis estabelecidos, escaneiam textos e figuras, capturam digitalmente slides com fotos de Cd's, digitalizam vdeo clips e sons, criando uma srie de documentos multimidia, que serviro para futuras pesquisas. Alm de aprender a utilizar a tecnologia, existe a preocupao com as implicaes pedaggicas do material e como se insere dentro do domnio daquele conhecimento e com sua ligao com outras reas de conhecimento. Cada rea tem uma srie de documentos chaves que guiam o usurio atravs do material, que embora sem ser hierarquizado, permite uma navegao em hiperdocumento atravs de caixas de dilogo. Os links devem ser feitos atravs de conceitos chaves, que formam um andaime para a auto-construo do conhecimento dos estudantes, que podem criar seus prprios hiperdocumentos refletindo sua compreenso do tema. Todas estas perspectivas permite que o estudante desenvolva um esquema de conhecimento daquela rea, construindo sobre o conhecimento anterior. O conhecimento disponvel deve passar por trs fases que permitiro uma melhor aquisio por parte do aluno: estgios introdutrio, avanado e de especialista. Na fase introdutria, tem atividades para exercitar e praticar; tipo pergunta e resposta, e mltipla escolha. No nvel avanado , os alunos devem resolver problemas complexos e estudo de casos utilizando o banco de dados. Na fase especialista, toda a informao integrada numa complexa rede, usando a aprendizagem independente. A pergunta de se os computadores ajudam a pensar, pode ser respondida atravs das suas possibilidades de uso, tais como processador de texto, como canal de comunicao, e como jogos. Embora um processador de texto no ajude um escritor a criar um histria melhor, permite, no entanto, que o escritor faa mais facilmente seu texto, podendo mover pargrafos, deletar e inserir frases no meio. A criatividade pode ser desenvolvida atravs do computador em programas que permitem novas formas de fazer coisas, gerando idias e manipulando a informao, de uma forma randomica, e alguns programas permitido desenhar, fazer grficos e mapas .

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Conhecimento e hipertexto
No texto anterior (O Uso do Hipertexto em Atividades Cooperativas na Construo do Conhecimento - Atividade 1), afirmamos, com base em Piaget e outras interpretaes (Behar e Costa, 1996, 1997; Axt, 1996) que utilizamos, que as interaes do sujeito com o ambiente hipertextual ocorrem em duas esferas bsicas: interaes sujeito-objeto (sujeito-ferramentas) individuais; interaes sujeito-sujeito mediadas por meios tcnicos e linguagem, em torno de aes especificamente tcnicas ou em de outros objetos (valores, por exemplo) que compem a intencionalidade interindividual. Afirmamos ainda que estas interaes entre sujeito-objeto e sujeito-sujeito podem ocorrer sob formas heternomas, autnomas ou mesmo anmicas e que o ato de operar tambm de co-operar. Queremos agora acentuar a questo do conhecimento do sujeito sobre estas interaes, utilizando o paradigma piagetiano para isto. Para Piaget, o conhecimento corresponde aos vrios graus de tomada de conscincia do sujeito sobre as interaes, sendo o mais alto grau o da conscincia explcita, declarativa, enquanto o mais elementar seria o da subcepo(Axt, 1996). Portanto, o conhecimento diretamente proporcional a capacidade do sujeito em representar em esquemas suas interaes. Afinal, isto coerente com o prprio mtodo clnico, onde a verbalizao das aes ocupa um lugar destacado nas investigaes que sua equipe realizou. Isto no significa, como afirmamos, que a linguagem em si gera a cognio. a funo semitica no seu conjunto que liberta o sujeito dos limites circunscritos de suas interaes, permitindo representaes que trascendem o imediato espacial e temporal. Entretanto, esta tomada de conscincia no surge como as relaes entre o Lampadinha e o Professor Pardal. A passagem das coordenaes inconscientes s conscientes exige, conforme Piaget, reconstrues to trabalhosas como se fossem uma nova construo. Isto no significa que as interaes em si j no se constituam num saber. Trata-se, quando no conceituada, num savoir faire, to eficente quanto inconsciente. Assim, por exemplo, sabemos engatinhar antes mesmo de conceituar o conjunto de movimentos que compem esta ao. Esta a razo pela qual muitos conseguem interagir com as ferramentas computacionais, mas na hora de explicar como fazem... Para Piaget (1978), tomamos conscincia no s porque no nos adaptamos em determinadas interaes, mas tambm porque definimos novos objetivos para antigos meios e/ou novos meios para antigos objetivos. Isto , o que gera os nveis de conhecimento no s a negatividade das interaes (por que no deu certo?) mas tambm a positividade do quem sabe eu fao assim?, ou fao assado?. A busca de novos meios, portanto, j parte do processo de tomada de conscincia, que segue uma lei geral segundo a qual o sujeito parte da periferia das interaes para os seus centros. Com periferia Piaget se refere a dois elementos que compem a ao de forma mais ou menos explcita para o sujeito: a conscincia do objetivo a alcanar (a intencionalidade) e o conhecimento de seu desfecho como fracasso ou xito (idem, p. 198). Ou seja, intencionalidade-sucesso-ou-fracasso o ponto de partida. Assim, por exemplo, o fracasso ou sucesso em fazer uma home-page, em mandar um e-mail, em produzir um texto, em ser aprovado na disciplina, etc. do ponto anterior (chamado de periferia da ao) que o sujeito vai se dirigir, por um processo de diferenciao dos elementos presentes nas interaes, para si e para o objeto. Ilustrando: diferenciar os vrios movimentos feitos numa ferramenta de autoria e seus efeitos em termos semiticos; diferenciar os vrias esferas de interao em trabalho cooperativo utilizando hipertexto; diferenciar vrias ferramentas de informtica e seus usos; diferenciar posicionamentos tericos em torno do conceito construtivismo.
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Esquematicamente, a tomada de conscincia pode ser representada assim: S<---<>--->O C<----P---->C' Ora, no caso das interaes cooperativas utilizando hipertexto de que tratamos, as esferas so simplificadamente duas: a) relaes sujeito-ferramentas S<---<>--->O C<----P---->C' b) relaes sujeito-sujeito S<---<>--->S C<----P---->C' O limite deste esquema que representa isoladamente os dois momentos das interaes sociais mediadas por hipertexto. Como, entretanto, toda e qualquer relao sujeito-objeto contextualizada por uma determinada inteno do sujeito e que estas intenes so indissociveis das interaes sociais (como vimos no texto da Atividade 1), podemos estabelecer uma relao de incluso lgico-formal entre as duas esferas de interaes de tal forma que sujeito-sujeito sujeito-objeto? Por mais sedutora que seja este esquema de incluso, a psico e sociognese do conhecimento remete, pelo contrrio, a uma mtua dependncia das duas esferas de interaes. As interaes sujeito-objeto possibilitam determinadas operaes e co-operaes que so incorporadas - por vias diversas - nas interaes sujeito-sujeito, e o inverso tambm verdadeiro. Assim, por exemplo, o metodologia de pesquisas das cincias naturais se constituiu por um largo perodo no paradigma de cientificidade ao conjunto das cincias, inclusive sociais. Por outro lado, a evoluo das cincias e das tcnicas modernas so indissociveis das interaes sociais desenvolvidas nos marcos da sociedade mercantil (isto , ps-feudal). Ora, nas interaes sociais, a problemtica da conscincia ganha uma complexidade maior decorrente do fato de que a intencionalidade dos interlocutores nem sempre explcita (diramos, pelo contrrio, que , na maioria das vezes, implcita). Se nas interaes sujeito-objeto h uma certa transparncia quanto a finalidades, o que favorece a tomada de conscincia a partir da periferia, o mesmo no ocorre nas interaces interindividuais. Assim, a tomada de conscincia nas interaes inicia j em torno das prprias intencionalidades dos interlocutores, ou seja tomar conscincia sobre o que cada um objetiva com a interao. Exemplo: no caso de nossa experincia coletiva, a intencionalidade j est relativamente definida com o contedo das atividades cooperativas. Porm, a intencionalidade no se esgota a. Este sentido compartilhado compe uma lgica de cooperao que se articula com as diferenas em termos de objetos, valores e conceitos que cada um desenvolve. A tomada de conscincia percorre caminhos j traados pela ao sem conceituao, embora se diferencie deste savoir faire em estado bruto. Assim, por exemplo, estamos desenvolvendo um trabalho cooperativo como ao. A tomada de conscincia sobre esta ao requer um esforo especial, um nova construo, que se sobrepe s construes feitas. Qual a trajetria desta reconstruo conceitual? mesma, diz Piaget, da ao. Esta se desenvolve em torno de vrios esquemas isolados entre si (no caso, esquemas sujeito-mquina e sujeito-sujeito), os quais so coordenados por assimilaes de uns em relao aos outros. Por exemplo, assimilaes tcnicas procedurais de como
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encaminhar o trabalho cooperativo. Ao mesmo tempo, h um processo de conceituao deste trabalho (no nosso caso, privilegiado, na medida em que nossa funo social, como doutorandos, conceitualizar e explicar a realidade), conceituaes individuais nos vrios trabalhos feitos e interindividuais conforme as trocas em e-mail e mural, as quais so esquemas de assimilio mais ou menos isolados entre si, porm passveis de serem coordenados numa totalidade singular, ou seja como um sistema de idias coerentes. Por exemplo, a discusso sobre hierarquia envolvendo o Frana, a Evelise a Solange so trocas que indicam esta possibilidade de coordenao de ponto-de-vistas, apesar de no terem evoludo mais. Levando risca a idia de Piaget, considero este tipo de discusso de suma importncia para o trabalho cooperativo, pois no seu interior so criadas (ou no) coordenaes interindividuais no plano dos conceitos. Quando no ocorrem as coordenaes, temos simplesmente regulaes baseadas nas trocas (ver texto Atividade 1). Quando ocorrem, temos abstraes conceituais cooperativas. Pois bem. As interaes que desenvolvemos delegam, por assim dizer, a cada ferramenta computacional uma especificidade na aquisio de conhecimento (tomada de conscincia) cooperativo. O texto individual colocado na forma de html se constitui muito mais em expresso das operaes. A lista de discusso o meio de trocas, de coordenaes interindividuais. O processo de construo do conhecimento poderia resultar em textos onde as vrias perspectivas apresentadas estivessem coordenadas entre si. Estas seriam as concluses em termos de abstrao. A dificuldade em compor as nossas concluses das atividades cooperativas reside nas insuficincias destas coordenaes de pontos de vista, capaz de dar conta tanto das interaes sujeito-objeto como as interindividuais. Entretanto, no s as listas viabilizam a cooperao. H cooperao quando cada um de ns, ao ler o texto de outro, converge com suas perspectiva e as incorpora em seus esquemas de assimilao. Por exemplo, quando inicio o texto da atividade 1 reconhecendo a validade conceitual do texto de Ftima, do Julio e Marcia. Para finalizar, importante considerar duas reflexes sobre o hipertexto colocadas nas referncias de nossa Atividade 2. Terry Mayes, em seu artigo Hypermedia and Cognitive Tool, questiona que o argumento de que hipertexto possa auxiliar o desenvolvimento da cognio, na medida em que proporciona interatividade, baseadas tambm em excurses guiadas, ndices, e testes. Este autor afirma que nem sempre o sujeito (estudante) escolhe as melhores informaes para aprendizagem, e sequer a prpria interatividade um atributo inerente s ferramentas. O ato de folhear no gera conhecimento. Por outro lado, a complexidade do hipertexto pode sobrecarregar o estudante com informaes sobre a prpria navegao. Este autor sugere a utilizao de uma outra ferramenta (o StrathTutor) que responda s lacunas do hipertexto tradicional. Sem menosprezar esta contribuio, consideramos que sua abordagem descuida do aspecto essencial (por que integrante da construo do conhecimento) que o das relaes sujeito-sujeito, ou seja as atividades de cooperao. J Reader & Nick (Computer-Based Tools To Support Learning From Hypertext: Concept Mapping Tools And Beyon) reduzem o hipertexto a um simples suporte para os materiais de aprendizagem, ou seja sem requisio de uma interatividade. O limite aqui ententer as interaes sujeito-texto como passivas. Se assim fosse, a civilizao no teria chegado onde chegamos. De qualquer forma, a proposio destes autores de utilizao dos mapas conceituais, que requerem construes de representaes grficas, interessante. O mapa utilizado como auxiliar na aprendizagem com o hipertexto. A idia de conceituar corresponderia s formas de conceituao que caracteriza o conhecimento (inerente tomada de conscincia)? Intuitivamente, acredito que sim. Este estudo

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deveria ser feito. Outra questo: Como esta ferramenta poderia, por exemplo, ser utilizada em trabalho cooperativo? Ou seja, poderamos construir mapas conceituais cooperativos?

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Hypermedia and cognitive tools

Hypermedia and Cognitive Tools Terry Mayes Institute for Computer-Based Learning Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh EH14 4AS UK email: terry@uk.ac.hw.icbl ABSTRACT Hypermedia and multimedia have been placed rather uncritically at the centre of current developments in learning technology. This paper seeks to ask some fundamental questions about how learning is best supported by hypermedia, and concludes that the most successful aspects are not those normally emphasised. A striking observation is that the best learning experience is enjoyed by hypermedia courseware authors rather than students. This is understandable from a constructivist view of learning, in which the key aim is to engage the learner in carrying out a task which leads to better comprehension. Deep learning is a by-product of comprehension. The paper discusses some approaches to designing software - cognitive tools for learning - which illustrate this constructivist approach. Introduction The overall purpose of this paper is to discuss the way in which computers are currently being used to support learning. In particular, some of the assumptions underlying the development of hypermedia for learning will be examined, and a rather different perspective offered - that which has become known as constructivism. This perspective will be justified by referring to some of my previous and current work in the area of learning from computers, and by presenting a view of learning grounded in cognitive psychology. Answers will be sought to the following questions: * What are hypermedia and multimedia good for? * Why do the authors of hypermedia courseware learn more than the students who use it? * What are the right conditions for effective learning? * What are cognitive tools? * Where should we direct our development effort in the future? Hypermedia for learning: the background Hypertext represented a very significant step forward in the development of the use of computers in education. Traditional CAL, with frames programmed in some awkward authoring language, was still seen as labouring under the dead-hand of programmed instruction. The teaching machine era of the sixties and early seventies was widely seen as having failed, although the principles of programmed instruction took some of the blame that should have been directed at the crude attempts to apply it to education. Meanwhile, in the psychology of learning, the emphasis moved decisively away from a

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study of the acquisition of knowledge or skill towards the nature of the competence and expertise that learning produces (Glaser, 1990). The study of competence in complex performance has produced significant advances in our understanding of the organisation of memory, in the nature of information processing for problem soving, and in the qualitative and quantitative changes that result from extended practice and in the development of expertise. Much of this was then reflected in the attempts to derive knowledge based approaches to tutoring. Throughout this period, though, a kind of Piagetian sub-plot inspired much educational theory and continued to place learning processes at the top of the agenda. This influence can be seen in the LOGO movement, and more generally in the focus on problem solving as the main paradigm for the development of CAL (see, e.g. O'Shea & Self, 1982 ). Hypertext and its derivatives in multimedia seem to owe little to any of this background. Hypertext was not initially seen by many of its proponents as a particularly suitable vehicle for learning. It soon became apparent, however, that the power of information access provided by such systems offered opportunities for the design of reactive learning environments. Making a virtue out of the lack of student modelling provided in such systems, many saw exploratory or discovery learning not only as a welcome relief from the apparent difficulties of designing systems capable of genuine dialogue with learners, but more importantly as the paradigm offering most promise for active learning. In hypermedia, we now have systems offering complete learner control, with a high degree of interactivity through direct manipulation interfaces to large databases of multimedia teaching materials. It is worth noting in passing that it has sometimes been argued that the hypermedia paradigm is particularly suitable for learning because it somehow reflects the apparently associative nature of human thought. This argument, like some others promoted in support of learning from hypermedia, is probably spurious. What is the case for designing hypermedia systems for learning? Essentially, there are two kinds of reasons: those which depend on the "hyper" features, and those which are due to the use of multimedia. THE CASE FOR THE "HYPER" IDEA The case for the "hyper" idea can be presented as follows: * The hypertext idea itself, as Conklin (1987) has pointed out, conveyed the important notion that computers could help to augment human cognition. Hypertext uses the computer in the role of a tool for supporting various kinds of cognitive actions. Thus, at a general level, it helps to shift the focus away from the idea that a computer, because it seems to consist mainly of a screen, is simply a device for presenting information. * The idea also conveys the concept of 'just-in-time' information access. It is the learner who is in the best position to judge what information he or she needs next. Hypermedia gives the learner control to access information that is most relevant to the particular learning need of the moment. It therefore contrasts with most previous forms of CAL, which have presented information in an "expository" mode. * Hypermedia also provides a high degree of interactivity. Interactive learning is widely assumed to be effective because active learning produces more effective learning outcomes. * Developing the idea of learner-control, it was soon appreciated that computers could also provide environments in which discovery learning could occur. Learning-by-browsing emphasised this paradigm, and browsing was seen as the natural mode of navigating through hypermedia. Perhaps the system that best exemplifies CAL based on the provision of specific guidance tools built
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on top of a hypertext network is HitchHikers' Guide (Hammond & Allinson, 1988). The principle espoused here is that of extending and tailoring basic hypertext facilities, not only with the fairly standard aids to access, such as browsers, but also with tools that help the user to explore the material conceptually, such as guided tours, indexes, and quizzes. Allinson & Hammond (1989) have referred to such a system as a Learning Support Environment (LSE). There are problems with each of the above arguments which raise questions about the validity of the case for hypermedia. First, the fact that hypertext provides a cognitive tool does not necessarily imply that it will be effective in support of the process of learning. Secondly, as Hammond (1992) has pointed out, the learner is not always going to choose what information to see next in a way that will lead to effective learning. Unguided choice may be as inefficient as no choice. Thirdly, there are problems with the simple idea that interactivity is a necessary attribute of effective learning from computers. Just what it is about interactivity that succeeds in promoting better learning has rarely been questioned. Indeed, some learning software is described as "interactive" simply because the learner has to press the space bar to proceed to the next screen of information. It is evident that a more critical analysis of interactivity is needed before we can be confident of identifying the essential feature(s) which lead to effective learning. Some authors have referred to "engagement" as the necessary factor. However, that shifts the locus of effect onto the cognitive level, and does not necessarily help us to design environments in which engagement is likely to occur. Finally, questions can be raised about discovery learning through browsing. Unless the browsing can be motivated by seeking answers to questions, or by some kind of problem solving, then it may only support a shallow learning experience. An important research question could be built around the observation of enjoyment that readers of magazines experience in browsing. A very major publishing industry is based on this almost universal feature of human reading. Readers seem to enjoy the experience of browsing in a domain in which they are already knowledgable. It is not clear that browsing in an unfamiliar domain occurs at all as a primary learning strategy. Anecdotal evidence would suggest that browsing becomes enjoyable only when a certain level of familiarity, or to put it in cognitive terms, when schemata have become sufficiently well developed for browsing to represent a process of "tuning" (Norman, 1982 ). An important, and still unanswered, research question concerns this aspect of what learning "feels like'. There are also the disadvantages of the "hyper" idea described by Conklin (1987). That is, the feeling of disorientation engendered by trying to navigate in a non-linear information space; and the cognitive overhead of being required continually to make choices. Finally, a serious drawback to hypermedia is the complexity involved in its authoring. THE CASE FOR THE MULTIMEDIA IDEA Turning now to the characteristic that has led, above all, to the enthusiasm for using computers in support of learning we must consider the case for multimedia. Taking advantage of the graphic and sound capabilities of modern desktop machines, using processing power to generate simulated microworlds, and integrating some of the potential of digital video, now allows the creation and delivery of vivid interactive courseware. One well-known example of this is Palenque (Wilson, 1988). Palenque is a discovery learning system in which the learner is able to explore all the paths of an ancient Mayan site. As the user travels through the site a multimedia database in the form of a museum provides moving video, stills, audio and text about the rainforest, the Mayans, maps of the area, and glyph writing. What characterises Palenque is the variety of methods and media the user is offered for accessing the knowledge. The components are: video overviews; surrogate or virtual navigation; a multimedia database; characters as experts and guides; simulated tools; and games. The interface in Palenque employs visual menus and dynamic icons, spatial and thematic navigation, and a

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simple input device. The virtual travel around the Palenque site can be regarded as a main menu for an exploratory mode in which various options and subprograms are distributed spatially at meaningful locations. Icons represent such options as branch points in travel, available pans and information zooms, and narrations. It seems self-evident that multimedia will support more effective learning, but as with our examination of the "hyper" idea, a closer consideration of the arguments and evidence begins to raise some doubts. The combination of media in displays, particularly the high resolution, colour, full-motion video with speech variety carries with it a vividness that cannot be questioned. However, Taylor & Thomson (1982) attempted to pin this down in a comprehensive review of work on the "vividness" effect. Their conclusions were surprising: "Everyone knows that vividly presented information is impactful and persuasive.....There is one problem with this self-evident proposition. The available evidence suggests that it is not true". The research failed to show that concrete descriptions have any greater impact than dull ones; that pictorially illustrated information is more effective than that which is not illustrated; or that videotaped information has more impact than oral or written. One can react to this negative conclusion by rejecting the validity of the research. The authors, however, make the point that vividness can never be simply a function of the presentation. The impact will always depend on an interaction with user characteristics. There is no evidence, for example, that a more "vivid" experience is a more memorable one, if by "vivid" we mean some combination of characteristics of the presentation. Vividness is entirely "in the eye of the beholder". The fundamental point here is that as learners we are not easily enticed by surface aspects of information, and the attempt to use computers to somehow make the learning experience more attractive or more palatable is doomed to failure. Information that is poured into the learners head through the "Nurnberg Funnel" (Carroll, 1990) is only likely to be better learned as a consequence of being presented through multimedia if it is thereby better understood. Hypermedia or multimedia will therefore be successful to the extent that they promote better understanding. The StrathTutor experience From 1986, my colleagues and I worked with a hypermedia system that we called StrathTutor. This has been fully described elsewhere ( Mayes et al, 1988) but a short description will summarise its main features. StrathTutor consists of frames of text and graphics on some topic which a learner explores. In StrathTutorlinks between frames are computed on the basis of attribute coding, from a set of up to 60 attributes predefined by the author for the particular domain. Each designated 'hotspot' of text and/or graphics is so coded. The system computes the 'relatedness' of all remaining unseen frames to the current frame ('frame' is arbitrarily set at the size of a single screen) or hotspot. Each frame can be represented as a profile of attributes, summed across all hotspots in that frame. The learner can choose to navigate by accepting the 'related' frames offered by the system, or can proceed to access named frames. Details of the way in which StrathTutor achieves this computation are given in Kibby & Mayes (1989). There is a traditional hypertext feature whereby some hotspots are explicitly linked to windows presenting explanatory material. Nevertheless, a much more important feature of this system is the opportunity it offers learners to try out hypotheses about the meaning of attributes and the relationships between them. A learner can 'interrogate' the system by designating a combination of attributes that may be beginning to seem meaningful and the system will respond by giving the learner a 'guided tour' of all frames that are coded with that particular subset of attributes.

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The main instructional approach embodied in StrathTutor is one of learning by challenge. Despite its conventional frame-based appearance it can actually be seen as a problem generating system. The StrathTutor 'quiz' invites the learner to play a kind of game, in which he or she tries to identify the areas across the two frames which have maximum overlap in attributes. Here the learners are pitting themselves against the author who created the attribute tags on each hotspot. In each case the learners are expected to create for themselves a view of the underlying conceptual space. Thus, as originally conceived, StrathTutor provided the following features: * learning-by-browsing * runtime links * exploration through a variety of browsing techniques * easy authoring * games features for motivation STRATHTUTOR AS UNDERSTOOD IN 1993 Now, our perspective on StrathTutor is rather different. The main shift in emphasis has occurred as a result of observing StrathTutor being used, in a variety of different contexts. This has led us to the view that the users of StrathTutor who benefit most, those who experience the deep learning experience, are not the students but the authors. Time and again this observation has been emphasised. Finally we accepted the obvious point. The requirement for an author to analyse the subject matter at the level of attributes provided a task that it was not possible to achieve satisfactorily without reaching a deep understanding of the material. We had created an effective learning tool, but it was most effectively used not by trying to double-guess the coding that someone else had put on the material, but by doing so directly. Simply by changing roles - by placing the learner in the role of author - we realised that we had created a cognitive tool for learning. Cognitive Tools for Learning A cognitive tool for learning is simply a device, or technique, for focusing the learner's analytical processes. In the context used here, a cognitive tool provides computer support for a task, the explicit purpose of which is to lead to active and durable learning of the information manipulated or organised in some way by the task. The primary task is not learning per se. Rather, learning is an inescapable by-product of comprehension. The point of the cognitive tool is to make it possible for the learner to acquire a deeper understanding of the material. Then learning takes care of itself. Mayes (1992) gives an account of cognitive tools derived from cognitive psychology. The experimental underpinning of this is provided by the work on levels of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1975) and the enactment effect (Cohen, 1981). But it is a long-established theme in the study of human cognition that learning flows from understanding, and understanding flows from action and problem-solving (Bartlett, 1932). A recent book by Kommers, Jonassen & Mayes (1992) draws together many examples of cognitive tools for learning. The techniques range from requiring learners to engage in concept mapping based on constructing semantic nets (eg SemNet) through to simple attempts to represent the domain as a series of rules by asking students to use a simple expert-system shell ( Trollip et al, 1992). In each of these examples the students can be placed in some sense in the role of teacher, by being required to structure their developing understanding for someone else to view. This capitalises on the oft-quoted

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observation that the best way to learn something is to teach it. It strongly suggests that the most promising way in which computers can aid learning is for us to stop thinking of authoring as a task for subject matter experts and to start putting authoring tools into the hands of students. It is consistent with a view of learning that can be characterised as constructivist (Duffy et al, 1993). Put simply, this approach rests on the basic assumption that understanding has to be constructed by the learner. There is a strong tradition of constructivism in higher education. That is the basis for the student essay, or laboratory report. For a while computers-as-presentation-devices have distracted us from the constructivist approach. It is time to return to basics. Learning from computers: a constructivist manifesto In summary, the following points emphasise the constructivist argument underlying this paper: * Hypermedia/multimedia learning systems will be effective in so far as they support the learner in the performance of knowledge construction tasks. The influence of the features usually emphasised learner-control, interactivity, browsing, vividness of presentation - will be secondary, and probably will have only marginal benefit for learning. * "Interactivity" by itself is not enough. The interaction must be at the level of meaning, whereby the learner seeks answers to new questions, arranges the material into new structures, or performs other manipulations which succeed in raising the level of comprehension. Deep learning will then follow naturally. * We already have many computer-based tools which can serve to support learners in constructing knowledge. Some of these are authoring tools. Since our observations lead us to conclude that authors do the best learning, the obvious step is to shift our perspective and regard them as cognitive tools for learning. * There are many other possible computer-based cognitive tools for learning. A kind that has not been discussed here is based on computer-mediated communication. Computers now provide powerful opportunities for learners to support each other. This is consistent with the constructivist approach of student-as-teacher. Learner-learner communication has become an important theme in our work on the ISLE (Intensely-Supportive Learning Environment) Project at Heriot-Watt. * A key to the design of cognitive tools for learning lies in our understanding why some learning tasks are pleasurable, while others are aversive. This remains a fundamental challenge for future research. REFERENCES Allinson,L.J. & Hammond,N.V. (1989). A learning support environment: The hitch-hiker's guide. In R.McAleese (Ed.) Hypertext: theory into practice. Ablex: Norwood, NJ. Bartlett, F.C. (1932) Remembering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Carroll, J.M. (1990) The Nurnberg Funnel: Designing minimalist instruction for practical computer skill. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Cohen, R.L. (1981) On the generality of some memory laws. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 22, 267-281 Conklin, J. (1987) Hypertext: an introduction and survey. IEEE Computer, 20, 9, 17-41. Craik, F.I.M. & Lockhart, R.S. (1975) Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11, 671-684.
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Duffy, T. Jonassen, D. & Lowyck, J. (Eds) (1993) Designing constructivist learning environments. Heidelberg, FRG: Springer-Verlag Glaser, R. (1990) The reemergence of learning theory within instructional research. American Psychologist, 45, 1, 29-39 Hammond, N.V. (1992) Tailoring hypertext for the learner. In P. Kommers, D. Jonassen & J.T Mayes (Eds) Cognitive Tools for Learning, Heidelberg, FRG: Springer-Verlag. Hammond, N.V. and Allinson, L.J. (1988) Development and evaluation of a CAL system for non-formal domains: the hitch-hiker's guide to cognition. Computers and Education, 12, 215-220. Kibby M.R. and Mayes J.T. (1989) Towards intelligent hypertext. In R. McAleese ed., Hypertext: theory into practice. Ablex, Norwood, New Jersey. Kommers, P., Jonassen, D. & Mayes J.T. (Eds) (1992) Cognitive Tools for Learning, Heidelberg, FRG: Springer-Verlag. Mayes J.T., Kibby M.R. and Watson H. (1988) StrathTutor: the development and evaluation of a learning-by-browsing system on the Macintosh. Computers and Education, 12, 221-229. Mayes, J.T. (1992) Cognitive Tools: a suitable case for learning. In P. Kommers, D. Jonassen & J.T Mayes (Eds) Cognitive Tools for Learning, Heidelberg, FRG: Springer-Verlag. Norman, D.A. (1982) Learning and memory. San Fransisco: Freeman. O'Shea, T. & Self, J.A. (1982) Learning and teaching with computers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Taylor, S.E. & Thomson,S.C. (1982) Stalking the elusive `vividness' effect. Psychological Review, 89, 2, 155-181. Trollip, S.H., Renate, C.L., Starfield, A.M. & Smith, K.A. (1992) Building Knowledge Bases: An environment for making cognitive connections. In P. Kommers, D. Jonassen & J.T Mayes (Eds) Cognitive Tools for Learning, Heidelberg, FRG: Springer-Verlag. Wilson, K.S. (1988) Palenque: an interactive multimedia digital video interactive prototype for children. In Proceedings of CHI'88. ACM, NY., pp 275-279.

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CAL Paper

COMPUTER-BASED TOOLS TO SUPPORT LEARNING FROM HYPERTEXT: CONCEPT MAPPING TOOLS AND BEYOND
Will Reader and Nick Hammond ABSTRACT Although hypertext can be a useful way of delivering learning materials it is problematic in that there is no requirement to actively manipulate knowledge as part of the interaction. The mindtools, or concept mapping, approach requires learners to construct graphical representations of the information that they cover forcing them to engage more actively in the information as a consequence. Advocates of concept mapping argue that by encouraging learners to represent their knowledge using a node-link formalism, learners are forced into activities that aid the organisation and integration of knowledge, and that the map itself can serve to communicate the learner's knowledge more effectively than text. This paper reports the results of a study designed to test the effectiveness of a concept mapping tool in aiding student learning from a hypertext system. It was found that use of the concept mapping tool enhanced the scores on a post-test when compared to standard note taking. Qualitative analyses of the process of network construction, and of the maps produced argue that there may be a case for offering learners more support in the networks that they construct, to explicitly encourage structuring activities and it is hoped integration, and more encouragement to revise networks so to enhance their use in communication.

1. INTRODUCTION
Hypertext is suggested as a useful medium for the development of CAL systems because it can act as an educational resource that supports independent learning. The basic hypertext philosophy is that learners forge their own paths through the richly interconnected information-base in a self-directed manner, assembling the course materials in accordance with their educational goals, rather than having to slavishly follow some form of linear tutorial. There are however a number of problems with hypertext that are specifically relevant to its use as an educational medium. It is well known that in order to promote effective learning learners must actively engage in the information that they are reading, processing the material in an elaborate manner [1,2]; however hypertext is basically a passive medium and there is no requirement that learners do this. One of the methods that has been adopted by developers of hypertext CAL systems has been to provide the learners with batteries of questions, usually in the form of a quiz, that encourage the learner test themselves and thus promote more effective learning [3]. Such approaches fall short of the ideal because the nature of hypertext means that the questions may not address the information that the learner wishes to learn, resulting in redundancy. This problem also applies to printed texts, which are also by nature passive entities, but in the case of hypertext it is compounded by the instability of the discourse; because learners can follow many different paths through the same information, hypertext will often not have the coherence provided by paper-based texts. As Charney points out [4], hypertext cannot rival the ability of print to support rational, deductive, goal-directed discourse. This lack of coherence means that learners may often fail to obtain an overview of the way that the information fits together to form a whole [3]. It therefore seems that learners may need support whilst learning from hypertext, first to encourage them to be more active processors of the material, and secondly to help them to form more coherent representations of the information. An approach such as that offered by mindtools or concept mapping tools may offer help in both these areas.

2. CONCEPT MAPPING TOOLS


Novak [see 5] was one of the first advocates of concept mapping who used them as an aid to meaningful learning. A concept map is, at its simplest, a graphical representation of domain material generated by the learner in which nodes are used to represent domain key concepts, and links between them denote the relationships between these concepts. The putative usefulness of concept maps has lead to the development of computer-based tools that allow learner to create graphical representations of knowledge using semantic net type representations, such as SemNet [6] and Learning Tool [7]. There are a number of claims as to why concept mapping may be effective in aiding learning which can be divided into

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claims about the process of concept map construction and claims about the product, that is the completed map. Claims about the process of map construction tend to view concept mapping as a problem-solving exercise [6], the various restrictions built in to the tool forcing or encouraging the learners to engage in these activities more effectively than if they were not using the tool. Although concept mapping tools vary as to the degree to which they support various learning activities, by and large most of them encourage the learner to organise and structure their knowledge. Organising is where the learner places a loose structure on the material, clustering concepts that are similar, and perhaps specifying what these concepts have in common. Structuring is where learners make explicit the relationships between concepts, to provide a coherent, integrated network. It is proposed that the explicit activities of organising and structuring can, in turn, have implications for the organisation and integration of new knowledge into schemata. Other claims indicate that the map itself can have educational benefits. Kozma [7] argues that since the network is at the level of the overview it may act as a more efficient aid to memory than normal text-based notes, freeing up short term memory and allowing students to devote more effort to performing meaningful activities. Other theorists such as Novak and Gowin [5] emphasise the role that concept mapping can play in communicating the learner's knowledge. Ideas may be communicated to an instructor, to other learners, aiding collaborative learning or to the same learner over time. It is argued that because concept maps require more explicit representation of knowledge than does text, ideas can be communicated more readily then text. This is one of the reasons why formalisms such as systemic grammars and semantic networks have been used as intermediate or mediating representations in knowledge engineering [9], [10]. Constructing concept maps therefore not only encourages the learner to engage with the material more actively, it also requires them to assemble overviews of the material covered, both of which are claimed to be useful activities for use in learning from hypertext.

3. STUDY: EVALUATING CONCEPT MAPPING TOOLS IN LEARNING FROM HYPERTEXT


In order to evaluate the effectiveness of concept mapping tools in learning from hypertext a study was performed with two aims in mind: first to see if the use of concept mapping had any effect on learning when compared to standard note taking, and secondly to assess some of the issues in using concept mapping as a learning activity.

3.1. Method
3.1.1. Materials The concept mapping tool that was used was developed for the purpose of the experiment using HyperCard. Concepts were represented by small page icons which could be named by the subject to denote particular domain concepts. Each node contained a pop-up text field that allowed the subject to make notes; multiple text fields can be opened at any one time. Concepts could be linked using either typed or untyped links to represent the relationships between the concepts. Concepts and links could be renamed and deleted as the subject saw fit (see figure 1).

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_ Figure 1: the concept mapping tool used in this experiment, containing a well structured network. A hypertext system was also developed to be used as a learning resource, the system was a HyperCard stack containing approximately 50 cards on the topic of the Callanish stone circle. This was chosen as a suitable domain both because it would be novel to most subjects, thereby reducing the effects of prior knowledge to a minimum, and also because the information contained a large number of different types of relationships, concerned with the structure of the circle, its function, the people who built it and so forth. The system contained most of the standard hypertext access facilities with the exception of a map as it was thought that learners may merely copy the map when constructing a concept map. In order to measure learning, a test was developed which consisted of a series of questions that related to information relevant to the study goal. There were 16 questions, with a maximum score of 44. The questions were of the short answer format, and required different types of information to answer them, some were factual, whilst some were more relational in content (see results section). 3.1.2. Subjects Sixteen male and female students from the University of York took part in the experiment. 3.1.3. Design The study was a simple two condition experiment: a concept mapping condition requiring the use of the concept mapping tool, and a notes only condition in which subjects were provided with a tool that allowed them to make on-screen notes. The principal dependent variable was the score on a post-test. 3.1.4. The learning task The task that subjects were given was designed to simulate fairly closely a real world hypertext interaction under controlled experimental conditions. Subjects were given a study goal which did not directly map onto any of the access facilities present in the hypertext; this was so that they would have to browse the material rather than being able to access it directly. All subjects were told that they were to learn the material in order to answer a series of questions at the end of the experiment. Additionally subjects in the concept mapping condition were told to create a concept map that represented the concepts and relations of the domain information, whilst subjects in the note tool condition were told to use the note tool in order to record any useful information that they might encounter. Thus, apart from the type of tool that subjects used, the only difference between the two conditions was the instruction to create a concept map.

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The experiment was open ended, in that subjects were allowed as long as they felt they needed to complete the task, but they were told that it should not normally take more than one and a half hours. The purpose of this was to allow for individual differences in learning style, reading speed, familiarity with the Macintosh interface and so on, and yet still try and establish some form of baseline for the length of the interaction. 3.1.5. Procedure The experiment was divided into two sessions: a practice session and an experimental session. The practice session allowed subjects to become familiar with hypertext, using a system that was structurally similar to the experimental system; and allowed them time to practice using whichever tool they would be using in the experimental session. The hypertext system used for this session contained different material to the one in the experimental session, but had similar facilities and structure. Familiarisation took the form of an introductory tutorial followed by a task similar to the one that they would perform in the experimental session. When subjects felt comfortable with the two systems they were allowed to continue to the experimental session. At the beginning of the experimental session subjects were given their study goal, and the instructions for use of the tool, following this they were allowed to use the systems in any way they felt fit. When subjects felt that they had fulfilled their goals they were asked if they would like a further five minutes for revision purposes, after this they were given the questions to answer.

3.2. Quantitative results


The results of the post-test revealed differences in scores between the two condition, with subjects in the concept mapping condition obtaining a higher score than the note tool subjects (means of 47.9% for concept mapping and 24.3% for the note condition). A one way analysis of variance revealed this result to be significant to the 98% level, (F [1,14] = 8.53, p < 0.02). The standard deviations (17.8 for the concept mapping condition, 14.4 for the note tool condition) show a high degree of between subject variability in the scores. This was expected given that there are many variables that effect performance in addition to the independent variable. One possible explanation for the substantial difference between conditions is that for some reason subjects in the concept mapping condition spent more time reading the material in the hypertext system than did those in the note tool condition and thus retained information more effectively, relevant data are shown in table 1. Table 1 shows that whilst concept mapping subjects spent longer on the experiment as a whole, concept mapping being inherently more time consuming then note taking, subjects using the concept mapping tool actually spent less time looking at the material screens (time is in minutes). Material screens 17.4 mins. 17.3 mins. Access facilities 3.8 mins. 3.1 mins. Tool 32 mins. 14 mins. Total 53 mins. 35 mins.

Concept mapping Note taking

Table 1: mean percentage times on the various facilities available to the subjects. We can further ask whether the concept mapping tool had any qualitative effect on the sort of knowledge that subjects learned. It could be argued that since concept mapping places an emphasis on the relational aspects of the domain, then it may help in the learning of this type of information over an above any general effects on learning. In order to test this, one of the questions (with a maximum score of 18) in the post test required learners to draw an aerial diagram of the layout of the stone circle main site. There was no aerial diagram in the material contained within the system, and it seemed that concept mapping may focus learners on the relationships between the components of the circle that made up the main site, helping them to produce a better diagram than the note tool subjects. Analyses of the results reveal that the scores for the relational questions when expressed as a percentage of the total score were in fact very close: 31% for concept mapping subjects and 29% for note tool subjects. Thus although subjects using the concept mapping tool scored higher than note tool subjects on the relational question, the degree to which performance was enhanced was no greater than that for factual questions.

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3.3. Discussion of quantitative results


From the results of the study outlined it seems that concept mapping tools can have a positive effect on learning from hypertext, although the mechanism of the effect is not forthcoming from the results themselves. It does appear that concept mapping aids the acquisition of both relational and factual knowledge, rather than the effect being localised on the acquisition of relational knowledge. In some senses this distinction may be erroneous: it may be argued that concept mapping does exert its effect on the acquisition of relational knowledge, but that this has a knock-on effect which aids the acquisition of factual and other sorts of knowledge. It is well known in psychology that having a well-developed schema for a particular domain allows factual knowledge to be accommodated more readily than if the schema is poorly developed, and it could be that concept mapping by placing an emphasis on the construction of relational networks, is aiding the development of domain schemata. It is, however, impossible to ascertain from the results obtained whether this is a plausible account, and it seems to make sense to adopt the more parsimonious explanation that the effect is probably more prosaic than this. Perhaps concept mapping, at least in the early stages of learning as measured here, serves to focus the learners' attention on particular items of information by forcing them to think about concepts and relationships more than they might do when simply taking notes. A possible confound is that using a novel tool such as the concept mapping tool may be intrinsically motivating, resulting in learners engaging in the task more than if they were simply using a note tool. Although it seems unlikely that novelty alone would account for the sizeable difference between conditions, it is difficult to escape entirely from such criticisms; only further studies using learners familiar with concept mapping tools could address these issues directly. It is, however, worth pointing out that in this study subjects used a number of novel facilities such as the hypertext system itself, and even the on-screen note-cards were new to a number of students. The novelty factor also has a down side: learners may have found the concept mapping tool difficult to use, impeding the creation of useful notes and thus resulting in poorer learning.

3.4. Qualitative results


In addition to being interested in the effects of concept mapping on learning, we were also concerned with the way that the actual tool was used. In order to evaluate this, screen recordings were made which could allow us to observe the process of map construction. In the introduction it was indicated that concept mapping tools may be useful because they encourage learner to engage in activities of organising and structuring in an explicit way. Recall that organising is where the learner starts to group and partition information that seems to share something in common, whilst structuring is where learners identify specific relationships that appear to exist between items of information or concepts. Using the screen recordings it was possible to observe all of the on-screen actions that the subjects performed. These were categorised in an attempt to enumerate the activities that seemed to be aimed at structuring and those that were organisational in nature. One of the loosest forms of organising that was observed was the use of spatial clustering to denote commonalities among concepts. Here subjects would form groups of concepts in different parts of the screen. Figure 2 shows evidence of spatial clustering, with three clusters denoting information relating to the structure of the stone circle (middle left), its function (top right) and its builders (bottom right). A more specific from of organising is by using nameless links to declare an, as yet, unqualified relationship between concepts. Figure 3 shows an example of this where, in the main, numbers are used to label the relationships.

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CAL Paper

Figure 2: a network from the study showing spatial clustering, superordinate link names The final and most precise from of organising observed was executed by linking concepts together and providing a label for what the objects have in common. Note that this is not structuring since there is apparently no attempt by the subject to try to integrate the concepts by specifying an explicit relationship. In figure 2 the three link names relate to commonalities between the linked concepts. A number of different types of structural relationships were created, but these were too varied to derive any useful analytical scheme from them. Overall there were fewer structural links than organisational links created (4.1 compared to 4.9 on average).

Figure 3: a network showing the use of nameless (in this case arbitrarily named) links. Assuming that the end product of concept mapping should be a well structured concept map, it was interesting to observe that only one of the eight subjects achieved anything like this objective. Often concepts, some of which had been spatially organised, remained unlinked (see figure 2), concepts that had been linked using organisational links often remained so, with little attempt by subjects to specify them as structural relationships. This last point may be explained by subjects' apparent reticence to revise their maps; links that had been used for organising would have to be deleted, or at the very least renamed, if they are to be replaced by structural links. Subjects made on average 1.6 revisions to the maps that they created. The fact that students revised their maps very little may have other implications; it is known that during the process of learning a individuals understanding of the domain will change, often resulting in a degree of restructuring of knowledge [11], [12]. If concept maps are supposed to be relatively faithful representations
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of the learner's understanding, and their role in communication suggests that they should be, then they should also be restructured accordingly as this understanding changes. 3.4.1. Accounting for these results These problems may in some ways be artefacts of the study itself. First the session may have been too short, if subjects were given more time, or more demanding tasks then they may structure and revise their networks more than they did here. Second, because the task had no importance to the subjects outside of the experiment, it may mean that they were prepared to make do with inadequate maps more than they might do if the task was considered important, for example if it was a course requirement. Third, subjects only had limited experience with concept mapping tools. None of the subjects had ever used such a tool before, and it may not be too surprising that they produced maps that were perhaps not as well structured as they might have been. Novak and Gowin [5] argue that in order for concept mapping to be a truly effective learning activity, learners must put in many hours of practice constructing networks. Given the limited experience subjects had using the tool the results were surprisingly good (see figure 1, for an example). Fourth, since the material itself was novel, and in many ways not `real' material, this may also have implications for the way that networks were constructed. In truth any attempt to evaluate computer-based tools is always going to encounter problems as to how well the results can be generalised to other tools, tasks, materials and subjects. This study should therefore be seen as contributing information to a growing corpus of data which can inform our understanding of issues. On this point there is some evidence that problems analogous to those encountered in this study occur in real-world situations, [13, 14] and it is likely that they are not simply artefacts of this particular study. The issues mentioned above have implications for the effectiveness of concept mapping tools in general. One of the assumptions behind tools such as SemNet is that forcing learners to link concepts encourages them to think about structural relationships. The results of this study indicate that simply requiring learners to link is not enough as links can be used for purposes other than structuring such as organising. Additionally all concept mapping tools seem likely to suffer from the problems caused by the reticence of learners to impose structure on knowledge and restructure extant networks that they have created, simply because they require learners to use semi-formal representations. Shipman and Marshall [13] discuss a number of cases where learners apparently fail to organise and structure effectively in areas as disparate as design and office filing. It seems that the desire of individuals not to commit themselves to a structured representation prematurely may be a major stumbling block for concept mapping. On the topic of restructuring Fischer [14] states that: "Despite the fact that in many ways users could think of better structures, they stick to inadequate structures, because the effort to change existing structures is too large." These problems may be more easily addressed in tools intended for learning than for other uses such as design. Whilst expert designers may, quite rightly, find the process of restructuring their networks to be counter productive, restructuring and revising for learning may itself be a useful learning experience.

4. Future directions: using argumentation to augment learning.


The results of this study indicates that although concept mapping may have some positive effect on learning, the qualitative analysis of the results indicates that students may need more support in the formation of structural relationships, and encouragement to revise maps. In addition to providing a more useful process, this may also result in maps that communicate the learner's ideas in a more structured and efficient way. It is not sufficient simply to force learners to link concepts because, as we have seen, linking can be used for things other than providing structural relationships. What seems to be required is a jigsaw type method in which pre-defined concept and link types are provided, and it is the learner's task to fit their knowledge or incoming information within this framework. In providing such as facility it is important that the learner is not provided with so much support that they become straight-jacketed. A possible compromise is that learners be given a framework at a high enough level of abstraction to allow flexibility of representation. Argumentation is a possible method and one that has been used in a number of areas of application such as design [15], the production of argumentative texts [16], and also learning [17]. References [1] Anderson, J. R. (1990) Cognitive psychology and its implications. (3rd Ed.) San Franscisco, CA: Freeman. [2] Frase, L.T. (1975). Prose processing. In Bower, G.H. (ed.) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 9.
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Academic Press, New York. [3] Hammond, N.V. & Allinson, L. (1989) Extending hypertext for learning: an investigation of access and guidance tools. in A. Sutcliffe & L. Macaulay, (eds.) People and Computers V, Cambridge University Press, 293-304. [4] Charney, D. (1991) The impact of hypertext on processes of reading and writing. In C. Selfe & S. Hilligoss, (eds.) Literacy and Computers, Modern Language Association, New York. [5] Novak, J.D. & Gowin, D.B. (1984). Learning How to Learn., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. [6] Fisher, K.M. (1990). Semantic Networking: the new kid on the block. Journal of Reasearch in Science Teaching, 27, (10), 1001-1018. [7] Kozma, R.B. & Van Roekel, J. (1986). Learning Tool. Santa Barbara, CA: Intellimation. [8] Kozma, R.B. (1992) Constructing knowledge with learning tool. In P.A.M. Kommers, D.H. Jonassen, & J.T. Mayes, (eds.), Mindtools: Cognitive Technologies for Modelling Konwledge. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. [9] Bliss, J. & Ogborn, J. (1979) The Analysis of Qualitative Data. European Journal of Science Education, 1. (4), 427-440 [10] Johnson, N.E. (1988) Mediating Representations in Knowledge Engineering. In D. Diaper,. (ed.) Knowledge Elicitation, Academic Press: London, pp 179-193. [11] White, B.Y. & Frederiksen, J.R. (1990) Causal model progressions as a foundation for intelligent learning environments. Artificial Intelligence, 42, 99-157. [12] Rumelhart, D.E. & Norman, D.A.(1978) Accretion, tuning and restructuring: three modes of learning. In J.W. Cotton & R.L. Klatzky, (eds.) Semantic Factors in Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hillsdale, New Jersey. [13] Shipman, F.M. & Marshall, C.C. (1993) Formality condidered harmful: experiences, emerging themes, and directions. Submitted to InterChi `93. [14] Fischer, G. (1988) A critical assessment of hypertext systems. Panel Session in Proceedings of CHI `88: Human Factors in Computing Systems, 223-227. ACM: New York. [15] Lee, J. & Lai, K. (1991) What's in design rationale? Human-Computer Interaction, 6 (3 & 4), 251-280. [16] Schuler, W. & Smith, J. B. (1990) Author's Agumentation Assistant (AAA): a hypertext-based authoring tool for argumentative texts. In A. Rizk, N. Streitz & J. Andr (eds.) Hypertext: Concepts, systems and applications. Proceedings of the European Conference on hypertext. INRIA, France, November. Cambridge University Press. [17] Streitz, N. A. & Hannemann, J. (1990) Elaborating arguments: writing, learning and reasoning in a hypertext based environment for authoring. In D.H. Jonassen. & H. Mandl (eds.) Designing Hypermedia for Learning. NATO ISI Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

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Teleprocessamento - Dirio de Classe

Aprendizagem
No homem, pouco ou nenhum comportamento institivo herdado. O aspecto bsico para a hereditariedade humana, tanto espcie quanto para o indivduo, a existncia de algumas capacidades para a aprendizagem. O desenvolvimento destas capacidades que forma o indivduo. Segundo Clifforf T. Morgan [MOR 77] "a aprendizagem qualquer mudana relativamente permanente no comportamento, e que resulta de experincia ou de prtica". A aprendizagem uma iterao entre o estmulo e a resposta, variveis que so to difceis de estudar e quase impossvel para isolar inmeras configuraes e princpios significativos. Existem algumas situaes que acarretam modificaes significativas do comportamento, mas que no podem ser consideradas aprendizagem. Pode-se citar como exemplo alteraes nas condies bioqumicas (fadiga ou hipertireoidismo) ou deteriorao orgnica temporria ou permanente (perna quebrada ou amputada). A aprendizagem se difunde pela vida do homem em todos os seus aspectos: aprendizagem motora, aprendizagem cognitiva e aprendizagem emocional. Geralmente as respostas so rotuladas de acordo com a caracterstica predominante da situao de aprendizagem e dos seus resultados, porm, na verdade, nenhuma se verifica separadamente das outras. Clifforf T. Morgan [MOR 77] apresenta dois tipos bsicos de aprendizagem: condicionamento clssico e condicionamento operante. As principais diferenas destes condicionamentos so apresentadas na tabela abaixo. Condicionamento Clssico Estmulo Resposta Relao reforo X resposta Condicionamento Operante Situao duradoura com vrios Acontecimento especfico (exemplo: aspectos. Apenas um destes aspectos som de um tom) significativo para a aprendizagem. Inicialmente movimentos diferentes e Especfica casuais na situao estimuladora. O reforo sempre apresentado depois Reforo depende da resposta, sendo da situao condicionante, dependendo aplicado somente quando a resposta da resposta apresentada. correta.

Estes condicionamentos no apresentam todas as situaes possveis em que a aprendizagem tem sido investigada, mas representam os propsitos fundamentais da investigao experimental at os dias atuais.

Capacidade para Aprender


Em pesquisas realizadas, foram determinados alguns fatores que ajudam ou prejudicam a aprendizagem [MOR 77]: q aprendiz q mtodos de aprendizagem q tipo de material utilizado para a aprendizagem

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Aprendiz
A capacidade de aprender depende de alguns aspectos do indivduo: q nvel de inteligncia; q idade: a inteligncia efetiva permanece praticamente constante durante toda a vida, depois de ter atingido seu ponto mximo por volta dos vinte anos. Testes mostraram que a aprendizagem de material novo menor depois dos 50 anos. Outros mostraram que a capacidade de utilizar o que foi aprendido diminui pouco com o avano da idade; q estmulo e ansiedade: para aprender o indivduo precisa estar estimulado, porm no de forma excessiva, pois excesso de estmulo pode impedir a aprendizagem. Ansiedade outra caracterstica importante. Excesso de ansiosidade pode perturbar a aprendizagem; q transferncia de aprendizagem anterior: as aprendizagens novas se fundamentam nas anteriores. Esta transferncia de aprendizagem pode ser uma ajuda ( transferncia positiva) ou obstculo (transferncia negativa).

Estratgias de Aprendizagem
Os pontos principais das estratgias de aprendizagem so: q prtica macia X prtica espaada: o estudo macio no se mostra um bom mtodo para uma boa e permanente apreendizagem. Para muitas tarefas, o melhor resultado obtido com o estudo regularmente espeado - pequenos perodos de estudo, com intervalos de repouso; q feedback: a medida que o indivduo conhece seu progresso, ele aprende mais rapidamente; q aprendizagem de todo e aprendizagem de parte: cada mtodo possui suas vantagens e desvantagens. A aprendizagem em partes apresenta maiores vantagens quando as partes so facilmente separadas do todo. Este mtodo exerce um incentivo maior ao indivduo, pois fornece a impresso de realizao ao dominar uma parte. Porm o mtodo de partes apresenta desvantagens: necessidade de memorizao adicional para ligar as partes que foram aprendidas separadamente e a existncia de um risco de misturar as partes e coloc-las em ordem errada. Por outro lado, a aprendizagem de todo mostra vantagens quando o todo suficientemente pequeno para ser dominado utilizando a aprendizagem espaada; q programas de aprendizagem: programas de aprendizagem so formados por uma srie de perguntas ou problemas que o indivduo deve responder. Os programas devem registrar a resposta e fornecer um feedback. Os problemas devem ser apresentados em uma ordem pr-determinada para constituir uma boa sequncia de aprendizagem. Todo o programa devem fornecer ao indivduo uma progresso de acordo com a velocidade prpria.

Material de Aprendizagem
As caractersticas que o material de aprendizagem deve possuir so: q distino perceptiva: mais fcil lembrar de informaes, situaes que so apresentadas de forma distinta as demais; q significado associativo: quanto mais significativo for o material, mais fcil de aprend-lo. Existem trs tipos bsicos de significao (associativo, conceitual e hierrquico) que no so mutuamente exclusivos e podem ser associados para fornecer maior significado ao material; q semelhanas conceituais; q hierarquia conceitual: o material deve apresentar uma hierarquia de conceitos bem elaborada;
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hierarquia associativa: nesta hierarquia os itens so associados mas no necessariamente numa hierarquia conceitual.

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Atividade 2 - Bibliografia

Bibliografia
AUSUBEL, David P., Psicologia Educativa: um punto de vista cognoscitivo. Mxico: Trillas, 769 p., 1978. KAWASAKI, Evelise I. FERNANDES, Clvis T. Modelos para Projeto de Cursos Hipermdia. Tese de Mestrado, Diviso de Cincia da Computao, Instituto Tecnolgico da Aeronutica. So Jos dos Campos, 1996. MOREIRA, Marco A., MASINI, Elcie F. S. Aprendizagem Significativa: A Teoria de David Ausubel .1 ed. So Paulo: Moraes, 112 p., 1982 MOREIRA, Marco A., A Teoria de Educao de Novak e o Modelo de Ensino-Aprendizagem de Gowin. Fascculos da IFUFRGS, Srie Ensino-Aprendizagem, n. 4, 1993. MOREIRA, Marco A., Aprendizagem Significativa: A Teoria de Ausubel. Monografias do Grupo de Ensino, Srie Enfoques Didticos, n. 1, 1993 NOVAK, Joseph D., GOWIN Bob. Aprender a Aprender. Lisboa: Pltano, 212 p. 1996. RORATO, A. M. Aprendizagem Significativa e a Construo de Softwares Educacionais Hipermdia. Faculdades Franciscanas, Santa Maria, 1997, digitado. GAINES, Brian e SHAW, Mildred. Collaboration through Concept Maps. 1995. Disponvel na internet: http://ksi.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/articles/CSCL95CM/ . Consultado em jan 1998. LEUNG, Johnson. The use of Concept Maps in the Teaching-Learning Process. 1997.Disponvel na internet: http://www.fed.cuh.edu.hk/~johnson/cmap/cmapguid.html. Consultado em jan1998. MIHKELSON, Ann. Concept Maps. 1996.Disponvel na internet: http://www.utas.edu/.au/docs/cult/concept.html. Consultado em jan 1998. NASA - Classroom of the Future Project. 1997. Disponvel na internet: http://penta.ufrgs.br/edu/telelab/10/concept.htm CHANDLER, Paul. Is conventional computer instruction ineffective for learning? Disponvel na internet: http://penta.ufrgs.br/telelab/6/chandler.htm. Consultado em 12 jan. 1998. DIXON, Aidan. Lessons from Learning Research. Disponvel na internet: http://www2.shef.ac.uk/academic/I-M/is/studwork/prolog/lessons.html. Consultado em 15 jan. 1998. MILLER, George. Information processing theory. Disponvel na internet: http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/educ/tip/35.htm. Consultado em 09 set. 1997. MURAYAMA, Isao. 1995. The status of strategies in learning: a brief history of changes in researcher's views. Disponvel na internet: http://penta.ufrgs.br/telelab/7/murayama.htm Consultado em 12 jan. 1998. NOVAK, J.D. A theory of learning for long-term retention. Disponvel na internet: http://penta.ufrgs.br/edu/telelab/5/learning.htm Psychology 250H. Memory: A glimpse into the past, and understanding of the present, and a key to the future. Disponvel na internet: http://penta.ufrgs.br/edu/telelab/1/memory2.htm. Consultado em 14

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jan.1998.

As referncias a seguir esto relacionadas ao texto Memria do Homem X Memria da Mquina:


(1) MORLEY,John E. et allii. A Memria e os Distrbios Ligados Idade. So Paulo: Andrei Editora, 1997. 358p. (2) DAMSIO, Antnio. O erro de Descartes: emoo, razo e crebro humano. 2 reimp. So Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1996. 330pp. (p.291) (3) idem (1) (4) idem(1), p.18 (5) ASCOTT, Roy. Cultivando o Hipercrtex (p.336-344) in A Arte no Sculo XXI: a Humanizao das Tecnologias, organizado por Diana Domingues. So Paulo: Unesp, 1997. (6) idem (1), p.69 (7) idem (2) (8) GARDNER, Howard. Estruturas da Mente, Porto Alegre: Artes Mdicas, 1995. (9) idem (5), p. 336 (10) BRETON, Thierry. La Dimension Invisible (11) idem (5), p.338. (12) Informtica, fascculos encartados em Zero Hora, janeiro 1998. (13) idem (5), p. 340. (14) idem (5), p. 341. (15) idem (5), p. 339.

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Concept Maps

Concept Maps
A particularly good way to organize information about a problem or subject is to construct a "concept map." Construction of concept maps helps us pull together information we already know about a subject and understand new information as we learn. Concept maps consist of nodes and labeled lines.

Figure One

Node is the name for important terms or concepts. Nodes are usually depicted with circles drawn around the term or concept, such as the nodes for "Living Things" and "Plants" drawn above (Figure One). Lines between nodes show which concepts are related. The label on the line tells how or in what way the concepts are related. For example, plants "are" living things. We can use concept maps when we begin working together on a problem, during the problem solving steps, and at the end of problem solving.

Steps to Constructing a Concept Map


(adapted from White and Gunstone, 1992) 1. Write down the major terms or concepts you know about a selected topic. For example, if we are studying living things, some of the terms might include: animals, dogs, plants, cows, or grass (Figure Two).

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Concept Maps

2. Write each concept or term on a separate piece of paper or 3 X 5 card. 3. Sort through the cards, putting terms you DO NOT understand to one side. Also put aside those that ARE NOT related to any other term. The cards left over are the ones we will use to construct the concept map. 4. Arrange the cards so that related terms are close to each other. 5. Stick the cards to a piece of paper as soon as you are satisfied with the arrangement. Leave a little space for the lines we'll draw. Here is what your terms might look like if you used the ones we mentioned above:

Figure Two

6. Draw lines between the terms you think are related. 7. Write on each line the nature of the relationship between the terms. Here is what the terms above might look like after we draw the lines (Figure Three):

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Concept Maps

Figure Three

8. If you put any cards aside in step 3, go back and see if some of them will fit into the concept map you have constructed. If they do, be sure to add the lines and relationships of the new items. 9. Summary: The concept map drawn in Figure Three is very simple. Maps can become very complex and require a great deal of your time and attention, but they are useful in organizing, learning, and demonstrating what we know about a particular topic. Extension: How would you arrange the following terms to fit into the concept map drawn above: Beagle, rocks, rose, hunting, guard dog, rabbit?

References
Shavelson, R.J., Lang, H., & Lewin, B. (1994). On concept maps as potential "authentic" assessments in science (CSE Technical report No. 388). Los Angeles, CA: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST), UCLA. White, R. & Gunstone, R. (1992). Probing understanding. New York: Falmer Press. Back to the ETE Problem Solving Section

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Theory of Learning

A Theory of Learning for Long-Term Retention.


[The following discussion is based on: Novak, J.D., J. Chem. Educ., 61, 607 (1984)]. In one of the theories of learning, there are two parts to developing long-term retention: memorization (the transfer of new knowledge from the short term memory to the long term memory) and incorporation (relating new knowledge to exisiting knowledge and assigning it to a proper location in your long term memory ). Assuming learning involves both memorization and incorporation, it is important that you develop both of these skills. For improving your memorization skills, use old-fashioned "flash cards". Put some kind of question on one side and the appropriate answer on the other side of an index card. Review the cards regularly - first in order and then in random orders to develop recall. For most chemistry students, incorporation is a much less developed skill than memorization. Two common ways of structuring information are to use outlines or maps (tree diagrams). As an example of structuring information, read section 1.1 of Chapter One of the course textbook. Early in this section, the concepts of matter, pure substances, mixtures, elements, and compounds are introduced. The structural hierarchy of the above concepts could be conveyed in an outline as follows. I. Matter A. Mixtures B. Pure Substances 1. Elements 2. Compounds The same information could also be conveyed by the following map.

This type of map is called a concept map since all the terms in the map are concepts - labels which represent all members of a group of objects or events that share specified characteristics. For example, "compound" is a concept, i.e., it is a label which represents all pure substances that can be decomposed into simpler pure substances. Thus, the single word, "compound" stands for all 14 million substances that are currently known to share the characteristic of being able to be decomposed into simpler substances. The process of learning the above material from section 1.1 involves using short term memory to establish a clear working definition of each new concept and to determine its location in an outline or a concept map, i.e., the relation of the new concept to concepts which you have learned earlier. This can usually be accomplished by doing the end-of-chapter questions dealing with the concept. Once you have a clear understanding of the concept and have revised the outline or concept map to which it

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belongs, memorize the revised outline or concept map and the definitions of all the concepts on the map. It is important to realize that whatever structuring device you use (outline or map), it needs to be modified and relearned every time new knowledge is added. For instance, later in section 1.1, the concepts of heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures are introduced. Your concept map should then be modified to that shown in Fig 1.1 on page 3 of the text and then relearned. This same approach to learning can be applied to the other types of information contained in Chemistry 11L.

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Types of Information in Chm 11L

Types of Information in Introductory Chemistry Courses.


In addition to learning concepts as described in the preceding article, you will need to learn some other types of information in this course which can be summarized as follows. [This summary is based, in part, on Kean, E; Middlecamp, C., J. Chem. Educ., 65, 53 (1988).] 1. Facts - reproducible observations or conventions on which people agree. Examples: Water is a compound composed of hydrogen and oxygen (reproducible observation) and can be represented by the formula, H2O (convention). 2. Rules - generalizations about how things usually behave or relate. Rules can be generalizations such as "all nitrates are soluble", or principles such as the Pauli Principle - "no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of all four quantum numbers", or laws which can be stated verbally and usually can also be expressed by a mathematical relation. Experimental law expresses a relation which has limitations and/or restrictions. Example: the Ideal Gas Law, PV = nRT, describes the behavior of real gases but only near room conditions of temperature and pressure. At high pressures and at low temperatures, there are serious deviations from the relation. Scientific law expresses a relation which has no known exceptions. Example: the Law of Conservation of Mass applied to an ordinary chemical reaction. 3. Theories - tested explanations of laws. Example: atomic theory described in section 2.1 of the textbook. 4. Problems - exercises in which you are provided with some information and asked to obtain some new information.
r

Standard problem - problem which can be solved using an algorithm - a series of steps which you perform, in sequence, to accomplish the goal of the problem. Algorithms are provided in the textbook or lecture notes and should be learned. Variations of standard problem - a problem which can be solved by relatively simple modifications of a provided algorithm (such as solving the problem backwards, etc.). Examples: The first problems at the end of a chapter in the textbook are standard problems or variations of standard problems. The section heading under which the problem occurs indicates where the algorithm for solving the problem is located in the chapter. The problems listed under the heading, "Unclassified", are also standard or variations of standard problems. The difference from earlier problems is that you have to decide which of the algorithms in the chapter should be used to solve these problems. Non-standard problem - a problem for which no single algorithm has been provided. The last problems in any chapter of the textbook, the "Challenge Problems", are usually examples of non-standard problems. These problems generally cannot be solved using only one algorithm given in the current chapter but require combinations of algorithms which may be from the current chapter and/or any of the preceding chapters of the textbook.

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Types of Information in Chm 11L

Facts, rules, theories, and problems can be learned in much the same way as concepts, i.e., work with the new information in short term memory until you have established a clear understanding of the information and are able to update the memory map to which the information should be assigned. Then memorize the updated memory map and the information on that map. Include in the information that you memorize all that is needed for you to be able to use the information properly once you recall it (definitions, algorithms, restrictions, exceptions, etc.).

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Memory: A Glimpse into the Past

Memory: A Glimpse into the Past, an Understanding of the Present, and a Key to the Future
A Basic Introduction
Many have struggled to try to find an adequate definition for memory. Perhaps the best definition of memory is "the modification of behavior by experience." Without memory, we could have no past and no intelligence or ability to learn by experience. We would constantly be relearning and discovering things day in and day out. Memory involves the "making of an impression by an experience, the retention of some record of this impression and the re-entry of this record into consciousness (or behavior) as recall and recognition."
As quoted from Ralph W. Gerard's article "What is Memory?", published in Physiological Psychology

Quite a Lengthy Process...


The process of making a memory occurs in all experiences whether or not we are consciously aware of this. Information can be retained and recalled without it needing to enter conscious awareness. Information that becomes the most firmly fixed and that is retained for the longest amount of time usually consists of youthful, repeated, or vivid experiences. The process of forming a memory from these experiences is gradual. Many studies done on the fixing of memories have proven that considerable time exists between the arrival of incoming information in the form of nerve impulses and the fixing of a memory trace.

Famous People in the Study of Memory and Their Contributions Types of Memory and the Process of Storing a Memory The Subsystems and Components of Memory Explicit and Implicit Memory Storage The Brain Structures Involved in Storing Memories

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Memory: A Glimpse into the Past

The Neurophysiology of Remembering Sources Used to Create This Memory Site This site was created by Melody Desing for completion of Psychology 250H.

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Famous People in the Study of Memory and Their Contributions

Famous People and Their Contributions to the Study of Memory


Ivan Pavlov Karl Lashley Donald Hebb William James

An intriguing question that scientists and psychologists alike have been striving to answer for centuries is how and where memory processes occur in the brain. Many individuals have devoted their knowledge, time, and talents to this study and will be remembered for their research contributions.

Pavlov and His Famous Dog Studies


Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who is famous for his numerous studies on classical conditioning. Using dogs as subjects, Pavlov paired a conditioned stimulus (food) that normally elicited a conditioned response (salivation) with an unconditioned stimulus (bell ringing). Eventually, the unconditioned stimulus became associated with the conditioned response. Pavlov further conducted research on classical conditioning. It was determined from research done by Pavlov that learning done through classical conditioning occurred in the cerebral cortex. Work by Pavlov proved that conditioned responses could not be learned by dogs after removal of the cerebral cortex. Thus the cerebral cortex was determined to be critical for the formation and storage of conditioned reflexes. Click here to return to the top of the page.

Karl Lashley and "The Search for the Engram"


Karl Lashley was a stimulus-response behaviorist. He theorized that physical memory traces (engrams) must be made in the brain when learning occurs. These new connections of neurons were assumed to involve the cerebral cortex, as proven by studies conducted by Pavlov. In 1929, Karl Lashley wrote his famous monograph, "Brain mechanisms and intelligence." This work consisted of studies with rats and mazes. Lashley removed

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Famous People in the Study of Memory and Their Contributions

portions of the cerebral cortex, varying from 10-50% in an effort to study the role the cerebral cortex played in learning. These studies brought about two important theories. The first theory, entitled Principles of Mass Action, proved that the amount of cortex removed was critical to the learning abilities of the rats. The second theory, entitled Equipotentiality, proved that all areas of the cortex are equally important to learning, or no area was proven to be more important than any other area. Studies with the central nervous system further support the existence of engrams in the brain. All behavior reflects actions of the nervous system and because the nervous system is a physical-chemical system, changes in behavior from learning must cause physical-chemical alterations. Therefore, all learning must involve alterations between input and output of the central nervous system. Engrams must exist. However, Lashley was never able to find the existence of an engram and concluded therefore that "the necessary conclusion is that learning just is not possible." The engram has still never been found, but groundbreaking research has been conducted that has begun to substantiate the theories of Lashley. Click here to return to the top of the page.

Hebb and The Theory of Cell Assemblies


Hebb presented the most successful theoretical view of the general nature of the engram in 1949 as his "Theory of Cell Assemblies." It is clear that the engram does not develop at one particular area in the brain. Hebb's theory supports the view that changes that occur during learning develop among interconnections of neurons throughout wide areas of the brain. Particular kinds of learning have been proven to involve the development of particular circuits of neurons. The engram does not appear to be localized, but its existence cannot be questioned. Click here to return to the top of the page.

William James and Dichotomous Memory


Studies by James proved the existence of at least two types of memory. The first type of memory defined by James was primary memory, or what we now call short-term memory. This is defined as material that lasts a matter of seconds. Primary memory consists of successive events in our environment that span all the senses and result in a continuous experience. Material in primary memory has not yet left consciousness. James defined a second type of memory as secondary memory. This consists of long-term memory, or permanent memories. This material is held indefinitely and does not reside in consciousness, but is available to bring to consciousness if desired. It is known that memory has several time constants. However, it is unknown if James's two aspects of memory are two different processes or the same process over different time spans.
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Famous People in the Study of Memory and Their Contributions

Click here to return to the top of the page. Return to main memory page.

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Tipos de Memria e o Processo de Armazenar uma Memria

O Processo de Fabricao de Memria


ndice Para Esta Pgina
Entrada Sensorial Depsito Sensorial A Tranferncia de informao do Depsito de memria Memria primria, ou de curto prazo Memria secundria, ou de longo prazo Recuperao de Informao da Memria A figura debaixo de representa uma viso esquemtica e simplificada de memria e os processos envolvidos em fazer e armazenar uma memria. Como pode ser visto no diagrama, a fabricao de uma memria consiste em vrios depsitos de informao, cada qual representando um papel diferente no processo de informao e formao das recordaes.

1. Entrada Sensorial e o Depsito Sensorial


A existncia desta primeira fase de memria foi descoberta por George Sperling. O depsito sensorial consiste em memria de muito curto prazo. A aquisio de informao acontece nesta primeira fase. Informao que entra neste depsito entra na forma de entradas sensoriais de todos orgos dos sentidos. Este depsito pode segurar grandes quantias de informao; virtualmente toda informao que entra nas sensaes. Tecnicamente, existe um depsito sensorial diferente para cada sensao, mas a maioria dos diagramas do processamento de memria , como o o de cima, simplificam estes depsitos sensorials separados para um depsito sensorial genrico que representa todas as sensaes. Informao armazenada aqui informao crua, sensorial, e no tendo sido analisada para algum significado. Informao de depsito sensoriais decai rapidamente em questo de alguns segundos. Ento, uma deciso deve ser tomada depressa sobre que informao ser transferida para o prximo depsito de memria para ser analisada e de que informao ser esquecida. Clique aqui para voltar ao topo da pgina.

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Tipos de Memria e o Processo de Armazenar uma Memria

2. A Transferncia de Informao do Depsito Sensorial


A informao que ser transferida fora de depsito sensorial e no perdida aquela informao que ns decidimos assistir. A informao que ns prestamos ateno para e passar para o segundo nvel de armazenamento de memria consiste em informao que realizar as tarefas ou metas que ns buscamos realizar naquele momento. O melhor exemplo de como este processo de escolher e prestar ateno a informao particular acontece o Fenmeno de coquetel. Ns todos j passamos por situaes onde numerosas conversaes esto acontecendo e nossas mentes esto sendo bombardeadas com informao. Estas situaes mostram como ns escolhemos a informao que ns desejamos assistir. Uma vez que ns decidimos qual informao para assistir, ns usamos um processo chamado Reconhecimento de Padro para transferir informao do armazenamento sensorial para a memria de curto prazo, ou primria. O processo de reconhecimento de padro envolve associao de significando a um padro sensorial. Esta informao testada na presena ou ausncia das funes sensorials elementares. Em outras palavras, ns reconhecemos um padro de dados sensoriais crus como algo significante. Este processo extremamente complexo e ainda no completamente compreendido. Clique aqui para voltar ao topo da pgina.

3. Depsito de Memria primria, ou a curto prazo


A depsito de memria a curto prazo, tambm definida como depsito de memria primria, por William James, consiste em informao do depsito sensorial. Este depsito tambm comparado com informao que ns estamos conscientemente informados. Informao registrada na depsito a curto prazo um reflexo do incentivo original. Estudos feitos para determinar a natureza de informao armazenada em memria a curto prazo descobriram aquela informao principalmente acstica em natureza. O Buffer de Ensaio Parte da depsito a curto prazo consiste em um buffer de ensaio. Informao pode ser obtida e segurada indefinidamente a se for ensaiado, ou repetida inmeras vezes. Ns podemos escolher que informao entrar e ser armazenada no buffer de ensaio. Durao e Armazenamento de Informao A durao de informao em memria a curto prazo pequena e decaimento normalmente acontece dentro aproximadamente 15 segundos. Informao pode ser copiada ou pode ser transferida deste depsito para depsito a longo prazo. A informao que ser lembrada ou ser esquecida depende de eventos antes e depois que a informao seja armazenada. Eventos que acontecem antes a armazenamento da informao podem efetuar a quantidade de informao lembrada e armazenada, e por quanto tempo. Em estudos administrados em interferncia, foi descoberto que conhecimento anterior de um tpico particular afeta a habilidade para codificar e se lembrar de informao nova relacionada quele tpico. Por exemplo, os que possuem conhecimento extenso em um tpico anterior para exposio de informao nova relacionada quele tpico podem melhor codificar e se lembrar de informao que os com pequeno ou nenhum conhecimento prvio. Isto chamado interferncia proativa. Eventos que acontecem aps o armazenamento informao tambm podem afetar o
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Tipos de Memria e o Processo de Armazenar uma Memria

armazenamento, tambm chamada interferncia de reativa. Estudos feitos em interferncia e o armazenamento de informao em memria a curto prazo concluiram que ao quanto mais semelhante a informao obtida antes e depois do armazenamento seja informao desejada, o mais provvel interferir. Capacidade da Memria a curto prazo Determinar a capacidade do depsito de memria a curto prazo, um procedimento de amplitudememria usado. Este procedimento consiste em leitura e teste da recuperao de vrios tipos diferentes de cadeias de informao. Estudos feitos por George Miller usando um procedimento como este determinram que o depsito a curto prazo pode segurar 7 tens de informao mais ou menos 2. Um tem de informao consiste em um pedao de informao como uma carta, nmero, formula, ou frase. Um pedao qualquer coisa que o crebro armazena como uma representao unitria. Ento, o crebro pode registrar e segurar mais informao em memria a curto prazo se organizado em alguns pedaos de informaode alto nvel, como agrupar letras em palavras. Recuperao de Memria a curto prazo Foram administrados muitos estudos para determinar como recuperao acontece na memria a curto prazo. Recuperao depende de fatores acsticos epor isso erros freqentemente feitos em recuperao so semelhantes em som informao original. Assim recuperao sensvel a fatores acsticos. Recuperao de informao de memria a curto prazo feita em uma procura seqencial e exaustiva. Estudos em tempo de reao descobriram aquela recuperao seqencial em natureza. Tempo de reao de recuperar informao linear e crescente. Em outras palavras, o quanto maior a informao estocada, o mais tempo leva. Recuperao tambm exaustiva em natureza. Estudos feitos no tempo de reao de voluntrios mostraram que leva a mesma quantia de tempo para voluntrios procurarem por informao para responder " sim " para perguntas sobre informao em armazenamento e responder " no " para perguntas sobre informao em armazenamento. Pode parecer que procurar por informao e parando a certa informao quando respondendo " sim " para uma pergunta deveria ser mais rpido que procurando toda a informao em armazenamento e responder " no ". Porm, leva a mesma quantia de tempo para ambos. Ento procuras so exaustivas em natureza. Clique aqui retornar ao topo da pgina.

4. depsito de Memria secundria, ou A longo prazo


A depsito de memria a longo prazo, ou depsito secundrio, consiste em informao que ns temos permanentemente mais disponvel. A capacidade desta depsito ilimitada. Sem uma depsito a longo prazo de memria, no haveria nada - nenhum livro, nenhuma televiso, nenhuma aprendizagem, e nenhuma comunicao. Poder se lembrar, informao de depsito, e recorda ro passado extremamente importante para vida como ns a conhecemos. Ensaio e o Armazenando de Informao em Memria A longo prazo O processo de ensaio usado para registrar informao da depsito a curto prazo na depsito a longo prazo. Estudos por Donald Hebb (veja outra pgina) demonstraram que aquela recuperao melhora em informao se aquela informao ensaiada e repetida. So usados dois tipos de ensaio para
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Tipos de Memria e o Processo de Armazenar uma Memria

armazenar informao em memria. Um tipo est chamado ensaio de manuteno. Este processo acontece no buffer de ensaio de memria a curto prazo. armazenada informao em baixo nvel, acstica e pode ser mantida indefinidamente a, mas nunca entra na depsito a longo prazo. O outro tipo de ensaio ensaio elaborativo. Neste tipo de ensaio, levada informao e so criados cdigos ou meios de se lembrar disto. Estes cdigos armazenam a informao na depsito a longo prazo e fazem isto recupervel em algum momento futuro. Ensaiando e armazenando informao em memria a longo prazo, ns tentamos organizar a informao de um modo significativo. Isto feito tentando ajustar a informao nova para um preexistente categoria lgica, ou criando uma armao lgica nova que segurar a informao em uma unidade coesa. Um modo que ns organizamos informao em unidades significativas usando mnemnicos. Mnemnicos so truques de memria ou tcnicas que ns usamos, como imagem, histrias, etc., isso organiza informao e faz isto mais fcil se lembrar. Ns tambm organizamos informao em agrupamentos ou pedaos baseados em uma categoria semelhante, ou baseados em um contexto subjetivo ou significativo para ns mesmos. Tipos de Informao e Memria em depsito a longo prazo So armazenados dois tipos de memria na depsito a longo prazo; episdico e semntico. O primeiro tipo memria de episodico, ou um registro de experincias de vida pessoais e eventos. Informao em memria episodica associada com um lugar e/ou tempo particular. O segundo tipo de memria memria semntica, ou informao que no associado com um tempo particular ou lugar. Memria semntica inclui conhecimento ns temos sobre palavras, idioma, e smbolos; os significados deles/delas; relaes entre eles; e regras por usar e os manipular. Estudos feitos para determinar o tipo de informao armazenado em memria a longo prazo revelaram aquela informao principalmente semntica em natureza, ou relacionada a significando. Recuperao de depsito a longo prazo Porque informao conteve a depsito a longo prazo principalmente semntico em natureza, recuperao sensvel informao semntica. Recuperao est baseada em facilitao. Em outras palavras, o acesso a informao que reside em uma certa categoria facilitar, ou faz acesso a outra informao naquela categoria mais fcilmente. So ativadas localizaes de memria para uma categoria temporariamente no processo de recuperao e so acessveis para uso se desejado. Recuperao de informao do depsito a longo prazo est baseado em uma procura limitada. Estudos em recuperao determinaram que uma procura direta e limitada feita para achar o tipo ou categoria de informao desejada. Possveis Modelos para Memria Semntica Acredita-se que traos de memria que permanecem no crebro no so cpias literais de um evento, mas so fragmentadas e distorcidas representaes do estmulo original. Porm, grande debate existe exatamente em como so armazenadas recordaes no crebro. A natureza exata da memria e como armazenado e organizado no crebro tem que ainda ser entendida completamente. I. Modelos de cadeia Em 1969, modelos de redes para memria semntica foi teorizado por Alan Collins e Ross Quillan. De acordo com estes modelos, informao armazenada em memria semntica conectada atravs de vnculos em uma cadeia enorme. Informao hierarquicamente organizada em relaes logicamente aninhadas. Quer dizer, so armazenadas propriedades de uma classe particular de coisas em lugar em uma hierarquia que corresponde quela classe. Assim, memria semntica representada por uma cadeia
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Tipos de Memria e o Processo de Armazenar uma Memria

gigante de nodos interconectados. Estes nodos representam conceitos individuais, idias, ou eventos. Vnculos ou conexes que existem entre estes nodos esto baseados em relaes entre os conceitos. Por exemplo, um modelo hierrquico comearia ao topo com o humano e as caractersticas bsicas de um humano. Debaixo disto estariam subcategories de macho e fmea e as caractersticas definindo destas categorias, etc. Assim os modelos de cadeia esto baseado em uma estrutura hierrquica de conceitos relacionados e as caractersticas deles/delas. II. Modelos Conjunto-Tericos David Mye conceituou modelos conjunto-tericos para representar memria semntica em 1970. Este modelo est baseado na idia que o significado de uma memria representado como um conjunto de caractersticas semnticas. Assim um conjunto incluiria todos os gatos, um conjunto todas as cores, e assim por diante. Todos os elementos de um conjunto tambm incluiriam atributos bsicos do conceito que representado por aquele conjunto, como todos os atributos de gatos, etc. Assim, este tipo de modelo est baseado na idia que memria consiste em um conjunto de atributos. III. Modelos de caracterstica-comparao O Modelo de Caracterstica-comparao para memria semntica foi teorizado por Smith, Shoben, e Rasgos em 1974. Este modelo est baseado na suposio que o significado de uma memria representado como um conjuntos de caractersticas semnticas. As caractersticas semnticas consistem em definir caractersticas, ou esses que so aspectos essenciais ao significado do item, e caractersticas prprias, ou as que descrevem mas no preciso definir o item. Por exemplo, o pisco-de-peito-ruivo tem vrias caractersticas definindas, como penas, e asas, e vrios characeristic prprias, como pequeno, e inocente. Pr informao nova em categorias predefinidas ou julgar se algo pertence em uma categoria, uma comparao usando acabado ambos os tipos de caractersticas. Comparando caractersticas de artigos para os pr em categorias significantes, assuntos esto constantemente mais rpidos em julgar alguns artigos que outros. Itens julgados mais rapidamente so esses que so mais tpicos ou representativos da categoria. Isto chamado o efeito de typicality. Clique aqui para retornar ao topo da pgina.

5. Recuperao de Informao de Memria


Trabalhando Memria Recuperao de informao contida depsitos de memria consiste em um complexo, processo de reconstruo. Este processo confia no funcionamento de memria de trabalho. memria de trabalho consiste em processos de deciso que administram a ativao de informao nos depsitos de curto e longo prazo. Estes processos administram que informao ativada na depsito a longo prazo e que informao retida ou acontece no depsito a curto prazo. Memria de trabalho consiste em informao armazenada para completar propsitos presentes ou metas brevemente. O Processo de reconstruo de recuperao Como mostrado no diagrama, recuperao de informao est baseada em preconceitos e rudo que existem na ocasio em que a recuperao desejada. Assim, a situao atual e incentivos que existem na influncia de ambiente externo e interno o sucesso de recuperao. O armazenar com o passar do
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Tipos de Memria e o Processo de Armazenar uma Memria

tempo de rastros de memria um processo de reconstruo. So alteradas progressivamente com o passar do tempo recordaes. Memria altamente associativa e influenciada por esses eventos antes dos que acontecem e depois do processo de codificao. Com o passar do tempo, ns tendemos a levar memria incompleta, fragmentada. Assim, recordaes recordadas a uma mais recente data no esto iguais original. Ns refabricamos, ou construimos memrias para preencher buracos com informao que provvel ter acontecido e ajustar a memria para recordaes. Recuperao de memria um processo de reconstruo e no de memria. Problemas de Recuperao Fracasso para ser capaz para recordar memria uma ocorrncia comum. Freqentemente tempos, ns tentamos nos lembrar de informao e conhecemos isto est na " ponta de nossas lnguas ", mas ns estamos impossibilitados ter acesso isto. O rastro de memria ainda existe, mas no pode ser recordado. Tais ocorrncias como sonhos, amnsia, supresso e represso, hipnose, histeria, e personalidades fendidas mostram os problemas e complexidades de recuperao. comum para pessoas disfarar ou perder intencionalmente ou sem querer de rastros armazenados para proteger o ego de angstia, medo, ou dor. Isto comum em casos de abuso, particularmente em infncia. recuperao e fracasso para recordar esto baseado em processos de ateno. Ns escolhemos rejeitar conscientemente ou inconscientemente ou memria particular seleta localiza e este processo de ateno determina se ou no podem ser recordados rastros. Clique aqui para voltar ao topo da pgina.

Voltar a pgina principal.

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The Subsystems and Components Involved in Storing a Memory

The Subsystems and Components of Memory


The figure below represents the five groups of subsystems that are involved in encoding new memories.

The Subsystems:
1. Perceptual Encoding Subsystems
The perceptual encoding subsystems are necessary for memory to occur. Perception determines the information that will become a memory as well as the time and place that will be tied to a memory. Perceptual subsystems are also important in that they are used to encode language, which enhances encoding of memories and defines the context for remembering and recalling stimuli. Perceptual encoding subsystems also are important in the storage of unimodal perceptual information, or information from one sense (auditory, visual, etc.). Click here to return to the top of the page.

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The Subsystems and Components Involved in Storing a Memory

2. Associative Memory
Associative memory holds representations of information that arrives from a perceptual modality. This information is descriptive in nature; defining categories, abstract relations, structural information about objects, and other nonperceptual types of information. Associative memory thus gives detailed organization to stored information, determining the importance of information that is stored. Input from any perceptual modality can activate associative memory. Click here to return to the top of the page.

3. Memory Formation Subsystems


Memory formation subsystems work to store representations and associations between representations of information. Memory formation subsystems coordinate the sending of information to be stored in perceptual encoding subsystems and associative memory. Memory formation subsystems also allow associations to be formed of information stored in both of these areas. The memory formation subsystems rely on many brain structures to accomplish its tasks, particulary the hippocampus, limbic thalamus, and basal forebrain. Please see the Brain Structures page for further information. Click here to return to the top of the page.

4. Stimulus-Response Connection Subsystem


This subsystem stores direct connections between a representation for a stimulus and a representation for a response. Studies have shown that the striatum (made up of the caudate nucleus and putamen) plays a role in storage of this type of memory. The striatum is important for skill acquisition memory. It receives perceptual information, and indirectly sends information to the premotor and supplementary motor cortex. Click here to return to the top of the page.

5. Decision Subsystem
The decision subsystem is activated when specific, important information is stored. The decision subsystem received information from associative memory and sends commands to the memory formation subsystems to store memories and associations between memories. It thus initiates, coordinates, and oversees the storage of certain individual information. Click here to return to the top of the page.

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The Subsystems and Components Involved in Storing a Memory

Storing Certain Types of Information:


Storing a New Stimulus
The first step in storing new information is to determine if it is new. New information will not activate any similar stored representation. If there is no similar representation that matches the entire new input, the information is new. After information is determined to be new, two subsystems become involved in storing the new information. These two subsystems are always active and operate on all new input, automatically storing information of stimuli that is paid attention to. Print-Now Subsystem This subsystem is part of the basal forebrain. When the memory formation subsystems determine that information is new, the print-now subsystem is activated. The print-now subsystem is aware of the activity that has been induced by the new stimuli in the other subsystems (perceptual encoding, associative memory, etc.) and prepares for later structural changes that will occur in connections at the neuron level so that the new stimuli will be encoded and remembered. However, this subsystem does not make these structural changes. Weight Adjustment Subsystem The weight adjustment subsystem changes the importance or weight of the neuron connections responsible for holding the new stimulus. It is initiated by the print-now subsystem. Thus this subsystem is responsible for storing the properties and important information of the new stimulus. This subsystem depends on processes in the hippocampus and cortex. The hippocampus oversees the changing connections of neurons- it is a "catalyst" for the neural network to change its connections in a specific way. The strength and ability of the connections overseen in this step determines the permanence of the new memory stored. This process is thus very complex and takes a long time to finish. Click here to return to the top of the page.

Associating a Familiar Stimuli with New Contexts


This process involves storing the association of familiar information with a new context. This process is seen when we "memorize" items on a shopping list (we already know the items, but we must remember them in this context). Many subsystems are involved in remembering these associations. The print-now and weight adjustment subsystems first identify the information as familiar and then associate it with previously stored, similar stimuli. This association is then stored using something like a "place holder" in the associative memory that points to the important stored representations. These representations of information are actually stored in the perceptual encoding subsystems. Later experience with the stimuli activates the place holders in associative memory, identifying the context that the stimuli was associated with. Click here to return to the top of the page.
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The Subsystems and Components Involved in Storing a Memory

Storing Examples and Prototypes


To encode and remember examples and prototypes, abstract properties of objects must be gathered and generalizations must be drawn. Our memory subsystems are organized so that this process is automatically done. Categories or prototypes that are formed and represented in memory do not have strict boundaries, but consist of examples that are organized based on those that are most typical of the category. Thus categories consist of the basic properties of a pattern that are given weights of importance in the neural network. Incoming examples are generalized to the categories, and some are determined to fit better than others. Prototypes are formed by generalizing an average of individual examples. Thus, individual examples can be stored and remembered, and general prototypes can also be formed and remembered. Examples and prototypes are stored in seperate networks in the brain. Studies have shown that the left cerebral hemisphere plays an important role in the storage of prototypes and the right cerebral hemisphere plays an important role in the storage of examples. Click here to return to the top of the page.

Storing Information Intentionally (memorizing)


Often, we intentionally pay attention to and seek to memorize and store information. This type of memory is called intentional memory. This type of memory is often more successful than automatic, incidental memory for many reasons. 1. When we intentionally pay attention to information, we retain this pattern of information in the activation subsystems and thus increase the success of storage by the weight adjustment subsystem. By intentionally paying attention to information, we also continue the signal from the print-now subsystem to the weight adjustment subsystem. Thus the information is attended to more intensively and for longer periods of time, making it more likely that the information will be successfully stored. 2. The more information and details sent of a stimulus we are trying to remember, the more likely the stimulus will be stored. The more information sent, the more opportunities there are for associations and encoding to take place. This is called the depth of processing effect. 3. The decision subsystem will take the information that one is trying to store and organize it into chunks. This chunking of information makes it easier to remember things because more time can be spent on less items. 4. In intentionally seeking to store information, retrieval cues are often used to make storage easier and more successful. 5. Intentional storage of information can make use of visual as well as verbal methods of storage. By using visual and verbal methods to store and remember information, the chances of remembering information are increased. Click here to return to the top of the page. Return to main memory page.

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Explicit and Implicit Memory Storage

Explicit and Implicit Memory Storage


Explicit Memory Storage
Explicit memories consist of memories from events that have occurred in the external world. Information stored in explicit memory is about a specific event that happened at a specific time and place. In forming and storing explicit memories, associations are done with previous related stimuli or experiences. Therefore, explicit memories can be remembered and recalled, and rely on previous experiences and knowledge. It is known that explicit memories involve the temporal lobe.

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Explicit and Implicit Memory Storage

Implicit Memory Storage


Implicit memories cannot be looked up or remembered to be used for actions and reasoning. They consist of memories necessary to perform events and tasks, or to produce a specific type of response. Implicit memory is best demonstrated when performance is improved on a task. This type of memory is shown through activation of the sensory and motor systems needed to perform a certain task. There are two basic types of implicit memory; repetition priming and skill learning. Repetition Priming: Repetition priming occurs when previous experience with a stimuli facilitates later processing of that stimuli. This phenomenon has been seen in studies when subjects are exposed to a set of words and then later tested. Later tests consist of priming subjects with parts of a word and asking them to complete the word with whatever comes to
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Explicit and Implicit Memory Storage

mind. The results of these tests are that subjects are likely to complete the word to match words they were exposed to at the beginning. This type of learning is one type of implicit memory. Skill Learning: Skill learning consists of learned, automatic movements or skills. These memories are only accessed by using or executing them. Skill learning relies on associating a certain stimuli with a response. This is done by the stimulus-response connection subsystem. The stimuli or perceptual input from the external environment is associated with the motor skill needed from the motor memory. By performance of the specific task or through activation of other reflex and motor systems, the implicit memory is accessible.

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The Neurophysiology of Remembering

BACKGROUND ON NEURONS AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY:


The brain is made up of billions of neurons, or nerve cells. Neurons are the building blocks of the brain and all activity and thinking that is conducted is based on these cells. The job of a neuron is to process information sent to it and convey this information on to other neurons, ultimately controlling all behaviors and experiences. This page will now concentrate on the role that the network of neurons in the brain plays in the memory process. For further basic background on neurons and the neural network of the brain, please click here.

THE ROLE OF NEURONS IN THE STORAGE OF MEMORIES:

The Neural Network and Nerve Impulses: The foundation of the types of memory discussed and the brain structures responsible for specific aspects of memory is the neural network of the brain. To understand memory storage and retrieval, it is necessary to look at the neurophysiology of the brain. Information that enters and travels through specific parts of the brain is passed along this neural web. Nerve impulses arrive and travel through a neuron to the synapse. The impulses then travel across the synapse of one neuron via electrical activity to another neuron. Through the travelling of impulses across the synapses, information is passed from neuron to neuron. The junctions of a single nerve fiber can number up into the hundreds. The nerve impulses arriving at a neuron form a pattern similar to a microstructure of wave forms. These wave forms interact with similar, overlapping wave forms of junctioning neurons. The interaction of these wave forms together causes a new pattern of nerve impulses to result. This impulse pattern effects protein and other chemical molecules at the synaptic junctions of neurons.

The Neural Hologram Theory: Karl H. Pribram presented his Hologram theory for neuronal storage of memories in 1969. His hypothesis of memory storage in the brain is that it is similar to a hologram. In a hologram, information is recorded and distributed across a type of photographic plate as a meaningless pattern.
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The Neurophysiology of Remembering

Thus the whole plate contains parts of the original image or stimulus. The neural network works similar to this in that information is distributed across many neurons throughout a "neural hologram" of sorts. Uncovering part of an image or stored stimuli allows the rest of the image to be accessible across the hologram.

The Physiological Storage of Memories: Memory and memory storage is based on the firing and travelling of impulses across patterns of nerve cells. The activity of neurons that are effected by an experience is altered in this process in order for this experience to be remembered and behavior to be modified. Thus memory consists of changes and alterations of effected neurons left from a past activity or experience. Multiple patterns of these traces are left in effected neurons and these patterns make up a memory. Thus memories are stored and reinforced by stimulation of a neuron from arriving impulses. The initial experience leaves a memory trace or pattern in effected neurons. Repetition and recall of a memory further reinforces a memory trace, making it stronger and easier to access. Further recall and response based on this memory trace becomes larger than it had previously been. This phenomenon is known as long-term potentiation, or LTP. The duration of this effect differs from hours to weeks or longer. The duration depends on the age, health, and experience of the person, as well as the properties and strength of the stimuli. The best analogy for this is a river that constantly flows and cuts a deeper, more defined impression in its channel bed. Thus changes occur at the synapses between neurons after impulses arrive and these changes effect subsequent impulses, reinforcing the memory trace left. The changes occur in the structure of the synapse and the chemical molecules released here. Thus memory storage is based on a web of neurons that are altered to leave a memory trace. This memory trace differs based on space and time. That is, the neural network in different areas of the brain is responsible for holding different types of memories for varying amounts of time.

Plasticity of the Neuron Network: The complexity and beauty of this system of neurons is its flexibility and plasticity. The connections that exist between neurons are constantly changing. Throughout a lifetime, the structure of neurons is constantly changing as neurons die, knowledge is accumulated, information changes, and disease, old age, and other misfortunes destroy neurons and their connections. Constant modifications are being made of the neuron webs. Furthermore, the structure and connections of neurons differs from person to person based on unique experiences and environments. Thus the architecture of every person's brain is slightly different. These differences in the brain architecture at the neuron level create a unique individual who is constantly undergoing changes; changes to better suit new demands or experiences. This plasticity of the neuronal structure is necessary for storing memories. The strengths and structure of connections among neurons determines the strength and location of a saved memory.

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Sources Used to Create This Memory Site

Sources Used to Create This Memory Site


Bower, Bruce "Brain region linked to conscious memories" Science News January 20, 1996: 37. Bower, Bruce "Brain scans show two-sided memory flow" Science News March 26, 1994:199. Gerard, Ralph W. "What is memory?" Physiological Psychology September 1953:372-386. Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S. "Working memory and the mind" Mind and Brain 1993:66-77. Kosslyn, Stephen M. and Koenig, Olivier Wet Mind 1992:341-400. Lemonick, Michael D. "Glimpses of the mind" Time July 17, 1995:44-52. Loftus, Geoffrey R. and Elizabeth F. Human Memory: The Processing of Information 1976. Neimark, Jill "It's magical. It's malleable. It's...memory" Psychology Today Jan-Feb 1995:44-51. Ornstein, Robert and Thompson, Richard F. The Amazing Brain 1984. Pribram, Karl H. "The neurophysiology of remembering" Physiological Psychology January 1969:387-398. Squire, L.R., Knowlton, B., Musen, G. "The structure and organization of memory" Annual Review of Psychology Annual 1993:453-495. Thompson, Richard F. Introduction to Physiological Psychology 1975:461-526. Return to main memory page.

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PGIE\TeleLab\TeleLab II\Ativ2\autores

Autores
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Evelise Anicet Ruthschillng Jairo Ferreira Julio Alberto Nitzke Loiva Cardoso de Zeni Luis de Frana Ferreira Mara Lucia Fernandes Carneiro Maria Alice D'Avila Becker Maria de Ftima W. de Prado Lima Solange C. Santos

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