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GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS

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CLAY AND SONS,

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50,

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[All Rights reserved.}

GREEK
VOTIVE OFFERINGS
AN ESSAY IN THE HISTORY OF GREEK RELIGION.

BY

WILLIAM HENRY DENHAM ROUSE,


FORMERLY FELLOW OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE; HEADMASTER OF THE PERSE SCHOOL.

M.A.,

CAMBRIDGE:
AT THE UNIVERSITY
1902

PRESS.

Catnfarftgr

PRINTED BY

J.

AND

C.

F.

CLAY,

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

PREFACE.
ancient times Polemon wrote an account of the votive

IN

offerings

on

the

Acropolis of Athens
2
;

in

four

books 1

and another of those in Lacedaemon Menetor wrote also a book on votive offerings 3 Since their day the subject has met with scant attention there is no general work dealing with it, and I know only of Tomasino's book 4 on Roman votive offerings, the pamphlets of Reisch and Zieinann 9 and the articles in the Dictionaries of Smith, of Darernberg and Saglio, and in Pauly's Realencyclopadie (Donarium, Donaria).
.

number of essays have, however, appeared on special parts of the subject, particularly in the archaeological journals, which will be found cited in the notes to this book. Most of them
have their value, but
it

consists chiefly in their collection

and

I have not wittingly used the work of presentation of facts. others without acknowledgment but inasmuch as most of
;

my

collections were

made

before I

met with the books and


it

articles alluded to,

I have not thought

necessary to refer

to these for quotations which I must particularly mention,

we have found independently.


however,
great

Mr

J.

G.

Frazer's

Pausanias, which has been


book.
1

of

help

in

revising

my

Strabo,
B, xiii.

472

ix. 396 Athenaeus, xi. 587 c Ho\e/j.uv fv rots irept


;

copi Aemoniensis,
1654.
P.

Jacobi Philippi Tomasini, EpisDe Donariis ac ta-

d(cpoir6\ews.

bellis votivis, liber singularis, Patavii,

T(f

Athenaeus, xiii. 574 c. Ho\efj.wv fv wepl TUV v Aa.KeSai/j.oi'i dva6r)fj^dT(i}v.


3

Ziemann mentions another


et

Kunz, Sacra
5

Profana

Athenaeus,

xiii.

574 c. Mev^rw/j

ev

Hixtoria, 1729.

T>

Trfpl ava8ij/jLar<a.

See

list

of abbreviations.

VI

PREFACE.

In the present essay I have attempted first to set forth the facts in some convenient order, then to deduce principles from them the only possible plan in dealing with a subject
:

which has never been


tions are

at proof.
theories,

fully investigated, and where explanaas axioms without an attempt assumed commonly I began my work with a few of these ready-made which so impressively enunciated seemed to be no
;

more open to suspicion than Caesar's wife to rny surprise, as the evidence displayed itself, I saw them drop away one by one, and since the conclusions I have been led to are very
what due to no prejudice.
different from
I expected, I

If those

who

give reasons for their faith, I am of my own suggestions will be, whether future discoveries will fall readily into their proper place. It has interested me greatly
;

claim that they are old the prefer assumptions can to learn the true test willing

may

fairly

to see that this subject, in itself apparently of small account, yet throws light on more than one great principle and after the ten years' work which has gone to make this book, I seem
;

more clearly than I did the sincerity and simplicity of Greek religion in the great age, and the elements of corto see far

ruption which finally brought it to nought. In this history there are not wanting apt illustrations of modern tendencies,

which have more than antiquarian


I

interest.
;

tried to

make my

collection of facts complete

but so

all be they Certain classes of such as of those dedications, presented. honorific statues, could without loss be dealt with summarily

large was the mass of them that

could

not

and, in general, there is little to interest in dedications which are later than the fourth century. Before that date I have

not wittingly omitted anything of note or significance. The most arduous part of the task has been to sift the archaeological
finds.

If in the

been overlooked, the only excuse I can was written at Tomi, where there are no

hundreds of journals and periodicals much has offer is that the book
libraries,

and therefore

the time available for the search has been a week stolen here

and there from

leisure.

It should also be

remembered, that

with a few exceptions (such as the Asclepius and hero reliefs) even the pioneer work of collection and comparison had not

PREFACE.

Vll

been done.

When we

have a Corpus of
all

Reliefs,

descriptions of the figures of

sorts

and more exact which have been dis-

covered in sanctuaries, it is quite possible that may be cleared up, and mistakes corrected.

many

obscurities

This being so, but it may seem rash to have published this book so soon after all, one might have waited until the Greek Kalends. It is something to have the available facts collected, which
;
:

if the future should I have tried to do bring more light for them, I shall be the first to welcome it. The only criticism which I shall not welcome is a vain repetition of old shibboleths,

some

at least of
it

parallels, I

Although have done so wherever

which I think this volume ought to destroy. was no part of my purpose to record foreign
I

happened

to

know

of

anything to the point. It was, however, all along my intention to include modern survivals and therefore I have described at
;

some length the


I speak chiefly other travellers

practices

which now hold

in

the Levant.

knowledge of these; but where have recorded similar scenes, I have generally
from

my own

added a reference to their works. In the inscriptions which are cited below, restored letters are printed in thick type and the iota adscript is printed in Where it is line, not beneath, where it is found on the stone. I have in such cases copied my authority; printed subscript no there was exact transcription available. Proper names have been spelt in the traditional way; but Greek epithets, and some names not familiar in Latin form, keep the Greek spelling. In this matter it seems better to be inconsistent than pedantic, and nothing is gained by dubbing an old acquaintance Aischulos or Thoukudides. I am well aware of the faults of this essay but those who have not attempted to deal with the subject will not readily
; ;

believe,

has been to present the material in anything like a clear arrangement. For one thing, there is its for another, its incompleteness. bulk It was necessary to
difficult it
;

how

choose between two alternatives


classification,

and

in each section to
;

either to adopt one uniform fill in such heads as were

there represented or to classify the matter in each chapter in the way most convenient, and to leave the general scheme to

Vlll

PREFACE.
itself in

develop
left

the final survey. The former plan would have chapters ugly gaps, and would have made it difficult to find a place for a great deal of my material I therefore chose the latter. It is a drawback, no doubt, that the arrangement thus differs in the different chapters, some of
in several
;

which deal with specified groups of divinities and others with but iu my opinion the gain is great, in specified occasions
:

that the theories of explanation are not assumed, but evolve themselves.
I

have to thank the administrators of the Worts Fund


50,

for

a grant of

which in the year 1896 enabled me to visit the museums of Sparta, Smyrna, Samos, Odessa, and Petersburg. Dr Waldstein and Dr de Cou, with the true scholar's generosity, have allowed me to quote from their unpublished discoveries in

the

Heraeum

me

My

and M. Haussoullier also was so good as to send a copy of some inscriptions found by him at Branchidae. thanks are due also to Prof. E. Gardner and Prof. Rhys
;

Roberts,

who

did

me

the service of reading and criticising the

proofs; to the Council of the Anthropological Institute, who kindly allowed me to use two plates from Major Temple's article
referred to below (p. 391 '); and to Prof. Ridgeway for the loan of several blocks from his Early Age of Greece.

CONTENTS.
PAGE

PREFACE
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

v
xiii
1

INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER
I.

The Dead, the Heroes, and the Chthouian

Deities

Note on the Modern Representatives of Ancient Shrines


II.

Tithes, Firstfruits,

and Kindred Offerings

....
.
.

37

39 95

III.

War
Games and Contests
Disease and Calamity
. .
. .

IV.

.149
187

V. VI.

Domestic Life
Memorials of Honour and Office Memorials of Feasts and Ceremonials
Propitiation
Rarities

240
259 274

VII.
VIII.
IX.

310
318 322
3S5

X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.

and Valuables

Formulae
Later Uses of the Votive Formula
Disposal of the Offerings

342
.

XIV.

General Sketch

348

INDICES
I.

Athens
Athens

Treasure of Athena and the other Gods

394
396 396

II.

Catalogue of Bronze Statues

III.

Athens

Artemis Brauronia

X
Athens
Eleusis

CONTENTS.
PAGE

IV.

Asclepieum

397

V.

399
399, 402
. .

VI, VII.
VIII.

Treasure at Delos

Amphiaraum, Cabirium, and other Theban shrines


Plataea

403

IX.

403
at

X.
XI.

Temple of Hera

Samos

404 404
405

Treasure of Apollo at Branchidae

XII.
XIII.

Fragment

of

list

from Aegina

Dedications in the Anthology

405

GENERAL INDEX:
Greek
English

409
424

ILLUSTRATIONS.
FlG.
1. 2.

Archaic Spartan

relief:

deified ancestors

with votaries

...

PAGE
6

Hero

Relief,

from Patrae

20

3. 4. 5.

Death-Feast Relief, from Peiraeus

.21
23

Hero Feast, from Peiraeus Hero Relief


Tablet with Oeo^via of the Dioscuri (Tarentum)

6.

6 A. Dedication to Zeus Philios


7.

Votive pyramid of terra-cotta, from South Italy

.... ....

24
31

36
62

8.
9.

Bronzes from the Cave of Mount Ida, Crete


Votive hare, from Priene

65
68 69
69
76

10.

Hare, from Olympia


Stag on stand, from Olympia Mare and Foal, from Olympia
Stag attackt by hounds, from Olympia
Boar, from Olympia
Stallion, from Olympia

11. 12. 13.

76
77

14.
15.
16.

Artist at work, painting

on

terra-cotta, from Corinth

17.

Corinthian votive tablet, boxers and vintage scene


Votive tablet from Corinth, man-at-arms and dog

18.
19.

.... ....
... ...
. . . .

...

77 81

81
82

Ship with freight of pottery, from Corinth (painted tablet) Miners digging for potter's clay (Corinthian tablet).
Dedication to Zeus Meilichios, from Athens

83 83
84

20.
21.

22.

Pan, Hermes, and

Nymphs

in grotto with worshippers

86 140

23.
24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Warrior, from Olympia

Discus with representation of two events of the pentathlon


Charioteer, from

Olympia

.........

161

165

Rider, from Olympia

166 172
172

Nude male

figure,

from Olympia

The Tubingen bronze

Xll
FlO.
29.
80.

ILLUSTRATIONS.
PAGE
Victorious athletes with votive tablet and prize (vase-painting)
.

173

Asclepius by the sick-bed

31. 32.
33.

Tending the

sick in the sanctuary of Asclepius

....

217

218 220
221

Sacrifice to Asclepius

Offering in a healing shrine (Boeotian vase)

34. 35. 36. 87. 38. 39. 40.


41. 42.

Man

holding a votive leg (Athens)

222

Votive Frog

233
244

Votive Hair, relief from Thessaly

Zeus and Hera, from Samos


Artemis with fawn aud dancing votary (Corcyra)
King-dancers, from Olympia

....

247 286
287

Maiden holding pig


Cybele
relief

(Sicily)

288
293

Ox, from Olympia


Cock, from Olympia

299 299

43.
44.

Animal

in thin foil,

from Olympia

299 299

45. 46. 47.


48.

Mysterious creature, from Olympia


Artemis, with bow and fawn

304
309

Zeus with thunderbolt, from Olympia


Figure from Olympia (Zeus?)
Miniature tripod and kettle, from Olympia

309
387 388

49.
50.

Miniature axe, from Dodona Miniature axes, from Olympia

51. 52.

388 388

Miniature shield, from Olympia


Plates
I.,

5362.
63.

II

Between 388, 389


389

Miniature axe, from Mexico

ABBREVIATIONS.
AA. AJA.
Archaeologischer Anzeiger Beiblatt zum Jahrbuch, q.v. American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts. Princeton University Press, 18861896, New Series, 1897
:

AM.
Ann.

Mittheilungen des deutschen archaeologischen Institute Abtheilung, 1876

Athenische

Annali

dell'

Institute archaeologico di

Roma.

Ant. Denk.

Antike Denkiualer, herausgegeben vom kaiserlich deutschen


-

1891. archaologischen Institut. Berlin, Reimer, 1887 Archaeologische Zeitung, 1843 Baumeister. Denkmaler des klassischen Altertums. Miinchen und Leip-

AZ.

zig,

1885.
Paris, 1877

BCH.
Bull.

Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique.

Bronzen = Ergebnisse.
Bulletino
dell'

Institute archaeologico di

Roma.

Carapanos. Dodone et ses mines. Cat. Ath. Mus. Sc. FXvTrra roC 'EdviKov Mov&fiov Kard\oyos TTtpiypafpiKos
VTTO
I.

II. Ka/3/3a8i'a.

'Ev 'Adrjvais- (K TOV TOiroypa<p(iov 2. K. BAutrrov.


Moucrei'ou rrjs 'A.KpoTr6\(a>s VTTO II.

189092.
KaraXoyoy TOV
KaoTpKarov.

Cat. Acr. Mus.

1895.
Cat.

Acr.

Mus. Br.

Catalogue

des

Bronzes

trouvees

sur

1'acropole

d'Athenes.
Cat. Berl. Sc.

Beschreibung der Antiken Skulpturen mit Anschluss der Pergamenischen Fundstiicke. Berlin, Spemann, 1891. Cat. Br. Mus. Catalogue of the Bronzes in the British Museum Greek,
:

Roman and
Cat. Br. Mus. Sc.

Etruscan, by H. B. Walters.

1899.

A Catalogue of Sculpture in the department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum. By A. H. Smith, M.A. London. Printed by order of the Trustees. Vol. I. 1892, Vol. n.
1900.

Cat. Cypr. Mus.

A Catalogue of the

and Max Ohnefalsch-Richter.

Cyprus Museum. By John L. Myres Clarendon Press, 1899.

xiv

ABBREVIATIONS.
Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum, consilio et auctoritate Academiae
litterarum Regiae Borussicae editiun.
Berlin, Rciiner,
i.

CIA.
CIG.
Collitz.

iv.

1873

Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum.


:

Bockh,

i.

iv.
II.

Coll. Sab.

Vols. I. and Furtwiingler Collection Sabouroft'. Dialektinschriften. der griechischen Saramlung

Dar. and Sagl.

Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecques et Romaines.


'

Paris,

Hachette, 1877
'E(f>.

'Apx-

'E.<f)T)p.tpas

\px<uo\oyiKT).

Athens, 1837

Ergebnisse. Olympia: Die Ergebnisse der von dem deutechen Reich Vol. m. Bronzen, Vol. iv. Inveranstalteten Ausgrabungen.
schriften.

Berlin, v.d.

Farnell.

Cults of the Greek States.

Vols.

I.

and n.

Clarendon Press,

1896.

F-W.

Furtwangler - Coll. Sab. Die Gipsabglisse Antiker Bildwerke: von Carl Friedrichs, neu bearbeitet von Paul Wolters. Berlin, Spemann, 1885.
Gazette Archaeologique, 1875 1889. Paul Girard, L'Asclepieion d'Athenes. Paris, Thorin, 1881. Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae praeter Atticas in Attica

Gaz. Arch.
Girard.

IGA.
IGI.

repertas, edidit

Hermannus

Roehl.

Inscriptiones Graecae
I.

Insularuni

Rhodi, Chalces, Carpathi

cum

Berlin, Reimer, 1882. Maris Aegei. Berlin, Reimer. F. Hiller de Ga'rSaro, Casi.

tringen, 1895.
in.

u. Lesbi, Nesi, Tenedi.


Teli, Nisyri,

Gulielmus R. Paton, 1899.

Astypaleae, Anaphes, Therae F. Hiller de Gartringen, et Therasiae, Pholegandri, Meli, Cimoli.

Symes, Teutlaseae,

1898.

IGS.

Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum Graeciae Septentrionalis. Berlin, I. Reimer. Inscriptiones Graecae Megaridis, Oropiae, Boeotiae, in. 1. Inscriptiones Graecae edidit Gulielmus Dittenberger, 1892. Phocidis, Locridis, Aetoliae, Acarnaniae, Insularum Maris lonii,
edidit Gulielmus Dittenberger, 1897.

IGSL
IPI.

Kaibel.

Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum Berlin, Reimer, 1890.

Siciliae et Italiae, edidit

Georgius

Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum Peloponnesi et Insularum Vicinarum. I. Inscriptiones Graecae Aeginae, Pityonesi, Cecryphaliae,
Berlin, Reimer, 1902.

Argolidis, edidit Maxirnilianus Fraenkel. Inschr. von 01. = Ergebnisse.

Jahrb.

Jahrbuch des kaiserlich deutschen archaeologischen


Berlin, Reimer, 1886

Institute.

Jahreshefte.
in

Jahreshefte des osterreichischen archaeologischen Institute

Wien.

Wien, 1888
'E,iriypa(J)iKov

Kar.

KarnXoyor rov iv 'A^ijvatr


'

Movcrdov

fK8i8op.(vijs viro rr)s


'

AxpOTT 6Xf<as 'Ap^at<al 'A.vaOrjp.aTiicai 'EmypfXpai VTTO H. G. Lolling. 'E,v 'Atfiji/atv tK rov i~viroypa(pfiov ra>v d8(\(pS)v Htpprj, 1899.
ApX<iio\oyiKT)s (raipfias.
I.

Td/xor

I.

'Eiriypafpai (K

TTJS

TfC^oj

ABBREVIATIONS.
Mon. Ant.
Mon.
et

XV
Accademia

Monument!

Antichi, publicati per cura della reale


et

dei Lincei.

Hopli, Milano, 1889

M4m.

Monuments

Memoires, publics par 1'Academie des

Paris, Leroux, 1894 Inscriptions et Belles-lettres. Mon. Grec. Monuments Grecs, publics par 1'association pour 1'encouragement des etudes grecques en France. Paris, Maisonneuve, 1872

1897.

Mus.

It.

Museo

Italiano di Antichita Classica, diretto

da Domenico

Comparetti. Firenze, Notizie. Notizie degli Scavi.


Preller, Or.

18851890.

Reisch.

M. Griechische Mythologie. Griechische Weihgeschenke Abhandlungen des Archaeologisch Wien, Epigraphischen Seminars der Universitat Wien, viu.
:

1890.

Rev. Arch.

Revue Archaeologique, publiee sous le direction de Bertrand et G. Perrot. Paris, Leroux, 1845

MM.

Alex.

Ridder, Cat. Acr. Mus. Br.

Catalogue des Bronzes trouves sur I'Acropole d'Athenes, par A. de Ridder. Paris, Thorin, 1896.

Origin of Currency and Weight Standards, by Cambridge University Press, 1892. Ridgeway, Early Age. The Early Age of Greece, by W. Ridgeway. Cam-

Ridgeway, Currency.

W. Ridgeway.

RM.

bridge University Press, I. 1901. Mittheilungen des deutschen archaeologischen Instituts

Romische

Abtheilung. Roberts. An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy, by E. S. Roberts.


bridge University Press, Roscher. Lexikon der Mythologie.
I.

Cam-

1887.

Schone.

Griechische Reliefs aus Athenischen Sammlungen, von Richard


Leipzig, Breitkopf

Schone.
Sybel.

und
zu

Ha'rtel, 1872.

Katalog

der

Sculpturen

Athen,

von

Ludwig von SybeL


Dissertatio-

Marburg, 1881. Ziemann. Franciscus Ziemann, De Anathematicis Graecis.


Inauguralis.

Regimonti Borussorum, 1885.

ERRATUM,
p. 231, line 2.

Dele reference to illustration.

ADDENDA.
p. 257.

Figures of nursing mothers are in the

Museum

at Eleusis.

p. 294.

r. f.

vase found at Eleusis represents scenes from the Mysteries, and

is

inscribed in golden letters A^/xijrpfa AT^IJT/H dv0T?/ce' (Mon. et


vii.

Mem.
p. 298.

pL

iv.).

infra: Croesus sent golden cows to

Ephesus (Herod,

i.

92).

p.

384.

I omitted to notice that there is a late dedication of the thyrsus to

Aphrodite (Anth. Pal.

xiii. 24).

ERRATA.
Page
xiv, line 8, for
9,
E(/>7j/tepas

read

line 2, for heroes


3
,

read warriors.
epr)/j,oic\-/iffi.a.

Pages 12 Page 63,


,,

line 3,

and 418, read t^wK\-^<ria, omit and were.

92, line 12, for

a similar origin read courtezans.

,,

read Polyperchon. 32 31 below p. 230 8 200 2 after tlai.TTrr-t]pi.ov add CIA ii 1. Add. 453 6 c. 201, line 4 from foot of text, for dorter read dortor. xxix 2. 203, last line of text, after Cos add Plin.
113, line 1, for Polyperchron
,

116 7 read
,

BCH

vi

NH

250 13 add See


,

p.

214 above.

,,

278, last line of text, for Carthage read Calchedon. 285 1 add Differently explained as the offering of a citharoedus, by Maas, quoting Arist. Acharn. 13 (Philologus Iviii 155).
,

3067
,,

omit all after 342.


368.

,,

324 13, for ...ov read ...on. 330 16 substitute for note as yiven Collitz
,

,,

357, line 5, for 364, line 3,

sow read pig. for rams read sheep.


insert

374, line 16, after worshipt 391, line 10, for

in their place.

may

read need.

INDICES

Page
,, ,,

403,

vm

add

Sots 2420, irepippavr-fipiov 2422, iropjnj 2420.


.

1 419, read KaXXtTriryos 249

435, s.v. Demeter, line 16, for home read honour. 447, s.v. Muses add writer dedicates writing materials, 72.

GEEEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


INTRODUCTION.
PLAN OF THE BOOK.

WHATEVER
is

is

given of freewill to a being conceived as


:

The motive to speak strictly a votive offering. superhuman the occasion is accidental, is simple, but not always the same This definior, if it be determined, the gift is not compulsory.
tion excludes all taxes, whether paid to a god or a government, and includes the sacrifice of animals at the altar. But some

taxes or customary contributions are so closely associated with votive offerings, or so clearly grow out of them, that no strict

can be drawn would lead us far


line

and to discuss the principle of the

sacrifice

afield into questions of

comparative custom,

whilst the details of sacrifice are not instructive for our present Sacrifice will therefore be only touched on by the purpose.
ritual

way, and a few pages will be given to the consideration of fines. On the other hand, tithes and firstfruits paid in kind are important to us, both in themselves and for their
.

developments, and something must be said of them. The main purpose of the book, however, is to collect and classify those

which are not immediately perishable and by exoccasion of their dedication, and the statements the amining made about it, to trace if possible the motives of the dedicator
offerings
:

and the meaning which the act had


R.

for

him.
1

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

begin with the Worship of the Dead, which is demonstrably one of the oldest found on Greek soil, and the customs connected with it. The second chapter will deal with
shall

We

Tithes and Firstfruits.

Next

will

be considered several im:

portant occasions for the dedication of votive offerings Victory deliverance from Disease, Danger, or in War and the Games
;

and

Calamity; the crises of Domestic Life; memorials of Honour and Propitiation of an memorials of Ritual Office
; ;

A brief survey will be taken of things offended deity. dedicated for their rarity, and of some curious developments
of the main custom.
dedication,

We

shall

then collect the formulae of

and indicate how the objects were disposed of. Lastly, a general review will gather up all the threads together, and draw the necessary conclusions.

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND THE CHTHONIAN


DEITIES 1
mc'EAAAAoc rrpoceAOoycHC
AeT TIMAN TON 'Hp&KAe* M8N (bC HpCOA, AyplON Ae
.

rep 'ArrdAAcaNi KA! epcorcoCHC orrcoc


<\TTo6e6ociN,

M6TA THN

elneN 6 Geoc- NYN

WC

96ON.

SCHOL. PINDAR Nem. u. 38.

EVERY
a practice
funeral,

it is

student of primitive culture knows how common to immolate men, women, and animals at the

drink,

and to send with the dead into his new home food and and the articles which by analogy with this world he

might be expected to want. In case of burial, food is placed upon the mound and drink poured into the earth, whilst the tools or utensils are laid with the body in the tomb in case of burning, the offerings may be destroyed by fire. In the Odyssey
;

we

see the underlying principles in all their bare savagery, when Ulysses cuts the throats of his victims over a ditch, and the insubstantial shades by drinking of the blood gain a momentary

On the other hand, at the strength to answer his questions. funeral games of Patroclus there is immolation of victims, but
its

meaning

is

not so

much

as hinted at.

To argue

that the

practice described in the Odyssey grew up after the date of the Iliad, is impossible because in the former we have a complete
;

parallel to the practices of savages, while the civilisation of the Iliad is too advanced to admit of such practices beginning there.

The Iliad

is

in fact earlier in date, but later in culture, than the


;

ninth book of the Odyssey it is silent of the mutilation of Cronus, which crop up
1

many
first

things, such as at a later date.


Boscher, Lex. der

Mythol.,

See Furtwangler, Collection Sabouroff, Introduction s.v. Heros.

12

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


the worship of the dead
:

And

but by archaeology

attested not only by literature moreover, there is evidence of continuity.


is

beehive tomb at Menidhi in Attica brought to light a series of sacrificial vases, which proved that the cult had been practised there without a break from the Mycenean to the classical age. We are justified
of the

The excavation

assuming that the yepas Qavovrutv included more and in regarding the barrow and a stone slab burial of toys and vases in the tombs of a later day as the
then
in

than

survival of an

The

rites

outgrown belief. done for the dead seem

to

have included a funeral

yearly renewed, which was celebrated at 1 the tomb Royal and noble houses would naturally have a 8 and the tendency in Greece as elsewhere was to family tomb
feast, periodically or
.

So the Scythian kings were deify the founder of the race. honoured by the immolation of wives and slaves, by the offering 8 Those who died after the great of firstfruits and golden cups
.

founder of the family would naturally join him, and become as he was. Partly for fear of what harm the ghosts could do, and partly from hope of their help, the survivors were scrupulous
in doing

what might please them. The tomb was filled with and utensils which belonged to them in this life, or weapons which they might be likely to want in the other. All these
;

are strictly votive offerings 4 they are dedicated on a special occasion, and for the purpose of propitiation, to a being conceived
1

rpira, tvara (Isaeus,

ii.

37), rpio/cd-

5es in

Lexicographers, ycvfoia. (Herod.

those

In the Greek and Russian churches, who are named after a saint
;

iv. 26).

Lucian describes how garlands

and myrrh were offered, wine poured into a trench, and the offerings burned
(Charon
Ceos,
22).

keep his day holiday but it is perhaps fanciful to see a connexion between
this tribute to a spiritual father

and

Compare the
395,
oil,

inscr. of
is

ancestor worship.
2 3

IGA

where mention
of

Roscher, Lex.

i.

2459, 2474.
72.

made

of wine and

sacrificial

Herod,

iv.

71,

Battus and

vessels, of the

month's mind and the

year's mind. the dead in


viii.

Customary
Olynthus:

sacrifice

to

the old kings of Gyrene seem to have had divine honours, Herod, iv. 161.
4

334

F.

Athenaeus, So in Modern Greece at


:

Euripides
:

speaks

of

dvaff^/Mra

veKpou

Suppl. 983.
:

Votive offerings

feasts

Patmos, for example, the memorial and services after a death are
dvvia^fiepa,
<ra.p6.vra.,

in Argive
ii.

p. 173.

tombs Frazer, Pausanias In tombs of slain warriors


:

rpi.-fifi.tpa.,

Tpi(j.T)va,

op. cit. v. p. 141.

ea.(j.jjva.,

xp6aa, dlxpova, and

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN


as

DEITIES.

Since, however, a distinction soon grew superhuman. burial rites and divine ritual, I do not propose between up Nor is it to follow out the former through all its history. here or no divine to whether ritual consider was important As ritual the dead. derived from the of always Furtwangler acutely remarks, the pouring of a libation is meaningless unless it be connected with beings who dwell in the under-

world; and this at least was extended to non-chthonian deities. But at the outset the two kinds of ritual approximate. It

would appear that the recurrent


of stone and set

feast

was carved on a slab

up over the grave, perhaps as a perpetual memorial of the willingness of the living to serve the dead
;

and the burial

rites

gave

rise to

a type of relief which was of


the

importance in the history of art. This is the so-called Hero Feast or Death Feast
earliest

form

of

which

best seen in a series of ancient Spartan the following may be considered typical 1
is

reliefs,
.

Two

male and a female, are seated upon a throne. The male figure holds in his right hand a goblet, and extends his left in a posture which is hard to interpret it is neither a 2 The blessing nor an accepting, the hand being held vertical
figures, a
: .

female holds a pomegranate in her right hand, and the left holds her veil. large snake curls under the throne, the head

appearing over its back. Before the pair is seen a couple of tiny figures, a man and a woman, he holding a cock and an

egg or some little object, perhaps fruit or cake, she a flower and a pomegranate. In this relief the enthroned figures turn towards the right of the spectator, but in some of later date
they turn to his left. Other attributes, such as the dog, also 3 appear and sometimes there is no female. The heroized pair are always distinguished by being larger in size than the human
,

adorers; a natural convention, seen often in the sculptures of 4 From the rough working of the lower part Egypt and Assyria
.

of these slabs they appear to have been fixed in the earth.


1

Coll. Sab.

i.

pL 1
ff.,

see for the whole

Perhaps the ambiguity

is

due

to

series,
vii.

AM

ii.

301

459,

iv.

163, 193,

the artist's limitations,


3

163.

They date from the seventh


See
fig. 1.

AM

ii.

pi. 22.

or sixth century.

Philostr. Her. 296 (685) rb

eos

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


The
earlier

examples have no inscriptions to guide us in the interpretation, but the later ones are inscribed with names. They may therefore be confidently regarded as sepulchral. This view is supported by several other facts. Along with the first slab an inscription was found recording that the
place was sacred
to

Hermes

1
.

The snake

is

carved on an

Fio.

1.

Archaic Spartan

relief: deified ancestors


i.

with votaries.

Collection Sabouroff,

pi. 1.

early Spartan tombstone*, and it is well known to be assoIts habit of lurking in ciated with the chthonian powers.
^yav rt
KO.I

Great Mogul within towered high over


the walls of his citadel.
1

dvdpeiov oOiru rptdKovra try

In India I show, representing the siege of Delhi


in

yyov6ra. once saw a marionette


;

'Eppavos,

IGA

60.

Annali

xxxiii. pi. C.

Snake
:

identii.

general was twice the size of his men, and the

which

the

English

fied

with the hero Cychreus

Pans.

36. 1.

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN


holes of the earth, its mysterious

DEITIES.

movement and uncanny eye, and deadly power, have caused this creature to be regarded with superstitious awe in many parts of the world. The Greeks of a later age believed that snakes issued from the and that is not the kind of idea which is dead man's marrow Not by Greeks alone to have likely originated in a later age. and incarnation of wisdom 2 is the serpent regarded as the amongst them it continued to be associated with oracular caves and shrines. Flowers, eggs, and cock were no doubt sacrifices and we know how the cock became the traditional poor man's 3 The whole scene, then, represents one offering to Asclepius scene in the ritual of the dead, the sacrifice to wit and as 4 living and dead are supposed to meet in the ritual banquet so
its silence
1
; ;
; . ; ,

the deified ancestors, or heroes, are represented as present at the feast or as preparing to partake in it.

Out of this early cult of ancestors appears to have grown the whole system of Hero- Worship in Greece and this is no mere inference, for a similar principle produces the same results
;

until long after the Christian era.

To heroes

are applied those


:

terms which express ideas relating to the dead they are " the 5 Mortal men in Stronger," "the Averter," "the Protector ."
time become heroes and even gods, as in the case of Asclepius and the Dioscuri 6 Even oracles, and the practice of sleeping in
.

Philostr. Her. 288 (670)

Roscher

x a^ e7ro " s
fowi,
4

Ka-l ir\i}/craj rovs


vtixrup

i.

2467.
2

Ka.1 fj.S.\\ov

Genesis

iii.

1.

Compare Robertson Smith, Reff.

I am not prepared to say that the cock had also a symbolic meaning His it was a very common sacrifice.
3
:

ligion of the Semites, 255


ii.

Cf. Paus.

10. 1.
:

The hero

in Daulis

certainly partakes Paus. x. 4. 10, " the blood

crow
the

the

believed to frighten away ghostly powers of the night ; Kalikazari in Cyprus and Cos,
is

now

they pour through a hole into the grave, the flesh they consume on the spot."
O l KpelrTovet (see Hesych.s.v.), &iro-

the witches or goblins

of

northern

rpfaaios, dXeftKa/coj.

Arist. ap. Pint.

Europe. But I see no proof that the early Greeks held any such view, or that they conceived of their dead as

Cons, ad Apoll. 27. Roscher i. 2474.

Furtwangler p. 21,

The

old

woman
help

in

Aristophanes
'H/od/cXetj,

calls

out

for

w
<3

having

no power in the daytime. Sacrifice was however done to the

w Haves, w
Eccl. 1069.

Kopt^aj/Tej,

Auxncipw.
6

heroes at sunset (Paus. vi. 23. 3, Schol. Pind. Isth. iv. 110) or at night (viii. 14.
11)
;

For Asclepius see

ch. v.

The Dio-

scuri are

men
xi.

in II.

iii.

236, heroes or

and Athenaeus says

(xi.

461 B)

gods in Od.

300.

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

the precinct for the purpose of consulting them, are attested for the dead among the Nasamones 1 and alluded to elsewhere*.
,

Sometimes the descriptive


sonified as heroes, a point

become abstracted and perwhich has significance when we retitles


.

member
find

that the Pelasgians did not name their gods 8 Thus we 4 Amynos at Athens, the Defender Eumenes, the Kindly, at
;

Chios 5

8 Sosias, the Saviour, at Olbia

added

to the

name

Soter, the Saviour, was of Brasidas heroized 7 and to Demetrius and


. , ;

Antigonus at Athens and in later days inscriptions are common which dedicate statues to the Roman Emperors under the title of

Founder and Saviour 8 Such titles imply protection in general, but others are more particular. There are heroes who specialize in war, as Phylacos the Guardian at Delphi 9 Teichophylax at 10 11 Eunostos of Tanagra 12 and Myrina and Promachos at Psophis 13 Deloptes of Samos have other functions which the names make clear. Or again, the healing of disease was the special function, and this especially where the worship centred round a medicinal 14 Such are the Hero Physician at Athens 15 and Asclepius spring at Tricca, of whom more anon. If there is a cave of mysterious oracle and to the front, as in the case come vapours, prophecy of Amphiaraus and Trophonius. But the idea of power in general is never lost sight of, and it is ascribed to the mighty dead throughout Greek history. Brasidas and Sophocles have already been mentioned as heroized; similar honours are as.

cribed to Philippus of Croton 16 Onesilos at


,

Amathus 17 even
,

to

Herod,

iv.

172.

ical

icTtery

rrjs

olKovfj.tvrjs.

See Furt-

2 Plut. Consol.

ad Apoll.

14,

Herod.

v. 92.
3

wangler 22, Roscher i. 2516. Herod, viii. 39. Aristomenes was


also useful: Paus. iv. 32. 4.
10

Herod,

ii.

52.

*
5

AM xxi.

330.
vi.

Hesych.
Paus.

s.v.

Athenaeus,

266 D

compare the

u
*a

viii.

24. 6.

Eumenides, and the Good People in English folk-lore. 101 6 Dittenberger, Sylloge, 248 7 Thuc. v. 11. Sophocles was herotitle
.

Plut. Quaest. Or. 40.

1S 14

AM

xxv. 172.
xi.

Athenaeus

512 F

rti

Oepna.

Xowpi

ri

<t>au>bfjiti>a.4KTTjsyr)t

wdvTfs'Ilpa.K\tovt

ized after his death as Dexion, because he had welcomed Asclepius to Athens
:
'

(fmalv elccu itpd.


10
ii.

CIA

ii.

403.

Frazer, Pausaniai
:

diri>

T7?s

rov

AoTtXTjirtoO 8e iwaewi,

Et

149.

Theagenes in many places


v. 47.
v. 114.

Mag.
8
iii.

Paus.
Krlffrrit,

vi. 31. 9.

olKiar^t,

ffur^p

e.g.

CIA

18 17

Herod,
Herod,

493

ff.,

AM xviii.

10 Trajan wrnpi

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN

DEITIES.

such unlikely persons as Theagenes the athlete in Phocis and 1 many other places The Homeric heroes one and all seem to
.

have had this honour paid to them.


Laconia*,
in
8
,
.

Agenor Argos even Hector in Boeotia 5 The warriors

Protesilaus

Ulysses was a hero in in the Chersonese 4


,

who
;

fell

at Plataea

were worshipt as heroes with offerings of garments, firstfruits, and all that was customary year by year 6 t'he Spartans built a shrine to Maron and Alpheus who fell at Thermopylae 7 and
;

might make heroes of the gallant dead 8 Epicteta of Thera, in her well-known will, took upon herself this state function. She left her property to endow a shrine to the Muses and the Heroes, the last being herself and Phoenix her husband, with their two sons. In their honour recurrent feasts were to be kept up, with sacrifice and libation, when the statues of the heroes were to be adorned with garlands 9 In course of time the idea lost all its meaning, and hero, like the German selig, came to be a synonym for the dead 10 The heroes do more than protect mankind; they also
until late days a public vote
.

punish them themselves 11

for

In

wrongdoing, or at least for an offence against early times, of course, the line is not

drawn
1

distinctly
vi. 24. 3.

between a

ritual

and a moral offence

but
Kara.
/coi

Paus.

The unsuccessful

TCKptvras

T-TJ

^terepp

drt/xw/xei'

suitors of

Hippodamia were worshipt


Paus.
vi. 21. 11.

TOS ZKCLIJTOV
rots dXXots

Srjuoffiq.

effOrifj-aoriv

re

as heroes
2 3 4

fOfj.ifj.ois,

5<ra re

rj

yij yftuiv

Plut. Quaest. Gr. 48. Plut. Quaest. Gr. 50.

dveSldov updid, WOLVTWV dirapx&* tiruft-

Herod,

ix.

116;

Philostr.

Her.

passim,
(696),

who mentions
Diomede
and
305

also Nestor 303

poi/rej. 7 Pans. iii. 12. 9, vi. 11. 9. 8

Collitz
;

iii.

3196

ws

ypu
17

Ttfj.rp>

Sthenelus 304
(702),

(Corcyra)

BCH

xvii.

98

ir6\u

(699), Philoctetes

Agamem-

non and Menelaus, Idomeneus and Ajax 307 (706), Chiron and Palamedes
308
(708), Odysseus 312 (716), Teucer 315 (721), Aeneas, Sarpedon, Alexander 316 (723), Helenus, Deiphobus, Polydamas, Euphorbus 317 (725).

statue of apery* freKfv dtyripuiffev. Aristeas was dedicated to Apollo at Delphi for similar reasons, Herod.
iv.
9

15.

IGI iii.
spirit

330.
is

son's

still

So the great Nicholpropitiated with


:

worship and offerings


Studies,
lu
ii.
i.

Lyall, Asiatic

Lucian, phron 1205


6

Deor.
;

Cone.
i.

12

Lyco-

301.

Eoscher

2482.
rGiv

IGS

1715 and Index.


ol

Thuc.

iii.

58 irar^puv

vpcTtpuv
/cai

Schol. Arist. Birds, 1490

ijpues

0J1KO.S,

oOj diroOavorras viro

MijSaw

dvffopyjjroi Kal

xaXrol

rotj tfj.ire\dfov<ri.

10

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

of morals to

Philostratus tells us that in his day they were the guardians some extent 1 It is perhaps not rash to identify
.

them with the mysterious daemons of Homer, who visit the habitations of men, marking their uprightness or evildoing 3
.

Traces are found of

human

sacrifice offered to heroes,

not

only in such celebrations as the funeral games of Patroclus, but in the story of Sperthias and Bulis 3 and in the victims
,

sacrificed to

Leuctra 4
fices

Scedasus and his daughters before the battle of But in the times we have to do with, the usual sacri-

firstfruits in kind, and various animals: cattle, sheep, 5 and In their goats, even horses, and sometimes fish pigs, honour the Arcadians celebrated regular feasts with their slaves

were

in archaic fashion

down

to historical times 8

The heroes were

brought into connexion with every meal by the libations which were poured to them in general and in particular 7 and by the custom, that any food which fell from the table was sacred to
,

them 8

this

the meal.

assumes an earlier offering of the firstfruits of Besides, eatables and drinkables were offered at the
;

9 shrine, the offerer inviting the shades to join in his banquet this became later the Oeogevia of the Dioscuri, Heracles and

others 10

The

shrines generally included the hero's grave in a


SotiXuv
S-flvoi<ri
'

Philostr. Her. 294 (680).

ol

Si iraidts...tt.(Ta

ruv irartpuv

Od.

xvii.

485 nal re

Otol

iirl

\i6vv

fefoi*c6res

d\\odavoiffi

Travroioi

re\i-

7
8

yvnvoi Seiirvovfftv. Schol. Aesch. Ag. 245.


KaO-tinevoi.
i.

ffovres iiriffTpo<f>dovffi TrbXrjas,


Ofipiv
3

dvdpuiruv

Roscher

2507.

re

leal ebvofjurjv

iQopuvTfs.
7.
;

Herod,

vii.

134

taeus ap. Ath. iv. 149 c. /j.erk rb Seiirvov ffirovSfa


diroviipdpevoi rdj

Compare HecaThe Arcadians


iiroiourro, of>K
dirofj.a.TT&-

Plut. Pelop. 20

see also Herod.

x e 'P aJ <^'
ical rr\v

iv. 71.

nevoi rots \fsufwis,


iii.

dwofj-aySaXidv
ce*ca

58; Roscher i. 2506, with For the horse, see Philostr. Her. 294 (681). A white horse was sacrificed in Athena at the tomb of

Time.

eVca<rTos

dirtyepe, rovro iroiovvm

authorities.

TUV
vuv
9

iv rats d/u^>65ois yivofdvuv vvKTtpi(pbfiuv.

Toxaris, the Stranger Physician:

see
late

Philostr. Her. 291 (675), 326 (742). 10 or tieo&vta, CIA i. 4, &vifffj.6s


;

Frazer,

Pausanias

ii.

148.

Greek romance speaks of a horse as sacrificed at a girl's tomb: 'Epwriicd


Atriy/ifMra
6
iii.

2 Paton, Inscr. of Cos, 36 ft *, c 38 Roscher i. 1169 (vase painting) ;Heuzey,

Miss. arch, de

20.
:

Schol. Pind.

Mac. 419 pi. 25. 1 (relief). Nem. vi. 68, ylverai tv


eVta, iv

di

Hecataeus, ap. Ath. iv. 149 D OTCW roa ijpwffi duuffi, povtlvffla. /teyaXij
ical

AeX^ofs
iirl

^fpaxrt

oh

Soicti

o Otbs

&via. Ka\fiv TOI>S ijpuas.

iffTiuvrai xavTej firrd

ruv

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN

DEITIES.

11

walled precinct, with a sacred grove, a place for sacrifice, and a heroum with table, couch, and the necessary implements. One
1 "Protesiprettily described by Philostratus here in the but Chersonese, laus," he says, "lies not in Troy, and the barrow there yonder on the left marks his tomb.

of these shrines

is

Those elms were planted around the barrow by the nymphs, and on the trees they would seem to have written this law: that the branches which are turned towards Ilium flower early, and cast their leaves soon and die before the time, as was
the lot of Protesilaus, while on the other side the trees live and do well... .And the shrine, wherein, as our fathers have told
us, the
fish
left

Medes wreaked their insolence, on which even smoked came to life they say, there it is, and you see how little is of it. But then it was fine methinks, and by no means
as

small,

may

be guessed from the foundations.


is

And

this

statue stood upon a ship, for the base

shaped and an admiral dedicated it. But time has defaced it, and to be sure the people, by anointing it and fastening upon it their
prayers."

like a prow,

The importance and the antiquity of hero-worship have been very much underrated. The heroes meet us everywhere,
and in many instances one stands in the precinct of a more famous god. There was an ancient shrine of the Hero in the 2 Olympian Altis Apollo Ptoan stood side by side w'ith a Hero 3 Ptoan Butes had an altar in the Erechtheum 4 Athena, and later Asclepius, threw the neighbouring healer Amynus and the Hero Physician into the shade 5 we have already met with
; ; ;

heroes at Delphi.

It is inconceivable that these heroes should

have grown up in such places after the greater gods had been introduced they were therefore on the spot before them. Take these facts in conjunction with the Homeric allusions to the daemons, and the Arcadian custom already mentioned, and the
;

conclusion

is forced upon us that we have here a system of which was older than the great gods. The Pelasgians worship
1

Philostr. Her. 289 (672).

xxii.
4
5

The Pelopeum,

cp. Paus. v. 13. 1;

244; Pans. ix. 23. Pans. i. 26. 5.


Below, ch.
v.

6.

cf.
3

also Inschr. von Ol. 662.

IGA

162

rjpwt nrarfoH,

and

BCH

12

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

inhabited Greece before those races which worshipped Zeus, Athena, and Apollo and the Pelasgians spoke of their gods
;

without names 1

doubtless by some such collective title as Heroes or Daemons. The worship of the heroes continues
,

throughout Greek history, but


official,

is

on the wane and


it

is
is

not

although recognised in public oaths where safe to neglect any being who might have power*.

not

These conditions answer to what would be expected, if the heroes belonged to the worship of a subject population, overmastered or conquered, but not crushed. Side by side with the
great gods such worship would go on, as the hero-worship does,
lingering longest in rural places or country villages, and in cities supported rather by the poor than by the rich and great. It

was needed in was gorgeous temple necessary, no the tomb was organised priesthood family enough, or a modest shrine, not larger or more elaborate than the wayside chapels which at this day meet the traveller in Greece at every step. Indeed, there seems to be more than a chance resemblance between the ancient and the modern practice. The 'deserted
lingered, too, in the country because so little

the way of apparatus.


;

No

3 chapels' or 'outside chapels' are for the most part simple cells, standing alone in the midst of a field or a patch of woodland.

but the foundations;


1

Scores and hundreds are ruined, and often nothing remains now many of them were built in Byzantine
Cp. Herod,
52, Diog. Laert.

ii.

i.

<ras

*cai

10. 3
dT?i/jiovs

fn

Kal vvv

fynv

evptlv (card TOUJ

vdvras

icai

updvas Kal iroranovs So in irdtras.

treaty

rwi> 'AOrjvalwv /3wyitoi>j


TT;S

dvuvupovs,

vir6fjivi)fjia

rbre yevofdvrjs ^eXctarews

between Rhodes and Hierapytna, Rev. Arch. xxxv. 235, Cauer 181 dyaOf

(Epimenides and the plague).


2

^X a
Crete:
rots

e0a<r0eu
T<

p.lv

TOI>$

iepeis

Kal rovs

Museo
rbv

Italico

iii.

657,
tft.

IfpoOvras

'A\ty Kal r$

'P6d<f}...Kal

6/j.vvu

rav 'Etrrlav
&iji>a

rav

irpvraveiwi

dpxaytrais Kal

rots ypwffi.

law

Kal

dyopaTov Kal rbv rbv TaXAcuoi' Kal 'Airt\\uva rbv


v Kal

rbv

of

Draco ordained

sacrifice to the

gods

and heroes together,


offered:

rav 'Ma.vala.v rav

-iroXtov-

X<H> Kal rbv

'Airt\\uva rbv Holrtov Kal


'Aprefj.u>

firstfruits being Porphyr. De Abst. iv. 380. G. B. Hussey, AJA vi. 59 ff. calculates
,

rav Karovv Kal rav

Kal

rbv

"Apfa Kal rav

'A<j>op5lrav Kal rbv


'

'Eppav
Kal

that hero-shrines are rare except in Laconia (28 known) and Attica (16),

Kal rbv "A\tov Kal rav Bpir6fiapriv Kal


rbfi 3>oiviKa Kal

two of the most conservative parts of


Greece.
3

rav

Afji<f>i(jjvav

ray

Tdv Kal rbv ovpavbv Kal

ijpwas Kal ypudff-

tptinoK\T)<rid

or

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN


times 1 and
,

DEITIES.

13

may fairly be assumed to stand on spots hallowed, whatever for reason, from times still more ancient. Some adjoin sacred wells, or sacred trees 2 on which hang the rags of devout
,

worshippers, and came to Greece.

may have been holy places before the Greeks Some are still cared for and kept neat
;

within you find a rude altar, an icon or two, some tapers and a But most of these font, with the offerings of the faithful. is where a ruined ones even near, are the scene village chapels,
of

some yearly

festivity.
;

by the country folk


local
.

and on the

Their patron saints are remembered saint's day there is often a

Panegyris, and even the sacrifice of some animal with 3 It would be rash to propound theories when so gilded horns
little
is

known; but

it is

these shrines

may often stand on the site of a

surely not fanciful to believe that hero-shrine, or some

Several are found farmer's chapel sacred to Pan or Demeter. near a medicinal spring, or ancient baths, and bear the name of There are chapels on most of the high hills the Saint Healer 4
.

of Greece,

now

sacred to St

Elias;
places,

was usually worshipt in such 5 displaced local names


.

in ancient times Zeus and he seems to have

Closely allied with these are the chthonian deities who may themselves have been often deified heroes, but in any case, like 6 them, have protective and retributive power and were ap; ,

pealed to in sickness
ancestors, it
1

Assuming that they really are deified becomes easy to understand why they so often go
.

As the

MijrpoTroXis

near Dip in

worshipped

Lesbos.
2 Mesotopos in Lesbos another in Cos up on the hills. I have noted
;

Athena, to the Virgin. Ilavayia r&\<rov, or Virgin of the Grove, just outside the city of Cos, may preserve a memory of the grove

The

many
3

in

the
vii.

eastern
149.

islands.

See

of the ancient shrine;


5

there

is

no

folk-Lore,

vestige of a grove there now.

Near
in

Kalloni,

Lesbos

see 147.

my
Cp.

Preller, Gr.

M. 116
ix.

paper

Homer
4

Folk-Lore, vii. Od. 425 ff., CIA

xxii.

244

(Taygetos,
;

iv.
-

2.

27 b

dettos, etc.)
i-

Pans.

foil. Cp. Parnassos, Ar23. 6 ; Farnell,

BCH

TfHTTolav fiovapxoj'

At

Qa.pa.iros

xP vffOK^P <av or Qapdirrjs. In Lesbos,


;

152
6

ff .

Aesch.

Eum. 263

fieyas

yap

"Aid-rjs

near the Bay of Kalloni in Geranda, near Branchidae ; a little way from
Bassae.
cant.

tariv

etiffvvos

fiparCiv

virepffe

xOovbs

deXroypd^y v6.vr
7

etruirq. <ppevl.

The

last

item

is

signifi-

The sanctuary

of

Hades and Per-

So is perhaps the dedication of the church in Lindos (Rhodes), which

sephone at Acharaca was visited by the sick. Strabo xiv. 1. 44.

14

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

There would seem to have been an earlier local pair in pairs. at Eleusis, which were displaced by the coming of others for one relief, which bears the presentment of Demeter and the
;

Maid, shows a pair of divinities seated by them, who are 1 Where the great gods inscribed as the God and the Goddess
.

are distinguished by appropriate titles, they may well have stepped into the places of such as these. Zeus Chthonius and Ge

Chthonia 2 may be an instance in point and another pair, Zeus Meilichius and Meilichia 3 have associations much the same as
;
,

those of

Demeter Chthonia 4

and Isis inherited the functions of

In the Hellenistic age, Sarapis many of the older pairs.


it is

So much by way of introduction, and very necessary


the right understanding of the reliefs. the offering, we have as a rule no key

to

As
;

to the occasion of

except that

we may

time of dedication, and sentiments of gratitude or propitiation for the cause. In this chapter we shall deal only with the general features of Dedications to Heroes, leaving aside for further examination those

assume the customary

feast as a usual

which are

specifically inscribed as thank-offerings for healing or

deliverance,

and all that are associated with Asclepius and other With the exception of this last important class, healing gods. most of the dedications to the heroes known to us belong to the

later periods of Greek history: but this is probably an accident, due to the fact that their shrines were less important and have

not been so thoroughly examined. An obvious offering would be the figure of the Hero. The base of one such has been discovered in Athens 5 and in Argos another base which seems to have borne one of the Dioscuri 6
,
.

'E</>.

'Apx- 1886, 19,

pi. 3.

statue

of

the

stiff

'

'

Apollo

type.

Dittenberger, Sylloge 373, Myco-

M. Frankel (AZ
trait, (2)

xl. 383)

argues that

nos.
3

BCH ix.

404 Boeotia

IGS, 1814

the sons dedicated their father's porbecause (1) there was one statue, the givers' names are omitted. But dedications to one of the Dioscuri

Xen. Anab.
4

vii. 8. 4.
:

Dedications to her in Hennion


iii.

(1)

Collitz
8

33823.
v.

are

known,

AM

ii.

218; and

(2)

the

'AOrivaiov

161.

23

...TIJ!

ijpui.

dedicators'

names

are not necessary

etfa(wvos. 6 Collitz
rol

(see chapter xn.).


iii.

Frankel quotes a

3262

r&v

pava^uv

Nipdxa totOev.

The base bore one

similar dedication from Delphi But the conclusive objections vii. 445.

BCH

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN


,

DEITIES.
is

15
small

Statues of course stood in the shrine 1 but the number

of those specially dedicated. I may mention a figure of Heracles dedicated by a Greek near Rome 2 and a statuette of Hades
;

3 At enthroned, one of the few such which are inscribed 5 4 Eleusis and at Tegea have been found hundreds of small
.

statuettes representing Demeter enthroned, with high headdress and long robes. Similar figures were offered in other shrines of importance, but there is little direct evidence for the

Heroes.

One
in

Therapne

shrine, however, that of Menelaus and Helen near Laconia 6 has been excavated, and has yielded an
, .

7 About four hundred objects made interesting series of figures of lead were found, including warriors armed with round shield

and Corinthian helmet, mounted men, others stark-naked and female figures of various types, some dressed in a long robe and holding a spear, others armed with the bow, others winged. There were also draped female figures with the polos head-dress, girls playing upon the flute, and what look like running or dancing men there were animals, the lion and the horse, palm leaves and garlands, a Centaur, and other things 8 Some of these may well have been meant for the figures of Menelaus and Helen, armed or dressed in various fashions because the type was not fixed, and the idea was that of a protecting power 9 If the winged goddesses were not Helen (and no reason appears why they should have been Helen), perhaps they may belong to
; ; . .

a yet earlier shrine of the ancient goddess called by the Greeks


to his view axe that the person dedicated

gods:
63.
7

ovx ws ijputnv

d\\' us

deois,

must be mentioned in an honorific inscr., and that honorific statues are not known so early. For the difficult
inscr. of Niocles see p. 27.
1

xxx. 8 &., pi. i, ii. or garlands were perhaps held in the hands of figures, as
8

AZ

The palms them

Paus.

iii.

15. 3,

CIA

i.

360.
ix.

we
11. 6

see

in terra-cotta statuettes

IGSI
Sparta

1004.

Pausanias

records another.
3
:

(below, ch.vin.). The grills or gridirons which M. Perdrizet found so mysterious

no. 3 in Dressel-Milch-

hofer's Catalogue
4
6

AM
9,

ii.

297

ff.

are the bases of animal figures many were found at Olympia with the
;

In the
Paus.

Museum AMiv. 170 ff.;


iii.

at Eleusis.

animals

upon

them.

Bronzen

von

below, ch.

vm.
vi.

01.

198, 202, etc.

19.

Herod,

61,

Isocr. x. 63.

By

the time the Laus

Without proof I cannot accept the suggestion that they were meant for
Athena.

Helenae was written, they had become

16

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


;

similar figures were found in Apollo's temple at which Amyclae, appear to be as old as the Mycenaean age But the maidens with musical instruments are more likely to have been meant for the worshippers, or for some official who played a part in the ceremonies, dedicated as a memorial of the
1
.

Artemis

rite.

Palmettes and wreaths,

if

offered independently,

be cheaper memorials of the act of worship.


.

would Animals must be

interpreted in the light of the larger series of Olympia, Dodona, and the Cabirium 2 never hear of the lion as a sacrificial

We

animal

and

if

the horse was sacrificed to a hero,

it

was not

sacri-

ficed to Zeus.

It is safer therefore to assume, that the lion is the hunter's thank-offering, and the horse that of the warrior, the racer, or the breeder. At this date, the early sixth century,

What to make of the toys are probably out of the question. centaur I do not know. In the Olympian Pelopeum were

men and animals, tripods, vases, rings, needles, A variety of adornment and of value, and armour 3 in the Tarentine shrine objects, though not so great, was found 4 of the Dioscuri Here we have reclining male figures and seated female figures, probably combined together originally into a group like that of the Hero Feast but very often a child is held by the female, or climbs upon the couch. There are also masks, and terra-cotta discs with a head in relief; heads of Pan, Silenus, and the Gorgon and miniature vases, amphorae and others, in thousands. There are armed men and riders, a youth with an oil-flask, a satyr, a lad on a ram, and numbers of human heads covered with a ceremonial head-dress. Fragments of bronze and fictile vases have been found
figures

of

articles of

bearing dedications to heroes: the hero's name is commonly not given. It is impossible to say whether they were given because of their value, or for use, or as memorials of some act
of ritual.
is

That vases used

in ritual

were

left at

the shrine
inscription

proved

by

the

tomb of Menidhi, but an

Part of a fictile vase, suggests some more special occasion. with an archaic dedication, was found in a place at Megara
1

AZ xxx.

19.

Gaz.

Arch.

vii.

155

ff.,

AZ

xl.

2
3

Below, chs. ii. and Bronzen von 01. 3.

vm.

286 ff.

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN


identified

DEITIES.
1
.

17
vase

found at
is

by another inscription as a hero shrine Tarentum, bearing the hinder part of two
.

horses,

dedicated to the Saviours 2

black

fictile

century, found at Mycenae, is inscribed trade guild dedicate a bronze vessel to their local hero in
fifth

"

vase of the early of the hero 3."

Phocis 4

vessel

of

stone

from Cyprus bears


to

a similar

to the legend 6 Dioscuri for example or to Theseus in Attica 7 to Heracles in Boeotia 8 One at least of these was the gift of a priest on
.

Altars are also dedicated


,

the heroes:
,

his election 9

in return for

one was given in obedience to a dream 2 others 10 all are of later date than the fourth preservation
;
:

century.

Diomedon

of

Cos,

who

left

by

will

an estate

for
:

founding a sanctuary to Heracles, presented the furniture


table, couch,

cups and mixing jar, lamps, brazier, censers, and a rug, together with two clubs and five golden crowns for the statues 11 Herodotus speaks of gold cups being offered
.

to Protesilaus 12

The

dedication of arms and armour


is

is also

recorded, but

not always clear. If Heracles could be invoked in battle 13 then captured arms might be offered to him and Philostratus mentions Mysian arms that hung by a medicinal the motive
,
;

14 But the shield and helmet which hang on the wall of spring a heroum, in a fifth century relief from Cumae 15 or in later
. ,

reliefs

from Samos 16

We
1

may be part of the hero's own equipment. need do no more than mention the offerings of firstfruits
,
,

in kind 17 food, flowers, wreaths 18

money
n
12
13

19
,

and

locks of hair; the

IGS iii. 1. 3493 [E]^Xei5aj M/iet\o...dv&v: cp. 3492, 34957.


2

(cat

Paton, Inscr. of Cos, 36 d. Herod, ix. 166.

IGSI 2406 108 (ffurijpes). IGA 29, Collitz iii. 3313

rov ijpuos
ffwda-

14
15

Below, p. 96. Philostr. Her. 300 (691).


Cat.
Berl.

^.'
4

Mus.
ff.

805,

Roscher

IGA

323 E0<ayuos Kal


a.vtd-r}Kav
i.

rol

i.

2555.
16

fjLiovpyol 5
6 7
8

ruk

Tjpwi.
17

AM xxv.
Thuc.
iii.

176
58,

Collitz

CIA CIA

iv.
ii.
i.

96 Euyu^s t6r)ice ru>i rjpwi. Suppl. 1. 1663 b dj/d/coix.

Herod,

iv. 71.

18

Philostr.
tirl

Her. 296 (684)

Mea

1205, Sybel

62212.

vo^ovtriv
<f>epe rfj

ffrinaruv AvOpuiroi, tirt-

IGS
CIA

1829 (Leuctra) $i\eivos Ato1205 Airo\\wvt8ris 'Itpwvos


293 6e$ ff^ovri
'

x6vei ras re ijSiovs

TUV

dfj-TT^Xuv
vfi.irl-

vuffu 'Hpa.K\ei KO.T' oveipov.


9
ii.

^aipuv avrf KpaTTJpa


veiv

tTptiya, Kal
tcpafficev.

rf

IIaXct/^5ei

Luciaii,

"Pa/j.vov<rios iepevs yev6fjLevos rif Qjjffei.


10

Charm. 22.
19

BCH
R.

iii.

evtfiv.

Aelian,

VH viii. 18.
2

18
first

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

and last will be presently considered, and with the others we have no concern. We must, however, mention that models

or images of the perishable things offered in the sacrifice were sometimes offered in stone, metal, or clay. Thus among the
finds at a sanctuary of chthonian Persephone, unearthed at Tarentum, are a number of clay animals, and in particular a whole series of pigs One Lysistrate at Athens dedicated to Heracles a stone shaped like a cake, with appropriate in1
.

Statuettes of the votary holding a pig or other sacrificial animal are known in several places 8 they may be mentioned here because the pig was a favourite offering to the
scription'-.
;

chthonian deities.

But the most interesting dedications are the reliefs, which survive in large numbers. The hero is represented in various forms. Sometimes he is distinguished by attributes as Heracles
;

by their horses and hats of a peculiar shape. More often the heroes are stalwart young men, as Theseus is represented or youths mounted on horseback, or standing beside their horses, with hounds or huntsmen. We learn from Philostratus that these were the forms under which He tells the hero was supposed to appear to his worshippers 4 us that if they showed themselves in a sweat, it portended storm and flood if dusty, drought blood on their arms meant and when none of these signs were plague and pestilence seen, good seasons would follow and the earth bring forth her kindly fruits. Horse and snake are the general attributes of the hero 8 and the snake often twines round a tree, repreThe hero is often found senting no doubt the sacred grove.
lion-skin, the Dioscuri
;
.

by club and

associated with

greater deities

as

Neoptolemus at Delphi,

Erechtheus at Athens, Triptolemus at Eleusis.


1

The type

of

JHS

vii.

22, 24.

2
3

Sybel 4014; below, ch. vni. Kekule, Terracotten von Sicilian,

horse has a hidden meaning, and is meant to symbolize the "mastery" of


the ancestor over his descendants; or
that the dog is there because "sacred" Horse and dog are to certain deities.

25 Camarina, 33 Gela, 19 Acragas. 4 Philostr. Her. 294 (680) iwiroTpo<f>eiv

re yap

<f>atnv

avrbv Kal

6ir\iTfvcii>

ical Or/pas airreffOai.

The horse was not


Furt-

peculiar to the Dioscuri.


5

It

is

hard to agree with


Sab.
i.

the natural comrades of the hunter and they cannot tell us what hero is They are properties in a depicted. character costume. See more in ch.
;

wangler

(Coll.

p. 27) that the

xiv.

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN


hero-reliefs is freely

DEITIES.

19

sepulchral, where the dead is heroized; but the votive character of many of these is clear

used

for

from the inscriptions I shall cite these as votive where they are so inscribed or not at all, but omit those which bear only
1
.

the usual sepulchral formula. The reliefs 2 may be divided into three main classes

scenes

of Kitual, scenes of Feasting, and scenes of the hero's Activity. The third class splits into two groups, according as the horse

does or does not form an integral part of the composition.

The

groups overlap to some extent. 1. Ritual: the Hero Enthroned.


in this division

Chief and most ancient


reliefs

are

the

Laconian
is

mentioned above.
;

Sometimes a heroized pair

seated upon the throne 3 or the female stands before the male, pouring the libation for him 4 ;
,

the male figure alone 5 and two male figures even The hero feeds a snake from his goblet 7 or a 8 He holds a pomegranate in one hand, dog fawns upon him the goblet in the other 8 or the woman holds a wreath 9

many show
are found
6

whole horse, appears framed in the corner 5 Once a youth holding jumping- weights appears between two male figures 6 The later slabs are inscribed with names 10
horse's head, or a
.
.

The same type


another, of the

recurs in Boeotia.
seated, with

An
staff

archaic slab from

Lebadea shows the hero

and goblet 11

in

him 12

From

fifth century, a female pours the libation before Patrae in Achaia we have a seated hero, with the

female figure behind, and in front nine worshippers leading


1

XT/S
2

E.g. Cat. Berl. Mm. 807 KaXXtr^*AXe I/MXWI avtOrjicev, 4th century.

F-W.
10

55.

Deneken
:

sees a similar
i.

My

account

is

based on Boscher's
See also

Crete

Eoscher

2569 n.

type in Plutarch

Article Heros, but the classification is

not quite the same. iv. 125 ff. 55 ff.


;

F-W.

says that the Spartan tombs were not inscribed with names except when the

AM

dead was killed in battle

Inst. Lac. 18.

Coll. Sab.

i.

l,

= Cat.Berl. Sc. 731.


12,=AM
viii.

AM
F-W.
12

iii.

317. 9, iv. 270, v. 141:

Ny-Carlsberg

364,

45.

pi. xvi.
6 6 7

AM vii. 260
AZ

ff.

xli. pi. 13. 2.

No. 140 in Korte's Catalogue, AM. iii. 301 ft. Sometimes the female figure becomes the most important of the
viii.

AM
1;

iv.

127. 4, pi.

2,

v.

pi.

relief,

as nos.

3032

in Dr.-Milchh.,

vii.
8

AZ

xxxix. 294;
pi. vii.

AM vi.

358 62 .

AMU.

134, but there is

A M vii.

no principle of

difference to suggest a

new

class.

22

20
a ram
;

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


there
is
1
.

head in frame

a shield hanging upon the wall, and a horseIn the museum at Corfu is a terra-cotta slab,

with a female pouring the libation before the enthroned hero, and a second female figure also enthroned. The hero feeding

a snake recurs in Olbia, where we know Achilles was wor8 In Berlin is a slab of uncertain origin, but of late shipt
.

date, in

the

which we see the hero enthroned on a raised dais by altar, and a troop of worshippers, one of whom leads a horse

FIG. 2.

Hero
i.

Eelief,
col.

from Patrae.
fig. 8.

Roscher

2571,

there

is

a tree with a snake twined round

it

and on the wall

hangs a case with tools, doubtless meant to indicate the dead fine third-century relief shows a bearded man's calling 3
.

man

a female pours the libation. The type resembles Asclepius, but is not that 4 Sometimes the hero stands in a sacrificial scene before god
seated in a chair,
is
;

under which

a snake

the altar, as in a relief from

Samos 5 2. The Hero reclining, and partaking of a feast. Of this 6 is known as the Hero Feast or the Death Feast which type,
.

AM

iv.

125. 1, 164;

F-W.

1071.

See Milchhofer, Jahrb.

ii.

25

Cat.
ff.
;

See
2

fig. 2.

Brit.
i.

Mug. Sc.
Gardner,
xxi.

p. 298,
ff.
;

and nos. 711


Wolters,

Roscher

2571.

Cat. Berl. Sc. 814

AZ xl.

Cat. Berl. Sc. 804.


4 5

300
1 (Leiden).

JHS v.
The

107
last

von Fritze,
completely

AM viii. 364, pi. xviii. AM xxv. 172 "Hpws


one worshipper.
Peiraeus,
;

AM

347.

altar,

A^JTTTJS: The same hero


:

in

BCH xxiii.
192.

coupled with Bendis 370 Diimmler, Annali Iv.

disposes of the attempts to explain these as Family Feast simply. The history of the type is dead against

supposing them to have originally referred to the mythical Feast in the

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN

DEITIES.

21

some three hundred examples remain, the oldest of which comes from Tegea. Most of them belong to Attica, and the type is rare in Peloponnese and the southern islands, somewhat more common in Thrace, Asia Minor, and the northern isles; in Boeotia and Thessaly it is practically displaced by the Rider One example comes from Naucratis type. The Tegean relief is broken, and the reclining hero has lost
1
.

all

but his feet. A seated female figure turns towards him, and before her is a naked lad holding a wreath uplifted in his left hand 2 A fifth-century relief from the Peiraeus shows the
.

FIG. 3.

Death-Feast Belief, from Peiraeus.

hero reclined and holding a bowl, while the female sits as before a boy draws wine from a mixing-bowl, a dog eats the
;

Underworld; but this idea may have become associated with the old type
in later times.

gods, where there can be no question of a family meal. Milchhofer points

The actual moment

represented may perhaps be, as von Fritze believes, the dessert ; but too

out that while only one (possibly) is found in a cemetery, many are found
in shrines:

Sybel 3992, 4093, 4272,

much

stress

must not be

laid

on the

fact that cakes of

pyramidal shape are

4326, 4694, 4897, 4958, 4983, 4985. 1 Naucratis ii. 22 3: hero reclines

"not known in the death cult" (349). Do we know everything about the
death cult ? It is equally rash to deny the sacrificial character where the hero
himself pours the libation he may be supposed to do so as head of the
:

on couch, female

sits feeding a snake out of a saucer; boy drawing wine from crater; horse's head in corner:

one female worshipper with uplifted hand. Samos: xxv. 176 ff.
2

F-W.

54,

AM AM iv.

135, 162, pi.

vii.,

family.

The same type

is

used for the

Sybel 3090.

22

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

An altar scraps under the table, and a worshipper is present 8 for incense often appears, on or near the table ; the crater is
and the hero holds a drinking horn 3 Fruit, especially pomegranates, and cakes lie on the table, the cakes being of a pyramidal shape*. Dog and snake often appear, and the
constant,
.

horse

is

hinted at

8
.

Rarely

we

see a boat, or a

man

in a boat 8

Sometimes two male occasionally hang on the wall. 7 recline or a woman who perhaps offers alone, figures together 8 drink to the serpent

Weapons

The Death-Feast type has been


,

found, as might have been


,

9 expected, in the Asclepieum at Athens in the shrines of 10 and at Athens in company phiaraus in Oropus and Rhamnus

Am-

These facts go to show both the votive character of the type, and the heroic character of Asclepius and Amphiaraus. The type of face varies, often The same type of approaching that of Zeus or Hades. 12 with Dionysus 13 with relief is associated with Asclepius 18 with Hecate 18 with Hercules and the Muses 14 with Hades 19 the Dioscuri 17 with Zeuxippus and Basileia 18 later with Isis
with an Amphiaraus
relief".
,
,

The heroic figures sometimes have the look of portraits Once the scene is found on a painted vase 21 and the type is known in terra-cotta groups 22
20
.

F-W.

i.

2555,

fig. 3.

Roscher 1052, Sybel 325. See fig. 3 in text. From

9
10
ll I.e.

Jahrb.

ii.

26

ff.;

AMxviii. 241.

the place of finding the hero is identified with Asclepius. Cp. F-W. 1053 ff., Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 711.
2 If

Deltion 1891, p. 27 no. 23 ; Deltion 1891, p. 115 no. 5;

AM

I.e.

AM

12 13 14

incense was

first offered to

the

F-W. F-W.

1070.

dead

in the Hellenistic age, this proves nothing for the origin or general inter-

AZ

1135, 1843. xlix. 81, Cat. Berl. Sc. 832

pretation of the type. 3 For the significance of this see

date, from Smyrna). Cp. another in Tarentum, Roscher i. 2542*.

(Roman
18

Eleusis

'E<f>.

'Apx- 1886,

pi. 3.

Athenaeus

xi.

461

B,

Aristoph. frag.
xxi.

18

Woman
:

with torch, perhaps the

Kock
4

i.

p. 517.

Maid

Sybel 5931.
:

See for these

AM

351
ff.,

17
:

Tarentum, terra-cotta
Jahrb.
ii.

Roscher

pomegranates,
6

AZ

xxxv. 139

no.

i.

2579.
18

91, inscr. ...TVXW dirivruv.

27.
ii.

No. 92 in von Duhn's


ff.

list,

AZ

19

Antike Bildwerke

193.

xxxv. 139
6 7 8

Snake: Cat. Berl. Sc.

w
21

See Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 734.

815, 818, etc.

AA
155.

1890, p. 89.
:

F-W.

1057.

22

Tarentum

AZ xl. 286, Gaz. Arch.

Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 712.


Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 721.

vii.

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN

DEITIES.

23

A combination

on some monuments.

of the types of Sacrifice and Feast appears Thus worshippers are seen in the corner,

assisting at the feast with uplifted

hands

1
.

The heroes take

no account of them, and they stand as accessories outside the picture, just as the dedicators kneel unnoticed in some Italian 2 So too we see victims and sacrificial implements painting
.

3 forming part of the festive scene

FIG. 4.

Hero Feast, from Peiraeus.


pi. 54.

Le Bas, Voyage,
3.

come now to the third group, where the Hero In a fifth-century relief from as Rider or Hunter. appears Cumae 4 the hero is a youth clad in chlamys and petasus, and
bestrides a prancing steed behind him appears the heroized wife. group of worshippers, of smaller size, face the pair,
;

We

their

hands uplifted; on the wall hang shield and helmet. There are no offerings and no altar, but a hare fawns on the Both hunting and war are thus hinted at in smallest figure.
1

Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 716

Le Bas,
cent.
:

Coll.

Sab.

i.

pi.

33,

Cat.
xxi.

Ath.

Voyage, pi. 54; 2 Cat. Berl.

F-W.
Sc.

1059.

Museum
4th

Sc. 1516, 1539;

AM
See

356;

814

Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 713, 714 (horse's

A similar series

in the

Samos Museum

head
4

AM xxv.

175ft.

also), 717 (same). Cat. Berl. Sc. 805.

fig. 5.

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


this scheme,

and the combination


1
.

is

clearer

still

in another

example from Tanagra

The

rider is

armed

in

the cuirass;

Fio.

5.

Hero

Belief.

Cat. Berl. Sculptures, no. 805.

behind him a slave, with the hunting-club, and game on his


shoulder,

holds fast to

the horse's

tail.

heroized female

Often the hero figure bears bowl and jug for the libation. leads his horse, as in a fourth-century relief from Tanagra 2 where an altar is present, and libation and adoration are
repeated.
divisions.

fine Attic piece of the fifth


is

century

contains two

a heroum, containing a statue, with a large heroic figure seated on either side below, the hero unarmed leads his horse, the dog following behind. One adorer

In the upper

and an

altar complete the group.


4
;

There

is

only one early ex-

ample from Attica of this type but both motives, the warrior and the hunter, become regular for sepulchral monuments.
Boeotia presents us with half a hundred monuments of the type now in question, many of them being carved on small
altars

which were doubtless used

for

hero

now

bestrides his horse,

now

The the rite depicted 5 stands by it; he may be


.

armed; the horse approaches an


1

altar, or

even places a hoof


The

F-W.
Cat.

1076, 4th cent.


Berl.

Cat. Berl. Sc. 808, 4th cent.

Sc.

807

KaXXtrAijj

worshipper holds out a cake. 8 Korte, Kat. der boiot. Sk. in


Hi.

AM

F-W.

1073.

319

ff.

quotes 52.

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN


upon
it.
;

DEITIES.
for

25
the

female

figure

is

often

present, ready
.

and there are troops of worshippers 2 The huntmotive only occurs on the tablet from Tanagra described above. 3 Nearly all are early; one of the fifth century several of the 4 the best show Attic work or influence. fourth
libation 1
,

From Thessaly comes a unique example;


and the
district,

there

is

horse,

and a group of worshippers


.

but there
slabs

the youth is also a


this

female figure enthroned 5

The sepulchral
all

from

when

inscribed, are

dedicated to the heroized


in

dead 6

The hero on horseback reappears 7 We shall come is offered to him


.

Laconia, and a beast later to the Dioscuri, who

occur in this scheme.


scene,

From Argolis we have an actual hunting an armed rider attacking a boar; the altar, tree, and snake In a Thyrean relief9 the youth holds the occur on this slab 8 horse's bridle, whilst he feeds a snake which coils about a tree. On the tree hanging are a shield and a sword, on the ground lance and body-armour, whilst a boy carries the helmet. The
.

type

is

known

in

Pergamus, with a female in the divine aspect,


.

and no worshippers 10 Examples have been found


Thasos
13
,

in

Rhodes 11

in

but in the small islands only one so to be due to accident, or to the greater rarity of all likely works of fine art, than to the nature of the ground 15 There
.
.

Lemnos 12 and in far 14 This is more


,

Nos. 138,

1434, Cat. Berl. Sc. 807.


ff.,

10

BCH xiii.
AZ
;

2 3

Nos. 145

Berlin 806

f.

u
12

xlii.

485.

509, pi. ix. 8= Cat. Brit. Mus.

iv. pi. xiv. 1 ; perhaps fragment F-W. 1205, which is made of Boeotian stone.

No. 10,

AM

Sc. 753

the
4

viii. 370. Furtwangler, Conze, Reise auf Lesbos, 31 pi.

AM
29

15. 1.

Nos. 138, 141, 143, 145 807 = Coll. Sab. pi. 29.
5

Berl.

Conze,
pi. 10. 6.

Inselreise,

pi. 10. 8,

66
195

BCH

xii. pi. v.:

...tot

Stf/ujitaxos...

u From Amorgos
(cut).

AM

xxi.

Qpaffvdafios avtOrjKtv.
6

The

hero, in helmet

and

tunic,

Ussing,

Inscr.

Gr.

med.
pi.
17
,

39
26
51
1

;
,

rides
tree

Heuzey, Miss. arch. Mont Olympe 469 5 478 w 483 *; Lolling, 54 59 *, 120 s1 52 These references I take
, , , .

418 475 130

476
131

19
,

a prancing horse. There is a and snake, female divinity, worshippers, and a boy leading a ram to
15

AM

xi.
,

21
,

the altar.

Now in Syra Museum. Horses are used in every island,


were
used
there
in

from Koscher.

and doubtless

7
8 9

AMU. 422, no. 264. AA 1855, 58, and others.


Sybel 574,

ancient days. Deneken (in Roscher's Diet.) takes the view that horses were
less likely to

F-W.

1812.

be used in small islands.

26
are no early

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


examples from the less but the type is common

Greek parts of the Thrace during the later periods and the age of Roman dominion, and then appears in Macedon, Asia Minor, and even Illyria. In Thrace,

Greek world

in

several were found in a hero-shrine 1

The Thracian

inscribed 'to the lord hero,' with or without the word


to the heroized
, ,

copies are eu^V, or


.

dead 3 one to Apollo 4 and one to the Dioscuri 8 The hero rides or stands by the horse; dog and altar appear, and often the tree with coiling serpent 8 Sometimes he hunts
.

the boar 7

Once a woman
9
.

is

present

and once perhaps a


to the heroized

worshipper
dead.

The Macedonian examples are all dedicated Among them we meet with the boar
. .

hunt, and the

snake coiling about a tree 10 In Illyria the rider is armed, 11 and gallops with lance in rest Most of the Asiatic types
12 13 belong to heroized dead Smyrna has produced several and 14 Cyzicus a few amongst the latter being one dedicated to
.

Apollo

18
.

One

of the

Smyrna

reliefs, as

may be

seen below, has

travelled far from the original conception, including as it does an honorific inscription. From Pergamus came two rider-reliefs

with worshippers, dedicated to the Hero Pergamus 18 A large number have come to light in Phrygia or Pisidia, inscribed to the Preserving God 17 Coloe has two, inscribed to heroized
.
.

dead, one of
1

them

to

Gaius Germanicus Caesar 18

Dumout,

Thrace, 71.
2

Inzer, et mon. fig. de la (The reff. to Dumont I

'A/ov vof below, ireuSei/rTjs ijpus: 812 (broken). .. .icwfrv 835 'Awo\\u:

borrow from Roscher.)


xvpiy
;

t>i8r)s

'Aff/cXijTruxSou rjpws <&i\6ira.Tpis' ol

ijpui,
e\>\-f)v

Dumont
32, 33 a,

nos.
c,

24, 82,

\uplrfoi.

ZeXetrtDi'
ol

a-refavovviv

dtidlw

33 c, 39
8
4 8 6 i 8

39/.

crrfQavu,
14

/cw/u^reoi
:

9
10
11

Dumont 27. Dumont 40. Dumont 61 a. Dumont 58, etc. Dumont 40, 49, 102. Dumont 32. Dumont 33 c.
Frohner, Inscr. du Louvre, 194,216. Heuzey, Hits. arch, de Mac., 399
,
.

deiSi'w trrt<J>ai>u

JHS
f.,

yvicfyu ore^avw vii. 250, pi. C. 2.

AM iv. AM x.
JHS v.

14

vii.

253

f.;

Frohner,

Inscr.
15

du Louvre, 263.
208.

16

261

vii.

250 pi. C, with altar


:

and adoring women


6e6s ffwfav
iii.
:

ijpui Uepyafiut.
i.

BCH
i.

366,
;

ii.

170,
viii.

346, iv. 291, pi. ix., x.


;

JHS

255
18

Coll. Sab.

E 36.
;

3.

pi.

31 4 33 2

Cat. Berl. Sc. 813


TepnaviKif

AM xiii. 18

ff.,

12 13

BCH vi. 442.


Cat. Berl. Sc. 809, 810
;

Fcuy
811 *Atos

atiTOKparopi

Kaicrapi,

female with bound hands

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN The enthroned


relief1
.

DEITIES.

27

combined with the horse in an is also found combined with the in a slab from Tarentum. Here two male figures Feast type, as recline at the festive table, with the usual accessories, whilst a
figure is

Athenian

The

rider

man

leads a horse towards

them 2

4.

In the

scene.

The
relief
'In

the horse forms no integral part of the Hero stands free, and is usually armed in an
last type,
;

Argive
fuel 3
.

a libation.

he stands before an altar on which a boy is laying others, the female figure is over against him, pouring The oldest of this class known comes from Tegea,
.

and

is

archaic 4

Another example
.

is

in the Corfu

museum, and

In Attica 6 and in Sicily 7 we meet with the has worshippers 5 same scheme, and there are others. Or the Hero gives the as in certain examples from Sparta 8 and libation to a snake
;

Tarentum 9

A
for

transitional type,

between

this

and the thank-offering

a victory, is seen in the piece from Palermo, where Victory 10 and in another, where bearing a fillet flies towards the hero 11 libation the Victory pours
;
.

We

shall

now

Heroes, and see how

briefly consider dedications made to particular far these fall into the classes defined above.

expressly for stated occasions, such as gratitude for healing or deliverance, will however be excepted, as I propose to take these in the succeeding chapters 12

Dedications

made

F-W.

Sybel 2039, Schone 111. 1054.


158. 6.
pi. 103. 1.

this

form so early and leave no other


;

trace

3 4
5

AM iv.

common

in late periods of course it is enough. It is hardly easier

Le Bas, Voyage,
Roscher
i.

to suppose the

noun

QiotcXrj to

be accu-

2565.

sative, as this also is a late

formula.

6 Hon. Grecs pi. 1, = Roscher 406, where it is wrongly explained as Ares and Aphrodite. 7 Palermo viii. 370.
:

There seems to be no doubt as to the


the hero's staff comes bereading tween the two first words, so it is unlikely that Aioa-Kotpoiv can be meant.
;

AM

51

Cat. Berl. Sc. 732 (archaic) ; Collitz iii. 4400 ; Roberts,

IGA
Gr.

But perhaps the dedication


for
9

is

meant

Ep. no. 205.

The

inscription reads
..

one only Roscher

see p. 30.

i.

2566.

11

AM iv.
p or

fifi 166, note 1.


;

restored by Rohl -rol ic6poi QioK\et Noixprida, as a dedication by the youths


to

12

Asclepius see ch. v.

for Per-

se phone

and Demeter in

their relation

Theocles, a

man.

It

seems

in-

to agriculture, ch. u.

credible that the dedication could take

28

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

Turning first to the chthonian deities, as most closely allied to what we have treated as the earliest type of worship, we find that Hades or Pluto has more of the heroic than the divine about him. There appears to be only one temple recorded where Hades is worshipt under this name and alone, that
1

seen by Pausanias in Elis 2 He is generally associated, as Hades or Pluto, with the Maid and Demeter or with one of
.

them 8

figures, Triptolemus, Eubuleus, lacchus; sometimes he goes by the name of Zeus Chthonius 4 or of Buleus 5 The practice of lectisternia
;

sometimes with
or

other

heroic

is

certain for

Athens 6 and probable


,

for his other centres of

worship.

terra-cotta

relief

from the Malian Locri 7 shows

a remarkable likeness to the Spartan Type 1. Scherer can in be his of this work as Hades hardly interpretation wrong

and Persephone 8 The pair, a bearded male and a female wreath, figure with diadem and
.

figure,
veil,

with

sit side

he holds a spray of flowers, narcissus apparently, and she a large bunch of corn and a cock. The arm of the

by side

throne terminates in a snake.

This

is

all

which remains;
of the

one quarter of the original


2

slab.

Two

reliefs

Feast

to light at Eleusis; these clearly represent the Type lectisternia already mentioned. They are not of early date or
1

came

Pluto

is

the god of wealth, and as

Amorgos
'AOfyaiov
15.

AM
237.

i.

334.
:

Myconos

such does not concern us here.

The

ii.

Paros

'AOrjvaiov v.

name
2
'

is first

applied to the lord of the

underworld in Soph. Antig. 1200.


Paus.
'

Asia Minor
1.

Acharaca, Strabo xiv.


xiii.

vi.

25.

2,

Boscher, Diet.

44. Hierapolis, Strabo

4.

14.
ii.

Hades 1788.
3

Halicarnassus,
714.
p. 180.

Cnidus
:

Newton
TT?J

See Preller, Gr. Myth. 302, note 1. Athens: with theEumenides, Paus. i.
6,

Aphrodisias

Mou<r.

Evayy.

Zx* II.

28.

and

at

the Eleusinium, with

Demeter, the Maid, and Triptolemus. Eleusis: with Demeter, the Maid,
lacchus, and

Their identity may be seen from ix. 457 Zetfs re Ka.TaxQbvi.os KOI firaivrj

Hepff((f>6vfia.
8

Eubuleus

(see

below),

Eubuleus in Eleusis
CIAii. 948
nXotiruvi

see note 3.

BCH vii.

387 ff. Coronea with Athena, according to Strabo ix. 2. 29.


:

950, combined:

tirubifsaTo 6 lepo^cif TTJJ


o-ai T<

rty K\lvr)v
rpdirf^av
A

ical TTJV

Peloponnese

Argos, Corinth, Pylos

you /card rrjv /jtavrelav rov 0eov.


7

Triphylia, Sparta, Hermione, Olympia ; sometimes as Zeus Chthonius, or as

Boscher

i.

1797, after Ann. d. Imt.

xix. pi. F.

Clymenus (Roscher, 1788 9). Tegea, with Demeter and the Maid: AM v. 69.

Roscher, I.e. There was a famous shrine of Persephone in this place.

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN

DEITIES.

29

of great artistic merit ; but they have considerable interest as attesting the cult of a chthonian pair in Eleusis beside the Two

Goddesses.
table,

The

first

shows two

pairs,

each seated by a separate

with a pilaster between. The pair on the right are inscribed To the God and To the Goddess the others though not
;

inscribed are probably

meant

for

Demeter and the Maid.

A
.

1 youth holding a jug over a large amphora completes the scene The other, but a fragment, bears the heads, both inscribed, of

Pluto and the Goddess side by side

Triptolemus was present,


.

and

his torch still remains; so

was Eubuleus 2

third type does not appear to be used in connexion with Pluto, but the fourth is found in a late dedication from

The

Macedonia; where the god, his body naked from the waist 3 upwards, stands beside Cerberus Of other heroic personages, the Dioscuri are represented on
.

known monuments, and these from Sparta, where had a chthonian character 4 and where their worship was they 5 very ancient They appear chiefly in Types 3 and 4 as a 6 pair of naked youths, without attributes, mounted or usually
the oldest
, . :

7 standing beside their horses or standing opposite each other 8 without horses or holding a wreath 9 The inscription on the last example declares that the dedication is made for fear of
,

the wrath of the sons of Tyndarus 10


1

A
Plut.

later relief,

which

may

"&<f>.

'Apx- 1886, 19, plate 3: Auo-iavtOriKeb.

5
iii.

De

Frat.

fj-axiSi)?

deac

0eu>i.

CIA
3

ii.

24. 5, 26. 3.

Am. 1. See Paus. They were also wor-

Add. 1620
2

'E<.

'Apx0eas

1885,

26,

plate

2
:

shipt in Messenia, Arcadia, Argolis, see Paus. i. 18. 1, ii. Achaia, Attica
:

AaicpaTfiSris

2,w<rrpa.Tov
KO.I

'Iicaptevs

Ifpftis

7. 5, 22. 5, 36. 6,

iii.

14. 6, 20. 2, viii.

0eoO
Koi

(cat

T&V

Efy3ovA&os...inrp eairroO vu>v...Kal rrjs Bvyarpb* X a P l ~


ical

9.

2,

21. 4.

avaKres ircu8es
6

They were probably the of Amphissa AMn. 86.


:

ffr-rjpiov

Ari/jniTpi

K6pr]i

dvtffriKfv.
Etf/JovXetfs.

At Cyzicus, CIG 2157, 2158.

H\OVTUV. Bed.

Tpnrro'Xe/ioy.

AM
i.

ii.

Cat. no. 219.

Restorations are certain, and therefore not indicated. CIA ii. Add. 1620 c.
3 Heuzey, La Ville d'Eane en Macedome, Rev. Arch. N.S. xviii. 22: 6e$

F-W. 67, AM ii. Cat., nos. 14, 20, 201,202,209212,220. Crete: AJA
7

N.s.
8

249,
ii.

fig. 5.

AM

no. 204.

SeffTOTTj

IlXouruvi

ical

Trj

TroXei 'Ecu'??

9
10

AM

viii.

371, pi. xviii. 2.

T. <\aotftos AeoKas, etc. (Roscher, 1792).


4

1GA
fj.ai>iv

62 a IIAewTiaSas
a-yaXp-a..

dWOrjice

Pind.

Nem.

x.

56

virb

KfvBecn

A.ioffKovpouri.i>

Tivdaptddv 5i8v-

Alcman yalas ev yva\oi.s Qepairvas. frag. 5 virb TTJV yrjv TT;J Qepdirvr)* elvai

|u>v

<57rt556(MVOS.

AM

viii.

372,

pi. xviii. 2.

30

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

be votive, shows two youths on horseback, clad in chiton and chlamys, but without the distinctive hat. They are beardless,

bound with a diadem In another relief two youths stand with an altar between each holds a spear, and one 8 has a bowl, the other a jug Sometimes they are armed with 3 swords sometimes their feet clad in boots 4 The two urns 8 and in one case snakes are round wreathed frequently appear
and their hair
is
1
. ;
.

them.

appears with something upon it, the no doubt which we have read of 8 Animals appear silphium 7 at their feet and of course the snake 8 while cocks may be
table
also
.

seen in the gable 9

The
certain

identification

even when no horses are seen,


.

is

made

10 A dedication is by the dedication of one at least 11 found to one of the two alone which makes it possible to
,

assume the same thing

for a

fragmentary

relief

which has been

much

discussed 12

One

or

two

late

examples are offered by

a company of persons, probably those who took part in some 13 Here a female figure appears, doubtless Helen. great feast
.

relief
:

there 14

found in Cythera shows that the cult was practised and a dedication to them comes also from Thessaly 15
.

The stars, which later Dedications go on until Roman times 16 are identified with these heroes as protectors at sea, do not
.

appear but if the story of Lysander be correctly interpreted, 17 At Tarentum the youths they were known in the fifth century
; .

often ride or drive in a chariot 18


1

Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 780.

fftTT/Wvrej

2
ii.

Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 781, cp. Cat. no. 220.

AM

officials.

M... followed by a The date is not long


v.

list

of

before

the Christian era.


14

3
4

8 6

AM AM AM

ii.

ii. ii.

nos. 203, 206, iv. p. 126. no. 212.

AM

231
See

M^ovSpos

apfuoffr^p

fivSaplSai...
x. 9. 8.
1B

BCH

ii.

394.

Paus.

nos. 209, 210. Paus. iii. 16. 3 rpaire^a KO!

ari\(f>iov

foots neyaXois, relief of


i.

Dioscuri

tir' afrrj).

Collitz
ii.

347.

7 8 9
10

AM AM AM AM

no. 213.
nos. 209, 220.
no. 209.

19 17

AMii. Caf.no. 208 with Latin inscr.


See Plut. Lys. 18. Euripides assothem with the stars do-rpou
:

ii.
ii.

ciates

ii.

Cat. no. 204 KaXXt/c/xrnjs


Cat. no. 218.

o/uxutflrre, Hel.

140.

But

this

does

TwSapi'Sau.
11 12 13

AM
IGA

ii.

not imply that Lysander meant the stars as "symbols of the Dioscuri,"
see below, p. 135.

51, above, p. 27.


ii.

AM

Cat. no. 202,

F-W.

1848,
is oi

RM xv.

23.

Collitz

iii.

4440

IT.

the formula

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN The Feast Type


found at Tarentum.
is

DEITIES.

31

fully represented in a series of reliefs

The

Dioscuri,
is

on horseback, are seen

approaching the feast which


,

set out

1 or reclining at table, ready for them their horses sometimes appearing in the

There are always two amphorae placed at the two sides, one for each. These amphorae are associated
background'''.

with the libation in the ritual type, where the Dioscuri themselves pour it upon the
altar 3
;

or

youths, attributes 4

who
;

they stand beside the two are unclothed and without


or they stand
5 upon a table
,

while the youths raise a stlengis to their heads 6 or drive past 7 The amphorae may
, .

signify either the feast or the libation ; and where they stand quite alone it is

Fl(J

Tablet with

tvia of the Dioscuri

impossible to say which Certain Spartan reliefs show two


.

(from Tarentum).

am-

EM xv. 24,

fig. 3.

phorae, sometimes standing upon a table. A slab, of the second century perhaps 9 bears the twins clothed, with the typical hats, and standing upon a raised base or
,

platform.

two large amphorae, which stand

worshipper reaches out his hand to touch one of also on a high base; below
is

is a small altar, with a pig carved in relief upon it. There a boat in the background. The snake is frequent on these reliefs, and the cock 10
1 xv. 24. I regard the figures not as sailing through the air, but as approaching. The artist has not the

is

EM

6 7 8

EM xv. 8, EM xv. 22,

fig. 3.

23.

K. Petersen

(EM

xv. 41) thinks

skill to
2 3 4 8

represent the perspective.

EM xv. 27. EM xv. 7. EM xv. 8,

they denote prizes of wine. This is pure imagination, and I think the
will prefer the explanation Nor is there any suggested above. reason to call them symbolic which
;

reader

fig. 1.
:

The table has a rude shape two square uprights joined by a balk. This
was

would imply that the pots could represent the heroes.


9

De

Fr.

traditional according to Plutarch, Am. 1, and called d6Ka>>a. See

Laconia ?

Now

in Verona.
i.

AM

ii.

EM xv. 43.
their

Perhaps

it

is

meant

for

tomb

so at least implies

Etym.

nos. 209, 210; scribed.


10

Eoscher

1171: in-

Mag.

s.v. SOKCLVO..

A M ii.

20. 209.

32
also found.

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

We
.

shall

meet these beings

later as saviours

and

protectors, especially of those who use the sea, and as givers 1 of victory There remains the base of one statue at least

dedicated to

them 2

and the

little

figures

two together in

a cradle, which have been found in several different places, are supposed to be they or their sons 3 Altars dedicated to
.

them have

of slabs bearing snakes only are in the local museum at Sparta; these may be connected with the Dioscuri, but there is nothing save the place of finding to suggest it. Dedications to the Dioscuri by
also
.

been found 4

number

seafarers

do not meet us early


.

we may

instance a late one from

the island Megiste 5 Heracles enthroned (Type 1) is to be seen on a relief of Attic character, found in Andros, and belonging to the fifth He sits before a temple or palace, whilst a female century.

pours wine into his goblet In the fourth century the


.

sacrificial

scheme takes a

different

form.

Lysistrate dedicates to
loaf,

him a stone carved

to resemble

Heracles, wearing the lionskin, stands by a blazing altar, towards which a boy leads a sacrificial swine a group of women and children complete the scene 7

a cake or

with a

relief:

A relief
relief 9

from Ithome 8 shows Heracles standing before a shrine, beardless, with club and lionskin; there are worshippers, the victims are ox and sheep. An ox alone is offered on a similar

and there are remains of others 10 In one relief Heracles 11 appears to be holding out his hand for something
, .

Chap.
Argos:

v.

Sybel 4014 AvvurTparr)

inrtp
ii.

TUV

AZ

1882, p. 383 TUIV fava.Preller, Gr.

iral8mv'Hpa.K\fi dvWrjicev ;

CIA

1565,

(fuv.
3

with 1564, 1565


;

b,

which seem to be

AM x. 81, pi. 4
CIA
iii.

Myth.

862.
4

fragments of similar reliefs. The 5th cent, piece F-W. 1134 is probably
Theseus, as the lionskin lacks.
8

195,

IGI

Hi.

Thera 421,

422, etc.
5 6 it

Sybel 320, Schone 112,


iv. 39. 1

who

illus-

Collitz

iii.

4331.
;

trates the

offering of these

victims
i.

as

F-W. 1203 the editor explains Hebe pouring wine for him in
It
is

by Died.
30.
9

(Thebes), Pollux
col. 56,

Olympus.

true the sacrificial


is

Described by Schone,
Sybel 372, 383, 5694
ix.

no.

character of the relief

not clear;

112.
10
;

but in view of the preceding examples I prefer to regard it as a modification


of the votive type.

Cat. Brit.

Mus. Sc. 791.

u AA

170: cp.

F-W.

1134.

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN

DEITIES.

33

The Feasting Type (2) is represented by a late relief from Athens, where Heracles appears as one of a group of heroic figures feasting, others perhaps being Apollo and the Muses.

The scene
feast,

is fanciful,

including not only the apparatus of the

but trees and


third

little

winged loves
is

1
.

Even the
horseman.

On

found, although Heracles is no type a rough Rhodian piece of Roman date he


.

2 appears club in hand mounted upon an ass The fourth type appears with characteristic variations.
,

In

a fourth century piece from Thebes 3 Heracles, with club and He holds the horn lionskin, stands before a Doric shrine.
of plenty in his right hand,

perhaps meant
the horn in

and another heroic personage, Dionysus (for he has the thyrsus), touches the hand of Heracles. There are fragments of
for
.

other figures in the scene. He also appears conjoined with Athena and a personification of Demus or Academus 4 relief

of the fourth century, inscribed to Heracles Averter of 111, 5 represents the hero with Hermes on the steps of a shrine His aid in war is acknowledged by the statues of Athena
.

and Heracles dedicated by Thrasybulus in the shrine of Heracles 6 and in games, by a relief of Roman date 7 The hero lies resting, his weapons hung on a tree, and the inscription commemorates an ephebic triumph. His figure also appears on decree-reliefs, with Athena for
;
.

instance8

Theseus.

type exist which are dedicated to a youth, with cloke on shoulder, and cap, otherwise naked, and worshippers appear by his side in the usual The hero looks very much like Heracles, except for attitude 9
Reliefs of the fourth

He

is

Sybel 548.
Cat. Berl Sc. 689 'AiroXXciiaoj
8is

Boston Museum.
6
7

Paus.

ix. 11. 6.
:

'HpaKXet dvt6r}Ke firx^v.


3

At

Oxford

CIA

iii.

319.

Cp.

F-W.
:

1153

E^Sets

dv^Kt,

figured for the first time in Boscher i. 2188 cp. Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 791

Michaelis, Oxford, 135. 8 Scenes from the Labours,

and

(fragment).
4

such as the struggle with the snakes, are omitted, because votive reliefs are always connected with cult, and never mere records of myth. 9 Mon. delV Inst. iv. 223, figured

AZ
AA
R.

iii.

130, pi. xxxiii. 'Hpa/tXijs,

'AOrjva ...TI/MS.
8

xii.

73 'H/joKX?os 'AXea/coi;

34
the costume
;

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


but where the lionskin
lacks, it is safer to

suppose

that Theseus will be meant.


;

Sosippus the dedicator is pourand another male figure, from its size not human, trayed perhaps a personification of Academus. One relief, if properly assigned to Theseus, is of the sacrificial
type (1): the hero stands in front of a Doric shrine, club in hand, and holds the horn of a sacrificial bull in token of acceptance There are three worshippers.
1
.

These types are also connected with greater deities. Reliefs of the Hero Enthroned are inscribed to Zeus Philios* or to
Sabazios 3
.

The Rider type As a rule there


tions.

is is

used

Apollo no clue to the occasion of these dedica.

for

find, however, now and then, instances of such as are with the great gods: victory in war or the connected usually 8 6 fulfilment of a vow even firstfruits 7 or acknowledggames
,

We

ment

of prosperity in trade 8 In later times, we meet with bases which probably carried commemorative or honorific
.

statues.

One from Attica

is

dedicated to Eubouleus 9

others

by bodies

of men, as the Heracleot thiasus at

Megara

10
,

or

what
.

appears to be

a company of athletes at Cefalu in Sicily 11 Hermon of Oropus gives an offering to Heracles on completing his term of public office 12 and a board of religious overseers
,
.

acknowledges to Theseus the vote of thanks and the crown which they had received for their services 13 Father and sons

combine in an offering
in Boscher
i.

to Heracles".

The

votive formula

is

2499

07j<rei5j-

SuHnirwoj
ii.

HavapxiSov

fotOiiKev.

CIA

1525,

IGSI 1002 7 CIA ii.

e&xfy (near Rome). 1547 dirapxfy.

AZ
1

iii.

130, pi. xxxiii.


;

(Peiraeus) Mvvviov Ail *tXfwt dW0t)Kc; Scbone, pi. 25. 105; Sybel 3751. See fig. 6 a, p. 36.
3 4

F-W. 1134 F-W. 1128

cp.

Schone 113.

8 Apparently the cone of baked clay, with an archaic inscr., found in Italy:

IGSI 652 Ktpaftffc. 9 CIA ii. 1620 d.


10

IGS

i.

192.
...Kal
ol

AM

Conze, Inselreise, pi. 17. 7. x. 208 (Cyzicus); Dumont,

" IGSI 349


'H/>a*cXj.
12

dXfwfxijtwoi

Mon.

fig. de la Thrace, 40. 6 Statuette of youth with oil-flask,


:

IGS

i.

/ueXijTrjs

ycv6/j,et>os

436 "Epnuv 'A\efr>5pov tiri'HpaicXfi: cp. 2235


1180
1563,

and armed warriors, at Tarentum

yv^vaffiapx^ffat-

AZ
6

xl. 309.

Above,

p. 33.

" CIA
eitfo^evoj;
14

ii.

Itpoiroioi.

Base:

CIA

ii.

1546

CIA

ii.

IGSI 718

(Naples).

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN


used
for
1
,

DEITIES.

35

the gift of a colonnade at Coronea and elsewhere it is 2 " coupled with the late addition to the state ." A dedication to 3 the hero Eurymedon was found in Attica
.

remains to point out that some of these relief types became in later times traditional for tombstones, completely losing the votive character. The transition may be seen in a tombstone
It

from Attica, where beneath the figure of a horseman are the words "Theodorus the Hero 4." Boeotia is richest in this There a of number horseman-reliefs have been type. great
found on tombs
in

sometimes with the horseman alone 5 others with the addition of an altar 6 others again with mourners
: ,

the

attitude

of

adoration 7

So

far

is

the

meaning

forgotten, that the horse must needs appear on a woman's tomb so Husa holds the animal's bridle, standing beside
;

So too the same scheme is used where three men and a woman 9 Then the old rise to two developments. On the conception dies, giving one hand, Hero is used as synonymous with 'dead,' like the German selig or divus of Roman emperors 10 and the relief On the other hand, the horseman survives as disappears. a decoration for the tomb of soldiers, as in the monument 11 It would appear that statues of Dexileos and others in Attica on horseback were often placed by the tomb of dead men, as in an
altar 8
.

people are entombed, two

a scene depicted on a beautiful Attic vase The Hunt-motive also appears on tombstones 13 but more
.

12

rarely; times.

however common in sarcophagus reliefs of Roman The Banquet type is also found on tombs, although it did not like the horseman set the example for a series of monuments wholly sepulchral. Examples are known from
it is
1

IGS IGS

i.

2874
2235

ruv iSluv 'Hpa/cXet


'Hparty

IGS

iii.

1813 with
et'pwt

woman and

nal Ha\atfj.ovt. TTIV ffroav.


2
i.

child: 'Iic&rios
8
9

<JW0T]K.

yv/jLvaffiapx^ffay,
rrjv

K\eT Kal

TT;

7r6\et,

ffroav

Kal

efaoSov Kal ras Otpas.


3 4
B 6

IGS iii. 1715 eirel Moi/0-p ijpwi. IGS iii. 4244. 10 IGS iii. e.g. 2001, 2073, 2110,
" F-W. 1005
:

CIA CIA

ii.

1516.

2123, etc.
ijpus.

ii.

1619 Qebdwpos

cp. 1004, Cat. Berl.

IGS IGS

iii.
iii.

2141, 2807, etc.

Sc. 742.
12 13

2139, 2140, 2153, 2154,

AM xvi.

349

ff.,

pi. viii.

2628, 2690.

Schone, 78.

32

36
1
,

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


,
,

Athens from Byzantium*, from Cyzicus 8 from Smyrna 4 from 8 Antioch and from Kertch 6 and the well-known scene of
,

a group of seated figures, with Charon's boat approaching the festive board, which still stands in the Ceramicus, is one of this class. Horseman and Feast types are combined on a late

FIG. 6

A.

Dedication to Zeus Philios.


Farnell
i.,

plate

ii.

b.

sepulchral
last faint

monument 7 from Tomis

and another repeats the


.

and confused echoes

of the old types, with the tree,

the serpent, and the horse's head 8 Here ends the history of the heroic reliefs, which from prehistoric days to the last period of Greek art maintain their connexion with the
dead.
1

Cat.

Brit.

Mus.

Sc.

723,

with

epitaph; 724(?). 2 Rev. Arch, xxxiii. 12,


dwpou TOV KaXhiyflrovos'

pi. 1: Mar/jo-

on his winged steed: Fellows, Lycia, 136, 181, 232. A relief from his shrine at Gjolbaschi is in Vienna 0. Benn:

KaXXfyeh-aw

dorf, VorUluf. Bericht iiber zwei osterr.

Marpodupou. A male figure reclines, a female sits, a child offers her tablets, a child stands in attitude of mourning,
a third child holds a vase. the wall.
3

Exped. nach Kleinasien, Arch.-Epigr. Mitth. vi. 2.


8

Wien 1883

Cat. Brit.

Tools on

relief

and

inscr.

Mus. Sc. 738, where are quite uncon-

nected.
8
7 8

Mus. Sc. 736. 4 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 737. In Lycian tombs Bellerophon sometimes appears
Cat. Brit.

Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 740.


Cat. Brit. Cat. Brit.

Mus. Sc. 742. Mus. Sc. 745.

THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN

DEITIES.

37

NOTE ON THE MODERN REPRESENTATIVES OF ANCIENT


SHRINES.
I have tried in vain to find some satisfactory enquiry into the genealogy of modern Greek churches and chapels. The local chapels are not marked on the map, and no traveller has taken the

would serve no useful purpose such as seemed to throw light on the heroes have been given above. I will add a few more churches and chapels which probably stand on the site of ancient temples. Some indeed are built on the old
trouble to note their names.
to print here all
It

those I have collected

them
page

foundations or with the materials of the old building amongst are one or two hero-shrines, but most of these have
;

remained unnoticed.
found cited.

References given only by volume and

refer to Frazer's Pausanias,

where authorities may be

AMBROSUS
Journal,
ix.

St Elias,

v. 449.

APOLLONIA, near Brusa: St George (formerly Apollo), Geographical


153.
:

ATHENS, Parthenon the Virgin, Byzantine times (Athena). Monastery of Daphni (temple of Apollo), ii. 496. Virgin of the Rock (Artemis), v. 494. Ruined chapel by the Ilissus, v. 487. AULIS Byz. church of St Nicholas (Artemis), v. 79.
:

BATHOS St George (deposit of ancient votive offerings), CALYDON St Theodore (Zeus Scotites), ii. 318. CORINTH St John (Poseidon), iii. 10.
: : :
:

iv.

314.

COTILUS, Mt, near Bassae ruined chapel on temple foundations, Cave and Glen called the Virgin's Gorge (Demeter), iv. 406. 405.

iv.

ELATEA

St Theodore,
:

v.

426.

ELEUSIS St George, or the Saviour (Cyamites), ii. 494. Ruined chapel of St David (Hero Lacius), ii. 491. Chapel of the Virgin, above the ruins. EPIDAURUS St Michael and St Damian, a physician (Asclepius). ERYTHRAE: ?Byz. church (Demeter), v. 5. ?St Demetrius (Demeter)
:

v. 6.

HELICON
LIVADIA
:

St Trinity (Muses), v. 151. old church (King Zeus), v. 199.

38

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


Lusi, Arcadia: the Virgin (Artemis), Jahrethefte,
iv.

33,

fig.

19.

MEOARA St Theodore, iii. 3. NEMEA chapel on mound (barrow ORCHOMENUS monastery, v. 186.
:

of Opheltes or Lycurgus),

iii.

93.

PATRAE
(Demeter).

the sacred spring or well, beside the church of St

Andrew

TAN AGRA
:

ruined chapel (Dionysus),

v. 79.

TEGEA St Nicholas (Athena Alea), THEBES St Nicholas (Heracles), v.


:

iv.

425.

Byz. ruin (Apollo),

iv.

441.

47.

St Trinity (Athena),

v. 49.

TITANE

St Tryphon (Athena),

iii.

69.

unknown hero shrines is marked by a boundary between Zea and Munychia HEPOIO HOPOS vi. 311. The so-called temple of Vesta (? Hercules) near the Tiber, became sacred to Madonna of the Sun (De Brosses, Letters, tr. by Lord R. Gower, p. 162). Something is said on this subject by Mr W. M. Ramsay,

One

of the

stone found

AM

On the Permanent Attachment of Religious Veneration to special localities in Asia Minor (Transactions of the Ninth Oriental Congress in London, 1893, ii. 381391).
in his paper

II.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,
KA( ce

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS

1
.

<t><\fNoo

roTc

AAeKATeyToyc TCON 6eu>N ip&c

\ONTA KoiAf&c.
ARIST. Knights 300.

WHEN
intrusion

the earth and

its

growths were regarded by the


.

simple soul as possest or protected by unknown powers, any 2 upon new dominions was thought to be dangerous To clear the virgin forest or reclaim waste lands for the plow,
to dig the foundations of a house, to build a bridge, was to disturb the primeval owners of the place and made necessary a solemn sacrifice. It seems to have been very common to
sacrifice

human

life

on such occasions, as we see from the

legend of the death of Remus, the figures of straw thrown off the Wooden Bridge at Rome, or traditions on Greek soil
like those of the
3 Bridge of Arta
.

Often a plot of land is left barren, or a clump of trees unhewn, to be the abode of the spirit which has been disturbed.
1

See Dar. and Sagl.

s.v.

Dekate;
s.v. air-

Folk-Lore,

-a,

184.

Cp. Plut. Rom. 11.

Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyc.
apx~fi, SeKarrj.
2

" In
still

Arabia, the local earth-demons

are

propitiated by sprinkling the blood of a sacrifice when new land is

youth and a maiden each year at Patras suggests an agricultural origin, for their heads were bound with corn-ears Paus. vii. 20. 1.
sacrifice of a
:

The

Pausanias of Damascus says of Seleucus Nicator, on founding Laodicea,


Ovcridffas
Kbp-rjv

broken up, a new house built, or a new well opened " Robertson Smith,
:

dSarj

6v6fj.ari

'Aya\jt]v,
'

Religion of the Semites, 159 note, discusses the custom.


3

who
;

Troikas avry
rfjs

ffr-/i\ijv

aiWfc 7r6\ews

x a ^ K ^v et s ^XV (Hist. Min. Gr. ed.


,

Passow, Carm. Pop. Gr. 511, 512

Teubner, p. 160).

40

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

In Greece, when land was occupied by conquest or colonization, a portion of the land was "cut off" (re/iei/o?) for the god's

The sacred grove in an eastern village is probably the last remains of the primeval forest, which since the world began has never been toucht by plow or dug with the spade*.
habitation
.

So

in Greece,

we

find often

enough the sacred

tree in a village
8
,

square, as the willow of Samos and the holy olive of Delos 4 the plane tree at Delphi Helen's plane at Sparta 5 or the
, ; ,

6 sacred grove, as the olive groves of Athens or the groves 7 of Artemis with their game which no man might kill This
.

be the origin of the grove at the hero's shrine, of the speaking oaks of Dodona, and of other trees associated with divine beings which like their attendant animals appear

may

sometimes to have been selected for no other reason than that 8 But when animals were bred they were found on the spot for use, and agriculture brought to men the kindly fruits of
.

the earth, their gratitude for past favours and lively sense of favours to come would naturally prompt acknowledgment.
1

245
31,

Aesch. Earn. 400; Soph. Track. Thuc. iii. 30, 50 IGA 8 CIA i.
; ;

for the use of Xtfyoy at

Samos Ath.
re
/ecu iro\iiv

xv.

673
xal

D,

and

ivy 675 D

tiri

rbv idaffivov art-

32;

Nicias ap. Ath.


Lv KTicrai>Ta...,fs

xiii.
-fjv

609 E
KarotKi-

<f>avov rj\6ov avr6fjiaT6v


/caret

6vra

Happaffluv Tivas r^/tevos


Ar)/j.rrrpi

/col ftu/jibv

nides).

irdvra rbirov yevvu^evov (PhiloOf course explanatory tales

'EXevcrivia.

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1899, p. 238. So the last remains
of the Cedars of

spring up. For the animals compare Ath. xiv. 655 A B and Philonides in
'HXfov (iv
(paffi

ylyvtaOai
'

Lebanon are enclosed


for

tv 'AOfycus S(

y\avKas
'

17

and bear a reputation amongst the Christians.


3

sanctity

itf\ftas 8ia<pt>povs

i)

d'

tv

"H/>a

rb

\pvaovv,
irepl 5

<pa.<rlv,

dpvidwv
irfpifiXbr

TOVS

Paus.

viii.

23. 5.
D.

/ca\\i/tt6p<oi;s

Ka2

raws.

4
8

Ath. xv. 701

rb iepbv

rrjs

wapOtvov tv

Theocr.

xviii. 45.
s.v. noplai.
i.

flfflv

ol KaXoijfJievoi

6pvi6fs /j.e\eaypides.

6
7 8

Suidas

The commonness
28.

of owls at
'

Athens

Philostr. Imag.

gave

rise to the proverb y\a.vic' AOrivafc.

the tragic death of Hyrnetho, and how she was buried and a shrine made in her honour;
tells of

Pausanias

The owl on Athena's hand,


coins,

or on the

may have been originally nothing more than a mark of differentiation.


The
inevitable result

adding that all the "olives and other " trees which grew there were sacred to
her

was that these


regarded
as

creatures
sacred.
I

came

to

be

crowns of wild olive, pine or parsley, and laurel were taken from the trees or plants which
(ii.

28. 7).

Victors'

do not suggest the same

origin

for

them

all

the

mouse

of

Apollo Smintheus, for example, or the


bull of Zagreus.

grew near.

similar reason

is

given

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

41

The

beneficence of the earth deities


:

might be withheld
natural

must be recognised, or it hence vintage and harvest time were


.

The offering of seasons for sacrifice and worship 1 firstlings or firstfruits, then, appears to be partly an act of propitiation, by which precious things hitherto forbidden might
be made available
rite itself, in
;

some cases

The partly an act of gratitude and hope. at least, had a sacramental character,

of the same food

the god and his worshippers being conceived of as partaking a striking parallel to the interpretation
:

The idea that these already suggested of the Hero- Feast ceremonies made it lawful to enjoy the gifts of the gods is
.

expressly voucht for in Greece are not now concerned with proving the principles here assumed, nor with illustrating them by examples. It is worth
.

We

while however to note one or two significant points in the One is, that firstfruits are often practices of savage tribes.

So we have seen offered to the ghosts of departed ancestors the funeral feast held in the shrines of the heroized ancestors
.

in Sparta

and

firstfruits

and tithe offered to a hero 5

Again,
.

the kings or chiefs often take the place of the gods, or, when 6 So in ritual is developed, the priests have at least a share

the Greek temples, the priest


1 For the principles here laid down, and examples in proof, see Frazer, Golden Bough* ii. 318 ff., 459 ff.

always had
/card rds

his perquisite of

x^P a ^

O-VTOV d<t>TJKev, IV

\vfj.^vtjTai.
3

Schol. Arist. Pint. 660


ffvelas
KCLI

6<nw0et'<r7;j
tiri

Robertson Smith, Religion of the SeIn Frazer p. 468 mites, 240 ff., 463.
the Tonga chieftain thanks the gods for their bounty in favouring the land

TT/J

rCiv

dirapyndT&v

T&V
-fj

/Sw/u.wi'

reOtvruv, d-irrovras rov /Sw/ioO


ical

TOV KO.VOV
rare

ewKpOtyyovTai.

6'<ria,

/cai

e<7Ti

rots OTTO TT/S

Ovtrtas

d5ws
(Fiji),

with a good prospect of harvest, and prays that their beneficence may be
continued.

xpTjffOai.
4

Frazer,

463 (Malay), 464


etc.

Where
:

sought for use, it cate the whole thus Theseus, after

the thing is not was natural to dedi-

466 (Solomon Islands), Scythians did, Herod, iv.

So the

71.

The Mag-

netes of Thessaly offered firstfruits of


their herb simples to Cheiron, himself of the nature of heroes Plut. Symp. iii.
:

mastering the Marathonian


ficed
it

bull, sacri-

Athena in the name township of Marathon (Paus.


to
10).
2

of the
i.

27.

1. 3.

The Athenians
iii.

offered firstfruits
:

to the shades of the na.paduvoijAx.ai.

Schol. Arist. Knights 1238 Oeneus, sacrificing the firstfruits, OVK ZOvaev
66ev
6pyiff8eiffa
ffvv

Thuc.
5 6

58 (irdvruv dirapxds). Above, p. 17.

fdyav

Frazer, 468, etc.

42

CJREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

a slaughtered victim. institution, the tithe

Where the
still

tribal feast

became a

social
1
.

again, firstfruits but from flocks or fish or the produce of the chase and loaves or cakes are sometimes made from the sacred portion of grain*.
;

And

continued to be paid at the feast were offered not only from corn and vine,

The
year,

practice of
is also

making up a sheaf
figure,

of corn or the like into


it

the shape of a

human
so
little

and preserving

until the next


.

8 found in connexion with the harvest celebrations

We
ancient

know
it

farmer, that
rites.

every-day impossible to say how far he kept up the Were Stratonicus and Eudemus alone, when
is

of the

life

of the

Greek

a plot of ground unsown in his field in honour and the other dedicated in his a shrine to Zephyrus, 6 because he had helped him to winnow the corn ? or the old vinedresser in Philostratus, when he set apart a corner for 6 his hero Protesilaus ? What was that local precinct, where the farmers are bidden sacrifice to Asclepius and Hygieia 7 ? or the
the one
of
left

Pan

iv.

Dosiadas, Cretan History, ap. Ath. 143 A ot 5 AVKTIOI ffvvdyovtri i*v TO.
ffvfffflria

ping a fire-brand down by the light" ning tree (p. 172). So in the N.-W.
provinces of India, firstfruits of sugar and corn are dedicated before use :

Kon'a
fifruv
rr)i>

oCrws'

XicaffTos r(av yivofit

Kapiruv avafepti r^v SeKdrifv

traiplav.

2
3

Frazer, 468, 469, etc.

North Ind. Notes and Queries, 1893, 203. An old Boeotian inscr., IGS
i.

Compare the curious Shetland custom: "In the yard


near the stiggie was often to be seen a small skroo of corn, standing apart from the rest. This was the annual
offering set apart to Broonie, a household deity whose annual services were

Frazer, 216 ff. Anth. P. vi. 79.

to Demeter.

1670, appears to dedicate firstfruits So the farmer, in exor-

cising the mice, gives

them a

plot for

themselves

tj-opiclfu (ivs

TOVS evravOa.

a\\ov tdfftrrf
r6vde,

diou/ju

yap aypbv

vfui>

Geoponica xiii. 6. 4. Compare the story of Poseidon's temple on dis-

thus

secured."

Shetland Folk-Lore,
p.

John Spence: Lerwick 1899,

174.

puted ground, Paus. ii. 22. 4. It is the same idea which makes the Pythia
ordain that the Cirrhaean land should
lie

" In a corner of the looder [in a Shetland water mill] stood a toyeg (a small straw basket), containing as much corn
as would be a hurd

waste

Aesch. Ctes. p. 406

TTJI>

\apav

afrrwv (KiropO'fiffavTas Kal afirovt dvdpas

This o' burstin. was the annual offering to the Water Neugle, in order to insure the good offices of his godship. When this was neglected, the Neugle would sometimes grasp the

dvaOewat

rip

'Air6\\wvt rtf

Kal
'AOrjvif.
8

Ty 'Apr^fjuSi Kal ATJTOI KO!


Trd.<ry

Ilpovoia tvi
vi.

depyiq.

Anth. P.

53.

6 7

and stop the mill, and could only be dislodged by droptirl

Philostratus, Heroicus 286 = 665. Attica (Roman date) Itpbv TO


:
'

TOV 'AffK\i)iriov Kal

TTJS

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.


1

43

the infernal deities ? Was private plot at Cnidus, consecrated to the shepherd of Theocritus alone, when he feasted at the altar of Demeter at the threshing-floor, and did he perchance dress up
2 a sheaf to represent bounteous Mother Earth ? These questions can never be answered now; but it does not follow by any means that there was nothing of the kind because we hear

so little about

it.

There needs a reaction from city

life,

and

the self-conscious art of a later age, to suggest that rustic merrymakings are worth describing. But when the glorious all come prime of the ancient cities is past, and they have

under the iron rule of Rome, then the old country customs, which had survived so many vicissitudes, come into our view. Such scenes as Longus describes in his pretty pastoral tale could not be the invention of his own day and I make no apology for quoting from him in illustration of the time when
;

Peisistratus

was not yet born.


"
,

"

cave of the

nymphs

there

3 was," he writes

without.

being a great rock hollow within and rounded The images of the nymphs themselves were carved
feet,

out of stone: unshod

arms bare

to the shoulder, hair loose

and flowing down over the neck, a girdle about the waist, a smile on the brow their whole aspect was as it were a troop The mouth of the cave was in the centre of the of dancers. And from it a spring of water bubbled up into rock. great
;

a rippling stream, so that a delightful meadow stretcht out And before the cave, with much fresh grass fed by the water.
there were offerings of milk-pails and cross-flutes and pipes and reeds, dedicated there by the older shepherds." Hard by was a pine tree, with an image of Pan horned, goat-footed,
;

4 syrinx in hand

sacrificing to

Here the country folk worship the nymphs, them and praying them to interpret their dreams,
.

and in the spring-time wreathing the heads of the statues with

TOVS yeupyovs Kal TOVS irpo<rx<i>povs


TOO> ffeoiv
1
ffi

6e/MS,

BCH v.

262.

<f>ortpriffiv 3

txoura.

Newton, Branchidae 380, 407. Theocr. vii. 154 rolov veKrap...olov


rdica.

iv.

Longus, Daphnis and Chloe, i. 4, 26, 32, 39. Cp. Xenophon, Symp.

vii. 5.
4 viii.

8^

irufM

8ieicp<u>d.(ra.Te,

vtipQai,
5e

Longus
6

ii.

24.

Achilles Tatius

fiunf Trap

Ad/xaTpoj

dX^dSoj ;...<

ye\dff(rat dpd.yfjt.ara Kal fj.&Kwvas iv dp-

speaks of syrinx in a cave.

Pan

dedicating

44
flowers 1
his
.

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


After the vintage and wine-treading, he says of pair, "in great joy they worshipt the nymphs,
.

rustic

2 bringing them bunches of grapes as firstfruits after the vintage Indeed, they had not neglected this in the former time, always waiting upon them as they set out for their pasturing, and
;

worshipping them when they returned and always they brought some offering, flower or fruit or fresh leafage, or again a

And this in time brought them a recompense from the goddesses 8." Songs and pipings and dancings in their honour were not wanting 4 In misfortune, Daphnis vows the sacrifice of a goat for help, and an answer is given
libation of milk.
.

dreams 5 His prayer heard, he chooses the best of his crowns him with ivy, slays and flays him, and hangs flock, the skin at the holy place, adding thereto a libation of up milk. The flesh, after a portion offered, and the rest of the milk, he and Chloe themselves partake of. The same
in
.

ceremony, with a libation of wine, is done before the statue of Pan. Limbs and skulls of animals, part of the sacrifice

no doubt, were hung up on trees by the farmers to ensure


6

fertility

Some such scenes as these we may fairly assume to have been common in Greece from early times. Homer alludes as a
matter of course to the altars of the nymphs, where all way9 7 The farers did sacrifice to their caves 8 and to their dances
, ,
.

god might vary with place and age, appropriate titles being added to the greater gods 10 or late-comers taking over the rights and duties of their predecessors as the successive tenants
,

Longus
Longus Longus Longus

i.

9, 32.

Od.

xvii.

dirapxds.
3 4 5
6
ii.
i.

and
2.

wyuds 5' tyvirepOf

210, a spring, a grove, T^TVKTO vvfjuf>dui>,

59i irdires tirtpptfcffKov odirai.


ii.

Coupled
<ri>

36, 37,

3.

with Hermes
8

xiv. 435.
fftrtos...ti>0a.

ii.

24, 30, 31, iv. 34.


eidiOaffi TOIS

Od. Od.

xiii.

350
318.

ToXXas

Schol. Arist. Plut. 943


Kuj\a
irpds irpds

tpSarKfS
9
10

v6n<p-Qffi reXi;6ro-as

ar6/u/3aj.

Stvdpott
Xetfeti'

Kai

icpavta.

trpoffiraTTaol

xii.

ajrorpoirijj'

pafficavtas

yew/ryot,

TO

/XTJ

r)pai>()i)vat.

avrd.

Demeter XX6^ or Ei/x^6i;. Dionysus Ai^ln;* ''Eir&yjju.os


;

'Afjutla,
;

Zeus

His explanation
true,

but

it is

necessarily the reason given by the


for doing the

is

not

"Erdevdpos, 'Ovupefa, 'Ewucdpirios ; Poseidon 4>t/T<iX/uos, <l>i5/uoj are a few

modern Greeks
thing.

same

examples. 242 ff.

See Usener, Gotternamen,

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.


1
.

45

find not only the of the oracular cave did at Delphi 2 local hero Agenor blessing the Argive flocks at his tomb nor
,

We
"

the national hero Heracles associated with


;

Hermes and Cybele

3 but the " hero and the " heroine," amongst the mountains nameless, coupled with Zeus Anthaleus in a farmer's calendar*, Demeter guardian of flocks in Sicily 5 as she was giver of

corn,

Apollo as

shepherd's

god

in

many
.

places

perhaps

Aphrodite even when she


8

rides on the goat 7


offered
to

Sicilians
all
.

make

prayer for prosperity to the

Mothers, and offer

kinds of

acknowledgments

9 But the Cybele countryman's eyes were generally turned to Artemis and Pan, two of the most ancient deities of the Greeks, coupled with
.

Gram

is

Hermes 10 and the Nymphs. Wreaths


to

of corn were offered yearly

usually worshipt by herself, became associated with Apollo but the others 18 The Nymphs were go in a group together'for the most part often confused with the Graces and the Seasons, but each group seems to have had its own particular dances 13
.

Artemis in Patrae

11

Artemis

is

until later she

Aesch.

Eum.

prologue.

See

Stephani,

2 3
icai

Plut. Quaest. Gr. 80.

p. 100.
/J.TJV

He

is

Compte Rendu 1870, also called lord of the

Aristides v. 65 aXXa

"Eppov ye

earth, Plut. Quaest. Gr. 24.


7

'H/>a/cX^ous ecrrt vvv a'yd X^tara Koivd

(TTiTpayia

compare

^Trt/itijXtoj

and

...tdois 8'

&v

/cat ti> opfffi /^(rots

'Hpa/cX^a
/cat ira.-

irapa
\iv

inijTpi

6euv,

/cat

ev Affrecn,

rpdyios of Apollo. may be due to the


8
9

The

artistic

form

o.Z

avv AioffKvpois.

Pan
275.

associated

form of the word, which might mean riding upon a goat.


Diod.
iv.

with Cybele,
4
tvrii,

AM xxi.

80.

AJA

x.

210 (from Marathon)

ijpw-

'loX^wt ols, Kou/}orp60wt xo'pos, ijput, Neapfai, Mofpau, Zeiu 'AvflaXei/s, yfj ey

8 Dittenberger, Sylloge, 377 . 10 Hermes was a special guardian of

flocks
11

Paus.
vii.

ii.

3. 4.

ytiais, etc.

since

One Tipuivrj receives TO. upaia no price is named (which is done

Paus.

20. 3.

12

But

first-figs

were

offered

to

for the other offerings) I take these to

Hermes.

be

firstfruits.

Zeus was also called

Corp. Paroemiogr. Gr. i. p. 157 etTTore ydp <f>aveii) truKov, TOVTO rt$
i,

Few/xyis.
T^\T)
8

Sophocles speaks of giving HyKapira Krjval^) Ai, Track. 238.


13

TOVTO df

oi /3ov\6fj.evoi

iii.

MaXo06/>os, Paus. i. 44. 3 ; Collitz 3046. She is worshipt in a cave,


viii.

Philostr. Apoll. iv. 21. 73

at the

Paus.
6

42. 4.

Dionysia there were dances in the theatre, differing from the choric
dances, TO. ntv ws TO. d ws Bd>cx aJ
w/>as, TO. Se

eTri/u^Xios

in Camirus,

irolfjLvios

and
17.

ws

vv/j.<j>as,

rp&yios in
45,

Naxos (Macrob.
s.v.

Sat.

i.

TrpdTTOvffiv.

See also

Steph.

rpayia),

/j.a\6ets

in

Heuzey, La danseuse voilee d'Auguste


Titeaux,

Lesbos (Thuc. iii. 3, Steph., Hesych.), Kapetos (Preller, Gr. Myth., Index).

BCHxvi.

73

ff.

Heydemann,

VerMllte Tanzerin, Halle 1879.

46

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

The offerings were made to Hecate also, as to Hermes, at their wayside statues, cakes, cheese, and fish 1 Firstfruits were 8 also offered to Hestia
.
.

The worship
Greece, and the

of

Pan and the Nymphs was widespread

in

literary tradition probably gives a very inAs the peasant of to-day of their importance. idea adequate fears the mysterious Neraidhes, who can bewitch him to death,

so in ancient days the dweller in solitudes feared that panic madness or nymph-stroke which the god and his woodland elves could plague him with*.

or strike

him

deaf,

dumb,

or blind 8

Pan ruled the mountains and the forests gave luck to the 5 He appears in classical hunter, and kept the flocks from harm
;
.

times as the national god of Arcadia 6 where Artemis was also at home 7 and where if anywhere we should expect to find the most ancient faith and ritual of Greece but his sanctuaries
,

are dotted over the land from

Cape Malea

to

Macedon 8

In

particular, wherever there is a notable cave or grotto, there we At Delphi, when Apollo was are likely to find him ensconced.

cave
1

a new-comer, Pan and his nymphs took refuge in the Corycian 9 It was a cave of the Nymphs in which Ulysses hid his
.

See Pausanias Index for the way-

xix.

side
iii.

Hermes;
194.
ol

and

for

Hecate,

AM

Schol. Arist. Plut. 594 KO.T&


ir\ov<Tioi
tire/j.iroi>

5. Priapus was also worshipt " where there are pastures for goats or swarms of bees " (Paus. ix. 31. 2), but

vov(jLrji>la.v

Sfiirvov

he plays a small part in dedications.


Paus.
7

Ifftrtpas uffirep
T/>t65ois.

dvalav

rrj 'EccciTfl iv rotj

viii.

26. 2.

Schol. Arist. Peace 277 5iarit

Lusi.

pbyTov

T\V

Z-qplvdiov dvrpov, tv&a. TT^V

Sanctuaries

Heraea (Paus.

viii.

'EKdrijv 6pyidfeiv
rjyov
2

\tyero,

Kal TeXerds

avry Kal

Ktivas tOuov.

Schol. Arist. Wasps 846 (she askt)

Lycosura (viii. 36. 7), Megalopolis (viii. 30. 2), Acacesium (viii. 37. 8) ; also at Sicyon (ii. 10. 2), near
Argos
at
(ii.

26. 2), near

dirapxfa Ovontvuv avrrj v^fffOai -a-pury

24. 7),
(i.

atTroezen
34.
2),

(ii.

32. 5),

wapa TUV dvOpuiruv. 3 I met an old goatherd in Lesbos, who told me that one night on the hills he heard the sound of bells rung by the Neraidhes, which made him to be deaf ever after. For more on this head see Schmidt, Volkslcben der
Neugriechen, 98 fif., and Folk-Lore, vii. 145. 4 Paus. x. 23. 7.
8

Oropus

in

Thessaly

(Theocr. vii. in the text.

103),

and others named


Sicilians held feasts

The

and
vi.

vigils in

their

own homes
Kara rds

honour of the Nymphs at Timaeus ap. Ath.


:

250 A tOovs ovroj Kara ZuctXlav

0v<ria.s
ica.1

iroifurOau
trepl T&.

olidas rals VVH<JMI.S

my

paper in

dydXnara iravvv\lfiv,
x. 32. 7.
Still to
:

/j.tdvffKo-

/t&ovs, 6pxeiff6ai re wepl rds 0eds.


9

Paus.

be identiCollitz
ii.

Paus.

viii.

38.

8,

Horn.

Hymn

fied

by inscriptions

see

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,
treasures

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.


to his native isle
1
.

47

when he returned

In Attica the

popularity of Pan dates from the Persian invasion, although 2 The the story implies that he was there worshipt before 3 the to him under a consecrated acropolis, and grotto people
.

establisht a torch-race in his honour. At Vari there was a cave 4 5 A and garden of the Nymphs and a grotto of Pan on Parnes shrine of the Nymphs down by the Ilissus was known to Plato, who in speaking of it implies that such a sight was common 6 and to Euripides, who alludes to the votive tablets hung in 7 The nymphs had caves in Cithaeron 8 Samicum 9 these places 10 Pan at Marathon 11 and Calamata *. The belief in a Siphnos 13 may be due to plurality of Pans, which has left some traces the number of places where he was worshipt, aided no doubt (but at what date first we know not) by a popular derivation His general favour is attested by the of the name from 7ra<f.
,
.

1536.

For other sacred caves


i.

see

Schol. to Clem. Alex. Strom,


p.

iii.

45,

IGS
4673
in

3094 (Lebadea)
;

Collitz

iii.

49 in Potter.
3 4
5 6

Schol. Arist. Lysistr. 2


//.era

caves in Euboea (Messenia) sacred to Dionysus (Paus. ii. 23. 1)


;

liavl upyiafav al yvvaiKes

Kpavyfjs.

Cyprus sacred to Apollo and Anassa,


i.

Or reconsecrated ? CIA i. 423 ff.

Collitz

31, 32, 38

rb Xapdiviov avrpov
1. 44.

CIA

iii.

210,

AM v. 291.
f/

at Acbaraca, Strabo xiv.

The

Phaedrus 230 B
1

re

yap irXaravos

caves of Ida and Dicte in Crete are not

avri) fjiaX dfJ.<pi\a^s re Kal 1^77X77, TOV

alone

a cave

is

sacred to
ii.

Hermes
another

Te ayvov rb C^os Kal rb avffKiov trayKa\ov,...TJ

Cranaeus (Mus.
to

Ital.

914)

re

aft

Trrjyi)

-^apieffTart]

virb

Hermes

at
;

(GIG 2569)

Ehethymna (Melidhoni) cave of Rhea in Mount


viii.

T^J TrXardVov pel yuaXa


'ye
rtfi

\l/wxj>ov liSaros,

ws

irodl

TK(jnqpacr6ai'

Nvfupwv re

Lycaeus (Paus.
x. 32. 3)
;

36. 3)

a cave in

Phrygia, sacred to the Mother (Paus.


another, to Heracles, Her(5)
;

TIVUV Kal 'A.\e\<jov lepbv airb rGiv Kopuv re Kal d'yaXjudraw l-oiicfv elvai. Dedications to

the

mes, and Apollo


nesia,

one near Magcave of Apollo

AM x. 282,
8 9

Nymphs and GIG 470 b.

Achelous,

to Apollo (6)
;

in Delos

of Poseidon at

Taenarum

I Eur. Ion 492. So in hero shrines, Aeneas Tacticus xxxviii. 10.

(Paus. iii. 25. 4); Ar. Peace 277).


1

of Hecate (Schol.
It is identified

Paus. Paus.

ix. 3. 9.

v. 5. 11.

Od.

xiii.

349.

with

10
II

IGA
;

399.
i.

cavern, just above the " on the little bay of Dhexd, the next " before you enter the right hand harbour of Vathy.

stalactite

Paus.

32. 7, still easily identiloc. p.

fied
12
13

Frazer, ad

439.

IGA

74.

Arist.

Eccles.

106" w
i.

floVes,

Herod,
is

vi.

102, Paus.
to

i.

28. 4.

His

Kopi^cwrej.
37. 2.

Aristides

14, Paus. viii.

worship

alluded

by
xxii.

Lucian,
2
;

Compare Lucian's remarkable

Dialogues of the God*,

and

story of Great Pan's death.

48

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


more dedicais

sixth book of the Anthology, where he receives 1 tions than any other deity there mentioned It
.

remarkable

that in the matter of temples and shrines he falls far behind 2 but there are traces that his power had most of the others
;

dwindled from what

it
;

8 once was

He

is

in fact essentially

a deity of country life and in his worship bears to the great We are not city gods much the same relation as the heroes.
"

surprised to find, then, that he is neglected in after days. They don't treat me as I deserve at all," Lucian makes him
4

"
,

say

far

defended them from

worse indeed than I might have expected, when I all that barbarian However, they garboil.

do come up twice or thrice in the year, with an unmistakable billygoat smelling most rank; then they sacrifice him, and

make a

feast of the flesh, calling

and honouring
oracles in his

me

to witness their jollity with a handclap or two." So we find the


if

me

he were able, consulting the famous At Dodona, the only place which 6 has yielded a series of such documents hitherto Cleotas of Zeus and Dione whether he shall have enquires profit and
farmer or breeder,

own

interest.

benefit of his sheep-rearing others ask how they are to prosper 7 in their business or desire a recommendation to some other
;
,

who may be depended upon 8 I have already pointed out how the later gods usurp the rights of the earlier. At this stage differentiation comes in thus in a Rhodian
"god
or hero"
.

Thirty-four
27,

in

all

as

against

deities

outnumber male by 57
viii.

to 43

Athena

Artemis 26, Aphrodite 23,

Apollo 21, Hermes and Dionysus 16 each, Priapus, Demeter, Cybele 10, Zeus, Poseidon, and the Nymphs alone

per cent. 3 Paus.


*

37. 11.

Lucian, Bit Accusatus, 10. One fragment was found at Delphi


ii.

Hera, Heracles 5, Asclepius, Ares 3, the others two or one. 2 Statistics are given by G. B.
9,

the

Muses

7,

Collitz

2970
ii.

and a few others are


:

recorded.
6

Collitz
teal

1559

tpovriii

K\eoi/ras

Hussey, AJA
dite,

vi.

59

ff.

the order

is

rbv Ata

rb.v

Ai^xa?, at 1568.
etc.

ten

avrol

Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Zeus, Aphro-

irpo^arfvovri 6vaiov xal


7 8

d><f>f\i.fj.ov.

Demeter,

Dionysus,

Asclepius,

Collitz Collitz

ii.
ii.

1561

c,

Hera, Cybele, Heracles, Dioscuri which after Eileithyia,


:

Poseidon,

1582,

The

god's

replies are tantalising indeed,

and keep

Tyche, Hermes, Pan, the Maid, Ares,


Pluto, the Fates,
gether.

up the oracular mystery.


off at

They break

The

rest

and Ge come toare rare. Female

the interesting part,

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.


made

49

inscription, offerings of grapes are 1 to Deo, of olives to Athena


.

to Bacchus, of sheaves

We may take it, then, that the offerings of firstfruits recorded


in the Anthology,

though

late in date

and at times

fanciful,

do

not misrepresent the ancient custom. Sheaves are offered to Deo in thanks for a good harvest 2 even if the earing be small,
;

she must have her share, a handful of corn and a few seeds laid on a wooden stool 3 Or the same offering is made to the
.

At the vintage, grapes are offered to Aphrodite*; grapes, figs, and pomegranates are 6 the portion of Priapus So the herdsman offers his milk to
Nymphs,
as

a tithe of winnowing
.

Pan 7 the bee-keeper


,

his

honey

the form of cakes dedicated to


of the

The firstfruits may also take Pan and Priapus 9 or Hermes


,
.

in a basket on the threshing-floor 11 as a thank-offering to Demeter Three jars of wine are offered 12 to Bacchus and the Satyrs as the firstfruits of three vineyards
;

Roads 10

a cake

is laid

a striking parallel to these ancient customs in the There communion feast of a modern panegyris, especially when this In some places, the pious will falls in harvest time or vintage.
is

priest at the harvest

eat nothing of grape or grain until it has been blest by the home. The service on the saint's day

always begins about sunrise; and after it is over, the holy bread (which has been provided by some of the more well-to-do
of the company) is handed round. The people emerge in the on which stand bunches of grapes stand little tables, precinct and small decanters of mastick, also a gift, which all taste of, as they eat the pieces of consecrated bread, wishing each other
:

a happy year in the set formula. Then too in the church may sometimes be seen offerings in kind, when they are such as to
last
:

as the sponge-fisher's tribute, chosen


781.
vi.
5

from his
vi.

last takings,

IGS

i.

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal.

119.

Anth. Pal.

36.

6
<?K

vi. 22. vi. 99.


vi.

Anth. Pal.

vi.

98

fUKpdv 6\L-

yiffra.
*

239. 232.

Anth. Pal.
ix.

vi.

225.
:

See Dionysius
virb
10
air-fi-

vi.

ap. Ath.

401 F

vvfj.<f>C>v

Anth. Pal.

vi.

299
258.
44.

compare pp.

\vyya

rr\v a.vr()<TTeyov
/cXi/eij/,

vvaypov fKpb\fiov

45, 46, above.

ttiOypov

TrXetoT' airapxas dicpo-

u
12

Anth. Pal.
Anth.

vi.

0tvidofj.ai.

pa i

R.

50

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

which hangs beside the icon of the patron saint. Even a last trace of the Corn-maiden seems to survive, in a curious
plaited

mat made
,

of the ripe ears,

hung up

in

the peasants'

houses

which bears a distant resemblance to a begowned


figure.

human

In like manner the huntsman paid his devoirs to Artemis Agrotera, or Pan, or other deities of the woodland, in local 2 where he hung up the head, horns, shrines or under a tree
:

and

skin,
is

and

offered a share of the catch


4
,

8
.

One

of the local

described by Philostratus and another may be seen 8 " There is a shrine of the goddess at hand," on a marble relief
shrines
.

age, and the and thereby live wild beasts at large, fawns and wolves and hares, all tame and fearing man not at all." Evidence has at last been found of the antiquity of these customs, in the temple of Artemis at Lusi where have been found stags' horns with boars' tusks and the teeth

says

Philostratus,

"and an image smooth with


;

heads of boars and of bears

6 of bears in numbers, apparently the relics of early offerings Xenophon offered a tenth of his hunting to Artemis in the
.

private shrine which he built King Philip slew a wild bull 8 at Arbela, whose horns and skin he consecrated to Heracles ;
.

See

my

paper in Folk-Lore,

vii.

and were
Auduvi)).

built

up

for a

147, with photograph. I have seen these as far east as Lesbos, where they are regular, and rarely on the main-

pile of tripods at

whim, like the Dodona (Steph. s.v.


sacrificed toArte-

Deer were

land of Greece.
'

The people
'

call

\fsd0a,

mat,' or

crirdpi,

corn,'

them and have

mis,attheElaphebolia, inPatrae(Paus. vii. 18. 12, Bekker, Anecd. i. 249), the


hunter's firstfruit being made a custom, Skins of African buffaloes were hung
in the temple of Heracles
(Ath. v. 221
4

forgotten
2

what they once meant. Diodorus (iv. 22) tells of an im-

at

Rome

pious
rets

man,

iv

pv

rots

tuirpoaOfv

F).

Xpbvois fluOtvat rCiv \ri<p&tvTwv ffrjplwv


Kf<pa\ds
KO.I

Philostr.

Imag.

i.

28

TT\V

'Ayporlpav
TIS

robs 7r65as dva.Ti$frat

irpottvrfs
tKfi
KO.I /cat

q.ffovra.1,

ieu>j
\eioi>

ydp
virb

avrrjs

TT; 'Aprt/jLiSi leal irpoffi)\ovv TO<J StvSpeffi,

8.ya\/M

TOV XP^ VOV

who
3

dedicated one to himself, with


Schol. Arist. Pint. 943, Diod.
iv.

vvCiv \-0o\ai nal dpuruv, v^/wrai 5'

disastrous results.

atirrj ical 6t)pla

\aywol, irdvra
dvOpuirovs.
5

dvtra, vffipoi /cat \VKOI KU.I ijfj.epa Kal /J.T) 6f5i6ra robs

22, Philostr.

Imag.

i.

28. 6

irpwr6Xeta, dupoffivia.

Or money

wpurdypia, Ar:

Roscher

i.

311,

from Braun, Ant.


37, 58.

rian

De

Yen. 33.

The

altar at Delos,

Basrel.
6
7

figs. 9, 10, pi. 77.


iv.

built of horns,

has no demonstrable the horns connexion with hunting were doubtless relics of many sacrifices,
;

Jahreshefte

Xen. Anab.
Anth. Pal.

v. 3. 9.
vi.

114

116.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

51

in

and following the Greek custom, a party of elephant hunters Egypt dedicated their catch whilst Hadrian the Emperor
1
;

dedicated in Thespiae the firstling of a bear hunt*. In the Anthology, skin and antlers of a slain stag are offered to Artemis 3 or the horns hung on a tree for Pan 4 A hunter in
, .

chase of a wild bull, knocks off his horn with the hunting6 Two brothers cudgel, and hangs it upon a wild pear-tree
.

dedicate stags' heads to Apollo, hanging 6 his temple lionskin and claws are
.

them

in the porch of

hung on a pine tree a wolfskin upon a plane 8 a boar is offered to him 9 under a birch tree Hunters' dedications are found as late
for

Pan

as the sixth century after Christ 10 Perhaps we may include here the elephant's skull which Pausanias saw in a shrine of
.

Artemis

in

11

Campania

The fisherman
only.

It

seems

also dedicates firstlings, and not to one god to have been the custom for tunny-fishers after
;

a good haul to offer the first tunny caught to Poseidon 12 but the eel-catchers of Copais offered their finest eels to "the gods," 18 These gods may be the nameless by ancient prescription
.

In the deities, or the Cabiri, or the Ptoan hero, or Apollo. Anthology we find the fisherman offering a crab to Pan as first14 15 or a seasnail to the nymphs of the caves ling of his catch
;

16 or a parcel offish, wrapt in seaweed, to Artemis The Magnetan herbalists dedicated firstfruits of their simples
.

Classical Review xii.

275

Brit.

9
10

Mus.
2

Inscr. 1207 (208-6 B.C.).


i.

Ant h. Pal. vi. 168. Brit. Mus. Inscr. no. 1043.


Paus.
v. 12. 3.
aj>.

IGS

1828.

Doubtless he com-

u
12

posed

the

epigram:

u
'

irai

ro^bra

Antigonus

Ath.vii. 297 D: 'Avri. . .

KvTrpidos

\iyfi-rjs,

9eer7ratj

'EXucwviaiffi

valwv, vapKiffffov trapa Krjirov avdiovra.,


iXi^Koty TO 5^ rot didiaffi 8!-o a-Kpodelviov

yovos 6 Kaptiffrios Ovalav tTriTeXovvras


rrjv rCiv
Otietv r<
13

TOVS
r<

a\i4as \tyet.
iitrb

ILoffeiduvi

Otivvuv u>pav, OTO.V

evayp^ffuffi

'Adptavbs apKrov,
Tvxriaas<ra.6<ppwv
TJJJ.
fff>

rjv

avrbs K&vev 'nnr60ei>

8'

avrut x^P iV ^" T ' T v


ovpavias
air

irveois

A<ppo8i-

6e$ rbv irpGiTov d\6vra dtivvov. Agatharchides ap. Ath. I.e. <f>Tr)<ri yovv 6 'AyaOapxiSrjs...rat virep<pvfis ruv
:

KuiratSuv

tyx^euv
ical

lepeiuv rpbirov crre-

Anth. Pal.

vi.

111.

<t>avovvras

Karevxo/j.vovs

ov\ds r'
TOUS Boiwv6fj.i/j.a.

4
5 6 7 8

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal.

vi. 96.
vi. vi. vi.

iirif:l<i\\ovra.s B'ueiv rols Oeots

255.
112.
57.

rofc.

These are ra
Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal. Anth, Pal.
vi.
vi. vi.

irpoyoviKa

"
15

196. 224.
105.

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal.

vi.

106.

42

52
to Cheiron, the

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


Tynans
1
.

to Agenorides

the

"

first

physicians,"

and

their

own patrons

Besides the private celebrations of the countryside and the shore, there were public ceremonies by which the state sought
to express gratitude arid to avert dearth. The Hyperboreans used to send firstfruits and tithes in a mysterious fashion to

Dodona and Delos 2

Eretrians and Magnetes paid firstfruits


3

to Apollo as "giver of corn ." At Athens the Eiresione* was a sort of harvest home, at which bread and fruit, honey, oil, and wine 5 were offered to the Sun and the Seasons, or to Athena
Polias".

The

ITpot] poo- ia

was similar 7 and so was the bunch


,
.

of grapes offered to Dionysus at the Oschophoria 8 At the Panathenaea, the eiresione was a branch pluckt from the

sacred

olive

groves,

and

offered

to
10
;

Athena 9
and

The

Troe-

zenians gave firstfruits to Poseidon

firstfruits
,

due to

12 in which Apollo are mentioned at Decelea" and at Delphi " in the had an latter place the important part threshing-floor"
1

Plut.

Symp.

Hi.

1.

3 Tvpioi
Xclpuvi,

'Ay-qvopidri,

'M.dyvrjre^

8t

*T>WTOIJ

iarpevcrai

Xeyofitvoit,
ei'en

5 The verses they used to sing are given by Schol. Arist. Plut. 1054 and Eudocia, no. 333 elpeffiwvi) avxa tptpti.
:

xofjU^ovffiv
<j)V

plfai

yap

Kal fiordvai

di'

Kal irlovas dprovs

KO.I

/iAi iv KortiXri
Kal
KV\IK'

KO.!

lufTO
2

TOI/S Kd/JlVOVTaS.

f\aiov

diro'ij/'fiffaffOa.i

fOfapov

Herod,

iv.

334.
Mor.

Paus.
1136,

i.

31. 2.

ws av neOvovaa. KaBtvUy^.

Those who
rite

Compare
alfr

Plut.

Callim.

wisht to find a reason for the


ascribed
it

Hymn to Delos 278 d/j.<piTtis 8fKaTT)<p6poi


dwapxal
V^TTOVTO.!.
;

to a plague: Schol. Arist.

Mannhardt,

Wald und
fruits are

Feldkulte 233.

The

first-

If the Knights 732, Eudocia I.e. Delphic oraole commanded the public

mentioned in an oracular

celebration,
6

that proves nothing for

response from Delphi

(AM xviii.

193 8 )

its first origin.

and at Samothrace (loc. cit. 349 B 9 ) So too some " barbarians " sent firstfruits to the
vi. 20. 4.
3

Schol. Arist. Knights 732.

Here

we

see the celebration diverted to the

Syracusan shrines, Thuc.


Or. 16.

Plut.

De Pyth.
dirapxals,

He

says

patron deity of the state. 7 Suidas s.v. Schol. Arist. Knights 732, Plutus 1054.
;

dvtipuiruv

which must be Query

8
9

Botticher, ch. xxvi.

wrong
4

if

the reason be right.

Schol. Clem. Alex. p.

9.

33 (Potter),

Kapir&v or irdvTuv.

hardt,

See Dar. and Sagl. s.v. ; MannWald und Feldkulte 239 ff.

quoted by Dar. and Sagl. 10 Plut. Theseus 6.


11 12

Xen. Hellen.
Collitz
ii.

iii.

5. 5.
49

Botticher, Baumkultus, ch. xxv,

who

2561 D

Bowcart'ots rwi

however has misunderstood part of


the evidence.
in

AJ irarpwiui Kal rdnr6\\wvi ra dxpotiiva


(4th cent.).

The

offerings are called

Bekk. A need. 246.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,
.

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

53

1 The cereals offered to Zeus and other religious ceremonies deities in sacrifice, and possibly the sprinkling of barley meal, would appear to recal the ancient custom 2 Aristotle says dis.

tinctly, that the ancient sacrifices, made after the harvesting, We see the old surviving into the were a kind of firstfruits 3 new order of things, when the Eleans after their ancient custom
.

sacrificed
4
.

monthly on "all the altars" wheat kneaded with The custom of sacrificing cakes, and things without life, honey was ancient in Athens also 5 and the traditional offering to 6 Phigalean Demeter was fruit, honeycombs, and wool yet unspun while the fruits of autumn were offered to Demeter in Myca;

lessus 7

is

firstfruits," although it does not occur in Homer, 8 the implied by cognate verb which has a ritual meaning and Homer uses dpy/tara in the sense of cnrap-^aL 9 The same form
,
.

The word

"

Homer recites also how occurs in very old Attic inscriptions Artemis sent the great boar to destroy the crops, because the usual offerings had not been made to her on the threshing floor 11
.

10

Collitz

ii.

2642 M

ironirevbvTta

e'/c

ray

rai
175

ol

d7ifj.6rai

diro

TTJS

ap

aXcoos ev rbv vaov.


2

&v

Xdx,

f's

fty olKoSo^Lav

Collitz
Arist.

iii.

3636
xi.

48 .

Eth.

1160 a 25
vfooSoi

ai

yap

ruv lepuv Kal TUV olKo8o/j.i)/JLaTuv Kal TTJC IGS i. 235 21 But 'idpvffiv TUV iepw.
.

dpxaiai

dvfflou

Kal

tfoaivovrai

it

also

appears
;

to

mean

firstfruits

ylvevOai fiera ras rCiv Kapir&v avyKopiSas olov dirapxai.


4
5 6 ?

in

Delphi
oBpoi

and

t-n-apy/jLara

certainly

bears that sense in Thera:

IGI

iii.

Paus. Paus. Paus.

v. 15. 10.
viii. 2. 3.
viii.

436

\LVOV
ty
xix. 254, Od. xiv.
5iJO

yas Oeuv T(Dt ?Tt TUl

/j.arpi ... Ovtria

'Ap-

TTparlffTUl

dvffQVTL

42. 11.

POVV Kal Trvpuv ey


fifSLfjiixav

fi.e5i/j.vov

Kal KpiQ&v

Paus.

ix. 19. 5.
:

Kal otvov (jLerprfTav Kal

aTrdpxfo-Bai

II.

dXXa

tTrapy/j,ara
ii.

uv

at

(Spat

Qtpovcri.

See for this subject the article dirapxal in Pauly, from which I take
428.

CIA

632 has

tirl -rpaire^av

Karapx~nv.
:

a few references which had escaped me. The verb appears to be used, but
in the active,

aKpo&Lvia is also used for firstfruits Suid. s.v. al rdv fviavffiuv KapTrwv
airapxai.

on a very old Tanagran

elfftv ol ffcapol

So Hesych., adding Olves 8 TUV irvpuv Kal Kpi6/Sv.

inscription, recording a dedication to

Od. xiv. 446.


10

Hermes; a bronze cup BCH xix. 242, lapbv TW KapvKefid) <&\6fa<fos dirdpxovros
XeKTOts 6ij/3aots avtOeav.
hefte
iii.

iirdpyfj-ara

CIA

i.

347, cp.

GIG

2465. ToCybele: Dittenberger, Sylloge,

137.

In Eretria

Cp. JahresGIG 2144.

377 14 (Thera). 11 II. ix. 534 x<aoantvii


OdKvoia
yovt><f

pot

o0rt
(

seems to mean a fee or money CIA ii. 588 eirapxr) ty contribution


{jrapxTl
:

aXw^s poivebs p^'. Compare Apollodorus i. 8. 2.

54
Herodotus, who
fruits

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


first

uses the noun aTrap^n^ speaks of the

first-

of his inheritance which Croesus sent to Delphi 2 elsewhere 1 Inscriptions mention the firstfruits of corn of
.

and
oil
8
,

those of fish and of house-property, in Delos, are probably a civil tax 5 Firstfruits of tribute money occur often in Attic inscriptions 6 and firstfruits of men 7 were

of the fruits of the earth

dedicated to the gods, originally perhaps for sacrifice, later for use as slaves. The word occurs on inscriptions of Rhodes 8
,

very common in Athens as we shall see. aicpodlvLov or dtcpoOiva is used in a similar sense for firstfruits in kind I have already given an instance", and it is applied to

Miletus 9 Delos 10 and


, ,

is

a statue dedicated by a poet or some such person in Phocis There is nothing to show whether the firstfruits formed any particular fraction of the whole, but the country custom would appear to have been that a sheaf or two was enough for the small farmer. Indeed, so long as there was no organised priesthood, there would be no reason to offer more than would make a good show. But with the organised priesthood, and with the organised social system, there must needs come a change. A fixt minimum would be appointed by the king or the repre18 sentatives of the god, and exacted as a due Moreover, with amounts in kind and we become inconvenient large offerings can hardly doubt that as soon as a fixt currency was introduced, whether in tripods, axes, cauldrons, or what not, which each represented some unit of value in kind M the firstfruits
1

*.

Herod,

i.

92

TWI>

irarpyuv

xpw^TW "

^Gl

i-

466 statue, Athena Lindian,

airapxriv.
2

etc.

xapirov

CIG 484
for

particulars of

GIG

2855.
xiv. 408.
.

wheat and barley


iv. 2.
3
4

each

tribe,

CIA

lu

BCH
IGS

834

b.

Above, p. 52
iii. 1.

AatoO CIA iv. 1. 27 b. IGI iii. 436 aira.pyfj.aTa uv

131.
:

at

upai

ls

The tithe of Peisistratus


;

Aristotle,
i.

Ath. Pol. xvi.

Diog. Laert.

6.

53

quoted by

Homolle, Dar. and Sagl. 47 p. 366 note


.

s.v.

Donarium
iv.

avayti STJ t-Kaffros TWV 'AOipaiwv roS avrov K\jpov deKarriv, OVK 4fj,ol dXXA
birbOtv

ferai dvaXovv
*cal

re 0v<rlas rat

CIA
is

i.

226, 257, etc.;

1. 51.

Sij/xoreXtts,
*ca2 ffv

etn dXXo TWV KOIVUV,


r)/j.ds

airapxn

used of

money

in Eleusis,

6 7r6\e^oj

KaraXd/Sj;.

Arist.

AM xix.
7

192.

Oec.

ii.

1346

b 3 eiriKapiria xal SfKartj.

Plut. Quaest. Gr. 35,


i.

CIA

i.

210,

Dionys.

16. 44.

Ridgeway, Origin of Weight Standards, Index.

14

Coin

and

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.


This
is

55

perhaps the origin of the tithe (SeKarr)) although since the two words are used for votive offerings side by side, as we shall see, the question is not
for their value.
;

would be commuted

yet clear.

The

principle of the firstfruits or tithe offering

was
;

extended, as civilisation increased, to merchants and tradesmen and was applied also to the portion set apart by states for their

The tithe patron deity, or for support of some national shrine was also dedicated to the gods not only from yearly profits but from occasional gains, such as the spoils of war, and a windfall
.

or lucky find. The same idea prompted the consecration of one-tenth of the land apportioned out for cleruchs' allotments 3
,

and one-tenth of confiscated property, which we


later.

shall discuss

complete.

The evidence for the extent The reason, however,

is

of the tithe offering is not probably that the inscrip-

tions so far discovered are unevenly distributed, whilst smaller less organised cult. The earlier inscriphave often the tions, moreover, only deity's name, often only his

towns would have a

and the giver's, with or without a verb and as we know that some dedications so inscribed were the firstfruits or the tithe of war 4 the fact that this is not specified elsewhere does not prove that it was not true. The Pelasgians offered the tithe 8 as the
; , ,

Semites,
tithe.

Robertson Smith, Religion of the 245 ff., 458, discusses the

The

tithe
:

was a royal tax under


Arist.

Peisistratus

Ath.

Pol.
i.

xvi.

have gone to the kings, and the maintenance of the tribal sanctuaries to have been a
tithe appears to
first

The

and perhaps
Pollux
3

later,

Xen. Hell.

1. 22,

vi.

128, ix. 28.


iii.

Thuc.

50 records this of the

charge upon

it.

See also Trans-

actions of the Victoria Institute, xxxi.


126.

We have no cleruchy in Lesbos. further information on the subject,


but he mentions
course.
4 As IGA 32, 46, 510 on helmets and a lance, each naming an enemy, 5 Stephanus s.v. 'Afiopiyives. Dionyit

The

fraction chosen depends

on

as a matter of

the fact that a

man
is

has ten

fingers,

and therefore ten


of arithmetic.

the natural basis


'

SeKafctv, like Trefj.ira.fav,

meant properly
Suidas
in tens).
SeKareijeiv,

to

count

'

says

s.v.

dei<dff(r6a.i,

(not as derived

sius

i.

18.

49

Se/cdraj

es

Ae\0oi)s

from a marshalling

of the recipients

Later the word Senary, like may have lost its exact

6e$ nal TUV dirb TTJS OdXdrTijs w0e\eiw' etirep Twes KO.I aXXoi Xafjurpordras. So did the Carthaginians (Justin
av7jyot> rif

sense, so as to be used for

any sacred

18)
313).

and the

Tyrians

(Plut.

Symp.

portion.

Cp.

IGI iii. 258

detcdrav virep

56

GRKEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


J
.

There are ancient dedications of a tithe of Hyperboreans did 8 war in many places the tithe not specified is offered to Zeus at Thebes 8 to Demeter by men and women in Argolis 4 by a woman to Athena at Paestum 5 to Apollo by a man at Naxos 8 Statues on the Sacred Way at Branchidae are an early example of the
; ,
, , .

dedication of the tithe to a non-local deity 7 In Athens the war tithe early 8 and a tithe of slaves is mentioned 9
.
, .

we

find

A great
shall

number

of other tithes have been found here, which


10
11
.

we

Dedications from Calabria and Calymna" consider by and by are specified as a tithe of work. Later, we find the tithe in

Anaphe
daurus

13

19

Boeotia 14 Crete 15 Cyrene 16 Delos 17 Didymi 18 and Epiin Argolis, Halicarnassus 20 Ithaca 21 Megara 22 Naxos 23
, , , ,
,

Rhodes 24 Thera 28
,

The

tithe of trade

is

alluded to incidentally
.

in a Cretan inscription of the third century 28 It is also used in connexion with feasts for the dead 27 The tithe is not
.

mentioned in Homer.
I

Herod,
ff.

iii.

33

4,

Callim. Delos

17
18

BCH vi.
Collitz

line 47.

278
3

iii.

3407

two
a

women

to

See below, chap. in.

Demeter.
19

3 4

IGA

191.
iii.

Collitz

iii.

3335:

woman

to

Collitz

3407,

CIG

1172

IPI

i.

Demeter.
20
21

580, 977.
8 8
7

IGA IGA IGA


CIA CIA

542. 408.
483.
i.

CIG 2660 IGS iii. 1.


Paus.
i.

Athena.
654
: :

Artemis.
&CKO.Ti)<f>6pot.

22 23 24

42. 5
:

Apollo

IGA
IGI

408
i.

8 9

334. 210.

Apollo. 817 a 3: Athena Lindia

i.

Xenophon's men sold


tithe to Artemis,

(common).
25

their slaves

and gave a

IGI iii. 431 Heracles


:

(in

a cave)

Anab.
10

v. 3.

437
firstfruit
iv.
1.

Mother of the gods.

Tithe and

occur together:
p. 154. ..rW

86

CIG 2556 M

al 5t

n ruv
dirb
j)

Otuv /3wXo1

Ear. 269 CIA


dvapx^v
offered

382

fjL^vuv 2\otfj.ei>
i)

dya66v

tvtjdjwvos

StKaTT/v.

One

is

Koii'di

t!-odouffavTs,
rj

rwv woXffjduv iStai nvts vap

by each of two persons, CIA iv. 1. 373 77 II IGSI 643 (Hera) ; see below, p. 92.
.

^KO-ripuv

Kara ydv
fKarepoi

rj

Kard

6d\affffai>,

\a."f\a.vl)VT<i)v

Kara r6s dvSpas

r6$ HPTTOVTO.S, nal ras Sexaraj \a/u/3aj'o'-

12

Boss, Ined. Insc.


'

iii.

298 Xixiaj

/x'

TUV

e/carepot ^j TO.V I5tav iro\iv.

dvt6i}Kev A.ir6\\uvi
13

14

tpyuv TTJV SfKariiv. IGI iii. 257, 258: Apollo. IGS i. 1739 18 (Thespiae, to Hera-

Heracles,
(iv. 21),

we

learn

from Diodorus

cles),
15

IGA 191 (Thebes, CIG 2556.


Collitz
xxiii.
iii.

Zeus).

18

AM
CIG

22:

woman

4839, 4840 (Apollo). to Artemis.

promised weal and wealth to those who would tithe their goods to him, and many Romans grew rich by that means. 27 CIG 1034 leaden tablet ruv ri\
rptaKaduv
KO.TIJV

dvitpuffii>...luf>'

ijj

dfdwxa

Sf-

5133.

/u^xpt rjfjiepwv

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

57

At the great
city

was interested, each city which hoped

national sanctuaries, in which every Greek for the favour of the


.

1 Herodotus presiding deity made offering occasional or regular 2 3 of tithe due to the and Zeus and each deme speaks Apollo
,

4 The Athenian appears to have been bound to pay its share theori, who sailed to Delos in the sacred ship of Theseus, in
.

memory

of his

vow

and the same was as firstfruit by Cos 8 and Rhodes 9 and the Mapsidichae, perhaps an agricultural tribe, send their firstfruits year by year 10 The same was the case at Delphi 11 The Eleusinian shrine was
. ; . .

to Apollo 8 took the firstfruits with them 6 done by other states 7 Vases were dedicated
,

supported from early times by the firstfruits which had been 12 enjoined by a Delphic oracle apparently upon all the Greeks
,

During the fifth century, this pious custom fell into disuse and just before the war, a law was past making it compulsory upon Athens and
all

and were sent to Athens

"

from

parts."
;

Cp. Eur. Meleag.


TroXtfyuerpoi'

fr.

520 Olvets

12

CIA

iv. 1.

27 b (ceXeu^Tw 8t

6 lepo-

WOT' fx yijs
Otiuv
2

Xo/3oj' ffra.'xyv

ipdvTtjs Kal 6 SaiSovxos /uixn-rj/ofots


XfffOai.
TOI)S

dwdp-

awapxds.
vii.
i.

"EXXr/vas rov Kapirov Kard.


Kal
TTJV

Herod,

132.

rd.

Trdrpta

/Mvreiav
;

rty

ey

3 4

Herod,

89.

Ae\<t>uv.

e/trea

Crates ap. Ath. vi. 235 c: rbv d' iraptxew ts ra dpxfia r$ 'Awo\roi)s 'Axapvtitiv
riijv

paid in

The tax was kind, and sold

it was ^ T votive offer-

Xowt

wapaffiTovs dirk

rijj

ings were bought with part of it, and inscribed dirb rov Kapirov rrjs eirapx^.

tic\oyrjs

Kpidwv.

Called dirapxal

See also Korte,

AM

xxi. 322

ff.,

who

below.
5 6

gives the later history of the custom,

Plut. Thes. 22.

and makes some interesting deductions


;

CIA

ii.

984, 985

BCH xviii. 183;

Mommsen,
7

Heortologie 402, Feste der Stadt Athen 451.

as to the price of cattle. He places the date of our decree later than it is

done in the Corpus.


31
ai
/ji>

BCH BCH
Ibid.

xx. 695.

Al. Strom, iv.

Poeta ap. Clem. 24. 164 6(f>pa...SeKdri)v


<f>tdX-r)...rrjs

yap
rjjs

irXetorat

Cp. Isocr. Paneg. TWC TroXeuv

VTr6fj.i>T)/j.a

iraXatas evepyevias dirap-

aKpoGtvid re
8

Kpe/juicrai/j.ei>.

Xas rov
TroXewj

fflrov Ka0' 'eKaarov

rbv tviavrbv

ills

xiv.

408

ijuds dTTOTT^fjLTrova'i, rals d' fKXfiirovffais


7)

TTJS

'Kuiwv

dvdOrjfM,

rut

'AiroXKuvi

HvOia

irpoatrat-ev diro(j>peii>

dirapx-nv (279 B.C.).

ruv Kapiruv
iro\iv TT]V T)/j.tr4pav

Kal Troieiv irp6s TT\V

These cups are only part of the offering, no doubt.


10 11

ra

irdrpia.

Schol.

Arist. Plutus

1054 x a P ta"t"hP ta TavraSee also CIA


i.

BCH vi 41 114 etc. BCH xviii. 183, xx. 6956


,

Xen.

T&S dirapxds.
Arist.

32, Schol.

5 dpyifouevoi at/rots rrjs ovTiXij^ews TTJS roO A.iro\\wvos Senary*


Hell.
iii.

5.

'

Knights 727. The Delphic oracle does not imply that the practice was
not older
:

it

merely sanctions

it.

58
her
allies,

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


.

and inviting the other states to join in 1 Occasional Here the tithe offerings were sent for some special prosperity. or firstfruit assumes a developed form it is a thanksgiving for that which gave wealth to the dedicating state. Thus Croesus
;

sends to Delphi an offering of the gold which was found in his 2 The Siphnians offer a tithe of their mines 3 the country
.

Corcyreans acknowledge a special haul of

fish at

Delphi and

Olympia

4
,

and Tenedos makes similar acknowledgment ap;

5 parently for a fine catch of crabs

Selinus renders thanks for


6

its celery
all

8
,

Metapontium

7
,

Myrrhina, Apollonia

for their corn,

at Delphi.

The Samian merchants


six talents
;

tithed their profits to the

amount

of

and with the money they procured a magnificent bronze crater supported on kneeling -figures, which they dedicated in the

Heraeum 8

When we examine

the private dedications of this

class,

we

find a great variety of callings represented. Sometimes the nature of the offering alone shows that it is the tithe or first9 fruit of husbandry, orchardry, shepherdry, or hunting but in
;

many

cases

the

dedicator

records

his

calling.
.

Actor and

10 Ou the acropolis physician offer a tithe of profits at Delphi 9 of Athens we find the fisherman the breeder 9 and the farmer 11
,

before the Persian invasion


first cast to
1

and a
.

fisher apparently

vows

his

the

nymphs

of Syra 12

Among
Plut.

the early inscrip-

tev poAXuvrai.

2 3

Herod,

i.

50.

Herod,

iii.

57, Paus. x. 11. 2.

The

finding of the mines was an unexpected windfall, but the offering thereafter

De Pyth. Or. 16. Strabo p. 264. 8 Herod, iv. 152 ol 8t ZA/uoi T&V tiriKepSlwv ie\6i>Tes 5eKdnji>
6 7

rr,v

rdXavra, etc.
8
10

vowed was

to be regular.

When

neglected, the sea flooded their

it was mines

Cp. Kar. 2,

CIA
695

iv. 1.

BCH
373
121

xx.

rdde

iroXtu

ical

and destroyed them.


4

Idtwrai tirdpZavro.

Paus. x.

9. 3, v. 29. 9.

The objects
1.

eE-ypas airapxrjv,

CIA

iv.

Suppl.

sent were axes.


5 Plut. De Pyth. Or. 12. I take dwb TUV Kapxivuv to be the account given to Plutarch and his explanation to be

373
12

p.

182

Td6t}i>aLai

dfKdrtjv

\wpiov 'Aenovbdev

Xaip^5t]fj.o^ 4>i\&t.

IGA

7, if

rightly restored.
first

the rule to dedicate the

It was tunny of

wrong.

Axes were

once

unit

of

currency (Ridge way, Or igin 3 19). Why on earth should Tenedos offer an axe
simply because the pattern on the back of a crab was like an axe ?

a good haul to Poseidon ; Athen. vii. 297s, 302 B, 346. So the fisherman the firstfruit of the quest,
in the Anthology dedicates a crab as vi. 196.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,
tions of

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.


fullers 1 , potters 2,
,

59
,

Athens are dedications of


4
,

a baker 3

a tanner
or

a physician
,

8
,

a builder 6 a recorder 7 and washermen


,

washerwomen 7 who seem

to

have been a pious

tribe.

One

inscription

may

refer to a shipwright 8, a later inscription of


.

9 Elsewhere we read of a butcher Astypalaea to a shipmaster 10 11 and possibly a smith 12 Several, both a courtesan or cook men and women, speak in general terms of a tithe of their
, ,
.

earnings or property of their holy works 15


or brothers 17
offering.
,

13
,

or of their blessings others pray for skill 16


.

14
,

of their

skill,

or

Pairs of partners
,

and even larger companies 18 combine in one vow was often made before the offering 19 All
.

handicraftsmen at Athens, we know, bearing baskets of 20 ings, used to worship Athena at the feast of Chalces
1

offer;

this

CIA

iv.

373

/,
;

p.

42:
3 4
-

2lfuav...6

14

BCH

xiii.

160

'

Ki>a<pfus
2
3 4

btKa.rt]v

others below.
.

OIJK'

A(j>po5iTi]i
a.'ya.dCiv,

SCipov
cri)

a.irap'xriv

TTOTVLO.

Below,

p.

60 7 61 i.*,

ruv
15

rok

5ds d<f>6ovia.v, etc.

Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 264.


<TKV\o5tyi)s

Ear. 48
^

airap-yfia rt\i>ijs.

IGS

iii.

CIA
14

iv. 1.

373 s*.

1.

131
16

offiuv

Zpyuv aKpoOiviov.
iv.

CIA

iv. 1.

else surely

422 , p. 185. Nothing can be the source of another


:

17

CIA CIA
215
.

iv. 1. p. 79.
i.

351, 358, 375, 396;


dve6tTi)i>
is

inscription

do-rwv 6a\6vT<av,

jro\it}6'xe

1.

373
18
19

common

(373

irbrvC 'A6dva, lEfUKpov KOI iraLStav

113, 183,

189^

418
iv. 1.
i.

0).

fyoi
6
7 8

ijSe

7r6Xu

CIA
373

iv. 2.
.

373

106 .

CIA CIA CIA

iv. 1.
i.

262,

p 203.
. :

CIA CIA

373

124 .

202 349, iv. 1. 373 , etc.

399,
1.

iv. 2.

iv.

373 84 373 ", p. 198

20

Mommsen,Heortologie,31B: Soph.
tt's

frag. 724 /3or'


val;

656v

Si]

iraj 6

x eiP&~
Of

Ot\KV

TC10T]VCUCH

Very archaic, 9 IGI iii. 203


oiro

8eKdTI]V vafv- is Naxian.


vaGiv &Kvdp6\t.(ov ir6\\'

Xews

of

rr)v

Aibs yopytatriv 'Epydvrii'


irpoarptireffde.

ffTCLTOis

\IKVOKJLV

KTf]a-dfj.evos.

vowcXapos TraXXa...

course no special deity was necessary for the artisan to worship ; but Athena
in this aspect

Ear. 185.
10
11

was often

called Ergane,
i.

543 (Calabria). Rhodopis: Herod, ii. 135 (Delphi),

IGA

the
3),

Worker

(Diod. v. 73, Paus.

24.

and coupled with Hephaestus (Solon


49, Paus.
i.

ep.
12 13

BCH xv. 113. BCH vi. 47

xiii.
,

14. 6,

CIA
4

ii.

114

ft).

168

&Kfiuv in Delos.
i.

Athena Ergane
17. 4
viii.
;

at Sparta,
v. 14.
;

Paus.

iii.

Croesus: Herod,

92.

CIA
;

i.

345

Olympia,
;

(boustrophedon); Kredvuv CIA iv. 1. 373 105 2 i8 ii. 1434; iv. 1. 373 iv. 2. 1550 d EOT. 172
i-pywv a.ira.p'x^v
-

32. 3

Thespiae,

ix. 26.

Megalopolis, 8 Organe
;

at Delos,

BCH

vi.

351

2pYov Kai xP7l/M* TUt'- A dedication to Athena Ergane can only be that of a work-woman CIA iv. 1.
5eKCLTt]v
:

Samos, Hesych. s.v. There is no evidence or likelihood of a special type, cult, or temple
410).

Ergatis at (Farnell, Cults i.


;

of

373 wi. 60 3
.

So

in

Delos; see below,

p.

344

Ergane at Athens (cp. Farnell i. As Stathmia, she protected f.). commerce, Hesych. s.v. The Bur-

60

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

then would be the season for such offerings, and the custom of Isaeus speaks of a dedicating them must have been common.

generous man performing this duty for those who could not or would not 1 and the custom is attested by the inscriptions*. Cleon then, is not gibing, when he says to the sausage-seller,
;

"I'll

denounce your sausages as confiscate to the gods; never a tithe have you paid on them 8 ." The tithe of profits, with reference to fishermen, is alluded to as a thing of course by
Diphilus, but as being sometimes dishonoured in the breach 8 Later, a cordwainer's guild dedicates a statue in Lesbos As late as the Roman age a trade-dedication is found in
. .

Amphipolis
If

we may
first
;

trust analogy, the firstfruit of a craftsman

would

be his
kind.

finisht piece, the 'masterpiece' of the

mediaeval

workman and some of the dedications appear to be of this The most conclusive evidence is furnisht by a covered
earthenware
jar,

found at Athens, and inscribed "Lycinus


first

dedicated to Athena his

piece of work

."

"Firstfruit of

nishers of Olympia sacrificed to the Worker goddess before polishing the

within a comparatively small space of time, it is clear that the practice was

image (Paus.
1

v. 14. 5).

common.
iv

The

tithe of

work appears

dKpowoXti dirapxa* TUIV OVTWV dvaBtvres TroXXoiy, us dir6 t'Sioj /crijffewj.


2

Isaeus

vi.

42

{TI 5'

also in Delos,

BCH vi.

193

Isaeus,

as quoted above (note 4 ), speaks of so does this as a common practice


;

CIA
;

i.

<ra|ilvov

349 deKdrijv roO T&KVOV ei>x~ Collitz iii. 3448 (Anaphe)


Ko.1

Demosthenes, alluding to
Timocr. 741

the

same
;

age, Androt. 617, airrouj SeKarfvorret

'AceoTfyi
'

TUIV deteaTuiv TTJS 6fov dfit-

Sficdrav

A.ir6\\ui>i

IGI

ii.

\TJffai.

War
it is

258 (Lesbos).
8

when
<r

is nearly always specified the occasion.


vi.

Arist.

Knights 300

<f>alvu

roit

Ap. Ath.

226 E
'

01)

JTWITOT' IxOvs

wpvrdveffiv

ddeKaTfivovs TUIV OfQtv Jp&s

olSa Ti/juurtpovs Iduv


TTJV t\d/j.pa.t>fs a.{>Tuv
ijffffa
.

H6ffei5ov, el 5ei(d.

XXOVTO. Kot\las.

The
;

tithe is
;

mentioned
i.

.iroXt) TUIV BfCiv

&v

CIA

i.

353, 384, 385

the firstfruit

TrXowriwrepos.
ii.

351, 352, 375, 382

and

in the Acro-

IGI

109 <rvyKa0itpuff<u>

ol

TTJV

polis inscriptions (KardXoyos vol. 1), some 427 in number, dirapxri occurs

ffKVTiicty
6

BCH

rtxmjv epya.f6fj.fvoi. xix. 110 M. KoiKAios

49 times,

SeKdrtj 37, not


;

ful instances

counting doubtand both together, dedi-

6 xaXcei>j

dwo

rrjs

T^x" 7?* # eo
r&

rotj iv ZafjwdpdKr).
7

cated each by a separate person,


iv. 1.

CIA

AVKIVOS

dvtOriKfv
:

TTJI

'A.6r)i>dcu

373 91

(cp. 382).

When

it is re-

membered

inscrr. is complete,

that hardly any of these and that they fall

vpurov TjpydffaTo BCH ii. 522, 547, De Witte, who edits it, with cut.
believes the inscr. to be genuine.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

61

work" is scratcht on a fictile vase found on the Acropolis 1 and perhaps some of the famous vase-painters whose names also appear there, such as Aiidocides 2 Nearchus", aud EuphroThe nius 4 may have dedicated a choice piece of their own.
;
, ,

phrase "with his hands" inscribed on another block may be 5 the same by one reading may be interpreted in the same way said of one of the pottery tablets at Corinth 6 An Aeginetan
; .

artist

statue for his deity Another inscription, appar8 from records Corinth that Midonidas offered a piece ently which he had himself painted; and a similar formula is found
.
,

made a

An Athenian vase bears the figure of the goddess Athens 9 " Callis made and armed, and upon the shield is the legend 10 dedicated it to Athena Health ." We may perhaps take as the workman's first attempt a rough obelisk of terra-cotta found at Metapontium, and dedicated by a potter to Heracles".
at
.

and dedicated

bronze statuette of a youth, ascribed to the fifth century, 12 to the goddess at Rhamnus, is a firstfruit
.

13 it may Ecphantus's offering from Melos was made by himself 14 have been the column, or a statue upon it Iphicratides of
;
.

Naxos

also dedicated an
;

offering to Delian Apollo

which he

made himself 16 and


potter's

Tisagoras, "whoever he was," dedicated an

son, perhaps an apprentice,


:

dedicates a vase at Athens

CIA
c

iv. 1.

Kohl, Imagines xv. 5, Collitz ii. 1643 x</*> /&"<* 'Hpa/c\^s. XiK6/*ax<5s
/*'

373
1

M?.

^7r6ei, 6

TOL Kpa/j.evs

fj.'

dv^Orjice.

CIA

iv.

1.

373

12

b,

f has

dfc 8t

f iv dv0puiroi<!
p.
iv. 1.

So^av txn v o.ya6dv.

SfK&Tijv.

potter's son dedicates no.

Roberts,
12

373 w.
2 CIA iv. 1. 373 215 ; Klein, Griech. Vasen mil Meistersign. 188, etc. 3 CIA iv. 1. 373 91 Klein, 38.
;

CIA

302; see fig. 7, p. 62. 422 16 AwrucXe^s oWvibs

OTJKCV

'Eravdpidov
17

oTnjapxV r6v6e
rtpevos.

0tdi rrjiSe

r6d'

x ei

Lysi-

cleides

was perhaps a better craftsman


irat

4
5

CZ.4.iv. 1.362; Klein, Euphronios.

CIA
;

iv. 1.

37S 249

than poet. 13 1GA 412


r65'

Ai6s 'E^dj/rwi dtai

Reading avTOir6fia with 3119 M but see p. 81 4


.

Collitz

iii.

a/xei^j iryaX/Ma, aol -yhp ttrevxh-

^ievos TOVT' ^rAecrere

yptyuv.
;

7 8

IGA IGA

352 'Ap\iuv tirolr)<re. 36 a p. 170 Mt8au5as


17 *

u
Zypaij/e

&ya\fj.a is

any precious thing

Kaj^Tj/te.

tripod in two inscrr., Herod, v. 60, 61, cp. Paus. x. 7. 3 (quoted by Roberts,
p. 32).
15

CIA iv. 1. 373 ^Toiet /cdv^/ce run Oewi, on the fragments of a small
column.
10

BCH xii.
6

464 fi<f>iKpaTiS^
iroi^tras

n' dvt-

0-riKf

Nd|toj

AM

(very archaic).

xvi.

154 'A077ca<H 'Yytelai


Kal

The base has rams' heads and gorgoneia carved on


it.

KdXXis

lirolrjcrt

dv^t]Kv.

62

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

FIG.

7.

Workman's

dedication.

Roberts, p. 302.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

63

iron group of Hercules and the Hydra at Delphi, and iron heads of lion and wild boar to Dionysus at Pergamus, all which he had made himself and were "marvels of skill 1 ."

Perhaps the "beautiful partridge" of Protogenes, dedicated at 2 The wording of an Rhodes, was offered with the like feeling ancient inscription on the steps of the old temple at Syracuse
.

3 Of the same kind will be the suggests a maker's dedication two amphorae dedicated at Erythrae, by a master and pupil, who
.

Palamedes Fortune at Corinth 6 Parmenion a painter painted the dice which he had invented a pig so naturally that those who saw it expected a grunt and 6 this he dedicated The outline which traditionally suggested
the thinner
.

held a contest to see which could

make

is

said to have dedicated in the shrine of


.

to Butades of Sicyon the moulding of portraits in clay, was 7 Eubulides of Athens, too, preserved in the Nymphaeum
.

8 Two sacrificial vessels made and dedicated a statue of Apollo are made and dedicated to Pan and the Nymphs by the same
.

man 9

on this principle I would explain the bronze Apollo, with an inscription in silver letters declaring that 10 There is no Charidamus dedicates it as a tithe to Athena
.

It is

Paus.

x. 18. 5.
el

Eudocia, no. 994:


ro.i>rt\v
o{>

5t
rif

x/"7

T *l v

ex argilla similitudines Butades Sicyonius figulus primus invenit Corinthi


filiae

vfjcrov

/.LOVOV

neyicrrtf}

opera, quae capta


illo

amore

iuvenis,

KoXoo-cry ffeftvvvai, ciXXa Kal fffj-iKpordT^


TLVL

dirdpai dva.0rifj.aTL-

e/cet

yap

Kal 6

(caX6s

wepdi

yv,

rb

TOV

Hpuroyfrovs

peregre, umbram ex facie eius ad lucernam in pariete lineis circumscripsit, quibus pater eius impressa

abeunte

v/j.vo>j/j.evoi>

irdpepyov.

argilla

typum

fecit

et

cum

ceteris

IGA

Xwvt 6
4
5

509 K\eo/?v77s tirol^e ruireT&CTV?...DO the words refer


?

to part of the temple

induratum igni proposuit, eumque servatum in Nymphaeo donee Mummius Corinthum everterit trafictilibus

Pliny,

NH xxxv.
ii.

12. 46.

dunt.
Frazer's
it
8 9

Paus.

20.

with
11. ii.

Paus.

i.

2. 5.
:

note.

Eustathius on

308 says

AM
Kal

xxi. 437, Attica

ffTrovSrjs KO.\

was a draughtsman, and dedicated at Argos perhaps Palamedes distributed


;

\ifldvov 6e\KT^pia

xa ^ K ^ a
QiJKe

retinas

HavL

re

Ntf/i0cus

<ptpwv

NO/UK 6s.
6v/j.ia-

the set
arrns.
6

as Alexander

did with

his

Space on top for


r^piov.
10

airovSelov

and

Corp. Paroem. Gr.


6

i.

p.

412 nap^56-

IGSI2274
;

XapL8a/j.os'A.0Tivala(. 8e-

/jLfviuv

wypd</>os

ui>

ypd\j/as dv^dr/Ktv
ol

xarav

archaistic, probably of the 1st

yv Kal
KOVV.
7

(p<>)i>T]v

d(f>Uvai

6eu/j.evoi

or 2nd cent. B.C.


(there were

The makers' names

Pliny,

NH

xxxv. 43. 151 fingere

two makers) were engraved on lead and put inside unluckily they
;

64

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


in dedicating the statue of one god to another, except be dedicated as a work of art or a thing of value It
1
.

meaning
it

can hardly have been dedicated by this man, as a tithe of war. Perhaps too the curious cast bronzes, found in the Idaean
cave of Crete, are the maker's masterpiece 8 I suggest this because they include two or three scenes cast in one piece a
. :

war-galley manned, a man milking a cow, and other incongruous scenes together. Each scene has its own base, so they were meant to be separated but there seems no reason why they
;

should be dedicated together unless as specimens of the maker's


art.

somewhat

fanciful extension of this idea suggests to the

literary

man

the dedication of some of his work.

Plato

is

using

metaphor, no doubt, when he speaks of the mottoes at Delphi as the "firstfruits of wisdom" dedicated by Solon and other 3 and Pindar, when he uses the dedicatory verb of wise men his odes* but Heraclitus dedicated his book in the temple at 5 The poems of Hesiod appear to have been dediEphesus cated on Mount Helicon, where Pausanias saw them engraved
; ;
.

on ancient tablets of lead 8

At Delos were the poems


,
.

of

Alcaeus and the astronomy of Eudoxus 7 and at Lindus the A "golden book" was dediSeventh Olympian of Pindar 8 cated at Delphi by the poetess Aristomache, who had won 9 The custom was not confined to a prize at the Isthmia
.

Carthaginian traveller Hanno dedicated his 10 Oenopides of log-book in the temple of Baal at Carthage Chios dedicated an astronomical table of bronze at Olympia";

Greece

for the

cannot be made out, but one was a Bhodian. 1 For Panofka's view see the final
essay, ch. xiv.
2

it

Diog. Laert. ix. 6 avfOrjice Se avrt> rb rijs 'Apr^iuSos Iep6v.

Paus.
is

ix.

31.

4.

Whether

in

temple
727
;

not stated, nor the dedi-

Mus.

It.

ii.

see

fig. 8.

cator.
7

Plato, Protag. 343 B; cp. Paus. x. 24. 1. Isocrates also uses the meta-

Dar. and SagL, Donarium 378. Schol. Pind. Ol. viii., p. 157,
Plut. Quaest. Conv. v. 2. 9.

phor (Law* Hel. 29


4

p. 219).

Bockh (Lindian Athena).


'AX^eoO
xi.
9
10

Pind.

01.

xiii.

35

4v

frttOpoiffiv

aty\a

iroduv
5'

dvdKeirai;

Bosworth Smith, Carthage


Aelian,

13.

(x)

dtf>6t>v7jTos

alvos '0\v/j.wioi>lKais

VH x.

7.

OUTOJ

TITHES, FIESTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

65

Xenocrates at the Pythium on Mount Olympus, his calculations of the height of the mountain 1 In later days we find prize poems so treated. Paeans to Apollo have been unearthed in the Treasury of the Athenians
.

FIG. 8.

Votive offering, from Crete.

Museo

Italico

ii.

730.

at Delphi 2 and a hymn to Dionysus in the same sanctuary 3 Such another is Thrasyllus' all these of the fourth century. and Maleatas to Asclepius, found at EpiApollo hymn
,
;

have been found two inscriptions 5 So in shorthand, and references to a work of Aristotle 6 we see Agathias dedicating his book to Paphia Perhaps
.

daurus 4

At Delphi

also

the alphabet inscribed on a piece of pottery, and dedicated to Poseidon at Corinth, may represent a learner's first

Plut. Aemil. 15.

BCH

xxii. 269, 270.

A. received

2
3
4

BGH xix. 562, xvii. BCH xix. 392.


Collitz
iii.

561, 569.

a vote of thanks, and his work was


placed in the temple library. 9 Anth. Pal. vi. 80.

3342

(dvterjKe is used).

R.

66
'

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
' ;

masterpiece
others 2
.

and the

same explanation

may apply

to

offering in kind was often commemorated by a model. no reason to think that the models took the place of the tithe or firstfruit; it is rather to be supposed that they

The

There

is

accompanied the

offering,

and were meant

to

keep

it

in

mind.

Thus we

three cities sending "golden harvestings" or sheaves to Delphi 3 and eleven ears of corn, silver gilt, were
find
,

among
upon a

the Parthenon treasures in the


8
.

-fifth

century

At a

later date other gilt corn -ears are


little pillar

mentioned here, standing


golden
olive

For a similar reason, doubtless, Selinus


.

sent a golden
7
;

head of celery 8

appears at

8 golden vine-clusters at Delos and at the shrine of Oropus 9 at Delos was also a golden seathe Cabiri near Thebes
;

lavender 10

tribe, sent to Delphi a head of the precious silphium an offering small indeed, and 11 All these are menperishable too, if it were not a model
.

The Ampeliots, a Libyan


;

tioned by the way, but they were certainly not alone Pliny 12 adds a golden radish, a silver beet, and a turnip of lead private offerings no doubt.
:

Many
1

of the animals mentioned in the Inventories, or found

in excavations,
Oollitz
iii.

may have had a


;
.

similar origin.
irore
7

Some may have


<?Xafa xpv<ri).
ayi*?reXoj

3019 k IGA 20 13 As that from Calymna, Inscr. Brit.


It

xpwovv
i.

ai\t.vov dvadflvat

IGS

3498 61
xiv.

Miw. 123.

may

however have been


;

BCH
poiai,

406

meant

for a

charm

alphabets have

Also
9

nr}\oi>,

perhaps

parts of

been found in tombs,

IGA

390,

and on

ornaments.

a vase placed there 524. 3 Plut. De Pyth. Or. 16

IGS

i.

2425 a 9a.\\w
30

a/j.irt\ov.

OtpT, \pvvS.
vi.

10

BCH vi.
/cat

\ein6viov.

(Myrina, Apollonia);

Strabo
8t

264

"

Schol. Arist. Plut. 925 = Eudocia,


ol

(Metapontium),
Kriffft.a...oi>s

Hv\lwv

\tyerai.

no. 226:
At/Sifyj,
ffi\<plov,

OVTUS dirb yewpytas evrvxyei>

AfX<

ffai (jxiatv

wffTt 0tpos \pvoovv

avaOuvai.

The ear

of

corn

AeX^ots was a
:

ws

<j>ij<nv

'A\t!;a.i>8pl8r)s.

The
the

Libyans
Pelasgi
1S
:

were

connected

with

device on the coins of Metapontium Head, Hist. Num. 62.


4

Ridgeway, Early Age 230. xix. 86 ut est Graeca Pliny,

NH

CIA CIA

i.

161 9

\riiov

TTfpixpvffov ffra-

vanitas,

fertur

in

templo
ibi

Apollinis

X
5

AI, B.C. 434.


ii.

Delphis

731 <TTaxi>S Iv irvpylffKwi

XoXxtDi lTrl\pwroi. 8 Plut. De Pyth. Or. 12

praelatus raphanus, ut ex auro dicaretur, beta ex argento, rapum ex plumbo.

adeo

ceteris

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

67

been dedicated as ornaments or trinkets; and yet it is not un1 likely that the Athenian silver duck was a poulterer's offering
or that the goats and
.

rams given at Delos by Parmenion and Timoxenus were firstlings in model 2 At the Argive Heraeum were found the duck, the cock, the sheep, and the cow 3 Oxen, and of a suchlike found the ruins sheep, pigs amongst temple
.

may be memorials

of sacrifice

4
;

but

it is difficult

so to regard

may mention, then, that models of horses were dedicated in the ancient shrine of
I

the riderless horse and the mare.

Taenarum 7 Delos 8 at Dodona 9 at 12 most ancient of Olympia in Crete", and in the Heraeum all. Bulls, rams, stallions and brood-mares will come under 13 a different category although it is possible that some of these
,

Menelaus 5
10

at

Calaurea 6

were model

firstlings.

kind which is sometimes seen iu the hands or upon the knees of votive statuettes may represent the
fruit or offering in
firstfruit or tithe.

The

There

is

direct evidence for the hunter's dedication of a

model of his prey. Hesychius tells how a Samian hunter made such an offering to Hera in his native isle 14 Another example
.

will

be the bronze hare dedicated to Apollo at Priene 15


ii.

Cakes

CIA

698

n 21
49

vrjrra dpyvpa.
ffK<i(piov...dirb

AZ

xl.

333:

oxen

and

BCH

horses,

vi.

34

TUV
Tt/oi6-

aly&v

KO.I r(av

rpdyuv wv dv^&rjKav

bronze and clay, in the lowest stratum. 9 Carapanos, pi. xx. 4 bull, xxi. 1
mare, 2 ram.
Bronzen, 28 foil. all strata, lowest mostly horses and cattle pi. xi xiii.
;
:

lej'os Kal Hapfj.ei>i<j}i>.

If not, they were

living firstlings

but in that case we

10

should expect rt/xi? to be added, with the value. I assume the models to

bull, ox, horse,

have been melted and cast in form of a cup the formula is regular for this
:

u Mus.
Ida)
; ;

Ital.

mare, pig, ram, goat, 727 milch cow (Cave of

process (cp. line 51

iffVKrripiov

Aa<ov
is

Kal rpdywv).

awb rijs Note that a calf

906 bulls, rams, etc. (Cave of 914 pi. xiv. goat, ox, cow, ram, Dicte)
etc.
12

offered for a
vi.

good harvest in Anth.


10

(Cave of Hermes), Bull, cow, ox, goat.

Bronzes

Pal.
3
4

258.
:

ff .

Bronzes
See

44, 47, 22, 27.

13

Below,

p.

75.

Mandrabolus chapter vin. certainly dedicated a model of the


sacrificial
8 6
7

Hesych.s.u. RaraKdpas- dijoravra 6v6fj.ara [perhaps only one, after all]


fTriy^ypairrai 5
rijj"H/>as iep$
"H/jfl
eirl

14

animal.

dvaOtf/j-aros

r(j>

Rev. Arch. xxx. 13, early 6th cent.

ovrw Bora Kdpas Sa/uoj


aviOyKe.

AM xx. 308.

rfySe

0-^p-ijv

Frazer, Pausanias,

ii.

p. 397.

15

IGA

385, Roberts 153, Cat. Brit.

52

68

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


were offered to Artemis at Patrae at the
1
.

in the form of deer feast of Elaphebolia

As

late as the sixth

century after Christ

FIG.

9.

Votive hare, from Priene.

in Egypt places a model of his antelope on a pillar, and dedicates it to Isis, with an inscription which he proudly 2 Others are perhaps claims to have carved with his own hand

a hunter

the deer of silver or gold Many other animals are


:

mentioned

in the Delian inventories

8
.

named

in the lists

which may have a

similar origin, though it is impossible to say that they were not toys or ornaments at Delos were two silver beasts in a wooden
4

cage

at

Athens a basket with ivory beasts in


:

it

There was
"
:

Mus. Br. 237


1

'Air6\\uvi T (date

Inscr. 1043,

from Coptos
(?)

fji

dv^6rjKv

'H(f>a.iffTi(i)v

about

avtOriK 'A flavour a


y\v<f>ldt y\d\f/as
3 4

dopxa5a

500).

See

fig.

9.

The bronze hare


:

rbv
.

found on the Athenian Acropolis apCat. pears to have had a handle Bronze Acrop. Mus. 463.
1

BCHvi.

34 32
31

BCH vi.
CIA
ii.

dpyvpS.

II

Iv

Athen. xiv. G46

E.
xii.

678 A
;

n9
59 .

KO.VOVV

Iva.

TO.

Classical Review

282, Br.

Mus.

i.va.

fwio

cp.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

69
.

a bronze bison's head at Delphi, dedicated by a Paeonian chief 1 It is difficult to doubt that models of beasts of prey or the chace

For such groups often, if not generally, the hunter's gift. as the bull attacked by a lion, found at the Heraeum a and the
were
,

stag
it is

brought down by hounds, two


,

at least of which kind were


is

found at Olympia 3 the explanation


for the figures of

practically certain

and

lions, bears, stags, hares and likely rabbits which have been unearthed at Olympia 4 at the shrine
,

of Menelaus 5

at the

Cabirium 6 at Calaurea
,

7
,

at

Athens 8 at
,

FIG. 10.

Hare, from Olympia. Bronzen xiii. 209.


9
.

FIG. 11.

Stag on stand, from Olympia.

Bronzen

xiii.

205.

Naucratis

From

the Argive

Heraeum come the

stag,

the
:

wild goat, and wild birds with long beaks, in pairs or singly 10 these last belong to the stage of geometric decoration. Heads 11 of lions, eagles and other creatures were probably ornamental
.

Paus.

x. 13. 1.

BOH xix.
It is

Dr Waldstein.

worth noting

Cat. Acr.

171 (Boeotian shrine). Mm. Br. 524 deer, 463

that a colossal group of a bull attackt by a lion was found on the Athenian
Acropolis.
3
4

hare;
lions

53843, 46475, eagles and may have been parts of larger


and Gardner, Naucratis
19, 21, 37ft.
vii.
191
i.

objects.
pi. xiv.

Bronzen,
Bronzen,

219, 220.

Petrie
ii.

pi. xi.

etc. roe, xiii.

213 stag, 207, 207 a See figs. 208, 209 hare.

14,
10
11

56 lions.

Bronzes: nos.
Plataea

10, 11.
5 6 7

AJA
vi.

406

/Sou/ce^aX?;.
;

Rev. Arch. xxx. 13, lions.

Delos

BCH
:

49

irporow \fovros

AM xv. 356, hares, bears. AM xx. 322, hares, rabbits

Athens
;

see Indices.

cp.

70

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS,

his work,

The workman or artist might dedicate a picture or model of when the work itself was not suitable for the purpose. Mandrocles, who built Darius's bridge over the Bosporus, spent
.

part of the fee in a picture of the bridge, which he dedicated to Hera in Samos for a firstfruit 1 A shoemaker dedicated a stone
relief of

a shoe to an Athenian hero 2

have met with no

other certain example of the kind, but perhaps the models of the temple at Delos, preserved amongst its treasures, and the wooden
pattern of the tiles were dedicated by the master mason. It is a pretty thought which suggests the dedication of the workman's tools, after a successful job, or when they or the owner
,

are past work.


classical
;

have found no direct evidence

for this in the

4 but both legend and history prove that it was in age The Argo was dedicated accord with Greek ways of thought. to Poseidon after its famous voyage 5 Meleager, it is said, dedi.

6 cated in Corinth the spear with which he slew the great boar and a story of Cimon from the year 480 implies the same idea.

were hurrying out of the city to take refuge in Salamis, Cimon was the first man that went with a life and jollity into the castle, carrying a bit of a bridle
the Athenians,
read,
"

When

we

to consecrate unto the goddess Minerva signifying that the city had no need of horsemen at that time, thereby, but of mariners and seamen 7 ." Eighty years later, it is on record
in his
:

hand

that Xenophon's men, their long march over, consecrated their


1

Herod,

iv.

88

dtr'

uv

5rj

Mavdpo-

the third century or later.


3

K\TJS dirapxriv, f<pa ypa\j/dfj.vos irdvav TT)V i^fv^iv TOV Bo<nr6pov, (cat flaffi\{a re

BCH

vi. p.

105, irapa.deiyfj.aTa
Kfpa.fj.i5wi>

p.
firi

48 17Z TVITOV
T&V

!-ti\u>ov

rCiv

Aapelov iv Trpofdpiy Karrintvov, ccat TOV ov avTov diafialvovTa, ravTa ypa\f/daW0i7*ce fs TO 'Hpaiov, tTriypd\f/as
E6ffiropov
ix.Ov6ei>Ta

KepaTwva. They may of course have been sent in by the contractor,

yeQvpdxras

and kept for reference; but if so, why were they preserved afterwards ?
*

Ke
*' fitoifft,

Mav5poK\tw "Hpij iwyv-bawov avT$ /u.iv ffT^<f>avov Trtpideis, 2aAapeiov /3a<n\^os ticTeXeSee Anth. Pal. vi. 341.

quoted
(0apo?,

Unless the passage of Alcman, on p. 276 1 be rightly inter,

5t KvSos

preted as the dedication of a plough


schol.

ffas /card vovv.


a

aparpov

in

MS.
ii.

and
;

Pollux

vii.

89

i7/)wj 'A.6rivr]ff<.i>

6 tiri

papyrus, so also Herodian


ipapovv dporpidi* Hesych.).
s
6 7

942 13

/SXat/T?;' /SXatfrTys

aW07;Ke
\idivov
title

yap

TIJ

<r/ci/Tor<S/ttos

411.

The

TVTTOV. Gp. CIA iii. doubtless refers to the

Apollod. Paus. ii.


Plut.

i.

9. 27.

7. 9.
;

hero's figure.

The dedication

is

not

Cimon 5

North's transla-

early, for reliefs of this sort belong to

tion, p. 494.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,
staves

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

71

upon a cairn which they there built where first they had These indications are too scanty to caught sight of the sea decide how far the customs recorded in later poems of the Anthology are true of earlier times but in these all sorts and conditions of men seem to conform to them. The hunter hangs club and of Pan 2 or dedicates a on a in honour tree dog-collar plane 3 When he wants a rest, he spear to Pan and the Nymphs " 4 " entrusts his bow and arrows to Artemis during the truce when he is too old to work, he leaves his gear to Pan 5 Traps The fisherman dedicates and snares are dedicated to Hermes 6 9 8 7 rods, nets, and creels trident and other tackle his very boat
1
. ; , . ;
. .

retiring from business offers to Pallas saw and axe, plane, auger, and footrule 10 The goldsmith, gone blind with age, gives over to Hermes the file, tongs, and
to

Poseidon.

The carpenter

blowpipe of his calling


his

11

gardening
13
.

tools to

A plowman dedicates his plow and all Deo 12 The lucky delver, on finding a
.

axe

Athena his rake, shovel, pick, and So Lucian's Timon, when he accepts the offers of Plutus, exclaims " my spade, and beloved leather jerkin, now it were
treasure in the earth, offers to
:

well to dedicate you to Pan ." The harpist dedicates his lyre 15 to Phoebus Spinther the cook, on leaving service, places in
.

14

the shrine of

chopper and

and pans, pestle and mortar, and sponge, and the key of 16 the pig-sty The grim pedagogue superannuated remembers 17 Hermes, and hands over his cane and tawse and skullcap
his pots
ladle, fan, flesh-fork
.
.

Hermes

Ascondas the writer, appointed tax-collector, gives his writing


1

Xen. Anab.

iv.

7.

26

dverifffffav
f3a.KT-r)pias

6 7

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal.

vi.
vi.

296.
192, cp. 107 (Pan),

Sep/MTUv ir\ij9os w/uo/Soei'wc KCU


Kal
2 3

TO.

aJx/uaXwra y^ppa. Anth. Pal. vi. 35, 106, 107.

4, 5,
8

25

30, 38.
vi.

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal.

1116,

23, 24, 33.

^n^.Pai.vi.6,57,177,cp.l76. The epigram recording the dedication of a

9 10

vi. 69, 70, cp. 90. vi. vi. vi.

Anth. Pal.
Pal.

103, 204, 205.


92, 95.

bow and quiver (326)


salcas (9)
;

is

clearly modelled of

u Anth.
12

on the well-known epigram


but here "
this, to

Mna-

Anth. Pal.

104, cp. 21 (Pria-

my

arrows are

pus).
ls
14

in the quarry " is ridiculous.

fine

Anth. Pal.

vi.

297.

huntsman
4
5

waste
121.

all his shafts

and bag nothing.


Anth. Pal.
vi.

15
1S 17

Lucian, Timon, 42. Anth. Pal. vi. 83.


Anth. Pal.
vi. vi.

306. 294.

Anth. Pal. vL 73, 109.

Anth. Pal.

72

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

materials to the Muses

length done, consecrates to and basket 2 The same thing is seen where a person changes his manner of living. Nicarete turns music girl, and dedicates
.

The working woman, her task at Athena shuttle and spindle, bobbins

her bobbins and quiddities to Aphrodite 3 Bitto offers her to found at the of Athena, Keptei<; having age thirty that more 4 is the cult of on the same Courtesans profitable Aphrodite
.

and dress to Aphrodite. The occasion is not but it is now a lawful marriage 7 or again always stated when old age has robbed the woman of her beauty, and her 8 On the last occasion, one offers a bronze mirror, day is past 9 When Alexis the sandals, girdle, ringlets, and other symbols eunuch sickens of effeminate revelry, he leaves his cymbals and 10 other gear in the shrine Cleitosthenes too can no longer use his musical instruments, so to Cybele fall the tambours and
;
,

principle of ornament 8

make

free to dedicate their mirrors 5 or other articles

11 eunuch dying of excesses cymbals, the flutes and the knife gives to Priapus his muslins and false hair, his box and his
.

After the orgies, Porphyris of Cnidus gives garlands, and anklet to Dionysus 13 Many of these epigrams are half and now we are serious, only prepared to find the poet
pipes
.

12

thyrsi,

playing with the idea.

The

effect is pretty

enough when the

labouring ox,
is

outworn with
;

14 peace and rest

dedicated in his old age to but one Xenophon, after making a night of it,
toil, is
:

frankly impious

Bibbing Bob to Bacchus brings

These his pious offerings, Empty bottle, empty pot All that Bibbing Bob has got 15

The
custom.
1

inscriptions furnish hardly anything to bear out this 16 hunter dedicates his club in a late inscription

Anth. Pal.

vi.

295.

Anth. Pal.

vi.

210 a

T'

ov

Anth. Pal.
3

vi. 39,
vi.

160, 247.

Anth. Pal.

285.

7>6j 10

&<$pas (Aphrodite). Anth. Pal. vi. 51 (Cybele).


vi. 94.

4
5

Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal.

vi. 47, 48, cp. 74. vi. 1, cp. vi. vi.

" Anth. Pal.


211.
12

1820,

Anth. Pal.

vi. vi.
vi.

254.
172. 228.

6
7

206, 207.

"
14

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal.

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal.

208, perhaps 206, of Lais.

207, 133.
8

15

Anth. Pal.

vi. 77.

vi. 1,

BCH

iii.

323 \aywfc.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

73
1
,

and

in

Athens we

find a spool of thread dedicated

by a woman
2
,

whilst another apparently offers a basket of soft wool both this is a in of their only perhaps given (though guess) memory

part in weaving the

woman

at Plataea,

Wool is also dedicated peplus*. or what to why deity is not known*.


,

by a
It is

not unlikely that the loom- weights and similar objects found 8 in great numbers under the soil of ancient sanctuaries were

two or three such loom-weights are name 6 Physicians at least seem to have consecrated their tools. Even if the /ca^er^pe? of Athens and Delos were not such (the word may mean a necklace 8 ), Medon certainly dedicated his probes 9 and for a later date the practice is proved by a relief in stone of a whole case
dedicated by work-people inscribed with a woman's
7
;
.

of
"

surgical

instruments 10

leaden
11

quiver

is

inscribed,

These saved us from starving ." We meet with no other tools in the Inventories which may be confidently placed in
this class but there is a fair probability for the iron anchors and the four metal ox-goads at Delos 12 and the cow-bell dedi13 cated to the Cabiri There are, however, a great many picks and mallets, fleshhooks, scrapers and choppers, and articles of female use and ornament, some of which were votive offerings and all may have been so 14 It would be rash indeed to assume that every axe was dedicated by a retiring butcher, or a mirror by some lesser Lais or Rhodopis but with this caution, we
;
, . . ;

may

briefly

review the remains.

A
.

mirror found at Dodona was

dedicated by a
1

woman Polyxena 15

Most of the objects are

CIA

ii.

757

'P68rj \iva tiri Tnjvlois

9
i

(335-4 B.C.): Artemis? 2 CIA ii. 758 38 gpia /xaXa/ca


0icrKcuL.
3

cv /caXa-

212 plate 1877, p. 166, no. 86.


i.

BCH BCH
JHS

ii.

431, Delos.
ix.,

'E<. 'Apx-

11

i.

31

TO.VTO.

yap

Treivijv Hffwcrev

As

epyaffrlvai,

two TUV

r/pyaff/Jtvuv

r^a?.
1Z

1-171

'Afloat

rd

?pia,

CIA

iv. 2.

477 d 12

BCH vi.

47

188
,

48

m
:

4
6

AJA
E.g.

vii.

407.

13

AM

xiii. pi. ix.,

AA

ix.

176, Cat.

in

the

Heraeum, Athens,
0e5w/>ij
'

Brit.

Mus. Bronzes 318

Ilvplas Ka/3/-

Crete, Tegea, Boeotia.


6

BCH
;

xi.

416
N. s.
ii.

'ABavau,

Elatea

AJA
;

593 Apxapttrras,

Proceedings of the Soc. put KCU. TTCU&. of Antiquaries, xv. 74. u See Indices.
15

cave of Hermes, Crete. 7 Indices vi. 29.

Carapanos,

pi.

xxv. 1

Ilo\v{va

BCH

BCH

ii.

421.

raytv dvridriTi TWL Ai /ecu \p^^ara (early 5th century). So in the Heraeum.

74
uninscribed.

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

They include pins, bangles, and brooches inmirrors and clasps, in the Argive Herueum 1 and numerable, 2 Dodona rings, pins, and bracelets at Olympia 3 spindles and
, ,

and brooches 8 10 11 and lamps" on the Acroearrings perfume-pots of or silver Athens, polis gold girdles and cords, and earrings at Plataea, where one woman dedicates the ornaments she wore 13 At Dodona were found spurs and horse-trappings, 15 14 knives and tools at Elatea picks and mallets at Athens 17 16 axes and knives at Delos are recorded ox-goads and spits 18 while quantities of iron spits were found in the Heraeum A remarkable example of the dedication of the tool when its work is done, is the story of Pheidon king of Argos. Pheidon, we are told, was the first to coin money in Aegina and he dedicated the metal rods, which formerly past current, in
pins at 9 mirrors

Delos 4 and Tegea


,

pins

bangles

19 the temple of Hera in Argos It is interesting to note that of metal rods have been found there, and large quantities
.

some
1

iron

objects

of

huge
viii.

size,

which the discoverers are


14
15

Dr Waldsteiu

and AJA

210,

Carapanos,

pi. Hi., liii.

224.
2 3

BCH xii. BCH

60.

Carapanos, pi. 1, li. Bronzen von 01. pi. xxi


ff.,

1B

Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes

31934,

xxiii.,

33648.
17

454
4

474.
vi.

vi.

48

171

povirdXiva, 87 note

BCH
u
,

31

17
,

46

157 - 167
;

CIA

ii.

751
5

certainly votive.
67.

18

DrWaldstein.

For these however


s.v.

AM\.

see below, chap. xiv.


19

6 Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 243. All these are votive, if the inscr. (no. 428) refers to them ol rafilat rdde xaXxia
:

Etym. Magn.
tv Aiyivff

d/JeXtV/cos

irdv-

tKO\jsfv
/cat

Kol 5oi)s r6
6/3eXi'<TKOi;j,

...{rvXX^cwres, Atds Kparepofypovi Kovprji

dva\a^<j)v TOI/J
iv 'Ap^et "Hpa.

dv^OrjKf

dvftwav.
7

rfj

For iron currency

8 9

Cat. Acrop. Mug. Bronzes 241 Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 214
Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes

2.

of

this

sort see Ridgewa)', Origin of

5.

Coin and

2369.

The

iron

Weight Standards, 214 ff. flovwdpovs <5/3eXot)s which

10
11

Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 243.


Cat. Acrop.

12

Mus. Bronzes 2501. Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 425


vii.

Bhodopis sent to Delphi as a tithe an early currency were perhaps


(Herod,
ii.

135).

Plutarch calls them


Or.
14.

7.
13

'obelisks':

De Pyth.

The

AJA

406 {^vy dpyvpd,


tv&Tiov,

d/ti/udrta
T&-

Svo

xpvffa,

'flvibx*

^0'

word meant originally a long straight What was the iron currency of spit.
Sparta?

avrfjs.

For a more probable explana-

tion see below, p. 251 2 .

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,
inclined to explain as the

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.


largest

75
I

multiple of the mint.

suggest, but with diffidence, that the same principle may explain a curious entry of twenty-one golden letters in the 1 list of the Chalcothece at Athens Could this be the old
.

Athenian
official

alphabet, dedicated when Euclides changed the 2 script in 403 ? The dedication of an alphabet would

not be unexampled, if Newton was right in regarding one found at the temple of Apollo in Calymna as votive 3 and
;

an alphabet

painted on one 4 dedicated to Poseidon


is
.

of

the

Corinthian tablets

It is a step further in artistic expression, when the devotee attempts to express by his offering the act or process which the deity has blest to his prosperity. The evidence is scanty,

but quite clear. Nothing else can be meant (for a portraitmodel is out of the question) by the model of a stone-ram
dedicated on the Athenian Acropolis, with an inscription which admits of no mistake 5 We may therefore interpret in the
.

same way the bronze ram inscribed to Apollo Maleatas 6 and 8 9 the rams found or recorded at Delos 7 Dodona Lycosura 11 10 A group such as the brood-mare Olympia and Naucratis 12 a several of which were found at Athens foal, again, suckling 13 and at Olympia can hardly be mistaken or the stag brought
, , , , ,
.

down by hounds,

also found at
15
.

a cow, from Crete

This

is

14 or the man milking Olympia the most likely interpretation of


;

CIA

ii.

721

15

xapaKTrjpes AAI, cp.

720.
2

ABrAEZH9IKAIOOIIPSTT4>X,
rj

Carapanos, pi. xxi. 2. Frazer, Pausanias, iv. p. 370. 10 Bronzen von 01. xii. 195.

there

being no vowel or \f/: aspirate), w,


,

(H was the
i.

n
14.
12

Petrie

and Gardner, Naucratis,

Roberts, Epi-

graphy, 106. 3 5th century: see Inscr. Brit.


123, Roberts, p. 19.
4 5

Cat. Acr.

Mm.

Br. 480, 481.


xiv.

Mw.

13

Bronzen von
fig.

01.

217,

218.

See
14

12.

1GA
TI)I>

20

13 .

Bronzen
fig. 13.

von

01.

xiv.

219,

220.

Ear. 72, Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes


tiKdav
fte

See

527

rMfivalai fot8i)icev

(i.e. oxeio-v). 8 Collitz iii.

4536 MaXedra

bis.
;

But

it

may be
7

the sacrificial victim

below,

ch. vni.

15 Mus. Ital. ii. 727. Although this group is cast along with two others, not connected with it, in one piece, we may argue from the type equally as if it had been dedicated alone.

BCH vi. 34 49

but see above, p. 67.

76

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

FIG. 12.

Mare and Foal, from Olympia.


1

Bronzen

xiv. 217.

which could not have been sacrificed; and may be the right interpretation of some creatures which
the models of stallions
,

FIG. 13.

Stag attacked by hounds, from Olympia.

Bronzen

xiv. 220.

3 2 could, the bulls of Argos of the Cabiri of


,
,

Dodona 4

of

Olympia

of Athens
1

6
,

of Crete

7
,

of Naucratis

8
,

the fine bull engraved on

Bronzen von
15. I

01. xii. 171, xiii. 194,

so indistinct that nothing definite can

perhaps xiv. 216 (bird on rump).


fig.

See
493,

be

made
4

of them.
:

Cat. Acr.

Mm. Br. 4836,


v.

Bronzes

24, etc.

498.

omit the horses of Corinth


Pausanias,
545),

3 4
5 6

AM xv.

365.

(Frazer,

Crete,

Delos, Therapne, the Cabirium, and other places, where the sex cannot be
distinguished. This is the case with the early terra-cotta animals, innumerable

Carapanos, xx. 4. Bronzen von 01. xii. 187. Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. 517, a

fine

creature.
7

Mug.

Ital.

ii.
i.

736 (Ida), 906 (Dicte).


14.

and found

in

many

places, but of

form

Naucratis,

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

77
1
,

a silhouette plate found near Apollo's temple at Metapontium The sire, or the dam and the Athenian or Olympian boar 2 with young, thus embodies as it were and sums up the
.

FIG. 14.

Boar, from Olympia.


xii.

Bronze n

196.

FIG. 15.

Stallion,

from Olympia.
194.

Bronzen

xiii.

horse carrying two jars, found in Cyprus, in oil 3 one laden with loaves or fruit in traffic suggests have been also dedicated to Cabirus by a trader 4 baskets may
breeder's work.
;
.

Groups

like the

milch-cow in milking and the stag at bay re;

present the dedicator's work more fully and a similar thought may have caused the dedication of a cart drawn by oxen,

found in the Dictaean cave


dedicated in

5
.

The

hunter's dog was sometimes


6
,

effigy, as a late Lesbian inscription testifies


1

and

a poem of the Anthology offers a "stone dog instead of a real one." These may explain the model hounds of Lusi in 9 Arcadia 8 and the Cabirium and the model hawks of Naucratis 10
,
.

A JA

iv.

28

ff.,

figured.

Mr Emer-

Annual of
vi.
ii.

the
fig.

British School at
39.
'

son, the editor, suggests this explana-

Athens
6

108,

tion as a guess, along with a symbolical interpretation which is quite untenable.

IGI

TT\V KVVO.

514 6ea neyd\rj KXatfSios Aowaavdj


'

The and

was noted for agriculture breeding, as the corn and bull devices on coins of Metapontium and
district

Anth. Pal.

vi.

175, 176

(Pan and

Nymphs).
8 9

Thurii go to show.
2

Cat. Acr.
196.

Mm.
of

Br. 479, Bronzen

Jahreshefte iv. 48, xv. 356.

fig.

64.

AM

xii.

Sanctuary

Golgi

Cesnola,

10 Naucratis, i. 14. I do not forget the connexion of hawks with Egyptian

Cyprus, 140. horse carrying two jars was found in the prehistoric palace of Phaestus (Crete) while I was
xv. 357.
4

worship,

but there

is

no reason

to

AM

separate

them from the other animals.

Why

should the sacred Egyptian bird

there in 1900

but whether votive or

be dedicated to a Greek deity? The assumption cannot be accepted without evidence.

not there

is

nothing to show.

See also chap. xiv.

78

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1

Perhaps the golden anvil of Delos was another attempt in the same direction. In later days, at least, such models were

common. Philostratus describes how in the temple of Dionysus on Mount Nysa, were " sickles, pruning knives, and wine-presses, and all things belonging thereunto, made of gold and silver, and dedicated to Bacchus, as to one concerned in the vintage 2 ."
mention the " foundation deposit of the temple at Naucratis, which consisted of model knives and axes, hoes, rakes, adzes, chisels, trowels, with libation bowls and other such things models of a mud brick and a glazed
It is fitting also to
;

"

brick, ingots of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, all the tools and materials precious stone
:

and pieces of
used
in

the

building

The same explanation must be given of figures representing the worshipper in some characteristic attitude. There is very little evidence for this in early times. At the Argive Heraeum
was found the figure of a man cooking or something of the 4 5 sort in Cyprus, a baker kneading bread From Dodona comes a youth clad in hide or frieze cloke, and carrying a 6 At Naucratis was found a hunter's figure hunting club 7 and inscribed to Aphrodite carrying game, Perhaps the
;
.

"

statue with a hare," which

is

recorded in the Athenian

list

of bronzes on the Acropolis, may have been dedicated by a hunter 8 One statuette was found at Paestum, which I cannot
.

explain

otherwise,

although I do not suggest

the present

explanation

with

any confidence.

It

represents a

woman,

draped but without distinguishing attributes, one hand raised to support a basket or some other article which has disap-

The figure stood on a small pillar, and was dedicated peared. 9 It is impossible to suppose, Phillo to Athena as a tithe by
.

ECU vi. 47 &KHW. A plow found in Boeotia has been claimed as votive, on what grounds I know
1

168

Dr Waldstein.

JHS

xii.

140.

Both

may

be

toys or d-ydX/wtra.
6

not
2

BCH

xvii. 80.

Carapanos,
Naucratis,

pi. xiv.
ii.
.

Philostr. Vit. Apoll.

are a shade less


3

These material than the


ii.

4.

pi. xiii. 5.

8 9

CIA

ii.

742 13

dedications of real tools.

IGA

Naucratis,

i.

28.

SfKdrav.

542 TaOyvcU 4>iXXw 'Kap/j.vXiSa Not later than 500.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,
as Curtius does
1
,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

79

that a temple official dedicates a tithe of her of such pay, and without authority for without evidence pay, such a custom. The word tithe had its proper meaning at

and therefore the figure cannot be the memorial of an honourable place in the ritual, the representation that It is conceivable that is of a canephorus in some procession.
this date,

the figure represented a working woman or huxter ready to An equally puzzling trade and I can think of nothing else. object is the well-known marble disc bearing the portrait of
;

Aeneus the physician, inscribed as a "memorial of his skill 2." Style and script suit the latter part of the sixth century; and the Aeneus mentioned is probably a physician of Cos, uncle of 3 Where it came from is not known; the great Hippocrates
.

but

it

cannot be sepulchral
physician's hall
all
;

some
from

It may conceivably have adorned be votive 5 it differs in formula others I have met with, and is the unique example
.

if

it

of a votive portrait at so early a


it

date 6

Even
in

will

be more than a portrait, and


It is at
artist,

falls

so, however, here with the

rest.

least probable, then, that a successful hunts-

man,

craftsman,

trader

would dedicate
for

figure,

in

character,

thank-offering calling. Further, we have Aristotle's evidence for such a dedication


as

as

success

in

his

a thank-offering for good fortune. There was to be seen " " on the acropolis, he says, the ancient statue of a youth a the beside horse, (not figure necessarily a portrait, standing
of course
;

lucky chance rose from the lowest


1

but an image not divine) of one who by some class into that of the
vi.

AZ
CIA

xxxviii. 27, pi. 6.


iv.
1.

215
I

fj.vdfj.ara

422 u

vavpaxlas.

/j.vafj.a

r6d'

Al-

have

met with

this type of phrase

Once only on

velov
pi. 1.
3 4

<ro<t>las

larpov aplffTov, Jahrb. xii.

Jahrb.

xii. 1,

Steph. Byz.
is

s.v.
:

an early epitaph, fj.va.fia <f>i\ijfj.offijvr)s CIA i. 472, where it suits the occasion pat, which /jj>afj.a aortas does not;
moreover, there
it.

nvrjua alone
iv. 1.

found on tombs

crr/fia

is

coupled with

CIA
158

477

c,

Amorgos, Roberts

a,

b;

and

others.

Thespiae, IGA 146, 284; With the abstract noun


it is

are
p.

Votive plaques of marble like this known IGI i. 700, and Jahrb.
:

(as here <ro^as)

common on

votive

monuments.

the Jahrbuch I add


*A/>eos,

To the exx. given in CIA i. 374 fj.vdfj.a

4 note (the last from Priene). 6 The characterised figures were not

realistic portraits, so far as

we know.

Simonides in Anth. Pal.

80
1

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


.

Knights

The ancient fragment

of a

led

horse

which

is

among

the votive offerings found there

may belong

to a similar

monument*.
In a picture, of course, the craft or calling can be more and it is certain that the practice of dediclearly represented
;

common. Its prevalence cannot be measured by the few which survive, because articles like these, of no intrinsic value, were sure to be destroyed; and
cating terra-cotta tablets was

those actually found appear to be the refuse of the sanctuary But it so happens that a large deposit of them of Poseidon has been found at Corinth, and these of a high antiquity 3 Corinth was famed for its potteries in the old days, and
.

Corinthian vases were largely exported to Italy; amongst the tablets are a large number which refer to the potter's craft others relate to hunting or to agriculture, others to war or the

games. This single find is enough to show that votive offerings of all sorts were made to the patron deity of a city, irrespective
of his later traditional character.

Some

of the sherds are painted


free,

on both

sides,

and therefore must have been meant to hang

represent Poseidon, with large or without Amphitrite, sometimes with other figures such as Athena 4 or Homeric heroes 8 besides the votive inscription,
;

not against a wall.

number

6 the names are often inscribed, and in one case the furnace With two possible exceptions, the occasion is never mentioned,
7
.

nor any word said in elucidation of it, but prayers are found The figures of oxen are common, and in one case they appear to

Arist. Ath. Pol. vii. 21

eltcova..
:

He

quotes two lines of the inscr.


'AvOefj.lwv
T-f/vS'

Ai<f>i\ov

SS.
10,

Griechische und Sicilische Vasenbilder, He quotes Aeneas Tacticus xxxviii.

dvt6r)Kf Oeois,
d/j.(i\f/dfjLvo^.

OTJTIKOU

who speaks
/3oi)\ei.

of such tablets as comiinrta. <t>u<r<t>6pov

dvrl rtXovs lirirdtf


totle implies there

Aris-

mon
rj

in hero shrines:

were other figures

on dv
*
5

of the kind.
2

Jahrb.

viii.

135, no. 697.


i.

IGA IGA

20 M

20 45 'AxiXXetfs; Ant. Denk.


Jahrb.
-4
xii.

Antike Denkmaler
;

7, 8,

ii.

23, 24,

i.

7. 15.
e

29, 30

Jahrb.

xii.

flf.

IGA

20, Kat.

/cd^^oj

19,

F.

no.

der Berl. Vasensammlung (referred to More than below as F), pp. 48105.

482.
7

IGA

20 62

ri>

Si

56$

\apleffffav

1000 fragments were found. The other remains are discussed by Benndorf,

dQopfj.dv.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.


is
2
,

81

be drawing a plow

represented and perhaps a predatory fox below 8 with their vines, the grapes growing on
1
.

The vintage

FIG. 16.

Artist at
i.

work

(Corinth).

FIG. 17.

Corinthian votive tablet.


i.

Ant. Denk.

pi. 8, fig. 20.

Ant. Denk.

pi. 8, fig. 24.

One appears to record thanks after a shearing 4 We see also 5 6 the hunter and his dog wild boars and Poseidon with a hare 7
. ,

all

which may be ascribed to the huntsman's life perhaps some of the stray beasts 8 have the same origin. One tablet shows a statuary at work 9 But the potter is most chiefly in evidence. Here are miners, with pads on their heads to
;
.

or digging the clay underground with support the baskets 11 the moulds his pot on the wheel 12 or there craftsman picks
, ; ,

10

Jahrb.

xii. 31,

F. 729

cp. 44, nos.

6 p. 61 .
5

8390.
2 3

Ant. Denk.

i.

8.

13 dvtOijKe TUI

Ant. Denk.

i.

8. 24.
i.

See
2.

fig.

17.

HoreiSavi.
6

See
90.

fig.
i.

18.

Ant. Denk.

8.

This

was

Ant. Denk. Ant. Denk.


Jahrb.

8. 19,

Jahrb.

xii. 44,

originally interpreted as the fable of fox and crow, but the letters 90 are the

nos. 83
7

i.

8. 27.

beginning of a name which has since been completed, Jahrb. xii. 34.
*

xii. 15,
i.

F. 422.

Ant. Denk.
10
11

8. 20.

See

fig.

16.

IGA

20

&t0i)ice
;

HortBavJ.
xii.
;

F<F.

Jahrb.

xii.

27, F. 648.
i.
i.

See

fig.

20.

VO.KTI

airro7r6/aa

Jahrb.

23,

Ant. Denk.

8. 7.
8. 17.

524.

Collitz reads cuJroirfcta

above,

12

Ant. Denk.

R.

82

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


.

1 The stoker pokes up the gives it the finishing touches 8 furnace the vessels are stackt within it and burnt 8 out they come and are hung up in the shop 4 and finally the ship sets
, ,

8 with the articles strung in a row on the The rigging comes back the 'merchant from voyage safely accomplisht, 6 Italy or "from Peiraeus ," and pays his offering with a prayer 7 for future blessings accompanied with adoration and solemn

sail

sacrifice 8

Pio. 18.

Votive tablet, from Corinth.


i.

Ant. Denk.

pi.

8, fig.

18.

An Athenian vase-painting of the fifth century shows a scene which has been interpreted as a tradesman's thanks9 The worshipper, a bearded man with a garland upon giving
.

his head, approaches a blazing altar. On the twigs of an olive tree hang three tablets, perhaps (like those of Corinth) depict-

ing his trade


1 Ant. Denk. 3 Ant. Denk.
i.

a statuette which he has dedicated stands on a


8. 14.
8

IGA

20 5 20

IIepae60ei'

fooM.

Not

i.

8. 1, 4, 12, 15,

26;

Jahrb.
8
*
fi

xii.

44, nos.
i.

7480.
19
b.
fig.

the Athenian port. M-M 7

IGA

Ant. Denk. Jahrb.


xii.

8. 12,

Ant. Denk.
15. 19.
9 J.

i.

1. 16.

26, F. 640,
i.

E.

Harrison,

Mythology and

Ant. Denk.

8. 3.

See

fig.

Monuments of Early Athens, 461.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,
slim pillar Parthenos.
;

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

83

to the right is

Athena

Whether the

reliefs,

in the form of the armed which came into fashion in

FIG. 19.

Ship with Freight of


i.

FIG. 20.

Miners digging for potter's clay


(Corinth).

Pottery, from Corinth.

Ant. Denk.

pi. 8, fig.

3 a.

Ant. Denk.

i.

pi. 8, fig. 7.

the

fifth

and especially the fourth century, ever represented


craft,

the tradesman's

One

tithe dedication of
1
,

the remains are too scanty to show. an early date is affixt to the remains

of a relief

but there

is

too little left to determine its character.

Those which can be made out are mostly sacrificial, that is they 2 If the tithe were represent and commemorate an act of cult
.

habitually offered at the Chalces the relief might depict the ceremony at that feast. One relief, inscribed to the goddess,

shows her standing with an altar upon her left hand, and behind a votive pillar with a sunk panel in it 3 and a fragment of a similar relief shows the worshipper, a woman in this case 4 Reliefs to Zeus Meilichios, which show worshippers in the 5 presence of the deity enthroned, have been found at Athens 6 and since this deity is connected with agriculture they may be placed here. The Good Spirit has the same pose and aspect
, .

CIA
CIA

iv. 1.

373 2 418

5214, 5215.
5

2 3

See below, ch.


iv. 1.

vm.
i

'AlVafai av^O...

1408;
pi.
6
ii.

Cat. Ath. Mus. 1431, cp. 13889, 117, 119, Farnell, Cults i.

verses,
4

This and the next, if part of hex. may have read dirapxfySyhel 3253 'Adyvalai a^erjKe.

See

fig.

21.

Worshipt
;

at the Diasia

Momm-

Cp.

sen, Feste

Preller, Gr.

Myth. 146.

62

84
on another
to
relief,

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


from Thespiae, which
1
.

is

likely to

be a thankrelief

offering for prosperity

Very

late

we have a barbarous
.

2 Men, Saviour and Giver of Wealth

TAPXHAIlAlETlAlxi**.!

Fio. 21.

Dedication to Zeus Meilichios, from Athens.

We
dess
is

are but little better off with Artemis.

Since the god-

any

typically represented in huntress garb, we cannot read reference to the occasion into such representations of her;

they were the natural offering in a shrine where she was 3 Nor can worshipt, if the worshipper desired to offer an image we interpret so common a motive as holding a flower to the
.

nose, to imply that she was here regarded as goddess of vegetation 4 But sometimes a hunting scene is suggested and it is
.

not too fanciful to interpret as the hunter's thank-offering an Athenian relief which shows a naked figure, apparently in the act of shooting his arrow, with a dog, Artemis appearing in the background
1

among

rocks

8
.

So too where the goddess


ical

is

AM

xvi.

25 'Aytffrpbrov
title

Ti/xo/cpd-

3
Sa.ifj.ovi.

Such, for example, as the Corfu


:

The

was applied

to the
viii.

statuettes
4

below, ch. vin.


old Acro523.

god as giver of 36.5.


3

all

good, Paus.

As Farnell does with an


ii.

polis vase, Cults


:

BCH xxiii. 388, pi. 1

Mrjvl Zwrijpt

Sybel 4300.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.


,

85

1 2 striking the animal with arrow or spear especially if a male 1 In these the deity is conceived as worshipper is also seen
.

herself carrying out the process which she has blest. Perhaps the Macedonian relief to Fruitful Demeter is a farmer's offer3 ing Perhaps also a relief, dedicated to the river-god Hermus, is a fisherman's on a couch a male figure reclines, holding a 4 fish and a vase
.

One

class of relief

has so obvious a reference to the celebradeities, that

tions of country life

and the worship of the rural

we

may

fairly

bring

it

into connexion with the tithe

and

firstfruit.

These represent as a rule Pan and the Nymphs, sometimes The songs and dances which associated with other deities.

accompanied their festivals have been already described. The scene is a rough cavern, in which is an altar; within the cavern, the nymphs are seen dancing, clad in flowing robes which
sometimes shroud the head also. The number is usually three they hold by each other's girdles, or some part of the dress.
5 Occasionally Pan, or at times Hermes is in the cave; otherwise Pan sits in a corner, playing for them upon the pipes. The head of a river-god is usually visible to one side, and there
, ;

adoration.

are sometimes small figures of worshippers in the attitude of Apollo as god of the herds is sometimes found in

The grotto at Vari was dedicated to 6 and the Apollo, Pan, Nymphs in common and the two deities were neighbours under the Acropolis rock, where they were
the same connexion.
;

worshipt far into the


1

Roman
Br.

age

Sybel
778.

5995,

cp.

Cat.

Mus.
female

Hours:
Carpo,

see

AM ui.lSlB., Die Chariten


Such names as Auxo,

Sc.

Same

type,

with

der Acropolis.

worshipper: Cat. Br. Mus. Sc. 779. See below, chap. vi.
2
3

F-W.
Sybel

1202.

Thaleo, Pandrosos, Agraulos point without doubt to natural perBonifications; and for our purpose it
is

358
yvfi]

...

TTTTOS

KXeoTrcir/sas

'Aju/ucu'T/
(f>6fXf>

avrou

tv-)(T)v-

Demeter

A^IJT/H Kapirowith torch,


<ivt-

It is

immaterial what they be called. very doubtful whether there were


dedications to the Graces.

many

The

burning
*

altar.

authorities speak of one


'Ep/j.wi

famous ex-

AM

xix.

313 'IXapluv

Oifxev.
6

ample, made by Socrates: Schol. Arist. Clouds 773, Paus. ix. 38. 5.
6
7
'E<j>.

For Hermes see

BCH

xiii.

467.

CIA

i.

423431.
ff.,

It is impossible

now

to define clearly

'Apx- 1897, 1

87

ff.

the relation of

Nymphs, Graces, and

86

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


The

oldest relief of this class comes from Thasos, which, not votive, is interesting from its scheme Apollo, though in hand, stands on one side of a door or the opening of a lyre cave a female figure crowns him. On the other side of the
1
.

door are Hermes and three nymphs. Of the typical scene in the cave there are many examples. In one variation, Pan plays on
the pipe to three dancing nymphs, one of whom carries ears of corn in her hands 2 Another shows the head of the river-god
.

on one side 3
seated

third,

found in the grotto on Parnes, has Pan

aloft, with goats' heads indicated on the edge of the carving; within the cave, Hermes leads the nymphs in their
4 dance, and as before the river-god's head is visible fourth, this from Megara, adds the figures of four worshippers 5 Yet
.

FIG. 22.

Pan, Hermes, and

Nymphs

in grotto with altar

and worshippers.

Cat. Berl. Sc. 711.

another variant
appears to
1

is

6 seen in the Archandrus relief

Here Pan

be peeping out of his grotto upon the dance, whilst


Rayet, Man. de
<f>ais:

In the Louvre.
' '

VArt Antique,

Bas-reliefs de

Thasos "

Harrison, Myth, and Mon. 544.

viift.-

Sybel 360, cp. 387 (Megara), 1238, 3139 (Eleusis), 3753, 4212 F-W. 1839.
:

OrjXv Kal

711. ovSt -^oipov,


3
oil

Harrison, 546; See fig. 22.


Harrison, 548;
tal

Cat.

Berl.

Sc.

waiuvlftTat.

Sybel 317, 6961.


this
4

XO-vdpos
:

NiV^ats
figure

Sybel 4040 "ApIlavi. For the

Harrison, Myth, and Mon. 547 has a hole for suspension.


TijXe^dcTjy di>6r]Ke

portrait

see

AM
Attic

v.

206

ff.

This

is

the

oldest

example,

TLavl Kal Ntf/x-

5th century.

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

87

are standing

a worshipper gazes over the altar at the nymphs, who this time The figure of the dedicator seems intended to still.

be a portrait. A slab found in Rome, but of Greek workmanship, shows this scene with all its meaning refined out of it.

no cave, no Pan, but Hermes leads three very quiet a worshipper, and from behind a river-god towards nymphs 1 looks benevolently on

There

is

Three curious

reliefs

show a pair of Pans

in the grotto.

In
.

one the Pans carry each a goad, while the nymphs dance above 2 In another, of later date, the Pans have crescent horns 3 The
.

popular belief in a plurality of Pans, which was fostered by the derivation of the name from Tra? 4 has been already mentioned.
,

dedication of this piece to Cybele reminds us that Cybele and the nymphs are associated as early as Pindar 5 They are
.

The

joined in a

Tanagran
7
,

relief

worshipt together

as in

A
to

sacrificial relief to

and in the deme Phlya they were the grotto of Archedemus at Vari 8
, .

77x77/9

No/iata must belong to this class

9
.

But the mass


rustic

of Cybele dedications have no obvious reference celebrations. The female deity, with calathus on
;

head, in another relief (4th century) may perhaps be Demeter a female idol, holding two torches, meant perhaps for Hecate, 10 is present, and a smaller male figure holds a libation-jug
.

relief, even more puzzling, was found near Phalerum The slab is carved on both sides: one representing Echelus and Basile, two local heroes, in a four-horse car in the other, the

Another

11

Cat. Berl. Sc. 709.

Pans.

i.

31. 4.

another, p. Cp. Beschreibung der Glyptothek zu


;

AM AM

xxi.

pi. 8

276.

8 9

CIA

i.

423431.
'M.rjrpl

GIG

6838 M6<rxo$

Nonfat

Munchen,
3

456.
xxi.

fvxfy-

275

EWs
deuv

bioddipov

IK

10

Cat. Berl. Sc. 690.


ix.

Aafj-irrptuv

~M.ijrpl

KO.T'

iiriTay^v.

n AJA
1893,
BcunXij.

203, pi.
9,

xii.,

'E<. 'Apx"ExeXos,

iravTa Bfbv ffeninjvofiw.

128,

pi.

10.
/cai

(A)

1069 w Haves. Cp.inscr. in last note, and on the Washermen's Relief iraffi Oeois, p. 88 3 and p. 89 below. Note that other gods are represented
Arist.jEccZ.

(B) 'Ept*T)i
is

Echelus

the

NtVt^ata-w a... eponym of deme

Echelidae, Basile is Basileia (CIA iv. I do not know 1. 53 a, Diod. iii. 27).

double: Athena and Cybele for instance.

AM xxi.
5

any other votive


mythological
lost.

relief
;

with a purely

280, 'E<. 'Apx- 1890, pi. Find. Pyth. iii. 77 = 137.

i.

scene

there

some reference

to cult

must be which has been

AM

iii.

388.

88

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

three nymphs appear with a river-god, and the other figures are a youth and a bearded man who face one another. A rude piece from the bed of the Ilissus appears to be dedicated to the Naiads another shows Achelous, Hermes, and Heracles, the last two
1

pouring libations to a seated god, perhaps Zeus Meilichios*. An interesting memorial of nymph-worship is an Athenian
relief,

recording a dedication of a dozen washermen and washerTwo scenes are represented, a space being left between for the inscription. The upper scene is a grotto of

women 3

the familiar type

to

the

left

is

towards which advances Hermes


right

the head of the Achelous, leading three nymphs in the


;

haunches playing upon the pipes. lower scene represents Demeter and the Maid, facing an towards which advances a bearded man leading a horse.
his

Pan squats on

The
altar,

The

stature of the

man shows

that he

is

not human, and his horse also

That washermen suggests that we have here some local hero. should worship the nymphs down by the Ilissus 4 who sent
,

them water

to ply their trade, is as

natural as

it

is

for

the

farmer and the huntsman to thank them for their winnings. Dedications are often made to the nymphs alone. The
earliest dates

from the early sixth century 8


is

One which

is

assigned to the fifth century

fragmentary, but appears to have contained the nymphs only 6 So we find a dedication of the fourth century to them alone 7 The groups of three dancing
.

by some the Graces, would appear to belong .to and if so, they show an earlier form of the votive tablet than the cave of Pan 8 In a piece from Naples, a female hands with six others of larger size, doubtless worshipper joins 9 and Graces Nymphs together
figures, called

this class

series of reliefs

from Thrace, of the second or third


6

Xeueuriv?
'E0. 'Apx- 1894, 131.
2 3
'E<f>.

Natal AU?

AM

0eus.

xxiii. 367 ...K\fwvv6ov NifytThree Nymphs or Graces on a

'Apx- 1894, 131, pi. 7. Cat. Berl. Sc. 709 ol rXwijs


fvdfj.fi>oi.
KO.I

Samian
7

relief:

AM xxv.

172, no. 67.

Ntfjt'

<cus
*
5

ffeois va.ffw,

followed

Sybel 4038. It is dated tvl iep<?ws No. 5983 is a fragment. AffK\rfirtoi)


. . .

by names of ten men and two women.


Plato, Phaedr. 230 B.

Not inscribed. Discussed as Graces

by Furtwangler:
9
fig.

AM

iii.

181

ff.

Beschreibung
no. 241.

der

Glyptothek zu

Harrison,
7.

Myth, and Mon. 645,

M line lien,

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

89

century after Christ, may be here mentioned, although they show Four types are represented. In one (1) the a debased feeling
1
.

three figures are nude, and stand in a cave, entwined in the attitude of the familiar group of the Graces or they dance and
;

wave a

veil or

a wrap.

in various attitudes.

In another (2) they stand draped third (3) adds the figure of a priest
;

placing incense on an altar and a fourth (4) adds Zeus and horseman also Hera in large size, the nymphs being small.

appears.

The

ritual

dance and

sacrifice

representation has become artificial. are subordinated to Zeus and Hera; in the early do examples, they are always the most important figures.

here reappear, but the In the last type, the

nymphs
find,

We

however, other deities united with them. Cybele, Demeter and the Maid we have seen already 2 Dionysus and Pan are found on another piece 3 in the second century, Men appears
; ;

but the most explicit rendering of the Gods has yet to be mentioned 5 Here a table stands in the grotto, and the river-god's head is upon it. On either side is a group of deities, seven in all Zeus enthroned holds the centre, and amongst other figures which cannot be identified, we see the Maid holding two torches, and a male figure holding the horn of plenty. The three

by Pan's

side in a grotto 4

idea that

Pan

is

All

dancing nymphs are a subsidiary motive in a late relief dedicated to Isis, in which the central figure is a reclining male
person, perhaps Achelous Again, the tithe often took the form of a statue of the friendly An example in point comes from legendary times. deity.
.

Ulysses,

we

are told, being of a

mind

to breed horses, dedi7


.

cated an image of Horse Poseidon in Pheneus Bathycles of at who the his work made Amyclae, Magnesia, gold-ivory Apollo
done, dedicated statues of his patron deity Artemis and the Graces 8 Statues appear to have been dedicated in Olympia for
.

BCH

xxiii.

122

ff.

N^ats
>

et5xV;
icvplcus

5 6

Megara: Cat. Berl.

Sc. 679.
"EtcnSi.

one with a name and eyx 7?**


2

RM

xii.

146 Evvoia

e^x 1?"

Above,

p.

87

another from Aero-

Paus.

viii.
iii.

14. 5.
18. 9.

polis, AM
3 4

ii.

pi. 18.

Cat. Berl. Sc. 687.

BCH xx.

78

(cut).

Artemis Leucophryene was worshipt in Magnesia. It is easy to understand the Graces.


Paus.

90

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


who invented marble tiles
1
.

In Athens, before the battle of Salarais, Phrygia the baxter dedicated a bronze statuette of Athena armed, whose shield remains still*; other such figures remain, one being inscribed as a tithe 3 The word used on other Athenian tithe and firstfruit dedications is that
.

the Naxian builder

4 The statue is specially applied to divine figures at this date even inscribed as a "maiden "; that is, the image of Athena her.

self,

we

otherwise the offering would have no point. When further find that a private person, and he a man, dedicates as a first8

fruit 8 or tithe

of the Acropolis,
statues.

a statue of the same type as the famous Maidens and the same type is seen on reliefs to be
,

light is thrown on these mysterious Other columns of the same shape as those which bear these inscriptions, and inscribed as the tithe or firstfruit, may well have borne similar statues 8 and they were so common that 9 Thus some of them were Euripides uses them for a simile demonstrably the tithe or firstfruit thank-offering of a tradesman 10 or artisan and they may all have been such, or at least we
,

meant for the goddess 7 a new

Paus.

v.

10.

3 Noios Etiepyos

/te

CIA
ol

iv.

1,

373 9

p.

179:

yfrtt ArjTovs irope, Bi/few ircus, 8s TrpwTiffros


revise

Kopyv
r)v

a.vtOi)Kfv

awapxriv .. .\6xof

Aypas
tiroptv.

\t6ov

Ktpa.fj.ov.

He

lived

-rrovTO/dduv \pvtroT pi'aic'


is

in

the time of Alyattes.

Pausanias

This
as

not a dedication to Poseidon,

and says that Byzes dedicated them, which seems


calls the offerings d-ydX/aara,

the formula shows.

CIA

iv.

1.

373 179 Nf/cuXXos

foWrticev, base,

with the

imply that the son merely formal dedication.


to
2

made
fig.

the

statue belonging to it figured in 'E<f>. 'Apx- 1887, 134. 'E0. 'Apx- 1886, 81

Cat. Acr. Mus. Br.


xiii.
rj

260,

60,
rrji

NVap^os Hpyuv
6

a.irapx'hv.

JHS
3

124

$>pvyia

avWijice

'ABrjvatat
4

dpTOTrwXis.

Several pillar-bases in the Acropolis Museum have SeKdr^v, e.g. no. 150.
7

'<*.. 'A PX .

1887, 134.

Acrop. Mus. 581.

AyaXfjia,
'

now contrasted
It

with dK&v,

CIA

iv.

1.

373

/,

373 104

197 -

n8

a portrait.' 1. 373 10 , cp.


373202.216

occurs in

CIA

iv.
9
10

"1,218

with

wapxfr,

Eur. Phoen. 220.

with

i T1tv , 0(K<

(perhaps
Critias

therefore

a statue.

and Nesiotes, So i. 402, 403 by


Earlier,

ciA i. 375 351), made by must have been


Cresilas.
pi.

For other explanations see


573,

BCH

xiv.

AM

xiv.

493;

Collignon,

ii.

Sculpt. Gr. i. 340 ff.; Frazer, Paus. 346. All are full of difficulty ; the

See also 'E#. 'Apx- 1891, 55,


a.Trapx~/if.

figures are too

aya\na meant any


:

and there

is

numerous for priestesses, no evidence for the

ornament or precious thing


144, Hesych. s.v.
Xerot.
TTO.V t<p'
:

II.

iv.

<J5

TIS

d>dX-

Of a stone basin

Ear. 360.

customary dedication of priestesses at this date. They were not dedicated by their makers, nor would a series of

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

91

may

say that

all

were intended to represent the goddess and

to be thankofferings of some sort. Isaeus seems to allude to these divine figures, when he speaks of the custom of dedicating

The type is the simplest possible an of conception anthropomorphic goddess, without attributes. In this light we may interpret a similar series of Maidens found
firstfruits of one's

substance

at Delos

2
,

the remains of other such elsewhere 3

although there we have not the help of inscriptions the series of so-called
;

Apollos, which in their nakedness may often represent other 4 and the figures of Zeus or other gods without attributes 5 gods
;
.

Indeed, as Phrygia's armed Athena proves, any figure of a deity 6 may have been dedicated on some such occasion as these
.

few allegorical offerings

may be

mentioned.
;

There was

one at Delphi, attributed to the great Hippocrates a mouldering corpse, nothing but bones left, perhaps an articulated The people of Corcyra, who had been guided to skeleton 7 a great haul of fish by the bellowing of a bull, dedicated an
.

animal at Olyrnpia and another at Delphi 8 Aelian's account of the golden sheep of Mandrobulus was that the lost treasure of the temple had been found by a sheep 9

image of

this

There was a group of Earth praying for rain on the Acropolis at Athens 10 So far the offerings have been more or less of an ideal type
.

their value depending wholly or in part upon their meaning. But here as elsewhere the offering may be given for its intrinsic
masterpieces
all

follow one type.

The

used by Plato of dedications to the Nymphs ; Plat. Phaedr.


K6pi) is

word

regards the Delian statues as meant for Artemis.


3

Sicily
pi.

Kekule,

Terracotten von

230 B vv^Qiv r rivtav ical 'AxeX^ou lepbv dirb r&v Kopuv re Kal dya\/j.druv
ZoiKev elvai.
It is also

-Sic.,

1 (life-size).

Eleusis
8.

'E<j>.
:

'Apx* 8

1885,

179,
ii.

pi.

Marseilles

goddess Persephone.
ch. xiv.
1

applied to the See further in

Gaz. Arch.

133, pi. 31.

See ch. xrv.

Zeus: Olympia, Bronzen von 01.


Terracotta statuettes are

Isaeus,

De

Dicaeog. Her. 113

oi

vii. 40.
6

Tf/^Tepot

irp6yovoi...tv aAcpoirdXei

dirap-

common

X&s TWV &VTUV dvaOfrrfs


a7r6 ISlas KTrjffews, dydXfJMai

iroXXotj,

ws Ka '

in

xa ^K
xl.

L*

the Maiden type: VIII XIV


-

see below, ch.

\i6tvois
2

KeKOfffj.'/iKaffL

rb lepov.
;

Paus. x. Paus. Paus.

2. 6.

BCH

xiv.

573

AZ

326

8
;

x. 9. 3, v. 29. 9.

Homolle,

De Antiquissimis Dianae Simulacris Deliacis (Paris 1885), ch. 2,

9
10

Aelian, Hist. An. xn. 40.


i.

24. 3.

92

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


all.

value, and have no reference to the occasion at

A man

of Boeotia offers a

a legacy
legend,

1
.

of money, apparently in gratitude for shrine or other building might commemorate or

sum

exceptional

profits

a lucky windfall.

According to the

Danaus founded a shrine

having got the kingdom a bull*. The Siphnians built their treasury at Delphi on the
first
8 discovery of their gold mines
.

of Apollo Lycius in Argos, after seeing the omen of a wolf killing

The
with

tithe

money.

might be paid in money or valuables bought A silver ingot found in Sicily, and dedicated

to Zeus, from the

names

of the dedicators has been ascribed

to a similar origin*. In the Inventories we find such entries; 5 as Andron offered so many gold pieces as firstfruit The
.

Rhodopis sent a tithe of her earnings to Delphi in the form of iron bars or goads, which I have already 8 suggested may have been used for barter Offerings from
courtesan
.

Corcyra and Tenedos are more than once said to have been 7 Axes axes, which were another ancient unit of currency of similar shape have been found in the Dictaean cave of 8 Crete at Dodona 9 in the temple of Artemis at Lusi (Arcadia) 10
. ,

A
1

bronze axe found in Calabria

is

dedicated to Hera by

a butcher as tithe of his business". IGS


i.

4137 KdTriXXos

ST/XITWI'OJ

Aypov/jivefc

<W0e
'*>

TV 'AiroXXmvi TV
ireTpa.Kt.^x t-^ as

explains by a rnyth, as others have done before him (Aristotle to wit),

Tlruiv

xa ^ K

Spax/^as

an ^

since.

It is

natural of course that

eirra*carias

yapitrreLpiov, *a0ws 4/dpiJ-e

when

6 K\apoi>6/j.os KO.T
ovffiw.
2 3 4 5

rav Sia6t(icay...Aui>v-

axes were no longer current as money the sight of them should have

Paus.

ii.

19. 3.

suggested the proverb. 8 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath.


9

vi.

109,

fig.

40.

Herod,

iii.

57, Paus. x. 11. 2.

Carapanos, Dodone,

pi. 54.

These

IGA
CIA

523 Aids
ii.

Ai5*a, Tpvydv. 652 B 19 (4th cent, early)


dir'/ip^aro xpu<ras \-\-,

are unfit for use,

and they were profor exchange, as

bably simulacra

made

'Avipwv 'EXaowrio?
Qpdcrv\\os
8

we

shall see in chap. xiv.

EiWeus \nvaovv
ii.

C.

10

Jahreshefte, iv. 49,

figs.

67, 68.

Herod,
Plut.

135, Plut.
.

De Pyth.
12,

Or.

" IGA 543


ireSiw

ras "Hpas Zepos d/u ras tv

19 14; above, p. 74 7

De Pyth.
9. 3,

Or.
1. is

Paus. v.
last,

29. 9, x.

14.

The

an

QvvioKos fj.e avfOrjKf upTa/ws pipyuv deKarav. It is a very fine ornamental specimen, and perhaps

offering of Periclytus,

Pausanias as
verbial
'

explained by referring to the pro-

only took that shape through traditional association,

axe of Tenedos,' which he

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS,

AND KINDRED OFFERINGS.

93

But the most numerous dedications

are vases and vessels of

one kind or another 1 dedicated in the Acropolis. One appears to have been a marble sprinkling-bowl, a firstfruit 2 and a similar
,

article,

3 fuller given by a washerwoman, is inscribed as a tithe dedicates a bronze vase, of which fragments remain 4 another is
.

a bronze patera 5
Articles

made

of gold or of silver were also dedicated as

6 or the silver tithetrade-offerings, like the bowl of Dazos saucer of Proxenus, in the Delian inventory 7 and it is impossible
;

to say

how many
to

of the innumerable bowls which are mentioned

Bowls are among the offerings made by 9 Two by fishermen as a tithe to Priapus 10 a to connexion with dedicated Pedio, suggest bowls, agriculture There are two little pots of gold offered at Delos by Cleino, a 11 courtesan of the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus II. Pieces of several fictile vases were found in the Acropolis,
have the same
origin.
,

huntsmen

Pan 8

or

inscribed
12

as
.

votive

offerings,

one at

least

with the tithe

specified

Vases are dedicated to Pan and the

Nymphs

13
.

In the Anthology, Eurydice learning to read in her old age, dedicates a crown to the Muses 14
.

objects stood on the base which bore a double dedica15 or on tion, perhaps of man and wife, for firstfruit and tithe
;

What

in vast

Vases, such as 0ia\cu, were stored numbers in the shrines, as a

BCH vi. 34 line 53


'

<f>id\-ri,

inscribed

convenient way of

keeping

bullion.

Adfbs Aaficncov 'Afavrtvbs a<j> wv elpydaa.ro 'AirdXXwt. A masterpiece ?


'

They

are spoken of as units of value

7 /cat 8 9

BCH

vi.

34.

47 Kvupiov, Hp6^evos
run 'Airo\\uvi.
35.

by Nicolaus Damascenus (ed. Tauchn.) p. 11: a reward of 10 talents in gold, 10 gold phialae and 200 silver.
2

TratSes SeKarrjv

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal.

vi.

vi. 33.

CIA

iv.

1,

373

v, p. 126, also

w,

10

IGA

519,

Ear. 362, 367,


381, 383,
3

3713,

375, 378, 379,

HeSio?.

"Epa

520 = ZGS7 595, 596 ev ireSiwi has been


p.

388390,
373
s*.

393.

There are

mentioned above,

92

several others.

u
12

BCH xv.
CIA iv.
1,

118 X ot5ia.
373. 12/, cp. 12
c.

CIA

iv. 1.

There

Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. 178 HO\VK\T)S


6
Kva<f>f{/s
.

were thousands of uninscribed vases;


for

avtOtjKev

ra.6iiva.ian.

<j>

is

which see chap. vm.

written 6, and 6 6 Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. 219, Kor. xvii.


ebrapx^"Ixviii. Ixx.

13

AM xxi. 437.
Plut.

14
15

De Educ.
.

20.

Compare Ear.
Ixxvii.

xiv. xl. Ixvii.

Two
1.

offerings stood there.

CIA

iv.

373 n

94

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1

the oblong base of the potters' offering


2

or on the

numerous

The boy who has gained impossible to guess. a prize of twelve knucklebones for learning to write well dedicates a comic figure to the Muses 3 Here, as elsewhere, there is no limit anything may be offered.
pillars
,

it

is

CIA

iv. 1.

373

18
,

tithe.

Jahrb.
*

iii.

269.
vi.

See R. Borrmann, StelenfUr Weihgeschenke auf der Acropolis zu Athen,

Anth. Pal.

III.

WAR
And

1
.

the Lord discomfited Sisera, and all his chariots, and with the edge of the sword before Barak.

all his host,

Judges

iv. 15.

THE Greek army went


sacrifice,

into battle after solemn libation

and

singing paeans to invoke the protection of the gods;


.

and victory was celebrated by thanksgivings 2 We need feel no surprise that the prayer for protection was often accom3 panied by a vow and that victory was regularly followed by an offering. Indeed, inasmuch as war was the natural state of humanity in the early ages, the records of these vows and
,

offerings form a very full series, beginning in prehistoric times and running on to the end of Greek history.

The Greeks
Battles.

We

had, however, no single and exclusive God of are accustomed to think of Ares as such, and it is

supposed to inspire com4 He is fierce and weapons they used furious, he laps man's blood, he is armed in panoply capapie the personification of the lust of battle, one would call him intrue that as early as batants, even the very
is
.

Homer he

vincible, it

this side or that, yet the truth is far otherwise.


1

would seem that he alone should be prayed to by Ares is on the


I

In this chapter
:

have made use

program De Anathematis Graecis EegimontiBorussorum 1885.


of Franciscus Ziemann's
2

deriving the word from 7rai/w. 3 Besides those recited below, I

may

Schol. Arist. Plutus 636 iranav /jv


e<rrlv
eis

mention the vow of Callimachus before Marathon to sacrifice as many oxen as they should slay enemies (Schol. Arist.
Knights 660).
240.
4

Cftvos
XotjitoD

'AirbXXuva

eirl
eirl

irataei.
iratifffi.

Compare Soph. Track.

q.d6/j.evos,

dXXa

xai

iro\tfj.ov,

Seivov.

We

TToXXdm 5 Kal irpoff5oKu/j.{vov need not follow him in

II. xvi. 615, xvii. 210.

96
side of Troy, yet

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


is taken the very god of war is himself Athene causes him bitter pangs and with the mortal Dioinedes wounds him, and makes him roar

Troy

beaten in the
her aid,

fray.

as loud as ten thousand

times invoked by the fighter


to Apollo,

and Zeus of the Rout 5 Athena, Poseidon", Aphrodite 7 or even the demigod Heracles 4 Later, no doubt, some deities had special prestige in this matter, as in the Middle Ages St Peter or our Lady of Walsingham had in danger of shipSaviour
4
,

If Ares or Enyalios is someyet the paean belongs specially no less powerful on the battlefield are Zeus the
.

men 2
3
,

or

wreck 8 but the natural instinct of each tribe or each person would be, to call upon that deity who was likely to be most
;

This god was god of the and Ares was the local god of hills, Thrace. The people of Selinus are most impartial, and ascribe their victories to Zeus, Fear, and Heracles, to Apollo, to Poseidon and the Tyndaridae, Athena and Demeter guardian of 10 flocks, to Pasicrateia and all the other gods, but most to Zeus So when the strife was won, the victorious host would testify their gratitude by some offering to their own deity, in the
favourable to
in particular.
;

him

and that of the valleys 9

own city 11 or in a national sanctuary like Delphi or Olympia. Thus it is we find offerings in these national shrines made by any of the various states of Greece,
chief shrine of their
,

and
least
;

mortal enemies there meet in friendship or truce at whilst war spoils are found on the Acropolis of Athens
life.

dedicated to the maiden Athena, and in


wise the goddess of peaceful wedded
1

Samos The

to Hera, other-

attitude of the

II. v.

766.

II. v.

590909.
i.

Posidonius ap. Ath. viii. 333 D. 7 Ath. xiii. 573 D.


Hell.
ii.

3 4

Xen. Anab. Xen. Anab.

8. 18, 5.

4. 17.

Erasmus, Colloquies

'
:

The Ship-

vi.

25

Zei>s

2<m)/>,

wreck.'

'Hpa/fX^s riyeuwv

was the watchword.

Cp. Pans. ix. 11. 6. Altar to Zeus Areios in Olympia, Paus. v. 14. 5. Offerings of spoils are made to Leto in
Anth. Pal.
ii.

Kings xx. 28. See p. 126 4 below. u Soph. Track. 182 /x^X 7/* Hyovr' airapxas Oeoiffi TO?J iyxuplois. So when

Compare

10

IGA

515.

vi.

215.

Artemis

Farnell,

Messene
iv.

was

rebuilt,

each

helping
(Paus. 5 " Then

585.
6

tribe sacrificed to its

own gods
i.

There was a yearly sacrifice to Zefo Tp6jratos on Salamis Day CIA ii. 467. 9 A sacrifice to Poseidon Tropaios,
:

27. 6).

Compare Jonah

the

every

mariners were afraid, and cried man unto his god."

WAR.

97

Greek
the

to his patron deity is clear, when we Champion of his city; and so Athena,
full

remember that he

is

and even Aphrodite,

Solon's temple 1 is the only historical with dedication connected war, made to Ares, until we come to It is not for nothing, then, the later poets of the Anthology*.

appears in

armour.

that the gods of the Homeric pantheon take sides the Greek always thought of his gods as taking sides, and his prayers
:

were guided accordingly. What vow should be made before the


after,

battle, or
:

what

offer-

ing depended of course on circumstances the importance of the issue, the wealth or number of the combatants, and so
forth.

It did

happen once or twice that a


his

leader, confident in

right arm, paid the vow before the on most of these occasions the deity seems battle was fought; but to have mistaken his faith for presumption, and allowed him to
his cause

and

own

be defeated 3
set

Legend tells how Polyneices and his Argive allies statues of Ares and Aphrodite before their disastrous up 4 a rule, this kind of faith did not appeal to As expedition
. .

the

Greek

he waited to

let

the god

fulfil

his part of the

In some cases, however, the deity does not seem bargain to have been displeased by an act of bravado. Aristomenes, the
first.

hero of the second Messenian War, struck


shield in the Brazen

terror

into

the

Spartans by entering their city by night, and hanging up a House of Athena, inscribed with the words "Aristomenes from the spoils of the Spartans 5 ." Afterwards,

like

King Rameses

at Lachish,
all

he

is

said to have routed a

of

Lacedaemonians

by

himself.

The

hero's

shield

body was

turned to account before the battle of Leuctra.


battle the

Before the
oracles,

Thebans had sent

to

inquire

at various

amongst others of Trophonius, who returned them answer that they should set up a trophy and adorn it with this shield. Epameinondas gave orders accordingly, and the trophy was set up by Xenocrates with the shield upon it, in a place where it
1

Below, p. 119. E.g. Anth. Pal.


:

Xpwrow'
vi. 81,

Hva.

KO.L

dpyvpaiov %va Kal


3

x a ^~

163.

Late

KoOj
3 4

tir

dyaffu.
ii.

in

Egypt

GIG. 5128.

King Aizanas,
fj

Paus.
Paus.

6.

and

iv.

25. 1.

virep 8
dviK-firov

e{i\apiaria.^ rov

yevvriffavTos
5

ii.

25. 1.

"Apews

dvtdrjKO. O.VTU avdpiavra.

Paus.

iv. 15. 5.

R.

98
could

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


be seen of the Lacedaemonians.
1

They knew

it,

and

perhaps recalled the old precedent; at all events, the oracle was The statue of Xenocrates was afterjustified of his words
.

wards set up at Thebes 2 Themistocles, again, founded a temple before the battle of Salamis 3 So, too, Thrasybulus and his
. .

men, on setting out from Thebes to return to Athens, dedicated 4 statues of Athena and Heracles in the Theban Heracleum
.

It

is

mander
state,

usual to distinguish those offerings which the commade on behalf of his army, or those made by the

as public,

commander made on
tinction

from the private offerings whether of the his own behalf or of his men. The dis-

is merely formal, not one of principle, and as it serves no useful purpose I have neglected it here. The offerings themselves may be broadly classified as follows
:

"I.

II.

Spoils The Victor's


:

the arms of the vanquish t, or their treasure.

Arms

or dress.
offerings.

III.

Other Commemorative

No doubt if the Greek gods had so ordained, I. Spoils. the people would not have questioned their right wholly to dispose of the life and property of a conquered race, as was commanded in Samuel 5
.

the matter of

We

Amalek by the mouth of the prophet know how Cypselus vowed to dedicate all the

property of the citizens if he gained possession of Corinth, aud with what skill he observed the letter of his vow whilst violat6 ing the spirit
.

But

in

As they
1

give
iv.

men
ix.

the world and


39. 14.

practice the gods are not grasping. its fruits subject to tribute, so
/uax'as.
* 5

Paus.

32. 5,

IGS

i.

2462.

See Plut. Pelopidas

Paus.
1

ix.

11. 6.

8,

De Genio

Socratis 25, 30.

The

in:

Sam.

xv. 3.

scribed base has been found, as follows


Sevo/cpdr?;?.
ai'tKa
Qe6irofj.iros.

8 Arist.

Oec.

ii.

1346 a 32 Ki/^Xoy

MvatriXaos.

TO "Lirdpra.? titpdrfi
AeivoKpdT-rjs

S6pv TtjvdKis
Ztjvl

e^d^evos r$ Au fay xvpios ytvrjTcu TTJS iroXews rd 6vra. K.opii>6iois wtivra. dva.6^aeiv, etc. For the very opposite Moxus the Lydian vowed a tithe Nicolaus Damasc. (Hist. Min. Gr. p. 19) M6oj
:

tl\ev

xXdpy
"

Tpbiraia.

tptpeiv, ov
oi>5

rbv

OTT'

Evpura Seuraj
Kapvfffffi

artiKov

AdKaivav
fv

dffirida.

Qrjpaioi KpeiaAet//crpotj

owes

7ro\^/tM()."

Au66s...T6'
TOIJ

M^Xij*'

TT/S

Tvpavi/lSos

viKa<p6padovpLTpoTraia,ov8"Eira/j.(ivuvda
dfurepoi ^SpdfJ.ofnev.
3

Ka&eXwv
SfKdTijv

Air&jis irapeKfXfVffaro TTfn

dirodovvai

Ka6d

Caro

TOJ

45 'E^.'Apx- 188 5, P- 170

6 ISpvyaro

^ws.

OfuiffTOK\TJs irpb rrjs trfpl ZaXttjiufa vav-

WAR.

99

they are content to leave the conquerors what they win provided that certain dues are paid, the tithe or firstfruit of the

These dues are voluntary, in the sense that a man may choose whether he do right or wrong, but to deny them would
spoils.

be impious. They are however gladly given for the most part; and they are rightly counted among votive offerings. One form of this tribute is the trophy (rpoTraiov) arms and armour of prize hung about some tree-trunk or pillar, or piled in a heap, on the foughten field which as its name denotes is a memorial of the rout (rpoir^), and Zeus is invoked as rpoTraio? by the fighting host. I do not doubt that this is an offering to the protecting deity, set up in that spot where he had proved his present power. Sometimes it is distinctly said that trophies are consecrated to the gods of battle 2 sometimes a permanent 3 Sacrifice was done before a trophy is erected in a sanctuary the Athenians both at Marathon and trophy periodically by Salamis 4 and doubtless elsewhere 5
1
,
:

In

legend
6
.

Pollux

erects
is

Lynceus

The trophy
,

a trophy for his victory over recorded as far back as the eighth

7 century in Sparta the seventh century in Macedon was universal in Greek lands 9
.

much a matter of course, that it when spoils there were none 10 Perhaps
.

Athens 8 and except The trophy was so was erected for victory even
,

it is

not too

much

to

assume that

this is the earliest form of war-dedication, inde-

pendent of temples, and accepted by the protecting gods as


1

See Pauly, Realencycl.


;

s.v.

Paus.

iii.

2. 6,

when the Dorians

Dio Cass. xlii. 48 the Theban trophy from Tolmides, to Athena Mantinean trophy to (Paus. i. 27. 4) Poseidon for victory over Agis (viii. 10. Sometimes made of sacred wood 8). Eudocia (Flach) p. 9 avi<TTa<riv avrfj
2
; :

took Amyclae. Plutarch Ages. 33 says that in early days the Spartans offered

only a cock as vucrjTTipiov, but he must surely have taken for granted the

trophy and
8

spoils.

Dem. Amat. 1416

26\uv...r6

irpbs

(Athena) Tpbirata, e/c v\<av EXaiVwr. 3 Paus. x. 18. 7 (Delphi).


4

Me-yap^aj Tp6iraiov

vir6iJ.vi]fj.a Ka.TO.\nri!>i>.

CIA

ii.

471 26

'

71
,

467

27

to

Zeus

See for others, Herod, 12, vii. 23, Xen. Hell.


Paus.
1

iii.
ii.

59,
3. 8.

Thuc.

iv.

Tropaios.

ix. 40. 7.

painting shows Victory sacrificing before a trophy: Stephani, Compte Rendu 1869, p. 161 = AZ 1865,
pi. 199. 3.
6

A late vase

In the bloodless battle recorded


Hell. v. 4. 53: dirtdavev
ol

by Xenophon,
fj.tv

ovdfk, fyws dt

Q^aioi

rpbircuov

tffT-qaavro.
iii.

Paus.

14. 7.

72

100

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

Pan accepted the trophies of the chace hung upon some mountain pine But the usual practice was also to dedicate in some temple
1
.

the choice pieces, the firstfruits, or the tithe of spoils 2 as we see in our cathedrals the flags of our ancient foes. The booty was collected, and a portion set apart for the gods; this was either
,

all, or a part of it, the remainder being sold and the used to procure some offering of price or magnificence. proceeds Now and then a permanent trophy made of bronze or

dedicated

some other material was


if

the

common
if the}'

in

490

a sanctuary. The Persians, report be true, intended to make one such had not been defeated 3 Pausanias mentions
set

up

in

a battle fought in the Altis at Olympia between the Eleans and the Lacedaemonians: the Eleans, who won the day,
erected a bronze trophy with an inscription upon the shield, similar memorial was put under a plane tree in the Altis 4
.

bronze trophy was dedicated at Delphi up by the Aetolians, after they had chastised the Gauls for their horrific treatment of Gallium 6 Trophies of Gallic arms in relief
.

after Leuctra 5

were carved on the temple of Athena at Pergamus, built in 7 The Mantineans, to memory of the defeats of the Gauls
.

commemorate a defeat

of Agis, placed a stone trophy


8

"

over

against the temple of Poseidon "; the Argives, having conquered the Lacedaemonians, placed the like beside a tomb in 9 The permanent trophy at Marathon was of white Argos
.

marble 10

When

the practice of dedicating the tithe of spoils became


is

general, we have no means of learning. There evidence in the Homeric poems of a systematic
1

no direct

dedication of

Above, p. 51.
dKpoOii>ioi>,aira.px-?i,8eKa.TTi.

A
Herodo-

miniature trophy of bronze, perhaps


is

Etruscan,
Berlin.
8

in

the Antiquarium at
23.

12 uses dxpoOlvia. and dpiarfia. in one sentence of the same thing, but
tus
viii.

Cic.

De

Inv.

ii.

He

tells

us

it

not necessarily in the same sense. 3 Paus. i. 33. 2 Anth. App. Plan.
;

was not the custom to erect a permanent trophy when Greek met Greek.
6

221, 222, 226, 263.


4

Paus.

x. 18. 7, 22. 3.
i.

Paus.

v.

20. 4,

27. 11, vi. 2. 3.

Paus.
Paus.

4. 6,

with Frazer's note.

Robert refers the trophy to 418 or thereabouts, when an Elean contingent aided the Argives (Thuc. v. 5860).

8
9

viii.
ii.

10. 5.

Paus.
Paus.

21. 8.
32. 5.

10

i.

WAR.

101

arms or tithe by the conquerors, or of any vow made against the taking of Troy When Pausanias relates that Polyneices made an offering before attacking Thebes, this is evidence only that the later Greeks believed the practice of their own
1
.

The inference that it day to be as old as the heroic age. was really so is, however, not unreasonable, in view of the Hector, when about to fight with practice of single warriors. 2 Ajax, vows to dedicate the spoil in Athena's temple at Troy
.

Ulysses, being out of reach of the temples of his native land, " hangs the bloody armour of Dolon upon the poop of a ship, to

make a

shrine for

Athena 3 ."

Menelaus dedicated the


;

spoils of

Euphorbus in the Argive Heraeum where Pythagoras, who claimed that the soul of the hero breathed in him, proved
4 In by recognising the arms he once had borne the caves of Dicte and Ida in Crete lance-heads and shields have been found which belong to the Dorian period 5 We know how Alcaeus' shield was captured by the Athenians in 606 and hung up in Athena's shrine 6 Aeschylus speaks of arms and foemen's dresses pierced with the spear-point as hung

his claim

in temples 7 Euripides of the spoils of the Amazons dedicated 8 by Heracles at Delphi and Pindar of the dedication of choice
, ,

prize
1

Hecuba does however vow

to offer

was said

to

have

first

dedicated shields

a precious robe to Athena if Troy is not taken, II. vi. 269. Compare Hector's offering,
2
3
ii.

in Borne as a private person, which implies that public dedication was


earlier
:

82

ff.

Pliny,

NH

xxxv.

II. vii.
II. x.

82

foil.
TO. y' 'AOijvairi \TjLTi5i

460 Kal

sword of Goliath 1 Sam. xxi. 9.


6
'

will be

3. 12. The remembered

5toj

'05ur<rei)s

v\jso<r'

aveff-)(e6e.

The

Ale. 32 (Strabo

xiii.

600, Herod, v.
5' ofl'

phrase Athena of the Spoils shows how these epithets do no more than represent one aspect of a deity's power.
4

95) (7<j AXxaZos "Apr/, t-vrfa

KVTOS

dvdKTOpov
'ArriKoi.
7

e's

rXav/cttiTw Ipbv 6veKpt/j.affav

Paus.

ii.

17. 3,

Hor. Odes
of Candia.

i.

28.

Aesch. Sept. 265.

11.
5

Eurip. Ion 1143 irr^pvya


dvd6rjfj.a
'

In the
ii.

Museum
906;

Mus.

Alov

irai5

Ital.

430, pi. xvi xx. ; Annual of the British School at Athens vi. 110. So elsewhere. In

696,

AJA

iv.

AfJiafovuv ffKuXev/j-ar

6e$.

Cp. Phoen. 856

ffrtyavov, ws opg.s, lx w Xafiuv aTrapxas


TroXf/J.iuv (TKvXevfj.drwv. 9 01. ii. 4

the temple of Ningirsu, at Tello, Babylonia, a bronze spear-head was found inscribed with a king's name

Find.

'OXv/j-iridSa 5' Icrra-

ffcv 'Hpa/cX^jjs

d.Kp6diva iro\fnov: xi.

56

AJA

N.a.

ii.

105.

Appius Claudius

TO.V TroX^toio dbffiv dtcpodiva

SteXwp

i-Ove.

102

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
,

There are dedications of the war-tithe at Apollonia Athens 1 Branchidae 8 Crete 4 Mantinea 6 Megara 8 Boeotia 7 and Sparta 8 at Delphi by Athenians", Oaphyes 10 Cnidians", 13 and Tarentines 14 at Olympia by CleiLiparians *, Spartans 18 torians 15 Eleans Messenians 17 Spartans 18 Thurians 19 But it
,

must be remembered that


either tithe or firstfruit.
If cattle

all

dedications of war-spoils are

be sacrified 20

formed part of the booty, a part of these would The tithe of captives was also reserved, and
. ,

sent to Delphi or some other sanctuary: at first for sacrifice 21 22 which happened to the doubtless, or to be temple slaves 88 of Teiresias but daughter by softening of manners they were
,

The Dryopians, conquered forth to found Asine 24 But and went dedicated, by Heracles, the Greeks were more merciful than their own Apollo, who hung 28 Thebes was "deciup the very skin of Marsyas in a cave " mated by the Greeks for its defection to the Persian side and the writers use the phrase in a way which shows it For other reasons, a tithe of men needed no explanation 26
later sent forth to found colonies.
.

Paus.

v. 22. 3.
i.

of

2
3
4 8 6

Paus.

28. 2, x. 10. 1.

human sacrifice in early times, as the story of Aristodemus shows Paus.


:

Newton, p. 777. Man. Ant. iii. 4024.

iv. 9,

see also
vii.

vii. 19. 4.

So

at

Dodona

Paus.
22

21. 3.
/roXoC/oat Sov-

7 8
9

IGA IGS IGA

100, Collitz
i.

i.

1198.

Eur. Ion 309 TOV Qtou

37.
;

191
iii.

A JA
18. 7.

N.s.

ii.

250.

fliro;

Compare the

captives in

the

Paus.

Paus.

x. 13. 9.

Trachiniae, and verse 245. 23 Diod. iv. 66 ol /u^v lirlyovoi.

rrjif

10
11 12

BCH xviii. 177. BCH xxii. 592.


Diod.
v. 9.

iro\iv {\6vrcs Sffipira.aa.tf Kal rijs Teipeffiov

Ovyarpfa
ro.vrr}i>

Aat/'i'^s

tyKparfis
e/s

yv6/j.tt>oi,

dv^Oeffav

AeX0oi/s, Kara, rtva

13 14 18

Plut. Ages. 9, Xen. An. v. 3. 4. Paus. x. 13. 10.

fvxfy, oiKpoOlviov rtf 0e<.

She became
6

Paus.

v. 23. 7.
vi.

a prophetess. -4 Paus. ii. 35.


37
;

2, iv. 34.

Diod.

iv.

16
17

Paus.
Paus.

24. 4.

Inschr. von 01. 259.


v. 10. 4.
10
.

18

Apollod. ii. 2. 7 (Pauly). Compare Plut. Thes. 16, Plato, Laws x. 919, Strabo vi. 257.
25

20

Below, p. 106 Soph. Track. 760 ravpoKrovei

Xen. Anab.

i.

2. 8.

The

skins of

sacrilegious

Danes

are to be seen

on

/SoDj.
21

church doors, as at Tewkesbury. 38 Herod, vii. 132 ri> Si SpKiov w5e

The Delphic

oracle

was not shy

elx'

off 01 rip llipffj)

ESoffav

<r^as

airroiit

WAR.
1
,

103
.

was dedicated by Chalcis and firstfruits of men by Crete 2 The tithe of ransom was also dedicated 3 In historical times 4 the consecration of the war-tithe was a matter of course
. ,

and applied not only to the enlisted hosts but

to privateers 8

may now pass in review the chief instances of the dedication of spoils, in historical order and first the enemy's weapons, armour, and equipment, the material of war.
:

We

The
waged
Salamis.

earliest recorded naval

between

Athens

memorial conies from the war and Megara for the possession of

The Megarians commemorated one victory (which must have taken place about B.C. 600, before Solon aroused the Athenians to reconquer the island) by placing the bronze Another beak of a prize ship in the Olympieum at Megara 8 such was erected by the Aeginetans, who somewhere about 520 conquered a colony of Samians settled at Cydonia in The beaks of their ships, which were boars' heads, Crete. 7 The beak they hung up in the temple of Athena in Aegina became the regular token of the captured galley, as we shall
. .

see later 8
at

It is worth mentioning that the roof of the Odeum Athens was made from the masts and timbers of Persian
.

ships

The great
Greek
left,

struggle in Sicily between Carthaginian and as might have been expected, many traces.
are

Amongst them
victory gained
"EXXiyves
f&vres,

the spoils which


10
:

Pausanias declares to
for

have been dedicated by Gelo and the Syracusans

some

by sea or land

three linen corselets, doubtless


r&v
5e/caros...ej'

HT]

dvayKacrOfrTes,...

vnertpuv
ret

TroXtfuuv
dpitrreia
TTJS

TOIJTOVS 5e/careC<roi T<$ tv

Lycurg. Leocr.

AeX^oari 0e<f>. 193, Diod. xi. 3. 29,

<wrp07r6X

7r6Xews,

Polyb. ix. 39. 5, Xen. Hell. vi. 3. 20. I see no reason why the word should

pappdpwv. 5 Lys. Polystr. 686 Ai7tf6/j> xai roi>s TroXe/u/ouj /caxais firotovv, wore rrj 0<f
rds
6 7

Xa/3ej/ airb rCiv

not

mean what

it

says,

although

Se/cciras

^atped^vai TT\(OV
40. 5 (Zeus).
iii.

17

rpid-

Stengel (in Pauly) and others take it to mean devastation of the whole race.
1

KOVTO. ^vas.

Paus.

i.

Strabo

vi.

257.

Herod,

59 nairptovs txovatwv
the

2
3

Arist. ap. Plut. Thes. 16.

Herod,

v.

77

rCiv \tirpwv TTJV 8e/ca-

ras Trpc^pas. 8 So in
9

Rome,

column

of

ri)v. 4

Duilius, the Rostra, etc.

Xen. Hell.

iii.

3. 31, iv. 3.

21

cp.
10

Plut. Pericles 13.

Dem. Timocr. 741

diroffrepw ras dird

Paus.

vi. 19. 7.

104
taken from

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


the dead
bodies of their
foes.

The

spoils

are

generally assigned to the battle of Himera, B.C. 480; shall see cause to think that they really belong to
victory of much earlier date from the battle of Cumae in 474,

but we

known

1
.

an unmore interesting relic,


,

Tyrrhenians and

his victory
It
is

when Hiero defeated the was sung by Pindar himself 2 was

a bronze helmet, much battered, and inscribed in what appears to be a rude attempt at verse *.

found at Olympia.

Two

other articles of the same batch of spoils have been found,

the remains doubtless of a larger sending. In the early years of the fifth century an

obscure war between the Phocians and the Thessalians seems to have given cause for votive offerings on both sides. The Phocians we know to have been victorious in one affair, when Tellias of Elis whitewashed six hundred men, who so struck terror into their adversaries that they slew no less than four thousand 4 For
.

their victory the Phocians sent half the captured shields to Delphi and half to Abae. The effect of the stratagem, though
it

was intended merely to help recognition, reminds us of Lord Dundonald, when in command of a crazy cockboat he kept the whole Biscay coast on a flutter. He once blacked the faces of
crew, including doctor and supernumeraries, and launched upon the deck of a Spanish ship of war every man who had legs to walk before the enemy discovered that these yelling
;

his whole

monsters were not devils, the Englishmen had won the ship. When we come to the Persian Wars, there is some confusion in the accounts of thank-offerings on the Greek side, because

Marathon came

later to

overshadow

all

other victories in the

popular imagination. Whether because this victory was won without any outside help save the Plataeans, or for whatever
reason, votive offerings were attracted to it as jokes to Sydney 5 There are a number of Smith, or Psalms to King David
.

bronze weapons in the Acropolis


1

Museum

at

Athens, which

2
3

See below, p. 123. Find. Pyth. i. 137 and Scholiast.

250.
4

Herod,

viii.

27.

GIG
'

16,

IGA
rol

510,

etc. 'Idpur

Aeico/^veos
da-6

ical

~Lvpa.K(xnoi

TUI Ai

See on this subject the judicious remarks of Brunn, Gesch. der gr.
Kilnstler,
i.

KtVaj.

Cat. Br. Mus. Br.

162; and Paus.

i.

14. 5.

WAR.

105

must be Marathon
are

earlier
;

than 480, and


is

may

well
.

have come from

1 Amongst them nothing to prove it 2 Athena but not all to inscribed one shields, helmets,

but there

these have had to do with war 3 ; heads and butts of lances, Plutarch some inscribed with Athena's name 4 and swords 5
. ;

records 6 that one Lycomedes, who captured the first prize at Artemisium, dedicated the ensign or figurehead of this ship to

Apollo Daphnephoros at Athens. After Salamis, the Greeks in general dedicated amongst other things three Phoenician triremes one at the Isthmus, which Herodotus saw one at
:

The Athenians conand one to Ajax at Salamis 7 secrated in the Erechtheum Masistius' golden cuirass and the In 447 Tolmides led a rash expedition sword of Mardonius 8 the into Boeotia to quell a rising of exiles, and was slain Thebans afterwards erected a trophy on Mount Helicon to

Sunium

Athena Itonia 9
All these

regarded as public offerings; but there are not wanting private ones from the same period. Themistocles, we learn, sent a part of his own spoils to Delphi; but

may be

the Pythia told him to take them


say why Apollo, after accepting so barbarians, should boggle at this;

home

many

It is hard to again. treasures of the vile

unless

the sender found

The explanation sugthat the knew Themistocles would gested by Pausanias, god end his days in Persia, and did not wish to make the Persian
means himself
to procure the answer.

king hate him, does credit to someone's ingenuity.


1 De Bidder, Catalogue des Bronzes The trouves sur I'Acropole d'Athenes. letter seen on some of them is not

Perhaps

3 Cat. 263 mentions several fragFor the ments of large shields. baker-woman's shield, which belonged

at all likely to be the first letter of the

to a statuette of Athena,
p. 90.
4

see above,

Median name, as some have imagined

(JHS

xiii. 53); it is doubtless, like other letters of the alphabet, placed there as the ticket of a shelf or division.

Cat.

266

ft.,

282

'AOtivaiai,

287

'A6r)vatas.
6

Cat. 316

ff.

No. 307 in de Ridder has M, with 'AOijvala.3 beneath; 308 and 309 have A.

Plut. Themistocles 15

TO.

irapda'rjfj.a

irepiKtya.*; cp.
7

Herod,
121.

viii. 11.

For other examples of


see

letters so

used

283,

284,

289,

290.

Compare

8 9

Herod, Herod,
Paus.
i.
i.

viii.

ix.

2024;
;

Pans.

i.

27. 1.
;

chapter xin. 2 Cat. 252

27. 4

Plut. Agesilaus 19

'AOrjvalai.

Thuc.

103, 108, 113.

106
it

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

was an afterthought of the oracle An Athenian Callias also sent thither a horse, which he had taken in the Persian Wars 2 Sailors dedicate prize arms to Leto s
.
.

After the Euryrnedon (469), the southern wall of the Acro4 polis of Athens was built with .the proceeds of the spoils

and Cimon, we are told, adorned this wall with " the spoils of 8 Mycale and the rebellious islands ." The Athenians sent also
a tithe of these to Delphi 6
.

Other dedications of arms are of less certain date. At Dodona 7 a bronze tablet was found, bearing a legend which
it to belong to Peloponnesian spoils. The shapes of the letters suggest that it dates from the middle of the fifth century it has consequently been assigned to the great sea-

declares

Aegina in 460, where the Corinthians, Epidaurians, and Aeginetans were defeated 8 The arms named on the muchtalked-of Colonnade of the Athenians at Delphi may have come from the same battle 9 After the sack of Thurii, the Tarentines appear to have sent captured arms to Olympia.
fight off
.
.

There three spearheads were found, inscribed as spoils from Thurii 10 Arms taken from the Spartans by the Methoneans, and found in the same place, are ascribed by Ziemann 11 to the 420. period 440
.

Paus.

x.

14. 5, 6,

who

gives the

dnQorepais

x eP%
p.

xparet iroX^ov. I take

words of the oracle.


2 3

yaly
7

M^Swi/ for Ktiirpy MiJSouj from


iii.

Paus. x. 18.

1.
;

Aristides

260.
et ses

Simonides 134 (Bergk) Plutarch, De Herod. Mai. 39; Anth. Pal. vi. 215. 4 Plut. Cimon 13 see Frazer on
;

Carapanos, Dodone
47,
pi.

mines,

p.

xxvi. 2;

IGA

'A^atoi

dtrb IleXoirovvriffiuv vav/j.axiai vucfiffavres

Paus.
6

i.

28. 3.

Plut.

Cimon
xi.

2.
5-^/uos

Phormio's victories, which have been suggested (BCH v. 18), are

dW9rav.
6 5

Diod.

62

TUV' A.9r)va.i<i>v,

too late for the script.


8

SfKdrijv e|\(Syoievos (K
6i)Ke

ruv \a<pvpuv, dvifir<-ypa.<t>r)t>

Thuc.

i.

105

JHS

i.

107.
i.

A
433.

list

T$
7'

0e<> Ka ' TV"

tiri

rb

of the fallen is given in


9

CIA

KaraffKevao-fftv dvd6r]/j.a fir^ypatf/f


t

rfySf
TTOVTOS

IGA
.

3 a, p. 169.

See below, p.

oC

Evpunrrjv 'A<rias
7r6Xioj
dinqrCiv

S<-X a

107 1
10

frfifj-e,

Kai

Oovpos "Aprjs
^vix^ovldiv
Kal /card
MiySwi'

iir^\fi,

ovStv

TTW

TOIOVTOV
iv

Tivoi dv^6riKav

IGA 548 <ricv\a. dir6 Qovpluv TapavAd '0\vftirl(ai.

7^er' dvdpuv tpyov


irbvTov a/Mi.
oi'5e

rjirfipif)

yap

iv yairi

Cp. also Hicks, Gr. Hist. Inscr. 321. 163 Collitz UL 4615. See Strabo vi.
;

TroXXoiis 6\tffavTfs, $>oivlKuv ^Ka.rbv vaus

264.

i\ov
/J^ya

iv

irtXayti,

$' (ffrevtv 'A<ris irr'

dvSpwv TrXyOovvat, avruv

Op.

ct(., p.

19.

WAR.

107

Phormio, after his brilliant victories in the Gulf of Corinth 1 (429), seems to have dedicated a quantity of arms at Delphi and the Peloponnesians on their part offered a prize-ship in
Poseidon's temple at Rhium not far from the battle-scene The signal success of Demosthenes over the Ambraciots in 426
8
.

secured an immense booty. The general's own share of the spoils was no fewer than three hundred panoplies, which were

The shields of the Athenian temples 3 at were hung in the Painted Spartans captured Sphacteria (425) 4 Colonnade By their side were afterwards hung the shields 5 of the Scionaeans when their revolt had been quelled in 423. When the Syracusans in 413 annihilated the Athenian army, they must have followed the usual custom for in Plutarch's day we learn that a shield magnificently adorned was still shown in one of the Syracusan temples as that of Nicias 6 Passing on to the fourth century, we first meet with a memorial of Iphicrates, who in 392 did a brilliant feat of arms
dedicated
in

the

by annihilating a Spartan regiment. It is natural to assign to this victory a gilt shield which he dedicated on the Acropolis 7 After Leuctra (371), the Thebans hung up the Spartan shields which they had taken in the temple of Demeter at Thebes 8 Timoleon's victory of the Crimesus (343) may have been com. .

offering of a two-horse car, if an inscription of the fourth century (which is sadly mutilated) be rightly restored 9 know there were war- wagons in the Carthaginian
.

memorated by the

We

host,

and that the victor dedicated the best of the

10
.

Be
1

that

how
x.

it

spoils might, there is record of a trophy set up by

Paus.

11. 6.

His mistake in
of

Plut. Nicias 28.

He
T\V
,

did not see

it

attributing to the Athenians


fact

him the Colonnade

himself.
7

may

be

due

to

the

do-iris
:

tirixpvaos
ii.

'ItpiKparys

<W-

that

these

arms were
5.

placed

OTJKCV

CIA

733

14

restored with the

there.
2

aid of 735.
ii.

Thuc.
Thuc.
Paus.

92.

For the temple

Paus.

ix. 16. 3.

see Strabo, p. 335.


3
iii.
i.

AM

xx.

483.

The words
;

114.
15.

Arist.

Knights
Paus.
i.

KapxySoviuv, rCa 'Air6\\wvi, and fcuyos ZffraOi are certain but nothing re-

849.
8

mains
Thuc.
iv.

120,

v.

32

leon,
10

name, restored as Timosave the last two letters.


of the

15. 4.

Plut. Timoleon 27.

108

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


of Catana,

Mamercus tyrant
their shields,

who making common cause with

Carthage slew a body of Timoleon's mercenaries.

He

dedicated

and proud of his poetic skill, himself composed the following epigram, worthy of the latter-day music halls':
ica

a<T7ri8a<? acrTTtStot?

Alexander the Great, after the battle of the Granicus (334), sent to Athens three hundred suits of Persian mail some of
;

the shields were hung on the architrave of the Parthenon-. When he defeated Porus (326), he sent the royal elephant to It is doubtless a mere the Temple of the Sun at Taxila 3
.

accident that
ficent person,

we hear of no other spoils offered by this magniwho was Greek of the Greeks in his religious

practices,

and spread Grecian customs over half Asia. Greece now comes in contact with east and west, yet the Shields of the Gaulish practice of dedicating spoils continues.
4 barbarians, after their repulse in 280, were dedicated at Delphi his return from after defeated at Rome, Pyrrhus, Antigonus
.

the head of a mixt force of Gauls and Macedonians (274). The arms of the Gauls he offered to Athena Itonia at her temple

between Pherae and Larissa; the Macedonian arms he sent to Dodona 5 Some of the arms found at Dodona by M. Caraand now in his private museum at Athens, may have panos,
.

been part of this offering. Pyrrhus also made a dedication to Zeus of the Waters at Dodona, for some victory gained over In 272 Pyrrhus was killed in the streets of the Romans 6
.

Argos

there 7

and his shield was hung up in the temple of Demeter Demetrius Poliorcetes also sent shields to Delphi 8 Foreign potentates followed the same fashion. The long
; . .

Plut. Timoleon 31. Plut. Alexander 16; Arrian, Hist.


i.

Anth. Pal.

vi.

130.

It

should be noted

An.
oi

16. 7: 'AXe^avSpos &i\iinrov


ir\T)v

icai

that Athena Itonia was invoked by the Thessalians in this battle, Paus. x. 1.
10.
8

"EXX^vej
3
4 5

AaKtSaifiovluv &irb ruv

f$appdpui>

ruv

TTJV 'Affiav KO.TOIKOVVTUV.


ii.

Ndt'os

the inscr. in Hicks, Greek


;

Philostratus, Vit. Apollon.

12.

Pans. x. 19.

4.

Historical Inscriptions, 162 1368.


7 8

Collitz

ii.

Paus.

i.

13. 2,
;

tions

are given

Plut.

where the inscripPyrrhus 26


;

Paus.
Plut.

ii.

21.

4.

Demetrim

13.

WAR.
struggle
to

109

between kings of Pergamus and the Gauls seems


;

have been specially commemorated by Attalus II in his own name and his predecessors' and in the splendid memorial 1 pile built for this purpose, the Gallic spoils were displayed
.

No

tribe so obscure that it did not follow this after the

custom 2

So

Mummius,

custom which

also prevailed in his

own

country, but himself the first Roman to dedicate war-spoils in a Grecian temple, sent to Olympia a number of the shields 3 captured at Corinth (146) The ancient caves of Crete contained, as I have said, arms
.

of offence and defensive

armour 4

In the great sanctuaries

of Delphi, Olympia, and Dodona, at Athens, and elsewhere weapons of war have been amongst the finds. At Olympia

a large number of bronze shields were found, most of them entire 5 Sometimes it is possible, as in the case of Hiero's
.

more often they are without inhelmet, to identify them if or inscribed, give no clue to the dedicator. scriptions, 6 have, for example, inscribed spear-heads from Olympia and one
;

We

from the Peloponnese bearing what


cation 7
.

is

clearly a private dedi-

Spear-heads and lance-butts from the Acropolis of Athens have been mentioned already 8 in the same place were found bronze arrow-heads, though none inscribed 9 At Athens were also found swords, knives, an axe-head, and helmets 10 at Olympia shields, greaves and corselets, the last 11 A helmet once engraved with scenes in the geometric style in and dedicated used the war, actually by Argives, is now in
; . ;
.

the British

Museum

12
;

Alpheus,
1

is

inscribed of Zeus 13

another very old helmet, found in the Yet another, found in South
.

Paus.

i.

4.

6.

See below for the

cp.
8

IGS

2735.

other offerings, p. 122, 132. 2 Paus. vi. 19. 4, the Myanians.


the Arvernians
in a temple
3
4 5 6
:

Cat. Bronzes 282, 287, 298, 307.


~M.rjdiKa

So hang a captured sword

Thucydides speaks of ffKv\a the Acropolis, ii. 13.


9 10

on

Plut. Caes. 26.

Cat. 310. Cat. 310, 336, 319, 252.


01. Iviii
Ix.
ii.
;

Paus.

v. 10. 5.

Above, p. 101. Bronzen von Ol.

n Bronzen von
p. 6.
;

12

rdpyeToi dvWev,

JHS

67.

IGA

565 'OXwirfou At6s

shield 33

13

JHS

ii.

68, plate xi.

IGA

123

rdpyeloi dWOtv.
7

Z?;v6j '0\vviriov.

IGA

564 0e65wpos

dvtOrjxe

curiX;

110

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


Persephone
1
.

Italy, is dedicated to

Shields, bow,
;

appear the bow and quiver were not models in the precious metals 2 In Delos was also a Heracleote bow and quiver, inlaid with 4 helmets, one being silvered, cavalry gold*, an iron spear swords and sheaths, an e^ivrj a-rpaTioDTiKr) (be that what it 6 A spear-head was found may)*, a ship's beak and anchors
. ,

in the Delian treasure-lists

but

it is

and quiver doubtful whether

at

Acraephia (Boeotia) dedicated to Apollo heads have been found at Orchomenus 8 and
. ,

Iron
there
.

lance-

was a

9 A cuirass, Sarmatian corselet in the Asclepieum at Athens 10 said to have come from Epidaurus, is inscribed to Zeus Cronion To the same class we must assign a marble base found at Delos,
.

which once bore a four-horse chariot dedicated to Apollo "from the spoils 11 ." Perhaps the tithe offered to Athena at Megara

by a company of persons, whose names have been


12 private dedication Scanning the Athenian
.

lost,

was a

lists

18

we
,

see in the
16

Hecatompedos
17

shields 14

missiles
,

of

many

kinds 15

spears
,

breast-plates
,

helmets 18
21

swords and cavalry sabres 19 greaves 20

pings

and a panoply".
list
23
.

mentary Eleusinian
1

horse-trapspear-stump occurs in the fragIt is not certain that all were votive,

although most were so. IGA 538 Hr)pi<pt>va.i clvflh]K<?


Seva-y^ras-

pe
KO.1

with.

"
ii.

BCH
IGS
CIA

iii.

471

neiffiffrparos 'Apiffro-

BCH
: ;

325 TOOV a-KvOinbv

<f>ap^rpo.v

shield)
8

another

Ovptbv TreiK6v (long round is said to be gilt, and


real shield.

X6%ou 'P65ios vavapx^ffa-^ icai rol avcrrpaTev6fjLfvoi aird TUV \atf>i'ipui> 'Air6\\ui>i.
12
i.

37

rot'5' diri>

XaCas rav

3e/cd-

was therefore no doubt a

rav dv46r]Kav 'AOdvat, archaic.


13
i.

BCH BCH

vi.

32 (paptrpa 'UpaK\euriKTi
171: S6pv aidy-

117175.
/3<?\7;

vi. 47, line

15

/3Aoj,

Kar(nra.\Tuv,

/3eXa5v

pOVV.
8

Toi-lKUV OKiOej.

BCH vi. p.

130 KOWOS,

16

TTfpiKetf>a\ala
iiririK^,
17

d6pv, dopdnov.
Oupai-.

ffiSripd VfpiT)pyvp<t}p.tvri,

/udxatpa

K0\ebv fiaxaipa^
6 7 8 9 10

iTrtriKTJs,

dxpoffrbXiov.

18
KVVT).
19

Kpdvos, icpdvos w/xo/SoiVix, KpaviSiov,

BCH vi.
IGS
i.

p.

47 vews tufioXov.
iapbv.

2735 ru Uruieios
208.
21. 5.

/tdxenpo,

ft.

liririK^,

i0o/xdxat/>a.

BCH xix.
1'aus.
i.

K^S.
21

KtKpti<f>a\o! iiTTi/c6j.

RM

iv.

71 dviOtiKf Al

22

'K.povluvi.

vavowXla.

(early 5th

cent.).

This

is

the only

CIA

ii.

682 c,

iv.

225/, 225 b ffTvpd-

dedication to Zeus Cronion I have met

KLOV S6paros.

WAR.

Ill

Thus we have a continuous


independence commonly heard of
;

tradition of the dedication of

foemen's arms from the heroic age

down

to the loss of

Greek

and

it

would be easy

is

Less another custom, by which the victor

to trace it further.

dedicates the arms which helped him to win the victory: or the old warrior no longer fit for the fight, his outworn weapons

of war.

The thought seems

to us so natural,

and

is

indeed

so frequently exemplified in later days, that we are surprised at first in meeting with so little evidence before the days of

Alexander the Great. Perhaps rightly considered it involves a self-consciousness not suited to earlier and more simple times.
Simonides gave it the noblest expression, and he could hardly have been drawing on his imagination when he wrote 1
ro^a raSe TrroXe/zoto Trevrau/xe^a Satcpvoevros
7ro\\aKi
8/7

aTovoevra Kara K\OVOV ev

Sal'

Tlepcrwv i7nrop,d-%<t>v aip,art, \ovad/j,eva.

Meleager elaborated the same thought from another


the lines
Ti?
2

side, in

rdSe

fjuoi

6vr)TU>v

rd

Trepl 6pi<yKol<riv
'

aKV\a,

Travaia'xia-T'rjv reptyiv

OVTG yap alyaveai Treptayees ovre TI a\Ao<o9 ovre <f>6va) ^pavOev aprfpe

aXX' atmo? <yavowvra icai d0TV(pe\iKTa old Trep OVK evoTras, aXXa ^opatv evapa.
049 6d\.afMov Kocr/jLeire yaaij\iov'

ovrXa Se \vdpq>

But there are

indications that the custom was not


I say

unknown

Homeric weapons in and heroes, for they were no doubt spurious, any case the 3 But Aristomenes the dedicator generally remains unknown
in very early times.

nothing of the

of

Messenian,
1

who had
vi. 2.

lost

his shield in the victory he gained

Anth. Pal.

See below, chapter

x.

Anth. Pal.

vi.

163.

112

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

single-handed over a Spartan regiment, on recovering it Simonides celebrates dedicated it to Trophonius at Lebadea
1 .

a spear grown old in warfare 2

and Anyte,

if

we may venture
.

to suppose this fine poetess to belong to an earlier age than the third century, may also be brought in evidence 8 The 4 points in story of Cimon and the bridle, already related
,

the same direction.


after

Herodotus mentions that King Nekos, taking Cadytis, dedicated to Apollo at Branchidae the costume he wore on that occasion". There is a spear-head
from Sicyon, with the inscription ZeKvwvlwv upon it in very ancient letters, which if dedicated must belong to this class 8 But these few examples exhaust the list of those recorded before
.

the fourth century. From the fourth century come a few more. The shield of Asopichus, a friend of Epameinondas, who did brave deeds, was

dedicated in Delphi, but by whom does not appear 7 Alexander the Great seems to have been struck by the idea, and on visit.

ing Troy he

left his

armour there

in the temple, taking thence

in exchange some which was reputed to have belonged to a sacred shield was afterwards heroes of the great siege 8 8 If we may draw carried before him when he went to battle an inference from this, and from the cuirass and spear which he
;
.

dedicated to Asclepius in the Arcadian Gortys, he may have shed his arms frequently as he marched along his conquering 10 His example was followed by his namesake the son way
.

~
1

Paus.

iv. 16. 7.

This partakes also


8

Theopompus
Oavnaffrus avrbv
rrjv avirida.

ap. Ath.

xiii.

605 A
iv

of the class of spoils. Anth. Pal. vi. 52.


3 4
5

KtvSvvtvw
avaKfurOat
is

a.va.KfiffOa.1

TOLVT^V iv

AX<os

ry

Anth. Pal.
Plut.

vi. 123.
;

<TTO.

The word

so loosely

Cimon 5
ii.

Herod,
7

159 iadfc.

above, p. 70. Cp. Paus.

i.

used in this age that it may mean nothing more than preservation as a
curiosity.
8

21.

" linen corselets

may
(to

be seen

dedicated in various sanctuaries, particularly

Arrian, Anab. Alex.


16.
ii.

i.

11.

at

Gryneum

Apollo)."

9.
viii.

They are worn by Homeric heroes


(II. ii.

10

Paus.

28.

1.

The epigram

529),
2),

vi.

4.

by Persians (Xen. Cyrop. and are mentioned in the


(frag. 15).

Anth. P. vi.97 professes to be inspired by an inscribed spear dedicated by

armoury of Alcaeus Frazer on Paus. I.e.


6

See

Alexander somewhere which he vowed in the

to
fight,

Artemis, and 128

IGA

27 a,

p. 171.

has a shield under the same name.

WAR.

113

of Polyperchron, whose panoply is attested by an inscription 1 to have been once on the Acropolis of Athens. barbarian,

probably in the fourth century, dedicated his helmet at Olym2 On the same principle, the shield of Leocritus, who was pia
.

the

first to

leap into the

Museum

at Athens,

and

fell

gloriously,

when Olympiodorus drove out thence the Macedonian garrison in 288, was inscribed with his name and deed and dedicated to Zeus Eleutherios 3 So also Cydias the Athenian, who distin.

guisht himself in the repulse of the Gauls from Delphi (280), was honoured in like manner 4 Lastly, in the Roman age,
.

Flamininus, after his defeat of Philip in 197, sent his own shield inscribed to Delphi 5 So another Roman, perhaps one who
.

at

fought against Mithradates, dedicated his shield "to the gods" 6 An impious offering was that of Alexander tyrant Syme
.

the spear which he used to murder 7 his own uncle Polyphron, about the He was wont year 370 in fact to wreathe it about with and to worship it garlands,
of Pherae,
.

who dedicated

as a god.
tools

In the Anthology we meet with the principle of dedicating which were to be used no longer, under many forms but
;

examples of weapons are not many. In a daring epigram Mnasalcas (about 200 B.C.) imitates his master Simonides, and 8 just overshoots the sublime
:

aol

fjiev

Kdfjiirv\a

ro^a

teal

Swpa Trapd Upof^d^ov,


lov<s

lo^eaipa fyaperpa, <&ol/3, rdSe Kpe/j,arai'

Se Trre/Joei/Ta?

ova K\OVOV avSpes e%ovcriv

ev tcpaSiais,

6\od geivia
his

Paulus Silentiarius makes

Lysimachus dedicate

shield,

CIA

ii.

723 ira^oir\a

rfjv

'AX^I>d-

Malory, Morte 14.


6 7
8

avdpos 6 IIoXvjr^pxovTOS dv^Orjicev. 2 Inschr. von Ol. 695 Ftpat>


1

IG I

iii.

7.

Plut. Pelopidas 29.

/3&WOS
3

F^fai'T6s
i.

eipu.

Anth. Pal.

vi.

9. is

Compare

91.

Pans.

26. 2.
5.

This very epigram

imitated and
is

4 s

Paus. x. 21.

overshot in another, no. 326, which

Plut. Flamin. 12 (Dioscuri). King Arthur dedicates his sword in a church :


R.

mere bathos.

114

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


;

1 spear, and cuirass to Ares, when he is too old to fight more and his Nicagoras dedicates the battered remnants of a shield

to Zeus*.

which has

Athena 8
in

Echecratidas the Cretan, in an epigram of Anyte all her simple strength, dedicates his spear to Timanor to Pallas the shield which has protected him
.

The very war-trumpets come in for their whole armoury is offered in two other epigrams, one of which is of a degraded style, a vulgar slang, giving only 8 The votive epigram here single syllables for whole words

many

battles 4

turn*.

becomes the means of breaking a paltry jest. But the lowest level is reached in that which celebrates the lover's triumph over Sochares the Cynic, whom he had captivated, and now dedicates over the lintel his staff, slippers and flask, and his wallet stuft full of wisdom 7 Occasionally an offering was specially made in a shape
.

which had direct reference to the

spoils of war.

Gilded shields

made

have been mentioned already; but sometimes shields were all of silver or gold, and hung up to adorn the temples.

There were golden shields hung on the architrave of the 8 Delphic temple, which Pausanias assigns to Marathon but if 9 Aeschines be right in telling us that they were inscribed as spoils of the Medes and Thebans together, they must belong to
,

Plataea.

In 457 the Lacedaemonians defeated the Athenians

at Tauagra, and in memory of the fight they sent a golden shield to Olympia, where it was hung on the gable just under

the statue of Victory


1

10
.

Flamininus sent
rots

silver

targets to
see

Anth. Pal.

vi. 81. vi. 84.


vi.

E\\i)<riv

efiaxovro

Brunn,

2
3 4 5

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal.

Geschichte der griechischen Kiinstler,


163.
10

123, cp. 122.

vi.

124, cp. 141, 264.

Pans.

v. 10.

4 xa6j

fjiev

<f>id\av XP*>-

vi.

159

o-dXiri-yf

cp.

tr^av
fj.6vi.oi.

?x et . ^K

Tavdypas rd Aa/ce5aiT'

151, 195, ai)\6j.


6

ffvnfj.a\ia

avtOtv

5&pov

CLTT'

vi. 85, 86.


6(a,

In the
KVTJ,

forT'

'Apydwv Kal

'AOrivalwv Kal 'luvwv, ray

mer we have
7
8

rbv

Kal raj

rdv

dfKdrav vitas eiW/fa TW TroX^/xw.

The

dffTr/Sa, Kal 56pv, xal Kpa.

Anth. Pal.

vi.

293, cp. 298.

shield stood on a block, which was fixt on the top of the gable. Three bits
of
affirl-

Paus. x. 19.

5.

it

Aesch. Ctes. 409 ras xP vff

each line

have been found, bearing parts of Olympia, Ergebnisse, Die


:

dasdt>t9fnti>...Kaliirfypd\l/atJ.fi>,'A<)7}vaioi

Inschriften, no. 253.

They agree with

da-6

M^duv

Kal Qrj^aiuv, 6re rdvavrla.

Pausanias, except in giving TOV instead

WAR.
1

115

marble model of a shield was dedicated by a 2 others in Camirus 3 general in Cos On the same principle a four-horse chariot of bronze was made about the years 509 505. The Athenians had defeated
Delphi
.

force, an.d on the same day crossed over to Chalcis and gained a second victory. Several hundreds of prisoners were taken, and kept in chains but these being afterwards ransomed, their chains were hung up on the Acropolis, and a tithe of the ransom money was used in preparing the chariot, whose base has been found on the spot. There remain a few fragments of the original inscription, which Herodotus (who tells the story)

a Boeotian

preserves complete

4
.

5 Perhaps the chariot mentioned above

was

also made, like this, for the purpose of dedicating. Another offering of the same class is a group of horses and captive women, made by Ageladas in bronze, which was sent

Olympia by the Tarentines, as victors over the Messapians in 6 a border war (473) Pausanias mentions " another tithe of the Tarentines, from the spoils of the barbarous Peucetians," sent to
to
.

Delphi: being images of footmen and horsemen by Onatas, amongst them Opis king of the lapygians who fought for the

Some time before the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, the Athenian Knights won a victory which was commemorated by the statue of a horse, set up on the Acropolis.
barbaric foe 7
.

Their leaders were Lacedaemonius son


of the Doric
TU>. Pausanias speaks as though the inscr. were on the shield, as such often were; and perhaps the stone has a later copy made for some

of Cimon,

who was
:

first

and third
i.

lines are transposed

CIA

334,

iv. 1, p.

78, 334 a.

Doubt-

less the

reason.
1

monument was destroyed by Xerxes and afterwards restored with This explanation is prethis change.
to

Plut. Flamininus 12.


Collitz
iii.

ferable
Inscr.

that of Hicks,

Or.

Hist.

3655

ffTparayriffas Gtois

27,

who supposes

the

money

= Paton
67.
3

and Hicks,
i.

Inscr. of Cos, 66,

voted for the dedication to have been


first
5

IGI

7013.
v.

employed by Pericles about 445. Page 107.

Herod,

77

tdvea.

BOMTWV
ev

KO.I

XaXKiS^ow' da/idcravres Trcudes 'Adrivaiuv


tpy/j.a<TLi> fi> TTO\{/J.OV, Se<r/j.wi

dx^v6evri

An inscription Paus. x. 10. 3. SeKdrav has been found on a supporting wall close to the spot where
e

<ri5i]ptwi Zffj3e<ra.v

Kdrrjv

vfipw r&v iWovs 3eIla\\ddi rdffd' Z6e<rcu>. Paus. i.

Pausanias saw

it,

which M. Homolle

conjectures to have belonged to the

28. 2.

The

inscr.

seems to have been

re-cut in the Periclean age,

and the

Tarentine trophy 7 Paus. x. 13. 10.


:

BCH

xviii.

187.

o o

o 4

116

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

It is not Xenophon, and another likely that the statues of men-at-arms, which are found in shrines, were meant for captives. It is usually said that mock arms were sometimes made for soldiers to dedicate, but I have not found early evidence in 8 There was a thin shield found at Olympia, support of this

killed at Potidaea in 429,

which the Argives dedicated, useless as it stands; but it may have been merely a bronze casing for a substantial frame 3 The same must be said of the bronze casings from the Idaean Cave 4 A terra-cotta lance-head in Olympia, if it really be
.
.

meant
the

unknown. Lysander sent to of a and trireme which Cyrus had given silver, gold Delphi him in honour of Aegospotami 6 and there was another Silver shields are known at Athens and such at Delos 7 Delos 8 Some of these shields were buttons or ornaments 9 but it is impossible to say that none were dedicated by There have also been found at Olympia knives, axes, soldiers. 10 and at Delos lance-heads and arrowhelmets, and shields 11 heads shields, cuirasses, and axes in Crete and Lusi *, small and of thin foil, which have no use and appear to have had no These are usually explained as soldiers' offerings, but as value. such they would be very mean. It is true that the Greeks were familiar with the idea of dedicating a valueless model, 13 but also models of tripods" it is especially models of beasts that a soldier therefore conceivable might have dedicated such On the other trifles as these. hand, he ought to have given part of his spoil, if he won any and the things would have no meaning as models of anything but spoil, his own arms
not
,
. .

a lance-head, precious metals are


for

is

unique

5
.-

Miniature

models in

CIA
TUV

iv. 1, p.

184, 418 h

oi

Imfr
Aa/ce-

8
iii.

dffirlt

if^vpo.

see lists

and

BCH
M-

iirtt

Tro\f/J.luv iifirap\oiJVTuv

125.
cLffirlSiov, dffiriSiffKi)
;

daifj.ovlov

Sfo^wvToj

Ilpov....

dcririSlffKcu

Pausanias says shields were hung in a gymnasium 0fos tv e*o /cot OVK tk
tpyov TTo\t(Mv, 3 IGA 33.
4 8
vi.

\iva.i
10

BCH vi.
1021.

32.

Bronzen von 01. 520

27, 530, 1002

23. 7.

5,

"

AZ

\\ 333.
Ital.
ii.

Above, p. 101. Bronzen von 01. 1041.


Plut.

"
14

Below, ch. MV.; Mus.


xrv.

712.

" Chapters vm.,

Lytander

18.

Below, p. 145, and chap. xrv.

BCH vi.

WAR.
for

117

at

example. It is not likely that toys would be dedicated Olympia or Delos, and some of them, the axes at any rate,
;

are so old that they are not likely to have been toys for such I have toys belong to a somewhat advanced stage of culture.

another explanation to offer of these anon 1 leave the question open.

and

am

fain to

Choice
Sthenelus

prize,
is

not arms only, was commonly dedicated. said to have dedicated at Larissa a three-eyed

Zeus, taken by

him

at the sack of

Troy

2
.

Pausanias saw in
.

3 temples at Elis and Argos statues taken at the sack of Tiryns Croesus sent to Apollo of Branchidae spoils taken from "an

enemy" who had

plotted

against

him 4

At Olympia
.

stood

a group of suppliant boys, taken by the Agrigentines out of " " the spoils of Motye, a barbarian city of Sicily 5 Xerxes'

was placed on the Acropolis of Athens after Salamis 6 and the Tegeans dedicated to their Athena Alea a bronze manger which they found in Mardonius' tent on the
silver-footed throne
;

Plataean battle-field 7

Callias

sent a

horse

to

Olympia
.

as

8 After part of the spoil taken by himself in the Persian war the sack of Thebes, Alexander consecrated to Apollo at Cyme

a hanging lamp which Pliny describes 9 The statue of the jumper which Pausanias saw at Olympia was dedicated by the
.

as firstfruits of the spoils 10

Thracian Mende, at an unknown date, after the sack of Sipte, Whether the "statues" (dvSpi.

ai>T9) dedicated by the Liparians after conquering Tyrrhenian 11 were part of the spoil, or part of a group of victors pirates
or vanquish t, does not appear; but we learn that they sent 12 many remarkable tithes to Delphi from their perennial feud Perhaps the statue of Athena, sent to Delphi by the Achaeans
.

after the sack of

Phana

in Aetolia,

was part of the

spoils of

2 3

Below, chap. xiv. Paus. ii. 24. 3.


Paus.
viii.
i.

the Parthenon.
7

Herod,
Paus.
Pliny,

ix.

46. 3.

Called
8
9 10

aicpo6ii>ia.,

70 <f>drvr} Herod, viii. 121.


14.

4
8 6

Herod,
Paus.

92.

x. 18. 1.

v. 25. 5, ix.

with Frazer's note.


Paus.
;

NH xxxiv. 8.
x. 11. 3.
v. 9.

Herod,

2024,

i.

27. 1,

Paus.

v. 27. 12, inscribed.

Demosth. Timocr. 741


t.v.

Harpocration

u Paus.
la

'Apyvpfaefa says

it

was kept in

Diodorus

118

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

war
of

King Prusias
3
.

II

of

Bithynia sent to Branchidae a


is

number

of articles which he seems to have taken in his sack

Pergamos (156)

There

some reason

to think that the

veil of the

temple at Jerusalem was dedicated at

Olympia

3
.

III.

Other Commemorative Offerings.

would be commonplace merely to dedicate to a god the money gained by selling his share of the booty, although such a gift doubtless had its charm for the recipients. Moreover this left no memorial, and was therefore unsatisfactory from
It

in our records

the victor's point of view hence Agesilaus stands almost alone when he sends a hundred talents of gold to
;
.

4 Others may have done Delphi as the tithe of his Asian spoils it, and the deed thought unworthy of record, especially if the sum were small. Votive coins indeed meet us by thousands in

the treasure
It
is

lists,

but there

is

however worth while

generally no clue to the occasion. to point out, that some of the

magnificent Syracusan medallions bear on the exergue of the reverse a trophy of arms 5 these then may have been struck
:

spoils, and in particular from the spoils of the Athenian army in 413. If the view be right that the panoply represents a prize in the games, yet these games were instituted to commemorate victories, and these very prizes may have been arms taken from the enemy. But the tithe-proceeds usually went to procure some permanent offering. Sometimes the offering had value chiefly or

out of military

wholly
iron

for itself, as

the sacred couches

made out

of captured

and bronze, and dedicated to Hera by the Lacedaemonians who had destroyed Plataea 6 Sometimes the value lay in
.

its
is

meaning, as in the case of something of both, as there


Paus.
x. 18. 1.

pictorial tablets.
is

Usually there

in the dedication of captured


Evans, Syracusan Medallions, 8, 142, Victory crowns the charioteer
earlier coins of the required date
;

CIG

2855

<j>iA\r}...fK

TT/S

diroara-

etc.

\tLffrjs

aVopx^s

virb /3a<n\^wi npovfftov.

on
(p.

Both he and his queen send other


articles.
3

Frazer, Pausaniat,
Plut. Agesilaus 9.

iii.

p. 545.

they are usually interpreted 153) as being connected with races. 8 Thuc. iii. 68. There is more of
propitiation than thank-offering here.

4
5

Head, Historia

Numorum, 154

WAR.
arms
1
.

119
in

We

shall

take

first

those

which material value

predominates, the others second. 1. When the tithe was large enough, or the Buildings. giver sufficiently grateful, a temple or shrine was often built ;

and a certain number of these buildings were ascribed by

tradi-

tion to this origin. Thus Heracles, after conquering Hippocrates and his sons, is said to have built a shrine to Athena Axiopoina

and Hera Aigophagos 2


in

after conquering Elis, another to Apollo

and a third to Delphian Apollo, after Pythian and the Dryopes 4 Theseus followed his conquering Phylas after he had son of Minos, in Asterion, example vanquisht 5 a to Athena the Where Saviour Crete, by dedicating temple the Amazons ceased their forward march, near the town of Pyrrhichus in Laconia, a temple was built to Artemis of the War-host 6
; .
. .

Arcadia 3

Similar traditions, which may be true, but there is nothing to prove it, come from the borderland between history and
fable.

When

commemorated a

the Dorians swarmed into the Peloponnese, they victory near Sparta over the Achaeans and
.

7 Amyclaeans by founding a temple to Zeus of the Rout In historical times Solon built a temple to Ares after taking Salamis 8 We have also the temple of Artemis of Good Fame 9 at Athens, built from the spoils of the Medes and the shrine of Pan in the cave on the Acropolis. It will be remembered that as Pheidippides the runner was sent to Sparta to appeal
.

for help

in his

against the invader, Pan is said to have appeared path, upbraiding the Athenians for their neglect, in

many good deeds done them in the past, and more which he promised for the future. When the battle of Marathon was won, the runner's tale was remembered and "the shrine of Pan was founded beneath the Acropolis," where the Athenians henceforth honoured him with yearly sacrifices
spite of
;

The

victor's

arms belong

to

the

6 7

Paus. Paus.

iii.
iii.

25. 2 'Affrpdreia.
12. 9 rpbiraios.

second
2 3
4

class.
iii.

Paus.

15. 6, 9.

8 9

Plut. Solon 9.

Paus.
Paus.

viii. 15. 5.

Paus.
467.

i.

14. 5; Plut. Aristides

20;

iv. 34. 6.
ii.

GIG

Paus.

31. 1.

120
1
.

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

and a torch-race At Salamis, a serpent appeared among the was and ships, interpreted to be the hero Cychreus; accordingly after the battle the Athenians erected a shrine to Cychreus, and a trophy of the battle, on that island 3 Themistocles built
.

in Melite a shrine to

Artemis of Good Counsel 3 and one at


, .

4 The temple of Athena Areia at Aphrodite was refurnisht with eighty talents, which Plataea rebuilt and

Peiraeus

to

the Plataeans had received as the prize of valour at the battle of 479 s The Athenians erected a shrine by the Ilissus to
.

Boreas, because he blew with his wind, and tho ships of the have also temples erected from Persians were scattered 6
.

We

the spoils of the Carthaginians at Himera, to Demeter and the

The great temple 8 Zeus at are said and image Olympia by Pausanias to have been built from the spoils of Pisa, which was destroyed by Elis but a variety of considerations 9 go to in the sixth century fix the date of this temple between 480 and 457 if, as seems war did the occasion and the means spoils give likely enough, for building it, they probably came from a later war, perhaps 10 The beautiful that mentioned by Herodotus and Strabo on the of of Athens must Wingless Victory Acropolis temple of arms it cannot commemorate the commemorate some feat
.

7 Maid, two at Syracuse and one at Etna

of

capture of Sphacteria (425) and the Peace of Nicias, since the decree which directs the building of it goes to prove that the temple is older than the Propylaea, and it must belong to some
11 Oenophyta for instance, or Oenoe The tithe of spoils won by Xenophon's army of Greeks was allotted to Apollo and Ephesian Artemis, each general taking

earlier battle,

a portion of
1

it

into his charge.


rjj

What Xenophon
is

did with

105 iSpvaavro virb Paus. i. 28. dKpoir6\i lloi^s Ip6v with Frazer's note.

Herod,

vi.

4,

unlikely; but see Frazer on Pausanias i. 1. 3.

This
B

Plut. Aristides 20.

1 5

Paus.

i.

36. 1.

6
7

Herod,
Paus.

vii.

189.

His
4

Plut. Themistocles 22 d/xoTo/SotfXi;. own statue was in it.

Diodorus

xi. 36.

8 9

v. 10. 1.

Schol.

on
Graeci,

Hermogenes
vi.

(Walz,

Summarized by Frazer
v. 10. 2.

in his note

Rhttores

Ammonius.
says
it

An

quoting inscr. of Roman date


393),
battle.

on Pausanias
10

Herod,
124

iv.

148, Strabo

viii.

p. 355.

probably alludes to this shrine, but

n
xiii.

Hiller von Gartringen, Arch.


ff.,

Am.

was dedicated before the

'E<. 'Apx- 1897, 177.

WAR.
;

121
1
.

Apollo's share he does not state it was not used for a temple But the share of the goddess he took with him to Greece, and at Scyllus bought with it a plot of ground upon which he built

a temple, which, to compare small with great, was as like as possible to the Ephesian, with a grove about it, and there held
annual feasts 2
.

Conon, after defeating the Persian fleet at Cnidus (394), dedicated a temple to Zeus the Saviour at Athens 3 and one to Aphrodite at Peiraeus beside the sea 4 This was probably
,

Aphrodite of the Fair Voyage, under which title she was In some feud between Elis and worshipt at Cnidus.
Arcadia,
Sosipolis

the
at

Eleans

founded
5
,

a
in

temple of Eileithyia and


Elis

Olympia

and

a shrine

to

Sosipolis

alone 6

For material magnificence probably no votive shrine could vie with those which commemorated the victories of the
. .

7 Eumenes II (197 159), kings of Pergamus over the Gauls 8 we learn from Strabo adorned the city and temples in many ways, and offered up thank-offerings for his successes while
, ;

Xen. Anab.

v. 3.
e/s

5 dvadr)fj.a

3
iroi-rjffa-

Isocr.

Euagr. 57.
i.

fievos avariOtjffiv

rbv tv AeX0cus TUV

Paus.

1.

3.

A
ii.

dedication to

'AOrjvaiwv
2

6-rj(ravp6v.

'A<ppodirri Evir\oia

has been found at


1206
;

Xen. Anab.

v. 3.

11

Ivi 3

iv

T$

iep$

the Peiraeus,

CIA

and there
p.

al a\ffi)
fiecrra, IKCLVO.

was another temple


TWV
fs

of Aphrodite there,

Kal ffvs Kal alyas Kal /3ovs


tirirovs,

founded by Themistocles (above,


98).
:

rp<peiv Kal

uffre Kal TO.

T7)v eoprijv itivruv

virotfryia evta^fiffOai.

Aphrodite appears as guardian of seafarers in later times see below,


eh. v.
8

vepl

Se

atirbv

rbv

vabv

a\ffos

ijfjifpuv
tiipaia.

dtvdpwv
6 5

t<pvTf>bOii

ova tarl rpUKrd


fj.e-ya\(f)

Paus.
like

vi.

20.

5.

Sosipolis

is
;

vabs us /MKpbs

rip fv

'E^cry
Kal

title, is

elKavrai, Kal rb %bavov ZoiKfv ws Kvirapicrfftvov


<rrri\ri

it Soter, here personified applied to Zeus in Magnesia Strabo


:

xP vff V
i-ffTrjKe

t>

VTl

TV

&

'E0^<r<fj.

xiv. p. 648.
6

wapa rbv vabv ypdn/j.ara

Paus.

vi.

25.

4.

Purgold (Fest70. Geburtstag,

fyovffa-

'lepbs 6

x&Po * TW

'AprtfjuSos.
TTJV

schrift fiir

E. Curtiusz.
this

Tbv

?x VTa

Ka l

Kapiro'Ufjifvov

fdv
e/e

1884,
signs

Olympische Weihgeschenke) asothers to


of

dfKarrjv KaraOijeiv eKatrrov Irous.

TOV trepiTTOv rbv vabv


5t rtj
^177

f trier Kevafeiv.
rij

av

them the Hermes

date, amongst Praxiteles, but

TTOirj

ravra

Oe

pious person of Ithaca, emulous of Xenophon, dedicated a like precinct


in

without cogent reasons. 7 See the records of the excavations ;

his

native
:

isle,
iii.

with
1.

the

same

and Baumeister, Denkmaler, s.v. Pergamon, for references: Paus. i. 4. 6,


25. 2.
8

inscription

IGS

654 (2nd cent.

after Christ).

Strabo, p. 624.

122
Attalus
II

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


seems to have commemorated
1

his

predecessors'

victories as well as his


.

own, according to the inscription dis-

covered on the spot The temple of Athena was rebuilt, and a great altar was erected to Zeus; the temple was adorned by trophies of arms carved upon it, and the altar with the battle of

gods and giants, a "heroic precedent." It remains to mention that after Actium (31), the Mantineans, who fought on Octavius' 2 this goddess side, dedicated a temple to Aphrodite Symmachia
:

being no doubt chosen because of the legendary connexion of Aeneas with Rome 3 So, in modern times, after the repulse
.

of the Turks from


to

Rhodes

in 1480,

Notre

Dame

de
.

la Victoire,

d'Aubusson built a chapel whose image is still in the Latin

4 chapel at Rhodes

of votive buildings is formed by the Treasuries and Colonnades, which were erected at great national shrines. The Treasuries are cell-like buildings, much
distinct
class

of a shape with temples but on a small scale, being a cella with a foreroom, opening through a couple of pillars between antae. The foundations of twelve have been found at Olympia 5 Pau;

sanias 6 mentions seven at Delphi, and there were besides five at Delos again several are others, making the same total
;

known
houses

to
for

have existed 7

These buildings were used as show-

the display of votive offerings.

The

first

we can

assign to a victory in war is the Megarian Treasury at Olympia, built with the spoils of some victory we cannot identify. Pausanias 8 gives it an absurdly high date, but the evidence of the remains is conclusive for the later part of the sixth century.

To the gable was


1

afh'xt

a shield, which bore an inscription


3

Ail
Ttav

/3a<riXei>j*ATra\oj/3a(nX^ws'ATTaX<>u KCU 'A.6ijva.i viKy<f)bpu>i x a P tff7"^IP i0>'

Karii ir6\efj.oi> Ayuvwv, quoted by Frazer; BaUmeister, Denkm. 1222. 2 Paus. viii. 9. 6. The list might

Philip Paus.
4

Should the Philippeum, after Chaeronea, be


v. 20.

built

by added?

10.

Biliotti,

History

of Rhodes,

p.

266.
6

be

carried
to

further,

if

it

were
is

my

Pausanias mentions ten


Paus.
x. 11. 1
vi.

but be-

purpose

go down

into

Roman

times.

fore his
8

day two were destroyed.


fif .

The

latest I

have met with

a shrine

Qij<ravpol.
ofaos,
;

dedicated to Zeus by Jovianus, about 363 A. D., when he restored the pagan
worship, 'EXX^pcw
re/j^vrj
ical

BCH
p aus>

88 Ai/Xta?
O!KOJ

No^wv

ol^os;
olnos.
8

158 'Avdplwv
v i. 19
2.

178

j3wfj.ovs

^aXajroaj:

IGS

iii.

1.

721.

WAR.

123

telling that the building had been made from Corinthian spoils. Not much later is the Treasury built by the Syracusans,

commonly

Zeus and been the offering of Gelo the Syracusan for some victory either by sea or land. The words of Pausanias are not clear to decide whether the Treasury itself was to be of the same dedication, but I think he did mean this, and that its common title,
Treasury of the Carthaginians, refers to
its origin
1
.

called of Carthage. three linen corslets,

It contained a colossal image of which Pausanias declares to have

The

spoils

are generally assigned to the battle of Himera (480), but this It is possible date is many years too late for the building. that both building and spoils were dedicated, as Pausanias says,

by Gelo, after some victory we know nothing of, when he may have been in command though not yet tyrant; or it may be the spoils belong to Himera, and the building to this earlier victory, by whomsoever dedicated; or the treasury may have been dedicated by the Syracusans before Gelo came on the scene. Style of architecture and sculpture, and the alphabet used in the inscription, alike point to the years 510 500 at and there are indications 2 that the cities of eastern latest
;

about that time wage a dire struggle with Carthage, in which they were victorious 3 The Athenian Treasury at Delphi
Sicily did
.

was built out of the spoils of Marathon 4 and on the metopes were carved the Battle of Gods and Giants, with the deeds of Heracles and Theseus 5 clearly a heroic precedent like " " those of Pergamus. Brasidas and the Acanthians used the Athenian spoils to build another of these cells in the same
,
:

place

When

the Athenian empire went to wreck in Sicily,


see Frazer's note
5

1 For other views on Paus. vi. 19. 7.

See Frazer's note, and


ff.,

BCH

xvii.

217
this

612, xviii. 169.

terrace next

2 3

See Herod,

vii.

158.

building

bears

See Freeman's Sicily ii. 98, App. vni. pp. 478 9. The Treasury may be used as another argument in support
of his suggestion.
4

which has been cut or re-cut


third
'

the inscription, in the


Td.ir6\\uvi.

century,
rrjs

AOrjvaioL
:

aKporlvia

MapatfuWj

tion

is

unknown
I.e.).

the explana(Cecil Smith, in

Paus.

x.

11. 5.

The remains
608

of

Frazer,
6

the inscription cannot be fitted in with


his words
'

It

contained a statue of Lysander.

BCH xx.
diro

'A0tji>a.?oi rtai

Plut.
14,

Airo\\ij}vi

MrjSwc

dfcpoOiVta

rfjs

Lysander 1, De Pythiae Oraculis 15 cp. Thuc. v. 10.


;

124

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

the Syracusans built their Treasury at Delphi (4 IS) After the battle of Leuctra (371) the Theban Treasury was founded there also 1 As to the other Treasuries, it is fair to conjec.

ture that

some of those whose

origin

is

not attested were built

from war-spoils. This is probable for the one which Cypselus, 2 tyrant of Corinth in the seventh century, erected at Delphi and for the Sicyonian Treasury there, which belongs to the
,

Others are mentioned, dedicated by Croesus and Gyges by Massilia 8 and by the city of Spina on the Adriatic coast 6 The Cnidian Treasury, in spite of Pausanias' statement, seems to have been built from a tithe
early sixth

century

of

war 7

Occasionally the victor preferred to build a colonnade from Thus the Spartans built in their own city what was war-spoil.
called the Persian Colonnade, in
nius,

Queen Artemisia, and


.

others,

which were statues of Mardo"from the Persian spoils 8 ":

statues of Persians in their barbaric dress supported the roof in place of pillars 9 colonnade of the Athenians at Delphi has

The inscription, which is controversy 11 on still remains the where it was placed The complete, spot is some of the letters forward in time alphabet puzzling, pointing
given
rise

to

much

10

and some back. Kohl assigns it to the time of Peisistratus, U. Kohler to a victory won over the Aeginetans about 490 Pausanias again gives the victory to Phormio 12 which is impos;
,

sible,

Phormio's
1

not only from the antiquity of the script, but because victories, though brilliant, were not considerable
x. 11. 5.
i.

Paus.

adorned with
x. 13. 5.

Herod,
Strabo
Strabo
iii.

14

Paus.
fif. ;

8
4
5

BCH xviii.
Diodorus
120.
v. p.

187

Paus.

x. 11. 1.

Persian heads, which Ctesylis dedicated at Delphi (BCH vi. 152), would have been appropriate to
the great war
for
10

ix. p.

471.

xiv. 93.

but there is no reason assuming any connexion.


;

NH

The

214, ix. p. 421; Pliny, last reference I take


13. 5.
xxii.

x. 11.

Hicks, Gr. Hist. Iwcr. 20; Paus. 6 with Frazer's note, where the
3 a, p. 169

from Frazer on Pausanias x. 7 Paus. x. 11. 5; BCH


KvtSioi
dvf'OrjKav

rival theories are stated.

592
Kal
TT\V

IGA

'Afl^euoi

dv^eyav

rbv

Orjffavpitv

ffroav xai TO. ovXa. ncai

TcUpwnJpta

ray<i\fJMTa.

"AinJXXwvi IlvOiui Sexarav


11. 3.
i.

i\6vres TUV iro\e^iuf.


ls

airo
8
9

TWV

iro\cp.icjv.
iii.

Paus.

x. 11. 6.

Some of Phormio's
later, as

Paus.

spoils
6.

may have

been added
(p.

Vitruvius

1.

So the bowl,

have suggested

107 1 ).

WAR.

125

in favour of

enough to have afforded so rich a booty. The probabilities are some victory between 490 and the mid-century,
off

such as the sea-fight of Cecryphalea

Aegina in 460. Another

colonnade, called Myropolis, was built by Aristodemus, who was tyrant of Megalopolis before the Achaean league, after defeating 1 Acrotatus and his Lacedaemonian soldiers of fortune There
.

from spoils of Corcyra 2 Some kind of building appears to have been dedicated at Athens by the Tarentines during the period of their alliance 3 Colonnades (280 279), perhaps for the victory of Heraclea

was

also a colonnade in Elis built

were amongst the buildings erected by Attalus II 4 To the same category belongs an altar which is connected
.

with Plataea

After the battle of 479, the united Greeks


city,

decreed exalted honours to the


8
;

promising them eternal

independence and protection and there they built an altar to Zeus Eleutherios 6 with an inscription by Simonides 7 This is the only altar I have noticed as dedicated for a feat of war, until we come to the end of Greek history, when Mummius But perhaps the dedicates an altar to the gods at Thebes 8 The altar, howaltar of the Chians at Delphi was one such 9 nor a beautiful in itself; was not an obvious ever, thing offering it was not necessarily built at all, and it was often made of the ashes of immemorial sacrifices 10
,
. .

2.

Divine statues.
11
.

statue (aya\/ji,a) of the

many
1

obvious dedicatory offering was the protecting deity, and examples are Cypselus having vowed to dedicate the goods of the
30. 7.
9

An

Paus.

viii. vi.

Herod,

ii.

135.

The

inscr.

which
fifth

Paus.

25. 1.
:

has been found belongs to the


fapav-

Hicks, Gr. Hist. Inscr. 163

century

X2bt

'AiroXXowi rbv

(}W/MI>.

TIVOI dirb
4

TUV

iro\e/j.twv aytdeffav.

BCH
1222
10
:

XX. 617.
v. 13. 8, 11, 14. 8, 10,
7.

Baumeister, 1 above, p. 122


.

Denkmaler,

See Paus.
9,

15.

ix.
vii.

11.

Also of

unhewn

Thuc.

ii.

71.

stones
vi.

22.

5;

of unburnt brick

8
7

Plut. Aristides 19.

20. 11.

Anth. P.

vi. 50.

Hicks, Gr. Hist. Inscr. 199.

But
sacri-

altars

were made to Peace and


2.

statue, perhaps of Zeus, at Olympia, bore an inscr. unique in form fa\fluv vepl 'Ofwvolap, Inschr.
:

u One

fices offered after

the peace of 374:

von 01. 260 (?cp. Paus.

v. 24. 4).

Nepos, Timotheus,

126
Corinthians
if

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


he won Corinth, used the money to procure a
1
.

At the beginning of golden Zeus which he sent to Delphi the second Messenian War (685 the 668) Spartans are said to have dedicated a statue of Zeus which Pausanias saw at
Olympia, thus inscribed
:

K.poviBa,
0vfjL(2i

ZeO 'Q\vvTTi, rca\6v ayaX/ia rotX AaxeSat/Jboviois.

The base of this statue has been found, and is a useful proof of the uncertainty of these early traditions the alphabet is of the sixth rather than the seventh century, and the inscription
:

has even been claimed for the Messenian revolt of 464 2


warlike feat must be

Some

commemorated by the great


.

statues found

on the Sacred Way in Branchidae, for nothing else surely The oldest of many could have so magnificent a tithe 3 memorials of the great struggle between Carthaginian and Greek in Sicily, is an inscription of Selinus, which belongs to the middle of the sixth century this appears to record a vow made before the fight, that when peace was made statues of gold should be erected to guardian deities; but the frag;

4 From the mentary state of it makes certainty impossible same struggle we have an Apollo dedicated by the Massaliots at
.

Delphi, as the firstfruits of the sea-fight with the CarthagiGelo's thank-offering after Himera included a colossal nians 8
.

Paus.

v.

2.

3 and Frazer's note

TOUJ 0eoi)j
TIOI4>6/3ov

-rotfsSe

VIKUVTI rol ZeXivot/v-rbv

Strabo
\iSwv
2

viii.

353, 378; Plato, Phaedrus


s.v.

8ia rbv Ala vtKufj.es Kal 5iA

236 E; Suidas and Photius


dvd6t)fj.a.

Ku^e-

Kal 8<&
Kal dia
di'

'UpaK\a

Kal

SL'

'A.ir6\-

\wva
24.

noreiSaVa
'A6ca>a.av

Kal dia TvvdapiKal


5i<i

Die Inschriften von Olympia, no. 252; Eohl, IGA,


Paus.
v.

3;

das

Kal

MaXoKal
dia.

<f>6pov
rot')?

Kal
dXXoi.'s

3iA

nao-tKpdreiav
Sect

no. 75.
3

deovs,

6i

Aia

/id-

p.

Newton, Branchidae, inscr. no. 66, 777 ra dya\fj.ara rdSe avtOeffav ol


:

Xtora.

0iXas
/coXdij/ajras

5^

ytvontvas

ty

xp vff^ ul
ravra
Ka00tfj.fv,

^Xd<ra'ros,
S

rd
TO
'

TLvQuvos iraiSei TOV dpxfiyov, 0aX^s Kal


Ilaff(.K\ijt

bvvnara Airo\\wviov
'

8*

Kal

'Hyriffavdpos

Kal

AI^KIOS

rb

Kal 'Avaf/Xews, SeKarTjv run 'An-6\\uvi.

dt

xpvfflov

rb AIDS trpoypa.tya.VTfs ^tJKovra ra\dvrtav clpcc.

British

Museum

century.
68.
4

assigned to the 6th See also 780, 781, nos. 67,


:

Hicks, Gr. Hist. Inscr. 25, assigns this to the fifth century, and the struggle

IGSI
As

268,

IGA

515,
it

Collitz
:

iii.

between Selinus and Egesta. Paus. x. 18. 3.

3046.

restored,

runs thus

Sia

WAR.

127

There was a standing feud between Thessaly and Phocis; and when fortune looked with favour on the Thessalians, 2 The Lipari had much ado they dedicated a Zeus at Olympia to protect themselves against Tyrrhenian pirates, and many a

Zeus

3 Once the Pythia, it is said, victory sent its tithe to Delphi told them to put to sea with as few ships as possible they accordingly sent out a squadron of five. The Tyrrhenians, with
.

more romantic pride than one would expect of pirates, thought shame to meet them with a larger number. The five pirates were defeated and taken, and a like fate befel three other squadrons of five ships each which followed. The victors then
sent to Delphi an Apollo for each captured ship 4 Miltiades, as we have seen, had special cause to be grateful to Pan he consequently dedicates a statue of Pan, perhaps in the Acropolis
.

and Simonides writes him the epigram 5 The famous bronze Athena Champion, which stood in front of the Parthenon, was said to have been made by Pheidias from the Marathonian tithe 6 no doubt it was set up at the close of the Persian Wars 7 and called after Marathon by the loose
cave,
. ;

convention already spoken of 8 After Salamis, a colossal image of Apollo was erected at Delphi, and one of Zeus at Olympia,
.

by the Greeks purchase two


Isthmus,
for
its
10

in

common
:

9
.

The

tithe of Plataea

was used to

one of Poseidon to be placed on the face set towards the rising sun; and one of Zeus
colossi
.

Another Zeus was given to the same place by 11 and a third, the Argive Epidaurians, out of Median spoils " this colossal, by the Clitorians as a tithe from many cities 12 ."

Olympia

Deliverance from a wandering horde of Mardonius's


1

men was

Pans.

vi. v.

19. 7.
24.
1,

Tttov
x. 1.

Paus.
is

11

the

He

is

paid by the Greeks ; xix. p. 478. alone in this view and probably
x. 14. 5.
ix.

occasion
3 4
5

not known. Strabo


8.
;

Diod.

v. 9,

vi.

275.

wrong. Paus.
10

Paus. x. 16.

Herod,
Paus.
Paus.

80; Paus.

v.

23.

1,

Anth. App. Plan. xvi. 232 Poetae Lyr. Gr. Hi. 1163.
6

Bergk,

x. 13. 9.

"
12

x. 15. 1.
v. 23. 7.

Paus.

i.

28. 2

npfaaxos. The base

At Olympia was

is identified
7

with

CIA

i.

333.

So says expressly the Schol. on


(iii.

another Zeus, dedicated by the Eleans for their victory over Arcadia: Paus.
vi.

Aristides
8

320 Dind.).
it

24. 3.

Another from the Psophidii,

Demosthenes says

was an

dpiff-

v. 24. 4.

128

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

the occasion for dedicating the Saviour Artemis at Megara Later, in 445, the Megarians revolted from Athens, and slew

most of the Athenian garrison in memory of which they sent an Apollo to Delphi*. After the Sacred War (346), the set an Amphictyons up Apollo at Delphi, and the Thebans
;

There was a bronze Apollo in the Pythium at as a war-tithe about the middle of the fourth dedicated Athens, 4 The people of Patrae, who had helpt the Aetolians to century
a Heracles*.
.

up a statue of Apollo in their own capital*. Rhodes was procured with the money got by selling the siege-engines of Demetrius Poliorcetes, who gave them to the Rhodians when he was forced to raise the siege (303) 8 Mummius set up at Olympia two bronze statues of Zeus 7 and
fight the Gauls, set

The Colossus

of

after

Actium, one Nicippe dedicated a statue of Aphrodite in the temple then built for her honour 8 We know of one divine statue dedicated by a private
.

Athens
'

person for success in war: in the fifth century 9


.

Hegelochus the alien did


It

this at

may

be that some of the archaic

Apollos discovered in Boeotia or other places are images of the deity, Apollo or who not, dedicated for this cause. One bronze figure of this type at least is inscribed as a tithe 10 and A fuller disthere is no indication that it was a trade-tithe.
;

'

cussion will be found in a succeeding chapter 11

Cimon, after his victory on the Strymon (477), was allowed as a special honour to set up two Hermae in the Street of Hermae, but without inscribing his name upon them 12 I do not know whether he regarded Hermes as the source of his good luck, or whether the motive was
items
call for

Two

remark.

Paus.
Paus.

i.

40. 2.
1.

Xr/v Si ^tXofewTjs AfKTrjs re

ira.ffi)t

2 3

Paus. x. 15.

fx uv f^"Se
10
ffeiiee

ir6\iv vinertu.

Kplrios KO!

x. 13. 1, 15. 1.

NijfficiTi;* lirvr\a<iT-t)v .

4
6

CIA

ii.

1154, 1204.
20. 3.

AJA

N.S.

ii.

50 MAvn/cXdj M' <W-

Paus.

vii.

feicaj36Xi dpyvpor6^ui raj dcxdrat'


Sidoi

Eudocia
victories
7

says

it

commemorated
994).

by sea (no.
v. 24. 4.
viii. 9.

TV 5t 4>/3e Archaic.

\a.plffrra.v

d/xotpav.

Paus.

8 9

Paus.

see above, p. 122.


'EtcffxivTov
'

"
in

u Chapters
Plut.

viu.

and

xiv.

Cimon
ii.

7.

Inscribed hernia
inscr.

CIA

i.

374 irapfleWi
leal

ne

Jahrb.

22830, one
144.

TOTTJP dvtOijKf

vlbt tvOad'

A.6i)vaiiji

Anth. Pal.

vi.

Tfbvuv 'Apfo*

"HyAoxoi.

/trya-

WAR.
.

129

1 The other is the dedication of the Saviour Demigods, pride the Dioscuri no doubt 2 to Poseidon at Elatea, in memory of
,

3 The inscription dates from the fourth signal deliverance 4 century; and I cannot believe with M. Paris that the lines have

some

been recut and that the dedication belongs to an earlier age, perhaps to the affray when Tellias struck terror into his adversaries by means of a coat of whitewash 5 because the dedication
,

of the statue of a deity to whom gratitude to that deity himself while Greek religion
3.

is

due

is

always made
.

is

sincere 6

human act blest by the god. was one a divine statue way of acknowledging up his power; and although we are not often told what the
Artistic representation of the

To

set

figure lookt like, often exprest this

we know that the

power by clothing him

plastic genius of in attributes,

Greece
such as

armour, and by placing weapons in his hand.


artistic expression

As the

faculty of

grew, attempts were made to depict in some way the effect of that power, or more precisely the event wherein he had shown it. The Odes of Pindar show us how
the Greek mind would naturally regard human life in relation to higher things and as he seeks out heroic or mythological
;

precedent for the feats which he celebrates, so victories in war were sometimes commemorated by a mythological or allegorical

So is explained the scene on the Aegina pediment, so group. the metopes of the Parthenon. In the offeriogs which we have
first

to

do with, there

is

no realism.

the divine and heroic figures, mortal


helpt
1

man whose

At most along with strong arm has

may sometimes be

found.

Dem.

this street as a chief

Lept. 491 cites an inscr. in mark of honour


:

<r<j>eTtpwi>

XPONOTIEI
4 5

The stone reads d\6x^v. in the first line.


viii.

in olden days

<?TTI

TUV wpoybvuv iro\\d

P. Paris, Elatee, 10, 223.

dyaffd elpya.ff/j.fvoi rives otidevbs r/^iovvro


TOIOVTOV, dXX' dyairrirus eirtypdfj.fj.aTos ev
rots epfj.ais erv^ov.
2

Herod,

27.

is
:

point see ch. xiv. It true that if the dedication refers


this

For

There was a pavaKeiov at Elatea


iii.

to peril at sea, there


fitness

IGS
3

1.

129.
x.

BCH
i]

367

IGS

iii.

pt.

1.

130

but

it

would be some from a latter-day standpoint has yet to be proved that this
of the great age.

irovrlw
vlet

iinro(j.{dovri

Hoffeid&vi

xP^ vov
dvedriKe

was true
figures

If these

ir6\is

ei/^a/j^vt]

rofod'

w^re a group in action they


;

0ewt,

rifuOtovs

ffwrr/pas

virep irpoyovuv

may

be older

see next section.

re Kal R.

avruv Kal yip KOI rebuts K<d

130
This
is

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

the meaning of the group sent to Olympia by the their victory at Oenoe the seven who fought Thebes and the against Epigoni, together with the chariot of and At Olympia also, upon his charioteer Baton Amphiaraus

Argives

for

the Day, with fighting pairs, the group of the tithe Abantis sent being by the city of Apollonia on 2 the Ionian sea A group of Heracles and Apollo, striving

a
a

great

number

pedestal, of Homeric

stood

Zeus,

Thetis,

and

heroes

in

for the tripod,

was dedicated at Delphi by the Phocians


.

after

their defeat of the Thessalians 3


his

Attains I commemorated

by several groups on the Acropolis of of the gods and giants, of the Athenians with the Amazons, and the battle of Marathon, then held of
Gallic
:

victories

Athens

battles

4 equal importance with the great deeds of legend Perhaps the cedar-wood group of the struggle of Heracles with Achelous, in the Megarian treasury at Delphi, was meant in
.

the same

way

6
.

At some date unknown, the


conquered
a
barbaric

citizens
tribe,

of

Heraclea Pontica, having

the

Mariandyni, sent to Olympia a group representing the Labours


of Heracles: the Lion, the Hydra, Cerberus, and the Erymanthian Boar". The same principle must also explain an Argive
offering at Delphi, a bronze copy of the

Wooden Horse

bought from Lacedaemonian

spoils.

of Troy, This should belong to

the successful raid of Argives into the Thyreatis in 414, when 7 they took booty to the amount of h've-and-twenty talents

Perhaps the "Wooden Horse" of bronze 8 acropolis had a similar origin


.

on the Athenian

Pans.

i.

15. 1

with Frazer's note

Frazer on Paus.
s

I.e.

C. Robert (Hermes xxv. 412) places the battle between 463 and 458 ; this date is supported by IGA 165,
x. 10. 4.

Paus.

vi.

19.

12.

It

should be

noted that the gable had the war of

where

the sculptors

named

Hypatodorus and in an inscr. assigned to the

group, Aristogeiton, are

of

the

gods and giants, and the building was ascribed to a victory.


* 7

Paus.

v. 26. 7.

Paus.

x.

10.

Thuc.

vi.

95

Others place the early 5th century. date in the 4th century.
2

Paus.

v. 22. 6.
viii.

Brunn, Gesch. der gr. Kiinstler, i. 283. Pausanias appears to refer it to their well-known victory of a hundred and
years before but Autiphanes, the founder of the Horse, was not earlier than the Peloponnesian War.
fifty
;

Herod,
Paus.

27

Paus.

x.

1.

8,

13. 6.
4
i.

25. 2

Plut. Antonins 60.

existing statues are identified as originals or copies from these groups ;

Ten

8
i.

Schol. Aristoph. Birds 1128


;

Paus.

23. 8

CIA

i.

406

Xcupt5ri/j.os Evo-y-

WAR.

131

Another expression of the same idea is a group including the protecting deities, together with personifications of the dedicating states, either in the form of the local heroes or
otherwise, sometimes also the

rendered signal help in the event.

commander or anyone who had The Phocians, after the

successful stratagem of Tellias the soothsayer, sent figures of their local heroes to Delphi and Abae, with Tellias and their
generals,

Rhoeus and Daiphantes

1
.

Another group was sent


:

2 in the by the Athenians to Delphi after the Persian Wars stood of and Athena Erechtheus, Cecrops, presence Apollo

all

Pandion, Leos, Antiochus son of Heracles, Aegeus, and Acamas, tribal eponyms; Codrus, Theseus, and Phyleus, ancient and the general Miltiades. The three remaining chiefs
;

eponyms, Ajax, Hippothoon, and Oeneus, must surely have formed part of the original dedication; but when Pausanias saw the group, these three statues had been dubbed with the

names
their

of Antigonus, Demetrius, and Ptolemy who had given After Salamis, a names to later Athenian tribes 4
, .

was set up at Delphi, holding in one hand a ship's beak 5 the word dvSpids, used by Herodotus, cannot 8 and it was apply to the Apollo mentioned by Pausanias of or Salamis. The Aegina, probably a local personification
colossal statue
;
,

Arcadians,

after ravaging Laconia, probably under Epaminondas (370-69), sent to Delphi a large group: images of Apollo and Victory, of Callisto mother of Areas by Apollo, of

But this yt\ov ex Kol\r)s avid-rfKev. appears to be a private dedication. 1 Herod, viii. 27 ; Paus. x. 1. 8,
13. 6.

reason for taking away the three which


are missing, that only the
4

and I therefore assume names were changed.

E. Curtius, Gesammelte Abhandii.

says (1) the sculptor was Pheidias, (2) the group was really and truly part of the Marathon battletithe.

Pausanias

lungen,
5

365.
viii.

Herod,
Paus.
:

121.

x. 14. 5.

Hero

statues were

It

is

hard to reconcile these

so called

Arist. Peace 1183 rbv &v-

statements, unless we suppose that the money was kept unused for a long time. It should be noted that
Miltiades soon
so the date is
fell

read also Sptdvra rbv HavSlovos. of one of gold, not described, bought

We

odour, and likely to be after his


into
ill

with Median spoils Epist. Philippi 179 (speaking of Amphipolis) 'AXe^dy:

death.
3

Spov rov irpoybvov Karatrx^Tos rov rbirov oOev Kal ruv eu'x/iaAwrwj' M^Stov airap-

Paus.

x.

10. 1.

If the three last

xV

AvSpidvra

xP vff0 ""

o.vfffrijffv

els

had been new

statues, there

was no

Ae\0otfj.

92

132

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

Tolmides and his soothsayer stood on the acropolis of Athens, as part of a group with Erechtheus 2 This should refer to the raid on fighting against Eumolpus
.

Areas, and his sons

the Peloponnese in 455, when Gythium was burned and Cythera taken 3 Similarly Aetolia was placed at Delphi amidst a group
.

Athena, and the Polyarchus aud Eurydamus, when the Aetolians 4 A type of Aetolian coins struck conquered the Gauls (280) after this date seems to have been copied from this figure
generals
.

of protecting deities, Apollo, Artemis, and

whence arms 5
.

it

would appear that she was seated upon a

pile of

Lysander's oriental ostentation was doubtless to blame for the tone of his group dedicated after Aegospotami. There stood Zeus, Apollo, Artemis, Poseidon, and the Dioscuri, there
stood Lysander and all his admirals, his pilot, and his priest and Poseidon was placing a crown on Lysander's head". The event itself might be more realistically presented. A group dedicated by the Tarentines at Olympia consisted of a number of horsemen and footmen, with King Opis coming to help the Peucetii; he is dying, and over him stand the heroes Taras aud Phalantheus, and a dolphin is near. It is
;

inscribed as a tithe of the Peucetian spoils 7

Attalus I added a group representing his Gallic victory 8 to the great historic fights mentioned above
.

Groups representing a man Phormis, a Maenalian, fighting with various foes were dedicated by a friend, Lycortas the
9 Syracusan, in Olympia
.

Paus.
40.

x. 9.

5 and Frazer,

AM xiv.

barians, but this


ficial

was perhaps a super-

15
2
3

view

(cp.

Eidgeway, Early Age,

Paus.

i.
i.

27. 4.

70).
5

Thuc.

103, 108, 114.


2, 16. 4, 6, 18. 7, 19. 4.

P. Gardner, Types of Greek Coins,

Paus. x. 15.

pi. xii.
6

40

Head, Hist. Num., 283


;

f.

The same

principle

may

mythological groups.

explain other Hercules fight-

Plut. Lys. 18

Paus.

x. 9. 7.

Pede-

stals

and

inscrr.

have been found, but

ing Achelous, whom Ares helps, with Zeus and Deianira (Megar. Treas. 01.,

are not yet publisht.


7

Paus.

x. 13. 10.
i.

Paus.
their
17.

vi.

19.

12).

It is

to be noted

8
9

Paus.
Pans.

25. 2

above, p. 130.

that the Sardinians sent a statue of

v.

27. 7.

eponym

to

Delphi
calls

1).

Pausanias

(Paus. x. them bar-

another group;

At Aegira was a warrior who had

died fighting bravely, his father in the

WAR.

133

fifth century, reliefs began to be used for dedication and a of few them commonly suggest war. Some indeed are inscribed there is no doubt about the battle;

Towards the end of the

scene dedicated by a cavalry commander at Eleusis, which belongs to the fifth century horsemen are chasing and cutting
:

Others, though not inscribed, show warlike subjects Victory and a trophy", warriors armed or wounded men 3 or a ship 4 Now a battle-scene on land seems to be
1
.

down the enemy


:

5 6 Roman copy of a Greek orirepresented now a sea-fight ginal has Victory holding a ship's taflfrail-ornament (a^aarov), and an armed warrior beside a pillar wreathed with a snake 7
,
.

So perhaps the reliefs where Athena stands by a trophy of arms hung on a tree 8 or she stands armed, a Victory in her hand, between an armed and an unarmed man, the latter 9 The warrior holding up one hand in the attitude of worship
;
.

thank-offering after battle 10 That the relief or picture was familiar in the fourth century we learn from the story of Charon, a Theban, who helpt Epaminondas and Pelopidas to free the country, and afterwards

pouring a libation
.

may

represent

the

victory in a cavalry fight shortly before Leuctra (371). Androcydes of Cyzicus was just then at work on a relief or painting (iriva%) of some other battle, which when the revolution took place

won the

was

all

but done.

This had been preserved, and

Menecleidas, being jealous of the two chief movers, persuaded


attitude

of

mourning, three
trinkets

sisters

Samoa Museum,
174.
3 4
5 6

no. 54, see

AM

xxv.

doffing

their

in

token

of

mourning, and three brothers. Pausanias (vii. 26. 9) does not say that it
stood in a temple, but " in a building."
1

Sybel 6623, 6711. Sybel 1379. Sybel 379. gybel 370.

CIA

iv. 1.

422",

p. 184:

...j 'En-t-

AA

ix.

171, restored

from Louvre

ffl\ov
like.
iv.

iirirapxr\<ra.s

dv&t]KCv
reads

or

the

replica;

Miiller-Wieseler,
i.

Denkm. der
Other exx.
Furt-

See
1.

AM
84,

xiv. 398, pi. xii.

CIA

ant. Kunst,

pi.

14, 48.

p.

373 63
?

drr6

TWV iroXtptcov

The

Imrapx... relief of a
foe,

in 0. Jahn, Arch. Beitr. 210.


,

horseman and prostrate

Sybel

2 guesses wangler, Meisterwerke 202 that the original may have been dedi-

3140, may be a tombstone, like that of Dexileos.


2 Sybel 368. So on bases Sybel 6418 (5th century), 6743 Victory and trophy on a relief of Roman date in
:

cated by Nicias. 8 Sybel 4239.


9 Schone 85. Victory appears to be holding out a wreath to the latter,

10

F-W.

1197.

134

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

the people to add Charon's name to it, and to dedicate it in In the Lamian war (323) memory of the victory aforesaid Leosthenes the Athenian defeated the Lacedaemonians in
1
.

Boeotia and at Thermopylae, and shut up the garrison in Lamia, where he fell a picture was put up in the joint
;

temple of Athena and Zeus at Peiraeus, showing Leosthenes and his sons engaged in the fight'-. Olympiodorus, who raised
the siege of Elatea (298), was honoured by a painting in Eleusis, 3 Porus is said to have dedicated in some Indian perhaps votive
.

4 It temple bronze tablets portraying the feats of Alexander will be remembered that Queen Matilda is supposed to have
.

dedicated the famous tapestry in Bayeux cathedral after the

conquest of England. A fragment of a war scene in bronze repousse was found at Dodona 5 but I hesitate to place it here as it was probably part of
,

the bronze case of some other object. Similar friezes at Olympia bear warriors fighting 6 A war galley comes from Crete 7
.
.

In Corinth, where painted pottery was made from an early day, the poor man seems to have had the means to make a
dedication of this sort.

At

least,

some of the sherds amongst

the refuse of Poseidon's temple fall in place here quite naturally. There are pictures of Poseidon and Amphitrite, with other

common enough, although giving no clue to the occasion; but others represent Homeric combats, one of the motives as we have seen of the warriors' heroic precedents 8 Others again
deities,
.

bear armed
.

9 two or more men fighting or a battle10 These date from the sixth century or earlier, and there ship is no reason to suppose that they were not matcht at other places, such as Athens, where such things could be made.

warriors, or

Archaic
in
1

reliefs
,

of warriors, in terra-cotta,
.

come from Praesus

Crete 11 one leading a captive 12


Plut. Pelopida* 25.

Antike Denkmiiler
24; Gaz. Arch.

i.

8.

13,
;

ii.

23.

2 3
4

Pans.
Paus.

i.
i.

3. 4.

14

6, 24.

vi.

107

Jahrb.

26. 3

"to his memory."


ii.

xii.
10

Philostr. Apoll.

9.

16 no. 521, 579, cp. 589, 593. Jahrb. no. 621, 647, 650, 654.
N.S. v. 390, 392, figs. 19, 25,

6
7 8

Carapanos, Dodone, xvii. 1. Bronzen von Ol. xxxvii. 709.

n AJA
plate
12

xii. 3.

Above, p. 65, fig. 8. Antike Denkmiiler i.

AJA

N.S. v. 390, 392, figs. 19, 25,

7.

15.

plate

xii. 4.

WAR.

135

The following I would also interpret as a representation of the event. After Salamis, the Aeginetans dedicated at Delphi a bronze mast with three golden stars upon it. I can only
suppose that St Elmo's fire had been seen on the ships, and 1 that it was thus commemorated as a good omen One of
.

Ly sander's many offerings golden stars by him sent


similar
2

origin

Aegospotami was a pair of to Delphi, which may have had a Plutarch, who for a sceptical observer was
after

to portents, notes that these stars mysteriously the battle of Leuctra. before disappeared the Further, story of the Corinthian women should be ex-

singularly awake

plained in the same way. It is said that when the Persians invaded Greece, the courtesans of Corinth went to Aphrodite's temple and prayed for the preservation of Greece. After the

triumph the people dedicated a picture or a bronze group of the women in the same place, which we are to suppose was not a
row of
portraits,

but the

women

in act of supplication 3

have seen in sundry of the groups described, how the victorious general stood in the high company of gods and
heroes.

We

The sentiment which caused him

to be included

is

not

quite simple, and as the ancients have not themselves analyzed There was a it we should be rash to jump to conclusions.
desire,

no doubt, to show honour; but this was certainly not the main motive, as it was in honorific statues of later days. Demosthenes 4 recognises the distinction quite clearly, when he
1

Herod, viii. 122. He says nothing of the Dioscuri, but later writers of
course identified the stars with them.

\f/avTwv,

rds rare
vvrepov

iroiriffa/jitva.*

r\\v

reiav,

Kal

irapovaa.?,
'

They do not explain


three, or
fact,

why

there were

r68f TO eirfypa/u/ta At5' virtp re Kal fvOvpdxuv voXnrrav


eOxeffOai

faraOev
ov

what the mast meant.

As a
later.

Kvirpidi

5a.ifj.ovlq..

yap

the stars are not

known

as sym-

To&tpbpoiffiv
<rais

e^aaro

81'

'A^poSirij Iltpvpod6fj.ev.

bols of the Dioscuri until


'

much

'E\\fywi>

aicpdiroXiv

Plut. Lys. 18.

Plutarch interprets
It is

Plut.

DC Herod. Malign.
Aristoer.

39
tKeivoi

says
9e-

them as

signifying the Dioscuri.

bronze statues.
4

true the Dioscuri were special patrons of Sparta, but see last note. Lysander

Demosth.
rov

686

/utoroKX^a,
fiaxio-v

rty

iv
/cat

2a\afuvi vav-

mnst have known of the older offering. 3 Theopompus and Timaeus ap. Ath.
xiii.

vtic/iffavra,

MiXnddijv

rbv

^yofyifo" Mapaffuvi,
OVK
t<ra

KO.I

TroXXoOs dXXouj,
elp-

573 ..Si^aw5?;s, dva.di>TWv T&V Ko.

TOIS

vvv ffTparrjyots dyaffa

pivffiuv

TrivaKO, TTJ

0e<p,

rbv

fn

Kal vvv
ypa.-

yafffifrovs, ov xaX*coOj Iffraaav ovS' vtrtp-

Sia^vovra,

Kal rds

frat'paj

iSiq.

rfydiruv.

OVK &pa rots eavrovs dyaObv

136

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

says that Miltiades and Themistocles did not expect the honour claimed by latter-day captains; no bronze portrait statues

were set up to them. The victory was not the captain's but belonged to the Athenian people; and a memorial portrait would have been out of place. And yet Miltiades was one of that

Marathonian group which stood at Delphi yet the figure was If then this figure is to be distinrecognisable for the man. from an ordinary portrait, the distinction lies not in the guisht
;

form but in the motive of dedication.

Perhaps we may regard

him

as partly the personification of the fighting force, the armed conflict being as it were summed up in its leader appropriately

arrayed partly the intermediate instrument through which the god worked. The statue was a memorial, not an honour; just
;

as the bronze ass, dedicated

by the Ambraciots at Delphi,

men, how the god had used him as a humble instrument by his braying to reveal the ambush of their

was

to

remind

all

Molossian foes

1
.

But the essence

of the

moving idea was

exprest by the group, and the single statues had no meaning. If Miltiades then, and Tellias, Rhoeus and Daiphantes were to be seen in Delphi, the figures were not placed there as the
portraits of great

human

statues

men. By the same principle we must judge of when dedicated alone in the great age of Greece.

Statues of Scyllis the renowned diver, and his daughter Hydra, who at the battle of Artemisium were said to have dived under the sea, and cut the Persian cables, sending their ships adrift to destruction, were dedicated in Delphi by the Amphictyons 2
.

iroiovaiv

x^P tv
d'i.iav

f^X ov

fftpbSpa.

ye,

0>

Avdpes

TTJV /j.6pai> K

'Afljjvcuoi,

Kal direbidocrdv ye Kal


6vrts

avrwv

Kaxfivuv

yap TroXXoO irdvTes

Ndo' Ivlxa When Pausanias


vfpl
of

vavpaxiav Xa/ip/os. claimed the victory


the Greeks
it:

dioi, irpoOKpivov tKfivovs airrQiv jjyflaBai. Iffn 5t ffu><f>poffiv dv6punrott, Kal vpbs
d\-f)0iat> f}ov\o/j.tvow ffKowfiv, TTO\{>
fj.fi-

Plataea as his own,


l

would not have


Paus. Paus.
2

below, p. 147.

x. 18. 4. x. 19.
1.

far
Kal

Tt/xij

TT;S

xa ^K W

clK&vot

ri>

xaXuf

Ziemann,

p. 16,

Ka.ya.0uv

dvBpuv
TOI
-riav

KfKpiffffat

irpurovs.

ydp

tpyuv ruv rbre ovSevbs


oi)5'

direffTtpyffaif

tavrovs'

fffriv

ovdeis
va.vfj.a-

speaks of a statue of Euchidas, who ran to Delphi and back in one day for the sacred fire, and fell dead on the
spot, quoting Plutarch, Arist. 20.

&rm
xiav
ovd(

dv ftwoi TTJV tv
Qf(uffTOK\tovs,
rr)t>

ZaXa/xm
dXX'

But

'AOyvaluv,
MiXrtdSoi;,

Mapa6wi>t

fj.dx"n"

Plutarch says nothing of a statue, only that they buried him (lOa^av) in
the precinct of Artemis Eucleia.

dXXa r^j ir6Xwj.

vvv dt woXXoi TOVTO

WAR.

137

The only

possible memorial of this deed in the round were the figures of the divers, characterised no doubt in some way as The same is true of any man who might doers of the deed.

be thought to have done more than a single man could do and yet it is doubtful whether Greeks, with their keen sense
;

of the fitting, would have done at that time what the Lydians did, in dedicating to Artemis a statue of one Adrastus, who

fought against Xerxes as a volunteer in the Greek army, and 1 fell Arimnestus it is true, who led the fighting valiantly
.

Plataean men-at-arms at Marathon and Plataea, was to be seen 2 in the temple of Athena at Plataea and he seems to have stood
,

alone

he was dedicated alone, it would seem that the centre of interest was shifting already, and that the great change was begun which in the next century was to make these dedications
;

if

morally worthless.

Why

whether
stated 3
.

for his feats in the

the statue of Phormio was dedicated, Gulf or for something else, is not

Apart from these

I can find

no evidence

for the dedication

But once of the victorious general alone in the fifth century. human statues were dedicated for whatever cause, the motive of
compliment was bound to come in sooner or
gives us the
first

and Lysander had begun. memorial of When Poseidon is Aegospotami, the human agent not the god becomes the centre
later
;

distinct proof that the change made to crown his figure in the

of the composition. statues of generals

In the fourth century there are

many

and other such on

record.

portrait of

Thrasybulus, soothsayer of the Mantiiieans when they fought 4 Iphicrates was set up by his against Agis, stood at Olympia
.

grateful country, but not until long after his celebrated feat of

arms 5
to be

der, if (as

This distinguisht honour became cheap with Alexanseems likely) he dedicated the statues he had caused
of four and thirty Greeks who fell at the Granicus About the year 300 we find the statue of a certain
13976; Paus. i. 24. 7 with Frazer's note, from whom I borAristotle, Rhet.

made
6
.

(334)
1

Pans. Paus.

vii. 6. 6.

2
3 4 5

ix. 4. 2.
i.

Paus.

23. 10.

row these
6

references.

Paus.

vi. 2. 4.
:

Plut. Alexander 16; but the


is

word

Dionys. Hal. De Lysia 372/1 indicium 12 Demosth. Aristocr. 663 ;


;

used

138

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

Timagoras, who had commanded in a victorious sea-fight, dedicated at Astypalaea, nominally by Ares himself Olympiodorus the Athenian, who raised the siege of Elatea when beset
1
.

by Cassander (298), was honoured probably at this time by a bronze statue, which the Phocians dedicated at Delphi". There was also a statue of the same man on the Acropolis, and another
in the

after he

Prytaneum, the former at least votive, dedicated no doubt had got rid of the Macedonian garrison in 288 s The Phocian allies put up there also a statue of their own leader,
.

Aleximachus, who in fighting against the invading Gauls 4 In 207 Philopoe(280) did all that valour could do, and fell men defeated and slew Machanidas, tyrant of Lacedaemon for which deed the Achaeans dedicated a bronze statue of him in
. ;

In later days the dedication of a commander was a compliment for ordinary services, like that of an honorific
Delphi*.

crown".

The base

of a statue, dedicated by Hermolycus, son of


;

7 this cannot comDiitrephes, "as a firstfruit," has been found memorate the wanton and horrible raid of Diitrephes mentioned

but must belong to some other event. be noted that none of the generals, not even 9 that combination of vanity Lysander, dedicates his own statue and impiety was reserved for creatures of Nero's kidney. It is

by Thucydides
It
is

to

not to be conceived,

acknowledgment of
1

however, that they made no private their victory or their deliverance; or that the private soldier, whose safety was not less momentous to

IGA

iii.

211

"

K&ff/j.ov

"Apijs varpidi

Kp/j.6\i'Kos

Aurpf'^oi'j

aira.p\iiv

ffTTJ<re

iv06.Se iraTSa IliSwvos Tiftaybpav

KpecriXaj

tirb-tjffev.

CIA

i.

402, but the

videos va.vfj.axov Tiytfji&vci. 2 i. 26. 3.

editor of the Corpus gives reason for

Paus.

thinking
8

it

is

not the same.

3 4 5 8

Paus.

i.

26. 3, 25. 2.

Thuc.

vii.

29

Paus.
in

i.

23. 3.

He
B.C.

Paus.

x. 23. 3.

held a
9

command
vi.

Thrace 411
I.e.).

Plut. Philopoemen 11.

(see Frazer,

on Paus.
16.
5.

IGI

i.

41 Rhodes ffTparfvffdnevov
Cf.
'

Paus.
'

But

in

later

tv re rots d<t>pdKTois Kai rats Kara<f>pdKrotj vavffl /tori


ir6\ffjiov.

40, 42,

days, Philonides, a quartermaster or of Alexander the Great, stepper

43,56; and Demosth. quoted p. 135, note 4. It has been too readily assumed
that the statue was that of Diitrephes ; but it probably was that of the wounded

seems

to

have dedicated his own statue

at Olympia.

Hicks, Gr. Hist. Inscr. 129 pacrtMws 'AXegdvSpov ^/xepoSpo/uas


flr)fj,a.TiffTi)t

neat

rip

'Aaiar

JuXwviSijs

man mentioned by Pliny, NH xxxiv. 74


Cresilas [fecit] vulneratum deficientem.

Zurov

K/>ijs

Xtpffovaffiot

dvt0i)Kt

Ad

WAR.

139

himself than that of any captain who ever lived, should offer no thanks for this great event beyond a sacrifice at the altar. We

do not know how

far a private soldier felt bound to tithe his share of spoils which had been tithed in common but if he was grateful enough he would not stop to count obols 1 The
;
.

question now arises, What is the meaning of those figures of armed warriors so often found in ancient shrines: were they meant for the divinity, or for what ? We must first clear our minds of a misconception. The
attributes of a Deity were not fixt by immutable laws; they express the conception in the worshipper's mind, which within certain limits might vary 2 If the deity be conceived as
.

a protector, he will naturally be armed, as the heroes are, now with spears, now swords, now in panoply as Aphrodite

and Athena.
the

Although Zeus
,
,

is

from early times armed with

4 yet he bears a helmet in Phrygia and a battle-axe in Caria 5 and there is no reason in the nature of things why he too should not have been represented

thunderbolt 3

armed warrior figures, then, are dedicated they may be meant for those deities. But the question takes a different turn when we see that such
in the panoply. to male deities,

If

dedications are found in the shrines of female divinities, as

Athena and Aphrodite. Take this in conjunction with the rare figures in hunter costume 6 and with those of athletes 7 and it is clear that we may lawfully deny the warrior figures
of
,
,

to be
It

meant

for the god.

does not
of the
to

follow,

however,
8
.

that they
facts

were meant as
last

portraits section go
portrait
1

worshipper

The

given in the
to dedicate

show that

for a

worshipper

his

would be the height of arrogance.

Moreover, one of
of this type

After the 4th cent, at least sol-

diers' dedications are certain.

CIA

ii.

But the votive statuettes in Dodona are not early.


4 5 6 7 8

962

ol

i7T7rs

TTji

2a.\a/juvi.
;

avtOeaav for

defeat of Pleistarchus
16, no. 10
oi

'E#. 'Apx- 1898,


oi

Overbeck, Kunstmyth. Plut. Quaest. Gr. 45.

pi.

i.

1. c.

ffTpanwrai

'Adrjvaiuv in

Above,

p. 78.

wreath.
2

See on this point more fully in

Below, pp. 1689. I am indebted to Dr Waldstein for

ch. xiv.
3

Bronzen von 01.

vii.

45, viii.

44.

a hint which brought these figures into their proper place.

140
these figures
is

(JREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

we

dedicated by two men together. Neither can as a them of the fairly interpret personification spirit of war, if not would at fail meet the case. least to which, over-subtile,

We

are supposing that the warrior wishes to

commemorate
;

his

success in war as the act of his

his protecting deity artistic expression being unequal to the task, he embodies the idea of successful war in the concrete figure

and

of an

armed warrior

in act to strike.

These

figures are then less and more than portraits: they attempt to express the act which divine

protection has blest.

The footman armed capapie is represented a by fine bronze statuette from Dodona, assigned to the year 600 or thereabouts Another, but
1
.

lacking the cuirass, was found in the precinct of Apollo Ptoan 2 Two warriors were unearthed
.

in

in Laconia, Olympia armed in the panoply 4 the last is dedicated to Apollo Meleatas 5 Another represents a naked bearded man, the hand uplifted to hold some weapon, and is dedicated by two persons in
, : .

and one at Selinus

Fio.23.Warrior,

common

the Acropolis of Athens were found several ancient figures of


to Apollo
.

Ismenian

On

from Olympia. Bronzen vii. 41. in


,

armed warriors 7 and statuettes of warriors were


,

Cyprus

dedicated
at
10
,

to

the

Paphian goddess

8
,

to
.

and to deities unknown Golgi characterised figures, others of rude


still
1

11

Apollo Besides these clearly


older

Artemis 9

to

make and probably


;

were found at Olympia


1882,
pi. 1,

12
,

one in terra-cotta 13

others in the

AZ

Baumeister, Denk-

miller, fig. 2091. 2 xi. 360, pi. ix.

BCH

and also

pi.

rium, Bronze Case vm. A, T. 7100. 7 Cat. ACT. Mus. Br. 741-5, cp. 748 (? parts of some other object).
8 9
10

x.

probably.
3

Bronzen von

01. pi. xxv. a. 1, xxiii.

Cat. Cypr. Cat. Cypr.

Mm.
Mus.

5347.

55412.

2; xxvii. 3. vii. 41, 42. 4 ^3/iii. 14, pi. i.


6

See

fig.

23.

Cesnola, Cyprus, 150. There were also rows of larger figures of the same
sort.
11

IGA IGS

57; Collitz

iii.

4525 Ka>iXoj(?)

a.viOf)Kf
6

rwi MaXedrat.
i.

Cat. Cypr.

Mus.

60015.
xvi. 242,

2455

liruituv

Macros run
p. 214, no.

12

Bronzen von 01. xv. 247,

'Iff/jLfivlui

avatar; Roberts,
i.

243, etc.
13

202;

AM

97, pi. v.

Berlin Antiqua-

Bronzen von

01. xvii. 288.

WAR.
,
.

141

Idaean cave in Crete 1 and in the shrine of Therapnae 2 Armed riders are also known from the Temple of Athena in Calaurea 3

and some of the Cyprian examples were mounted in chariots 4 It is perhaps worth while suggesting the question whether some
of the

war-offerings. principle will explain a series of votive statues found on the Acropolis of Athens, which belong to the time of

Olympian chariots may not have been

The same

These are the so-called " Persian horsemen," clad in oriental costume, with soft cap and hose fitting tight to the leg. It has been pointed out that the costume is as much Scythian as Persian, and that the style is too early for the It is more likely that they have to do with the Persian wars 5 rule of Miltiades and his family in the Thracian Chersonese.
the Peisistratids.
.

The romantic
girl,

story of the first Miltiades, a Greek Rajah Brooke,

his victories over the savages,

and his marriage with a Scythian seems to have caused intense excitement in Athens
all

Scythian caps became


of the public interest
,

we

the wear, and amongst other signs have the Miltiades plate, now at

Oxford 6 with a figure almost exactly like the Acropolis horsemen. The adventurers would naturally wear the dress of the
natives,

which was better suited than their own to the climate. The elder Miltiades we know commemorated one of his exploits
7 by a dedication at Olympia Similarly these Horsemen may have been dedicated by some of the Scythian adventurers,
.

perhaps in gratitude for a fortune gained in that flourishing One base has been found with a fragmentary inscripcolony. tion 8 placed on the small end, showing that the sculpture
1

Mus.

It.

ii.

731.

but in pairs or in rows, both on foot

Rev. Arch. xxx. 13; above, p. 15.


figures, apparently dedicated,

and mounted, in
silhouette.
3 4 5

relief or

repouss6 or

Warrior

come from Etruria (Baumeister, pi. One from Orvieto is in Ixxxix.).

AM xx.

315.
5.

Cat. Cypr. Mus. 6001

my own

possession.

Many

warrior
:

statuettes have been found in Sardinia

Gaz. Arch.

x.

177

ff.

and others were


pi. vii. ff.).

Studniczka would assign them to a Marathonian trophy Jahrb. vi. 239. 6 See W. Klein, Die gr. Vasen mil
:

found in

a large votive deposit at

Lieblingsinschr. (Wien 1890),


7 8

pi. 1.

Este (Notizie, 1888,

The

Paus.

vi. 19. 6.

interpretation suggested in the text is confirmed by the fact, that at Este

npotc(?)Xei'5T?s
(cA^ous
ra.6tjva.(.o.\..

crn'O^ice

rov Ato|

were found warriors not merely alone

142

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


;

upon it was something of the shape of a horse, not a group and in fact the base would fit the " Persian horseman ." A similar dedication was made about 446 by a body of knights, who offered the statue of a horse or more probably a horseman out of the spoils 2
1
.

step further leads to personification of an abstract idea and one expression of it, the statue of Victory, was especially

common

as a war-dedication,

and

is

never before the fourth


8
.

century found dedicated alone for anything else Hiero sent a gold Victory to Delphi after the battle of

Diodorus 5 relates that Hiero dedicated another for the Cumaean victory which has been The most already spoken of, but this may be the same statue. famous example of this class is the Victory of Paeonius, which
Himera, and Gelo did the
like
.

was found at Olympia 6


it

The Messenians themselves


for

declared

part Sphacteria (425), and that the name was omitted from fear 7 Mr Frazer suggests that it may have been of the Spartans erected after the Peace of Nicias (421), so that it should refer
.

to

be a thank-offering

their

in

the capture of

case,

to the general result of the first period of the war: in that however, fear of Sparta would hardly have caused the

omission of the name.

capture of Sphacteria, and


1

The Athenians took a great pride in the we need not wonder at finding that
CIG
4

See Winter, ArchahcheReiterbilder von der Acropolis Jahrbitch yiii. 135. These are the chief fragments (illus:

2069, 2073-4.

Athenaeus vi. p. 231, quotiiig Theopompus and Phanias. See below,


p.
B

trations of most are given) pieces of horses once part of a quadriga, Mu580; pieces of a seum, nos. 575
:

1465 for the discovery of the base, Diod. xi. 51.


,

'It
wdKnoi

is

inscribed

~M.fffffa.vtoi teal

NouMfKrbv

horseman, no. 590


1359;
Sculpt.
2

a horseman, no.

&i>40ev Ail '0\v/jiiriut

SeKarav airb

another,

no.
358);

700
the

(Collignon,

run

iro\efjdwv.

Ilaiuvios

tirolr)ffc
eirl

Gr. p.
iv. 1, p.

"Persian

Scuos,

*al

roKpurripia

irotiav

horseman," no. 606.

va.bv M'/ca.
ol

CIA

184

hnrijs *.*& rCiv


A.tuce8aifunflou
lirolrjaev

'

Paus.

Tro\ffji.iwv

lirirap\o6vTwv
Ylpo

41.

v. 26; Thuc. iv. 9, 32, 36, Pausanias would place it some

Sevo^uWos

AI'IKIOS

'E\ev6tpffo Mupwcoj. 3 But in later days a silver or gold Victory seems to have been offered

thirty years earlier, when the Messenians of Naupactus sackt Oeniadae.

Schubring, A Z xxxv. 59, recounts


possible victories,

all

and supports Pylos.

as a customary dedication to Apollo Prostates at Olbia, by the five strategi


:

So

Collitz

iii.

4637.

WAR.
.

143

1 If the wingthey dedicated a bronze Victory on the Acropolis less Victory, sent to Olympia by the Mantineans, was the work

of Calamis, as Pausanias says,

it

cannot belong to this period,


.

but otherwise

The magnificent Victory of Samothrace, now in the Louvre, was dedicated by Demetrius Poliorcetes for his victory of Salamis 3 she stands poised on
it

would be possible 2

Lysander commemorated his and Ephesus Aegospotami by presenting two eagles with statues of Victory upon them to the temple of Athena the Worker at Sparta 4 The ancient winged Victory by Archermus was dedicated in Delos by the Chians on what
the prow of a great stone galley.
victories at
.

occasion
of war 5
.

is

not specified

probably, like

all

the

rest, for

a feat

lists frequently mention golden There were in Pericles' time no less than ten of these, each weighing about two talents; and it would seem these should have been made at some time when Athens was

The Athenian temple


.

Victories 6

at the zenith of her power. It is fanciful to suggest, perhaps, that they were part of the imperial tribute, preserved thus against any time of need, and their shape determined by

that abiding sense of victory over the barbarian which the Delian League kept ever fresh. Certainly they were most of

them melted down


in 407 7
,

before the end of the war. One was melted and at the beginning of the next century only two of the old ones remain, but a new one appears, perhaps, as

is

suggested,

made out

We

have no hint

of the goods of the thirty Tyrants 8 of the occasion of these Victories but
. ;

although Eutychides and Timodemus are mentioned as dedicators, it seems unlikely that they can be really private offerings.
1

The
iv.

official

who had

to do with their casting

might

Paus.

36. 6.

2 3 *

Paus.

v. 26. 6.

Revue Archeologique xxxix.


'A0T)i>a
"Eipy6.vri
:

pi.

ii.

Paus.

iii.

17.

4.

The

epithet must be meant in a wide sense as the accomplishes 5 AMxiii. 149 MtKKid8t]s ToS* dfyaXMct

M^Xavos waTpwiov atrrv VCJIOVTCS. 6 These are treated in the paper, Les Victoires en or de VAcropole, BCH xii. 283 ff. They are mentioned in CIA i. 32 B, iv. p. 12, p. 63 435 B.C.
:

eiriffTdrai rotv viicaiv


7

are spoken

of.

BCH xii. 288.

Compare Demetrius,

jcaXdv

7reTiv6v Hrfv^tv'Apxtpnov
ai/r'

ffofyyi-

Ilepl 'Ep/u.. 281.


8

civ

'

'E*c7//36Xwi

oj>tQt\Ka.v

ol

Xtot,

BCH xii.

292.

144
be said

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


to dedicate

them

1
.

On

the other hand, the small

bronze Victories of the Acropolis-

may

and we are

justified in counting

them amongst dedications


is

well have been private of


;

war, for the reason given above. Another aspect of the event

personified in the great


(if

statue of Nemesis at
3

Rhamnus, carved
.

the

common

tale

be true) out of the very block which the Persians had intended
for a statue of Victory

third personification

is

the Lion.

Heracles

is

said to

have dedicated a stone lion which stood before the temple of Artemis Eucleia at Thebes, in commemoration of a victory over Orchomenus 4 A stone lion was one of the statues found at
.

Branchidae,
Elateaus,

which

when

8 The hardly be but a war-tithe Cassander was driven away from their walls

can

by timely help (298), sent a bronze

6 The lion, Delphi on a the where the battle of cliff, overlooking place placed Cnidus was fought, probably marks the tomb where slain heroes rest; like the great lion of Chaeronea, which still guards

lion to

the bones of those

whom

7 Philip slew
.

which covers unknown dead 8

It

instances that the lion laid stress

or that other in Ceos would appear from these not so much on the victory,
, ;

as the courage of brave men, whether victors or vanquished and the symbol has thus a pathos and nobility of its own, which sets it above the records of mere triumph and pride. There is more than personification, there is a complete allegory, in what the Athenians sent to Delphi after the Eury-

medon (469) a palm tree of bronze, with fruit upon it, a gilt Athena and a couple of owls being apparently percht on the branches 8 This must surely imply that Athena and her
:

As the

rafj.iai

did with the old

'

bronzes, Cat. Acr.


2
3

Mm.

Br. 428.

TI^V 6
7

rwi Air6\\ui><..

Paus.
Paus.

x. 187.
ix. 40. 10.

AM

xi.

373.
i.

Paus.
Paus.

32.

2; Anth. App. Plan.

Bent, Cyclades, 453; 'E#. 'Apx13.

221, 222, 226, 263.


4
6

ix. 17. 2.

1898, col. 231, plate 14. Paus. x. 15. 4; Plut. NIC.


6
:

Newton,

Italia,
ol

rdSe avtOeaav
v,

rddyd\/j.ara TlvQuvos muSes TOV

m*

There was a palm tree with frogs and watersnakes at the foot, in the
Corinthian
treasury,
its

0X77* Kal llaffiK\rjs Kal 'Hy/i-

but nothing

is

xal Atficioj Kal 'Ava^/Xews, SfKd-

known

of

origin

Plut. Pyth. Or.

WAR.
favourite
cifcy

145
its riches.

were now possessors of the east and

Plutarch notes that just before the Sicilian disaster, crows peckt off the fruit. So perhaps the horn of Amalthea, sent by
Miltiades the elder to Olympia, after taking a city 1 Pausanias on a like the explains Corcyreans and the principle why
.

Eretrians sent to Olympia 2 the Plataeans and the Carystians to Delphi 3 each a bronze ox, after the Persian wars because,
, ,

says he, they were


satisfactory to

now

able to plow in peace.


for
it,

It

would be more
is

have the givers' word

but the thing

not

The Council of the Areopagus dedicated a bronze impossible. bull on the Acropolis, which, if it belongs to the same period, 4 But all five may have a similar reference to stock-breeding
.

may be memorials of sacrifice. A distinct example of the sacrificial model is known as a war dedication. Orneae, having
conquered Sicyon,
in the

heat of gratitude rashly vowed to

institute in the god's honour a daily procession at Delphi, and to sacrifice such and such victims but this proving a burden
;

upon them, they dedicated a bronze representation 5 procession, victims and all, instead
.

of the whole

reserved

Tripods form a large class of war-dedications, and I have them for this place because the motive of choice
6

Originally they are dedicated for and this explains why in the first Messenian War (743 724), when the Messenians shut up in Ithome enquired of the Delphic oracle what they must do to prevail, the reply That whichever side should first dedicate a hundred tripods was, to Zeus of Ithome was to possess the Messenian land. The Messenians being too poor to make these of bronze in due

differs in different

ages

their value

399

F.

Another in Delos
kv

Ath.

xi.

* 4

Paus. x. 16.

6.

502 B

"ZrjfjLos d'

A^Xy

avaKfiffdai
avdffijfM

<j>rj<ri

Paus.
It

XO^KOVV

(fioiviKa

NaZiuv

ical

37.

Kapvuras <f>id\as \pv(ra,s. 1 Paus. vi. 19. 6 Zijvi


OrjKav

/*'

S.ya\p.' avt-

Hera and that a cow or


coins of
302).
5

2; see AZ xviii. does not help us to know that was worshipt in both places,
i.

24.

bull is seen

on

'QXv/jnriy

tic

Xepovfjffov

re^os

Carystus (Head,
vi. 18. 5.

HN

294,

e\6vres 'Apdroir
ff<t>lv.

eirrjpx.e

MtXTtdfojj

Paus.

Paus.

v. 29.

the base of one of


:

For the history of the tripod see

them, and one ear, remain von 01. 248 "Eperpirjs TUI A.
K.

Inschr.

ch. xiv.

10

146

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


them
in

form, proceeded to make images of while Oebalus a Spartan, a man

wood; but mean-

of no

mark but shrewd

enough, made him a hundred tripods of clay, and having by stratagem got within the walls of Ithome, set these up before the god at dead of night In this way the Spartans were
1
.

war they used part of the each having a statue beneath it, of Aphrodite, Artemis, and the Maid, which they dedicated to
victorious
;

and at the

close of the

spoils to procure three tripods,


2 Apollo of Amyclae

time the tripod became a traditional form of dedication, which endured long after the bronze article ceased to circulate. The beauty of its shape no doubt helpt to keep
in course of

But

the type in use but that tradition had more to do with it, is clear from the miniature mock tripods and kettles which were
;

found in great numbers at Olympia, some cut out of thin


others in model 3
.

foil,

But when they

mental side becomes important. 4 An epigram by Delphi after Himera by Hiero and Gelo both Simonides mentions the four brothers and as four tripod bases have been found together, two of which are those of Hiero and Gelo, it is likely that all four did dedicate tripods, and
. ;

of gold the ornaof Tripods gold were sent to

are

made

that the
others 5
.

Cumae
tripods,
1

two eclipst the more modest offerings of the tripod of Hiero's, sent to Delphi after the battle of 6 Most famous of all votive (474), is also mentioned
first

and perhaps of
iv.

all

dedications,

was the golden tripod

Paus. Paus.

12. 9.

iv. 14. 2,

with Frazer's note.

spurious. See Freeman, Sicily, ii. 190, 206 ; T. Homolle, cited in next note.
5

Either date or artist's

name

is

pro-

T. Homolle, Melanges Henri Weil,

bably wrong.

Pausanias
a

mixt up the different For a statue beneath


Paus.
3
i.

may have Messenian wars.


tripod see

212,

who

discusses the whole question,


:

Inscrr.

on the bases
dvldtjKf

(1)

lYXuw

Aeivo/ji^vtos
9<4<rtoj'

Tu>ir6XXow
ical

2i/pa-

20. 1.
Ol.

TOV rpiiroSa

TTJV

V\.K.T\V

tpyd;

Bronzen von

xxvii. 536, 540,

ffo.ro

Blui>

AioSwpou wos

MtXij<rios

(2)

etc.

'Idpwv
i.

Schol. Pind. Pyth. lYXow' 'Itpwva Ho\vi)\oi>

155

^r/fj.1

firrd iu>a.l

AavofwVos dvtOtjKf, with at end as part of the weight


i.

Qpa.<rvfiov\ov,

TratSas Afivo/jdvovs, TOVS rpiiroSas Oepfvai,

Schol. Pind. Pyth. (fragm.). says Gelon offered three, tva.


^avrdv,
5i/o

151
Si'

^v
:

fidpfiapa

j't/ojcrtu'Taj
ff^fJ-fJ-a-X

fOvrj,

xroXXV

Se
ey

Sid rovs dde\<f>ovs

the

irapa.ffXfii'

" "EXXijffU'

xp'

discrepancy
6

t\ev6eplriv.

Anth.

Pal.

vi.

244,

the

may be explained if we suppose that Hiero's was independent,


Diod.
xi.

last

two

lines of

which are probably

21.

WAR.

147

bought from the Persian spoils, and set up at Delphi after Plataea It stood on a bronze pedestal made had been fought and won of three snakes intertwining, and this seems to have been supported on a stone base which was found in the recent
j
.

Pausanias had a couplet composed by Simonides, excavations. and engraved upon the base, as follows 2
:

'}L\\r]v(0v

apxyyos

eirei

arparov

o>Xe<re

MijBwv,

Tlava-avias 4>o//3&>

pvrjjjL

aveQijtce roSe.

Council, incensed at his arrogance in of Greece for his own deed, caused this the victory claiming and the following to be put in its place 3 to be erased, inscription
:

The Amphictyonic

'EAAa6o9 evpw%6pov

(rwrripes rovS" aveOijtcav

8ov\va-vvrj<? crrvyepas pvcrdfjievoi TroXta?.

At the same time they engraved on the writhing snakes the names of all those Greek states which had fought at Plataea or Salamis, thus changing the character of the monument which was 4 The golden part of the originally a memorial of Plataea only
.

by the Phocians in the Sacred War; and the bronze column, which Pausanias saw on the spot, was taken by Constantine to his new city, where it still stands in the Hippodrome, broken and defaced. To the same period we may assign the marble group of Persians supporting a bronze 6 A tripod, which Pausanias saw in the Olympieum at Athens remarkable group of tripods is associated with Plataea. We have seen how great importance the Greeks attached to this victory, and how yearly sacrifices were decreed in memory of it. Part of the ceremony may have been the dedication of a but whether that be true of the fifth magnificent tripod or it not, century appears that in the fourth and third centuries a board of seven magistrates was elected for the purpose of
carried off
. ;

monument 5 was

Herod,
;

ix.

80

Paus.

v. 23. 1,

x.

13. 9
i.

Diod.
'

xi.

33 says

SeKdrrj,

Time.
97

The heads history of the monument. of the serpents were broken off by the
Turks, but one
is

132. 2 axpoOivtov,

Dem. Neaera
dv4driKav.

in the

Museum

at

dpiffTeiov rip

Air6XXwt
176.

See

also Jahrb.
2
3

i. i.

Constantinople. 5 Some think that the framework

Thuc.
Diod.

132
of

Anth. Pal.

vi.

197.

was of bronze
sanias,
I.e.
i.

see Frazer

on Paup. 17.

xi. 33.

For

list

states

see

IGA
for

70,

Paus.

18. 8

Ziemann,

where references

are given

the

102

148

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
,

performing certain ceremonies at the end of which they dedicated a tripod. Three of these dedications have been found,
2 one dedicating the tripod to Zeus Eleutherios at Plataea 8 at Thespiae to the Muses seven at Acraephiae to Apollo
;

Ptoan 4
in

one at Orchomenus to the Graces 8

each shows the dedication to be

made

in the

As the formula name of the

assume that the and place, consequently the 6 varied for reasons To further that assume political deity, the memory of Plataea was the occasion, is to go beyond the evidence; but in default of a better explanation I would Three tripods are mentioned as dedicated by suggest it. Phormio on some occasion unknown, perhaps for one of his

Boeotian community, we

may perhaps
.

fairly

occasion

was one, and that the

victories 7

Two

bronze tripods were dedicated at Amyclae from


.

Some Knights of Thespiae, sent the spoils of Aegospotami 8 home in 330 by Alexander, dedicated a tripod to Zeus, the 9 inscription of which is preserved in the Anthology Perhaps
.

the Knights of Orchomenus, their companions, made the same 10 offering to Zeus the Saviour, but it is not described Aristo be mentioned. One very artificial offering remains
.

tonous wrote a paean in commemoration of the repulse of the Gauls from Delphi, which was performed at the Soteria, a

This was yearly festival of thanksgiving for the deliverance. a in Athenian on slab and set the treasury there, up engraved
11 together with a list of honours decreed to the successful poet . This dedication has wandered far from the simple piety or thankfulness of earlier use, and is a mere method of self-

glorification.
1

d<f>tSpiaTfVfiv t

as interpreted by the

iM\v()8u>oi>.

Some

adjective of metal,

editor of the Corpus,


2 3

W.

Dittenberger.

4
6

IGS i. 1672 4. IGS i. 1795. IGS i. 27234, 2724 a, IGS i. 3207. IGS i. 1672 BoiWToi Ad
Kara
ria>

gold, silver, or bronze, must have been added to the rpJiroSas in the original.
8

Pans.

iii.
iii.

18. 8.

b, c, d, e.

BCH 10 BCH
9

457; Anth. Pal. vi. 344. 453 rol linr&s roi iv iii.

'E\ev6fplui
ru>

T&V

'Atrlav

0TpaTv<rdp.voi

(3a.o-iX.ios

TpforoSa 'Air6\Xwvos.
7

rbv

/j.avTftai>

'A\cdv8pu ffrparayiovTOS

QtoSwpu
slab has

ft\idpx<>vTOS, Ail 'Zwr-fjpi dvl6f<rav.

Cratinns, frag. 456 Kock, quoted


:

"

BCH

xvii.

561

ff.

The

by Zonaras 1366

bopfduv rpea tyy

been found.

IV.

GAMES AND CONTESTS

1
.

K&KOJN |-<*P ONTCON MypftON KA0' 'EAA<\A<\ oyAeN KAKION ecriN AGAHTtoN feNoyc.
EURIPIDES, Frag. 282.

ATHLETIC games, races, and contests of other kinds are found amongst the Greeks from very early times. In Homer a chariot-race is spoken of as the natural thing to celebrate the death of a warrior 2 Hesiod visited the Games of Amphidamas
.

where many prizes were given, and himself won a tripod for victory in song 3 In the historical period we find this competitive spirit exprest in the four great Games, which later sprouted into innumerable off-shoots 4 whilst many cities had their own special games, as Athens had the Panathenaea.
in Chalcis,
.

It is not our purpose to discuss the history of these ceremonials, but merely to consider how they were commemorated by votive

dedications.
prizes at these games were, according to the earliest records, articles of recognized value, but of many different

The

kinds.
5

Homer
.

prizes
1

speaks of tripods, kettles, and slave-women as Besides these, Pindar mentions vessels of gold 6 and
I

In this chapter

have used Emil

See

Keisch's

Weihgeschenke (Abh. des Arch-Ep. Sem. der Univ. Wien, viii.) Wien 1890. I acknow:

Griechische

Diet. Ant., s.v.

ing to
chral.
5

Olympia in Smith's These games, accordlegend, were originally sepullist

of local

ledge special obligations for the sections on musical and dramatic contests.
II. xxii.
3

II. xxii.

162

4, xxiii.

264

cp. xi.

701; Hesiod, Shield, 312 (golden tripod). s Find. Isthm. i. 18 ft T' at6\oi<ri
Qlyov irXtiffruv aydivuv, Kal Tpiir65effffu>

162

4.

Hes. Op. 654

7 fv9a

(it tfnifu Sfivif

^K6fffj.r)<rai>

d6/j.ot>

Kal

Xe/JiJre<rcrt (j>id\ai<rl

viKr)<Tavra tfitpetv rpiiroS'

150
silver 1
,

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


articles of

bronze 8

Games

of Heracles at Thebes 8
,

Heraea 4 bronze
,

articles in

Bronze tripods were given in the a bronze shield at the Argive the Arcadian feast of Lycaean Zeus 8
;

Aeacus in Aegina 7 8 a cloke or frieze silver cups at the Heraclea of Marathon 9 One of the oldest inscriptions of Troezen jerkin at Pellene A prize kettle for records the winning of a tripod at Thebes 10 the long race is commemorated by an epigram in the An11 thology Apparently a cuirass was also given at Argos, if we
a kettle often 8 a crater at the
of
; ; . .
.

Games

may judge

from a mutilated inscription 12

the prize was so

many

jars of

oil

At the Panathenaea made from the sacred olives,


.

which only victors were allowed to take out of the country". It will be rioted that at Athens, Pellene, and Argos the prize was an article of local make 14 The others, whether of local
.

or not, were given for their own value, not for any hidden meaning supposed to be implied by them and the tripod must

make

Find. Nem.
iroff'

ix.

51

10

dpyvp4ai<Ti...<pid-

BCH xvii.
r6Sf cra/xa
01)

85 on a column
<f>i\a

\aiff i... as

frnroi KTri<rd/jiei>ai, etc.;


'

ffpyaaa.ro
4vi

x.

43
2

iKvui>66f

5'

dpyvpwfftvTfs

<rvv

A\i<pi8d/J.a.

yap
rpliros

iraiSft

tytvovro Kal
3

&v

6^/3atr(rt

neydpois deov

Find. Nem. x. 22 dyuv ^dX/ceos. Schol. Find. 01. vii. 152 tSidoro rots
rplirovs

iraiSi.
11

This

is

of course an epitaph.

viK-fi<raffi.

x a^ K
Ol.

v*'

Anth. Pal.
(is

xiii.

8 *K So\ix<>v
Kpar^ffas,

r6t>5f
vlot

Schol.
Kai

Find.

vii.

152 xaX/o)
152
tricevtffi

tpvp^Xarov,

Tdx*<-

dffirls
5

(TTe'i/xii'os e\-

ftvpaivris.

Schol.

Find. 01.

vii.

XaXKois.
is

bronze basin from


tiri

Cumae
rov

12 13

CIA

iii.

116.

inscribed

rots

'QvofMurrov

Schol. Find.
'AflT^cuj
iv

Nem.

x.

64 riOfvrai
rd^ft
vSpiai

4>et5wXew d0Xois tOt6i)V.

Roberts, no.

yap
frag.

(irdOXov

174, Cat. Br. Mug. Bronzes 257.

Bather

TT\r)p(is

e'Xai'or,

quoting

Callimachus
irap'
tirl

interprets two Athenian inscriptions in the same sense: JHS xiii. 233.

122

ai

70^

'AO-rivalois

ffrtyos Itpbv ijvTai


ff^fji^oXov,

Ka\iriSfS, ov

xoff/j.ov

Schol. Find. Nem.


iroXXoij
7

x.

84

\t$irra....iv

dXXa

TrdXT/j.

TWC dywvuv.
vii.

dn<pupopev<Tt xaXxojj;

On 57 he says but Pindar hime'Xai'as

Schol. Find. Ol.

176

tcpa-Hip.

self
...fv
ii.

yaia 8t xavOfiffa vvpi Kapirbs

Schol. Find. 01.

xii.

155 dpyvpai

<f>id\ai.

ayyediv epKeffiv irafjurotKiXois. CIA 965 gives so many d/j.<j>oprjs fXalov

Find. Nem.
iirifOffdfJievoi

x.

44 IK di HeXXoKos
/xaXaxalcrt

vGrrov

Kp6Kais

for the torch-race.

as the prize for athletic events, a vdpla For the fiopiai see
14

Schol.
iv

ad

loc. riOerai 8t

Trax^a i/mna

Schol. Arist. Clouds 1005.

MeXX^?;

&yva<f>a.

So Schol. Find.
di<f>8(pa.

Schol. Arist. Birds

1421 xXafrat

01. xiii. 155.

Also called

8e dia<f>tpovffai Iv IleXXiJc?; ylvovrai.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


be included, for as we shall see below deity or one occasion. It is in fact given
1
,

151
not confined to one
the Iliad 3
,

it is

for wrestling in

and appears on a Corinthian tablet between two men-at-arms 3 on vase-paintings it stands as the prize for chariot-races 4 and other races 5 and for boxing and wrestling 6 The tripod continued
,
.

to be given as the traditional prize for the lyrical chorus at Athens 7 long after its origin was forgotten. It was also given In the great games no prizes were given at the Panathenaea 8 but the wreath of glory but in local games prizes of value con,
.

at the Salaminian boat10 at and other articles Delos at the Panathenaea race weapons a gold crown for the harpist, a hydria for the torch-racer, an ox

tinued to be the
9
,

rule.

Money was given

at the Pythia a gold crown for the city which sent the finest sacrificial ox 12 fine arms and armour or 13 these are a few examples. golden crowns for soldiers' sports
for the pyrrhic
;
; :

chorus 11

We may
classes: (1)

divide the offerings in this chapter into three

The

Prize, (2)

The Instrument,

(3)

Other Com-

memorative Offerings.
1.

The Prize.

the same principle which suggested the consecration of war-spoils, the victor often made an offering of his prize. There is no trace of this custom in Homer, although one
of the Delphic tripods was traditionally ascribed to Diomede, who should have won it at the funeral games of Patroclus 14
.

On

Hesiod however brings back his prize from Chalcis and dedicates
1

See chap. xiv.


702.

xvi. 550, pi.

iii., vii.

CIA

iv. 2.

1305 6;
iv. 17,

2 II. xxiii.
3
4

cp.
pi.
9

Gerhard, Auserles. Vasenb.


247.

Cor. Tablet, no. 697. Dipylon vase (Mon. delV Inst.


;

ix. pi.
;

BCH xvi.
CIG
ii.

797

cp.

CIG

2758.

39. 2)

Corinthian

(ibid. x. pi. 4. 5)

the

10

2360.
965.
iv. 4. 9.
iii.

Francois vase and elsewhere (Reisch). 5 Vases Berlin 1655, 1712 Ger: ;

u CIA
12
13 14

hard,
6

Auserles.

Vasenbilder

iv.

17,

Xen. Hell. Xen. Hell.


6s
V

4. 8, iv. 2. 7. vi.

pi. 247,

256 (Reisch). Amphora by Nicosthenes


31
(Reisch).
xiii.

Phanias ap. Ath.


T\

232 c

5e

Heistersig.

Klein, Bather in
:

rpiirodos,

eft

TUIV eirl

Jlarp6K\<l>
rpiiroin,

&0\wt> TcOfrruv

x<& K *fa

fy"

JHS

267 18 gives references to two chest of Cypselus, throne of vases,


Apollo, and Hesiod, Shield, 302, 313. 7 So at Delos CIA ii. 814 32 , p. 279.
:

Hv0ol

5'

dva.Kfifj.ai

aya\fn.a, ical p' ivl


O>KI>J

T\a.Tpt>K\ip BTIKSV ?r65aj

'AxtXXei's.

TvSeld^
n^Sri s

5'

avtdtiice

/SoV

d-yatfos

Aio-

vuchaas

Iwiroicri

irapi

TC\O.TVV

Base of Bryaxis.

BCH

xv. 369,

152
it

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

made him master

appropriately enough to the Muses of Helicon, where they first In the temple on of the singer's craft
1
.

Helicon Hesiod's reputed tripod was to be seen, and perhaps the obviously spurious epigram, preserved in the Anthology, was 2 Others were there also, some of which may engraved upon it
.

have been prizes 3 In the first Pythian Games prizes appear to have been given; and a tripod (perhaps one of them) was dedicated to Heracles at Thebes by the Arcadian musician
.

Of the sixth century, or earlier, is the Athenian dedication of a tripod won for tumbling or juggling 8 bronze of which a was found on the kettle, fragment Acropolis, appears
.
.

Echembrotus 4

have been dedicated as a prize this comes probably from the sixth century 6 and a tripod is named in another dedication 7
to
;
:

From

the

fifth

century

we have a
8
.

by a rhapsode Terpsicles Thebes the offering of a victorious pugilist 9 By Herodotus' day it was a matter of course with victors in the Triopia to offer their
.

tripod dedicated at Dodona Herodotus mentions a tripod at

prize tripods to Apollo

indeed they were not allowed to take


.

them out of the precinct 10


whole and
1

Many

tripods have been found,

in

fragments, at Athens, Delos, Delphi, Dodoua,


S'

Hes. Op. 654 IvOa

tyw

fir'

ae0\a
T'

5at<j>poi>os
etffeirtpriffa.'

'AfJ.<j>i8jfj.avTos

XaXxiSa

a6\'

tdtaav

ra 5t irpoirf(t>pa.8^va iroXXa Hv6a iraiSes /ufyaXijropes

(JHS xiii. 129, 233) sees prizes in several Acropolis fragments of bowls or tripods. No. 62 TWV tir\ A.a.fj.ffiSa.1
&9\<i>v...KO.Tt(>r)Kfi>.

646

liri

'Pax^iSai
Kart-

fd

0i7/u fywcj; vixriffaitTa <f>tpeu> rpiirod'

TlvBluv
Sat.
tfjj/ce

/xe

KaT^6TjKv...Aaj'(rei5oi/ "ZOeviffol

urdxvTO..
vtddfffff'

rov ptv
dv^d-rjKa,

tyu MoiVats 'EXtKw(v6a


/ue

rb

irpurov

6ta.

Cp. Od. xxiv. 91 oT ejri irepiKa\\f ae#Xa.

We

need

\tyvprjs tirtpriaav aotSrjs.


2

Anth. Pal.

vii. 53.

not suppose with Bather that these were placed on the Acropolis as deposits.
8

Not however of the Musaea, where


:

the prizes were garlands


etc.;
4

IGS

1735,

1GA

502

Ttp\f/iK\j)s

T(

Al Nafon

Plut.

Amatorim
x. 7.

1.
'

pa\{/wi56s av46r)Ke;

Carapanos, Dodone,
inscr.
S/rotos

Paus.

6 inscr.

Ex^Pporo^

p. 40, pi. xiii. 2.


9

'Apicds tffijKe

T$
KO.L

'Hpa.K\ei viK^ffas r6d'


ti>

Herod,
fj.e

v.

60

vvy-

dya\/j.a 'An<fnKrv6vuv
8' q.5<ijv

d^0Xois"EXX?j<n'

p.ax.^v
10

tKrifidXy 'A.ir6\\wi>i

Pi/njeraj

fj^Xea

eX^-yous.

This would
$i\wv

dv^0i)Ke retv ire/ji/caXXes AyaXfjui.

be in the year 586. 6 CIA iv. 1.373 79


'

Herod,

i.

144

tv

ybp

r<p

dyuvi rov
Kal roti-

p. 86: r6vSe

TpioTrtov 'Air6\\u>>os trlOfffav rb ird\ai

&v{6r)Ktv
6
"'

AOyvaiai rpiiroSiffKov
iv. &$\6i>
;

0a.6fjLa.ffi

rplTrodas

x a ^ K ^ ovs

Tolffi viKutffi'

viKTrfffa^ ^j ir6\u> apfffiov.

Kar.

/x6....&v^Oi)Kfv.
i.

TOVS XP^ V T v* Xa/tt/3dvo'Taj K TOV Ipov A"? tiafrtpeiv, dXX' avrov dvariOtvai rt? Oe$.

Kar. 236

CIA

493.

Bather

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


x Olympia, and elsewhere
;

153

but without inscriptions we cannot them to any particular occasion. The musical prize in Sparta was an iron object, part of the ceremonial headgear, and named crrXe77t9 from its likeness to
assign

There are dedications of these to Artemis 3 of still remains fixt in the stone A strigil and one them Orthia, now in the British Museum was a prize 4 and many such are mentioned in the Athenian and Delian inventories 5 which, like 6 may have been the same. Bronze Xenophon's gold ones vessels, or other prizes, may have stood on certain bases with dedicatory inscriptions of torch-race runners, but there is 7 One of these bases has round holes, as nothing to prove it if for torches and torches, or torch-holders, appear to have been dedicated as prizes, at least there is one such dedication to Hermes and Heracles from the second century after Christ 8 In the third century B.C. Straton a flotist won a prize, which he dedicated in Thespiae 9 and a harpist appears to have dedicated his in Athens 10 The Argive shield is modelled in relief as late as the age of Hadrian 11 Other dedications of prizes are recorded, whose nature is not known. Such are the torch-racer's prize to Hermes and Heracles at Byzantium 12 the harpist's to Apollo and
.

the body-scraper 2

'

See chap. xiv. So used in Sparta


xv.

NtKt'as
:

Sosibius ap.

Ath.

674 A
fj

ffVfj.^aivei...KaXdfj.ois

2 Above, note CIA ii. 1229 'Aica/uaVTls MKO.


.

Xa/j.-

ffT<f>avovff6ai

trrXeyyidi.
.

Collitz

iii.

4689 13

InAndania: As prizes in an
10 rd 8t adXa

irdSt

Havaff-^vaia

TO.

/j.eyd\a

(346/5),

with round depression; cp. 1230, 1232,


1233.
8

dyuv
Jfyav

Xen. Anab.
ffrXeyyiSes
iii.

i.

2.

Collitz
3

See further xP Vffa^Nachwort p. 143.


iii.

CIG 250
TO. TTJS vlicris

d#Xa

wpapios 'H/)aK\Wh]S
t)9)Ke
/cat

Collitz

4498

...olNiKri<j>6povi>iKd-

Xa/*7ra5as 'Ep/xei'at

'HpaK\fi.

avrep

Ka.aa'tipa.Tbpiv,

pwav

KCLI

\wav

For models
9

of torches see chap.

vm.
tic

'Aprtfjudi

Aurel.)

Btop^o dvt0T)Kav (temp. Marc. 4501 'Opdelij S&pov Aeovrei)?


fj.Cia.v

IGS
CIA

i.

1818

roibffS e&v deipar'


'

Mowrav tpt
10
ffTj(i-f)iov

'Zrpdrtav dywvos.
iii.

dvedrjKe fioaybs

viK-fjffas

Kal rdd'

112

viicas

A\Kij3id5ov
dt
p.'

firadXa Xa^uv. 4 Cat. Bronzes


KO.TIUV ddXov.
5

tvOdde

Kf'i/j.ai,

ffraffe

ov

Br. Mus. 326 rpia-

/xoXiras a\\' dperas dfOXov.

See Indices.
x.

TriXos dpyvpovs is

also mentioned in Delos:

BCH

vi.
eirt-

n CIA iii. 127 rrjv {% 'Apyovs dtnriSa. mentioned, not dedicated. 12 Collitz iii. 3058 ore^aj'wtfeij rat
:

33 38

465 115

465 113 ffrXtyyides

Xa/j.irdSi.
'

rwv avri^wv

. .

.rb a.8\ov

'Ep/j.ai

TIJKTOI.

/cat

<7T^0a^os

1 1

&ffraroi, as

Kal Hpa/cXet.

154

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


,

the Muses in Cos 1 and a third from some unknown contest in

Aegae

Even perishable wreaths may have been dedicated, as the Cretan A Icon did at the Isthmia 3 the soldiers of Agesilaus
1
.

did with theirs at

their friendly contests

a Delian temple-inscription is a long list on from archon to archon, and apparently votive offerings; all are goblets of the different kinds mentioned among the

In Ephesus of articles handed


in
.

temple treasure: since a


is

list

of victors in the artistic contests


.

also given,
list for

it

looks as though these might be prizes 6

In

the

8p6[ieio<;,

the year 364 we find irorijpia ^opela, ^laXtj vncoand eleven silver goblets, which had been prizes in
.

the horse-race 6

We

have seen that the panathenaic amphorae are mentioned

as early as Pindar,
7

who speaks

of the

"

fruit of the olive in

These jars have been found in many gaily bedeckt jars ." of them in Etruria, others in Cyrene, a number places, large
in the Crimea,

and in various parts of Greece 8

The

oldest

existing specimen bears the inscription, in archaic script, TWV 'AOijvijBev X&Xwv dpi: the goddess, armed with helmet, shield,

and spear, and clad


the
to

in the

embroidered peplus, stands turned to

left, brandishing the spear, and holding the shield so as show the device upon it 9 So far the form is stereotyped, and that between 336 313 the figure for reasons unexcept known is turned to the right 10 in most specimens a pillar or two pillars are drawn, with sometimes a cock upon them, or an
.

Collitz

iii.

3651

viKa.<ra.s...Ki6apiffiJ.C)i

the

last, <f>id\ai

apyvpat

I,

50Xa,

irepi-

...rb TfOev a.0\ot>

'A7r6XXaw xal Mo&rats.


Kiffapydol

Ancient dedications of

in

y(v6nevat (K rijs iiriroSpofilas, does not imply that they were dedicated by the
victors.

Athens
2

CIA

i.

357, 372.

They may have been


until

extra

Bahn - Schuchhardt,

Alterthiimer

stock

kept

next

time.

The
Kparqp

von Aigai, 43 yuccas


dtviov ?
3

eWflijure

rb axpo-

phrases
*

dn<popiffKos

ir<mu'iot,

rpirip-irnKfa (466)
18 Page 150
.

may

refer to shape.

Simonides 158 (Bergk) Kpr)s"A\icuv

AidvfjLov Qoifty ffrtyo* 'IffOfj-i' t\wv irv. 4 Xen. Hell. iii. 4. 18 rods AXXovs

Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 1151,

ffTparuirras iareffxtvufilvov^ dird

TUV yvnroin

I take from gives references. description of the vases.


9

him the
dell'

vaffiuv

a.Tri6vTas

Kal

ava.TiOivTas

Baumeister,

fig.

1346

Mon.

ffTe<pavovs
8

Tg
ix.

'AprefilSt.

Inst. x. pi. 21.


di>t0i)K(

BCH
BCJI

147

ff.

occurs

line 15.
6

10 The dates of later specimens known by the archon's name.

are

x. 462.

But the wording of

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


.

155

1 On the owl, a panther, a Victory, a figure of Athena herself As reverse of the vase is another scene, generally agonistic.

fragments of these jars have been found on the Acropolis, it is natural to suppose the winners, who received a certain number
each victory 2 sometimes offered one to Athena. Perhaps they also dedicated the prize at home at least, one victor in the Eleusinia offered something in Lesbos, and on the
of jars for
,
:

carven an amphora and olive leaves 3 and One such vase a panathenaic amphora was found at Eleusis 4 8 appears to be dedicated to Asclepius
inscribed slab
is
;

The golden crowns and the


were sometimes consecrated.

like,

won

in public contests,

In the Panathenaea a crown was

the reward of musical contests, which by Pericles were added to the list of events 6 Xenophon relates how athletic and military
.

competitions were held for the army of Agesilaus at Ephesus 7 among the prizes were fine arms and golden crowns There are in the Athenian inventories, a large number of gold crowns In the Delian lists one donor is but few can be identified 8 9 Xenophantus, whom Homolle identifies with the famous flotist 10 There are some fifty gold crowns mentioned in the list myrtle crowns are dedicated by the Delian girls as the prize of 11 One laurel crown bears the name of Nicias 12 The dancing state is also found dedicating a victor's crown 13 Nero, who was if not a dedicated in the mimic, nothing Argive Heraeum a
;
. .

One

of

them shows a male


;

figure

holding a Victory interpreted by C. Torr as Lycurgus (Plut. X. Or. vii. 5, See Rev. Arch. xxvi. 160. iii. 4).
2

9 Homolle, Les archives de Vintendance sacree. a Delos, p. 68 Plut. Dem.


;

53 eXXoyindraros avXrir^. the early third century.


1

He

lived in

The

prizes vary

from 8

to 60 jars

Mommsen, Heortologie, 141. 3 IGI Lesbos 132 viKacrcus


crivia,
4
5 6

BCH vi. 120. BCH vi. 29, line


;

5 a-T^JMvia
30, line 7
56.<f>vi]s,

xpvffS,,
ff.

'EXeu-

ded. to the Graces


<f>avos

<rrt-

dV5pas

ffradiov.

Cp. 133.

6pv6s,

Ki<r<rov,

fivpaivris,

AM xvii. 126. AM xxi. 294.


Mommsen,
Heortologie, 151
;

p.

39 Aates.
12

BCH
v*> & v

xiv.

411 ffrtyavos

XP*

Si-

Nudou
l3

avdOrifw.,

with 42 leaves 9 berries,

monides, frag. 155 (213) /cai UavaffTjvatois


0Te<f>cu>ovs Xa/3e irfrrt
7
:

CIA ii. 652, line 36: err^acos 0aXXoO


"h

CIA

ii.

965.

xP vff
this

""<^'* da>0riKC TO, viKtjT^pia

Xen. Hell. iv. 2. 7. CIA i. 170 172.


:

TOV KiOap<?8ov,

Many

were

Or can list of 398/7. have been deposited against the


?

honorific

see below, ch. vii.

next contest

156

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1

golden crown and a purple robe; the first doubtless a musical 2 So also he sent to prize, the latter the dress he performed in
.

Olympia a golden crown*.

The most important


tripods

awarded

series of prizes thus dedicated, are the for the best tribal chorus at the Dionysia and
.

4 cyclic chorus at the Thargelia

The

origin of the form has

been spoken
type,
its

of; here it
size,

remained as an honorific

shape and

prize, its very the ornamental lion-claws and so forth,

being traditional. In the vase paintings, it should be noted, This tripod is usually there seems always to be a kettle too. 5 man Ever since the tribal as taller than a being represented
.

competition was establisht by Cleisthenes the tripod seems to have been the only prize 8 there is clear evidence for the fifth 8 7 Simonides mentions fifty-six century and for the fourth
; .

9 In the earlier part of the fourth tripods won by his choruses we find usual victors' the records of choregi 10 but as the century city became poorer, the choregia had to be shared between two or more, whose names appear jointly as victors By the end of
. ;

11

burden appears to have grown too great for 12 private citizens, and the state takes it over placing the celebration in the hands of a public official, the Agonothet 13 This
this century the
,
.

reform

is

ascribed to Demetrius of Phalerum,


.

who presided
.

at

the Dionysia in 309/8 14 The records after this date are not full, but we find dedications in the second century 15 Outside Attica
1

As Eeisch suggests
Paus.
ii.

10

(p. 60).

CIA

ii.

3.

1229
;

ff.

inscrr.
list

in

2 3 4

17. 6.

Delos

BCH ix.

147

further

in D.

Paus.

v. 12. 8.

See especially Reisch, chap. iii. In antiquity Heliodorus wrote a work


irepl

and S. s.v. Chorepug. n CIA ii. 3. 1280

ff.

There

is

an

ruv

'AOrivrjcn rptirbduv

(Suidas

s.v.

TiMiov).
5

75

ff.

Beisch discusses the existing bases the vase evidence 68, 80 ; the
;

example of joint dedication before 404, when Gnathis and Alexandrides commemorated two victories, of a tragedy by Sophocles and a comedy by AristoThe stone was found in phanes.

reliefs 70.

them
6
7

in
i.

A pillar usually supported the middle ; one remains,


170.
xx. 66.
v.

But this is clearly a dedication of a different sort.


Eleusis.
12
ff.

'Ae^vatov

CIA

ii.

3.

1289

6 5^/xos ^opiftei

Hermes
Isaeus

41,

cp.

Xen. Hieron.

13

aywvoOtri]*,
i<

I.e.

ix. 4.
8

AM
CIA

iii.

229

ff.;

CIA

ii.

3.

1289

Demosth. Meid.
Anth. Pal.
xiii.

6.

note.
15
ii.

28.

3. 1298.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


we have no means
prevailed
;

157
choregic customs

of

knowing how
2
,

far the

but there are traces of such dedications at Eretria in

Orchomenus and elsewhere. The practice seems to have died out for a time, perhaps for lack of musical talent. After the Christian era the competition seems to have been
Euboea
1
,

at

The Thargelian contest ceases to have importance as early as the fourth century. Originally the Dionysiac tripods were dedicated in the
artificially

revived 3

4 and the Thargelian in the Pythium 5 precinct of Dionysus But when there was no longer room, or the choregus became
,
.

more ambitious, they were set up in a street close by called them The Tripods 6 The state used to pay a thousand drachmae towards the cost 7 but the opportunity for magnificence or display was not neglected by the choregus, and thus the offering partook of both public and private character. They
after
.

were placed on a plain basis, or on steps, or on a pillar 8 like that of Aristocrates, which is still preserved. It seems probable, as Reisch suggests, that the three-sided marble bases,
,

with concave

sides, some inscribed, some bearing Dionysiac 9 even reliefs, tripods, were intended to carry votive tripods Nicias would seem to be the first who made the base of a
.

2 3

AJA o.s., x. IGS i. 3210.


:

335.

CIA
rots

ii.

814 a
s

A 31

rplirodes

viicf)-

njpta
Inscrr.
1.

xP?

Ka '

T( ">i

ipyeurufUfVt

bases

CIA iii. 68 b, 79, 82 c. CIA i. 336, 337, iv.


(B.C.

on
ii.

(375/4).

Theoretically, the offering


;

was

337

a,

therefore public
vate.

but practically priis

1250
cent.),

415),
(B.C.

ii.

1281

(early

4th

This feeling

perhaps exprest

1240

344/3),
:

1249, 1258,

by the change of formula from the


tribal

1262.
422.

For the Thargelia CIA i. 421, Beisch adds reff. to Athen. ii.

name

to the choregus', 6 dciva,


:

xop-rtyuv
B.C.),

37;
4

Arg. to Dem. Or. xxi. p. 510, Schol. Aesch. Tim. 10 p. 255 Schulz.

MKO. 1234, and


the

is victor in

CIA ii. 553 (400 The choregus Thargelia, CIA i. 422,


cp.
later.
is

Isaeus

v.

41

jwij/ueia

rrjs

O.VTUV

Aristocrates, whose offering

mention J

dpeTrjs avfOetrav, TOVTO

ptv iv Aiovfoov
Kai

rpliroSas, oOs

t\a.pov

of a

xwyowres man who died


lepbv

viKuvres

edinPlato,Gor<7is472A(below,p. 158 ). 8 See the vases figured in Reisch, pp.


68, 80.

in 429.

Three cylindrical bases from


Reisch
is

Cp. Anth. Pal. vi. 339. 5 Suidas s.v. HvOiov


'

the Thargelia, p. 88.

in-

'AwiXXwT

vos,
efc 8

A6-fivi]ffi,v

virb Heiffiffrparov yeyot>6s,


ol

clined to ascribe this to Delphic tradiThe first certain evidence for tion.
pillars
9

TOUS rpliroSas ^rlOeaav


TO.

KVK\i(f

under

the

Dionysiac

tripod

X<5py viK-fiffavTfs
6

Qapy/i\ia.

comes from imperial times,


Reisch, pp. 90, 92 note.

p. 89.

Paus.

i.

20. 1, with Frazer's note.

158

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

Plato alludes to the tripod something more than a base. his in of Nicias and brothers the Dionysium, and to tripod " beautiful offering" of Aristocrates 1 and the words of the
;

Plutarch 1 imply that those of Nicias were placed upon some kind of a shrine, on the gable top and ends perhaps. Whether or no Nicias may claim to be the inventor of the tripod shrine,
the latter half of the fourth century saw a number of these erected in the Street of Tripods, of which the beautiful monuof Lysicrates (335/4) still remains on the spot 3 The on stood the trefoil and the ornament, frieze, probably tripod which represents scenes from the life of Dionysus, was doubtless
.

ment

taken from the prize poem. A similar monument, called the Lantern of Diogenes, is described by a traveller as standing in Another choregic inscription (of the year 323/2) is 1669 4
.

The well-known monucarved on a piece of a Doric epistyle 5 ment of Thrasyllus, who won a victory with the men's chorus in
.

320/19, was placed against the Acropolis rock over the theatre, and there its remains are still" a second Nicias won with the boys' chorus in the same year, and built a little Doric shrine 7 for his tripod above the Odeum The agonothetae probably
; .

continued the practice of the choregi, as we see from a similar 8 inscription on the fragments of an Ionic architrave and there
,

is

evidence for similar buildings in the imperial age The tripods themselves were sometimes covered with
.

silver,

Plato,

trot,

Idv

fi.lv

Gorg. 472 A /j.aprvp^ffovffi potXy, NiKlai o NiKT/paroi;


:

1675,
8

quoted
i.

by

Beisch
ii.

Laborde,

Athenes,

K<d ol

a,Sf\<f>ol

ner' abrov,
elffiv

ut>

of

rplirodes
6

CIA

219, 244, ii. 1245.

33.

ot <?<ei?s

^riDr^y

iv

T$

^tovvffitf,

ear

5i*

/3cw\77, 'ApterTOKpaTTjj

6 Z/ceXX/oi/,

oO

<x&

tffnv tv

HvOlov TOVTO rb

KO.\OV

x. 227; CIA ii. Dorpfeld in His son Thrasycles won two 1247. victories with choruses furnisht by the

AM

dvaOripa.
2 Plut.

Nic. 3 6 rots

xopW

" rpL-

in 271/70, and commemorated them on the same spot CIA ii. 1292,
state
:

iroaiv vvoKfinevos (v Aiovvffov pewj.

1293.
7

Stuart and Revett, Antiquities of Athens, i. 32 ; C. von Liitzow, Ztschr.


/. bild.

Dorpfeld in

AM
;

ix.

219,

with
but

restoration, pi.
8 is

vii.

CIA.
iii.

Kunst, 1868, p. 233, 264 S. inscription runs CIA ii. 1242


KpaTijs

The
Av<ri-

CIA

ii.

1264,

AM
:

234

it

doubtful.
9

Kucvvvfi/s
iviKa,

f\op^iyei,
riC\ti,

'AKanavTls

CIA

iii.

68 b
it, is

the tripod, or a
it

iralSwv

Q4ut>

AwrtaS^s

memorial of

dedicated to Ascle-

atos tSidaffxe, Evalvero* f/pxe-

PIUS privately, and not in the year

Guillet, Athenes anc. et nouv., Paris

was won.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


as that of Aeschraeus in the fourth century 1 and some of had statues enclosed between the legs. The suggestion
;

159

them came

doubtless from ornamenting the pillars, which as we have seen stood below the belly of the cauldron for support. Praxiteles placed his famous Satyr under one of the
tripods
side,
is

in

this

street

8
.

A
artist

made by the same


e
tcai
rt<?

Dionysus, with Victory by his and doubtless dedicated by him,


:

alluded to in the following lines 3

lepd,
r}v

Trporepwv KOI Nt/cr?* roidSe Swpa


VTTO rpiTrocrtv.

Trdpe&pov Bpo/uon K\IVOI<> ev dyaxri re


Tlpaj~ire\r)<; St<7<rot? eicraff

Perhaps the group of Apollo and Artemis slaying the Niobids, One Praxiteles placed seen by Pausanias, was there placed 4 statues of Victory under two tripods, probably for musical
.

victories 5

A
.

similar

mentioned
6

in the

tripod, with Dionysus beneath it, is Anthology as dedicated by Damomenes the

choregus
at

The practice is illustrated by a marble tripod found Magnesia on the Maeander, which has Hermes between the 7 A portion of what seems to be the marble base of a tripod legs it is three-sided, and there remain two is preserved in Madrid
. : . .

8 Three dancing figures of a graceful figures of dancing girls similar type found at Delphi seem to have adorned a tripod base 9

Harpocration
ZKT-TI

s.v. Kararo/j.r]

<l>cX<5-

mean "in

the grotto";

it

can hardly

Xopos ev
pd<rtoj

oi/rws' Altrxpaios 'A.vayv-

<W0T//fe

rbv

virtp

Otarpov

rplirpb-

mean, as Reisch suggests, they were ornamental work on the tripod, which
Pausanias expresses by
Christians to
ireipyaff/j,tvos.

iroda

Karapyvpuxras, veviKriicws

rf

repov trei xop-riywi' iraiuL.

Perhaps the scene was taken

later

by

interpretation has been doubted, but seems to follow from a reasonable rendering of Paui.

Paus.

20. 1.

The

mean

devils attacking

the Virgin, and hence the modern consecration of the grotto to Our Lady
of the Cave, Speleotiosa. 5 CIA ii. 1298.
6
7

sanias.

See for a discussion of pros


ii.

and cons, Eeisch, pp. 111112.


3

CIA

(3)

1298.

The

dedicator

Anth. Pal.

vi.

339.
It
is

alludes to the

work of Praxiteles as a
21.

AM
AA

xix.

54.

not of the

thing known.
4

choregic type.
3
KO.I
ffir-/i\ai6i>
>

3rd century.
Attic, early fifth

Paus.

i.

e<rriv...

viii.

76, 77.

rpiwovs 5
8

ftrecTTt

ro^ry
But

A7r6X\wj'

century.
9

4v avrtfi KO.I "Apreyous TOI)S TraiSds fiffiv

BCH xviii.

180.

avaipovvres rovs Nto/Sr/s.

this

may

160

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


The model
of a tripod in stone

in Cyprus, apparently
2.

was dedicated at Tremithus by the winner


1
.

The Instrument.

As the victorious warrior might consecrate his own arms, so the athlete might do with the implement of his game. This class, like the corresponding class in the last chapter, is smaller
than the preceding but there is evidence for it from either extreme of Greek history, which may throw light on the At the same time, quite a numobscurity which lies between.
;

ber of competitions are by their nature excluded.


;

Singing

choirs used nothing which would suggest an offering the pentathlete had his quoit, his weights, his javelin, but the runner had nothing to show neither had the hoplite, who for obvious
;

reasons must not run in his

own armour 2

It

is

in fact the
is

contest of quoit-throwing, or putting the weight, which useful to us just at this point.

most

is a huge irregular stone, declaring by an 3 that inscription Bybon threw it over his head with one hand . know that the stone was used in putting before quoits came in 4 and although this has no dedicatory inscription, the

In Olympia

We

place of

its

finding implies that

it

stood in the holy place.

We

about the quoit called of Iphitus, on which was engraven the formula of the sacred truce 5 But a with ancient bronze from is inscribed quoit Cephallenia very
cannot
feel quite certain
.

words which leave no doubt 6

Kovpoiv

thousand years later we find a quoit dedicated as a thank7 offering by Publius Asclepiades in the year 241 of our era
.

Collitz

i.

122

Tfy4aX/toj...f'

eXwv

...6vt0rjKe 'Air6\uvi. 2 Paus. v. 12. 8.

we read of one weighing 200 Ibs. (Games of Argyllshire, Folkof strength;

Lore Soc., 1900,


167
4
:

p. 233).

IGA 370 Koberts T-tfrtprii xpi vvtp Ke<f>a\S.s


3
;

Erf/Suv
8

Paus.

ii.

29. 9.
;

u7rep^/3aXe rb

Paus.

V. 20. 1

Hicks,

Gr. Hist.

ov<f>6pa

(t).

It

measures

0'68 x 0-33
to

Inter. 1.
6
~

x 0-29 m.

Such stones used

be

IGS

iii.

1.

649.

kept by

highland chieftains for trials

Inschr. von 01. 241 IIoTrX. \\a-K\rj-

GAMES AND CONTESTS.

161

at

Again, a victorious pentathlete of the sixth century dedicates Athens a base with a flat circular depression, which may have
.

What more natural, then, than to assume that two quoits, engraved with scenes from the five events, either were votive or represented a votive type ? Both represent the jump and the javelin, which with the quoit were therefore the three events which the owner won. One is from Sicily, and is 2 dated about 500 the other, found in a tomb in Aegina, belongs
held a quoit 1
;

FIG. 24.

Discus with representation of two events of the pentathlon, leaping

and javelin-throwing.
Cat. Brit. Mus. Bronzes 248.

to the fifth century

made

These, or such as these, may be models Several discs, not inscribed, for memorial or dedication.
.

were found at Olympia, which are most likely

to

be votive 4

To the same

class belongs the leaden


3

jumping weight of
s.v.

opivdios irtvraOXos e

Dar. and Sagl.


d.

Discus,

figs.

Atei

'OXi>MTtw
is

OX.

ffve

= 01.

255).

251,2462; Ann.

Inst. 1832,
ii.

pi.

B;

a mysterious legend on the other side which I have no concern

There

Friedrichs, Berl. Ant. Bilder,

1273 ;

Baumeister, Denkm.
ber,

fig.

612; Schreibeautiful

with here.
1

Atlas,

xxii.

11.

The

Ear. 13;

CIA

iv.

i.

373 189

...oj

quoit of the sixth century, bearing a dolphin, must have been made as a

memorial of some
2

sort

HavaO-qvaia,

ii.

Cat. Brit. Mus. Bronzes 248, figs.


i.

31

Jahreshefte

ii.

pi. 1.

Gaz. Arch.

Atlas, xxii. 15. R.

131, pi. 35; Schreiber, See fig. 24.

Bronzen von 01. 179;

AZ
11

1880,

p. 63.

162

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

at

There was a stone weight found Epaenetus, found at Eleusis 8 with a inscribed name, but without a dedication Olympia Two weights were found at Corinth, but without inscription*.
I

do not know whether we ought to


.

call votive

the stone flute

found in Ithaca 4
If Arcesilas

IV of Gyrene, who won the Pythian race in as it seems dedicate the car he drove in, this would did 466, be another example of the same principle 6 Euagoras did 6 it this was we take that at and so may Olympia perhaps
.

the earliest, as

it is

the most natural, custom.


8
,

7 Trappings of horses have been found at Dodona Olympia and elsewhere, but to assign these to any special class would be

guessing.

But

in the fifth century the victor in musical

and scenic

contests dedicated the trappings of his work. Lysias speaks of 9 and an the dedication of stage trappings by the choregus 10 and the crowns of Teos mentions the masks inscription
; .

fragment of Aristophanes
in the precinct of

11

Dionysus

alludes to the "bogie-masks" hanging and a number of reliefs from the


; .

12 The Athenian theatre show tragic masks suspended in rows masks appear to have been either hung on the walls, or placed on their own bases 13 Such reliefs may have been themselves as a votive, just trophy might be made in permanent form of
.

bronze; or they
1

may simply
d\6(j.evo3

reproduce the appearance of the


<rtn> rrj

CIA

iv.

1.

422 4
rwde
:

vlxi^ffev
;

TTJS VKevrjs

dvaOtati irevT
8t EvK\fiSov apxovros

'Eiralvtros, ovvrica
'A.px-

dX.TTJp

____

'E0.

dpaxpds: 700

tiri

1883,

189

sixth

or

seventh

century.
2

Kw^ySots xopVfvi' 'K.T)<}>iffo8wp<p tvixuv, Kal dt>ri\uffa avv rfj TT?S ffKevrjs dvaOfcti
tKKalSetca /was.
10

IGA

160 Kvudlas

Bronzen von

01. 1101.
3

Le Bas,

As. Min. 92

ra

irp6ffwira

'E0. 'Apx- 1883, 104,

figs.

xal rovs ffrttfidvovs.

4 8

IGA 337; IGS iii. 1. 655 tap6s. Find. Pyth. v. 32 KaW/cXcwe yap
d\\a
Kp4fj.ara.t,

"
ffeif

Arist. Geras, 131


irov

Kock: rkav

(f>pd-

'<m rb

J\IOVV<TIOI> ;

oirov

rb.

uv 5a/5a\' &ywv
Kpiffdiov \6<j>ov
8
7 8

fj.opfjiO\vKela trpoffKpt(j.dvvvTai. ia

AZ

xxiv. 170, Abb.

13;

Reisch

&/j.i\f/ev, etc.

145, 146, figs. 13

and

14.

Paus.

vi. 10. 8.

Pompeian wall-pain ting, Mus.Borban.


i.

Carapanos, Iii. Bronzen 1102 ff.


Lysias, Dorod. v. 698
efr

1;

Helbig 1460; Reisch 145;

theatre ticket,
di>8pd<rt XO/MJ-

Hon.

d. Inst. viii.

52,

732.

yZv

Aioi>v<ria

ivlicrjaa.

Kal

dvtjKwffa

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


temple walls with real masks hanging upon them.
cation of the real

163

The

dedi-

mask comes

first in

although since this class of until the practice of dedicating models had begun, there

point of development, dedication does not appear


is

show which kind, if either, comes first in time. A large number of model masks are preserved; Sybel notes about thirty of them in Athens and the practice will doubtless
nothing to
1
,

have been followed elsewhere.


cotta,

fine

tragic

mask
.

of terra-

2 disc, of hanging, came from Thebes the Roman period, made for hanging, bears on one side two Bacchic masks, and on the other a Satyr 3

with holes

for

other examples may be mentioned. Athenaeus alludes to a Contest of Beauty which Cypselus founded in honour of

A few

Eleusinian Demeter, in which his own wife was the first victor 4 In a poem of the Anthology a victorious maiden offers as trophies of such a contest a fawn-skin and a golden vase, together
.

with her dress and trinkets, to Priapus 5 A votary dedicates Hermes which had in to the torch he used the torch-race 6
. ;

Poseidon his whip, curry-comb, and the other 7 the trappings of his horses after winning the Isthmian race 8 9 his dedicates and the actor his mask An trumpeter trumpet
offers to
;
,
.

Charmos

oil-flask

appears to be dedicated in a Boeotian inscription of the


10
.

third century
3.

Other Commemorative Offerings.

The most important offerings, however, connected with the Games are those which represent the act or process blest by the
god.
1

3978,

Sybel 3875, 3877, 38823, 3968, all from the theatre; 1069 ff.,

Coll. Castellani, 671.


3 4
rjs

Cat. Berl. Sc. 1042.

3256, 3467, 3531, 4095, 4107,

41412,
(2527),

Ath.

xiii.

609 P AT^T/H 'EXeimi'/p,


rov rov /cdXXovs dyuva

4145, 4155, 4803, 5744, 6130

ev

ry

eoprfj ical

6475, 6566, 6810, 7134; Keisch 146. The item from the Delian inventories

iiriTeXtvai [Kv\j/f\oi>], KaivtKTJffanrp&rov

avrov
5

TTJI/

yvvaiKa'flpodLKirjv.

(BCH
rpia

ii.

325)

irlva

irptxrMira.

^"

A ^th.

Pal.

vi.
vi.

292.
100.

cannot be taken of masks, as Eeisch diffidently suggests ; irptxruirov


is

6
1

Anth. Pal.

Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal.

vi.
vi. vi.

246
350.
311.

so 233.

used in the Inventories of 'persons' 33 (e.g. CIA ii. 83S ), and the irlva was
relief.
2

8 9
10

Anth. Pal.

IGS

i.

3091

tX-qoxplffriov.

NowinMadrid:^l^lviii.95; another,

112

164

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

The athletic and equestrian contests gave good scope for those representations in modelling. The chariot with its team and driver, the race-horse and jockey, and the athlete with distinguishing marks or attitudes were at once simple as conAn ideal element was ceptions and effective as memorials.
often added to the chariot

by placing a statue of Victory beside


chariot-model recorded by

the driver.

The
victor in

earliest dedication of the


is
.

Pausanias

516 1

probably that of Cleosthenes the Epidamnian, He and his driver stood in the car, and he went
of Gela

names of the horses upon them. and afterwards of Syracuse, won the Gelo, despot 8 The chariot of race and dedicated a similar group in 488 Hiero, who succeeded him, was dedicated at Olympia by his 3 son and the remains of a magnificent monument found at Delphi testify to a Pythian victory for the same man. It is a bronze charioteer, with the wreath of victory on his head, and
so far as to inscribe the
.

4 parts of the horses


,

Others recorded are those of Cratisthenes

8 and of Cynisca, daughter of Archedamus of the Cyrenian 6 Cratisthenes was probably the first to place a Victory Sparta but in other cases appears a "maiden" beside the driver 7
.

Pliny mentions probably meant for this personification 9 and probably the tirvrot another, that of Tisicrates, by Piston %a\Kai of Cimon, said by Aelian to have been in Athens, were
is
.

who

the memorial of a successful race

10
.

Calamis, Aristides, and

Euphranor,

Lysippus, Euthycrates, Pyromachus, Menogenes, and Aristodemus, made well-known chariot-groups,

as

well

as

Paus.

vi.

10. 7 inscr. KXeo<r0^i?s


6

VAcad. des Inscr. xxiv. 186.


of the charioteer in
8

plate

fj.'

divtOijKev
iTTirots

H6vrios

'Eiri8d/j.vov,

AA

xi.

174.

wfiffas
2

Ka,\bv

dyuva

Ai6s.

Names
2d/j.os.

Paus.

vi. 18. 1.

of horses &olvi,

K6pa, KvaKlas,
4
: :

Paus.

vi.

1.

6: 4th century.

See

part of the base is believed to have been found Inschr.

Paus.

vi. 9.

below, p. 165. 7 Paus. vi. 18.


8 9 10

1.

von Olympia 143 IGA 359 and see Frazer's note on Pausanias I.e.
;

p a us.
Plin.

vi. 4. 10, 12. 6.

NH xxxiv.
VH
ix.

89.

Paus.

vi.

12.

1,

inscr.

in

viii.

Aelian,

32.

Cimon the
vi.

42. 9.
4

elder

won

three chariot-races, Hdt.

Dedicated by his brother Polyzalos:


N.S.
ii.

103.

His horses were

buried

near

AJD

440; Comptes Rendus de

him.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


some
of

165
votive.

which we may assume to have been

Quite

late,
1
.

the chariot of

Lampus of Philippi in Macedon is mentioned These models we may assume to have been full size, but
is

That Glaucon the Athenian's chariot was which has been found 2 proved by Cynisca also placed a small chariot in the ante-chapel at Olympia 3 and " the car of Polypeithes the Laconian was not large 4 ." What may be the wheel of one such model was found, it is said, in 8 Fragments of Argos, and it is dedicated to the Dioscuri 6 chariots and drivers were found at Athens A number of smaller models in bronze and terra-cotta were found at Olympia 7 so many indeed, and such trifles, as to suggest a doubt whether they can be meant for this great event. Can it be that such things were
others were small.

small

its base,

offered beforehand with

the

pitiatory sacrifice

know

proof no

evidence

for

this,

however.

A
;

number of wheels were found which had no chariots belonging to them


8 they are cut out of thin foil or 9 cast most being of the four-spoke
,
,

type, but two, the wheels of the mule-car 10 with five spokes. All are
,

FIG. 25.

Charioteer, from

older than the traditional founding of the Games. It may be that

Olympia. Bronzen xv. 249.

some
figures

are
11
,

the

bases

of

animal
rest.

but this will not help with the


6

Reisch believes

Paus.

vi. 4. 10.
vi.

Cat. Acr. Mus. Bronzes 753.

Paus.

16.

9,

Inschr. von 01.


'Ereo/cX^-

Bronzen von
p.

01. xv.

24850,
xvii.

253,
285.

178 Ad 'OXi>(iiri T\O.VKWV


ovs 'AOyvalos.
3

etc.;

40.

Terra-cotta,

See
12. 5; Collitz
iii.

fig.

25.

Paus.

v.

4418;

she claims that she was the only Greek woman to win the chariot-race.
4
5

Paus.

vi. 16. 6.

Bronzen 498 ff. Bronzen 503 ff 10 Bronzen 510. There were races with the mule-car air-tivrj between 01.
9
.

IGA

43 a

rol(v) fav6.Koi(v) elfd.

EtfS

dv^6r)Ke.

But

see chap. xiv.

70 and 84 Paus. v. 11 Bronzen 509.


:

9. 1.

166

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

that they were dedicated for the whole car by a convention, and so explains also the Argive wheel mentioned above If the Greeks could have dedicated a wheel for a chariot, they could have dedicated the leg of a tripod for the whole and there is no evidence whatever that they ever made such an
1
. ;

blunder. They might restore Heracles from a foot, but they would hardly offer a foot for Heracles. I shall offer another explanation of these wheels by and by 2 Turning to the horse-race, we find figures of jockeys on horseback placed on either side of Hiero's chariot 3 We learn
artistic
. .

that

Canachus, Hegias, Crocon the Eretrian was another who dedicated his horse 6 and although no jockey is mentioned he would be necessary to express
,

and Calamis

made such groups 4

the idea

we have seen

in

these

There is one example of groups. the animal dedicated alone, but


then there was a reason
for
it.

At

the

outset of this race

the

FIG. 26.

Rider, from Olympia.

Bronzen xv. 255. jockey who was riding Pheidolas's mare fell off, yet the mare ran on and came in first; so Pheidolas was adjudged victor, and was allowed to dedicate his mare alone 6 But the animal is singled
.

out for special honour in another Olympian victory of the sons 7 of Pheidolas Other victorious jockeys are thus represented as
. ;

These statues might also be dedicated at home the base of Onatas on the Athenian 9 Whether the Acropolis seems to have borne some such group statue of Isocrates was dedicated for a race, or for equestrian
for his father
;
. .

Aesypus who rode

Timon 8

1 Reisch p. 61; accepted by Furtwangler, Bronzen, p. 68.

6 6

Paus.

vi. 14. 4.
vi.

Paus.

13. 9:

about 500.

She
AI//COS

9
3

Chap.
Paus.

xiv.
vi.

was named
Pliny,

A0/xt.

12. 1.
illi

NH xxxiv.
dica-

Paus.

vi.

13.
5t/o

10
5'

5.

19 says sed

celetas

tantum

.ira.1-,

bant

in sacris victores, postea vero et

vaidwv
8

tffTf<t>a.vdi

So.uocs.

qui bigis vel quadrigis vicissent. Pind. 01. i.


4

Cp.

Paus.

vi. 2. 8.

CIA

iv. 1.

37399,

Pliny,

NH xxiv.

'A.p X .

1887,

19, 75, 78.

p. 146.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


some
athletic contest,
1
.

167
it

is

not stated

but there

stood on the

Acropolis of Athens
,

Statuettes of riders were found at


,

Delos 2 and Olympia 3 one at Dodona on a galloper 4 a galloping and a walking or trotting horseman at Athens 5 an archaic
,

6 a youth in the attitude of riding at Argos jockey 7 Horses alone are quite common as votive Megara Hyblaea been as has pointed out in the Cabirium there were offerings,

in

riders also 8

When we come
a very puzzling

to the statues of athletes,

we

are

met by

athlete, told, was question. a statue of himself for each allowed to dedicate victory; the 9 girl runners at the Heraea, pictures of themselves painted

The

we

are

whether these were really votive an done to the winner. but honour nothing
is,

The question

offerings, or

Now

Pausanias says distinctly that whilst

all

the objects on

the Athenian Acropolis were votive, statues included, the athlete statues at Olympia were not; but that, as a kind of prize, the right

them was given 10 Since in the time of Pausanias and dvariOevai dvd0r)fj,a were used of honorific statues, it is likely that he got this distinction from an earlier writer". It is true also that the inscriptions on many of these statues are not dedicatory 12 that the right to erect one was
of dedicating
.

Plut. X. Or., Isocrates, 42.

'

'

rrj

M^v-gym
TO.

o't

re dvSptavTes Kal
effTiv 6/uo/ws ava.OrifjLa.Ta.'
fj.ev

2
3

AZ
fig.

xl.

328 61

&\\a,
xvi. 258.
ev

irdvra

Bronzen von 01. xv. 255,


26.
pi.

5t r-g "A\rei TO.

Tififj

rrj

ts

r6

See
4

Oeiov
xiii.
xii.

avaKfirai,

ol

avdpiavTes r<av
ff<j>i<ri.

Carapanos, 183,
xi.

1,

3:

VIKWVTWV ev 6.6\ov \6yu


diSovrai.

Kal OVTOI

other fragments

3,

2.

The

same

attitude as in old Attic tombs,


feats were repreii.

where the dead man's


sented
5
:

Furtwangler (AM v. 29 ff.) and Curtius (Inschr. von Ol. p. 235) agree with this view. Beisch p. 35
regards all as votive, because they stood in the precinct. This misses the point which I have tried to bring out
in

AM iv. 36,

pi.

Cat. ACT. Mus. Bronzes 751, 752.

Also Sybel in
6
7

AM v.

286.

Catalogue, no. 3. Mon. Ant. i. 932 115

the

text,

that

the

motive was

changing.

8 9

AM xv.
Paus.

357.

Moreover, a thing might belong to the god and yet not be a


votive offering.

v. 16.

3 dvaOeivai

ff<j>i<rii>

e"<TTi

This does not ypaif/afdvau eiKovas. mean " statues of themselves with their

u
12

Frazer, ad loc. E.g. Inschr. von 01. 146 Ka\X/as

names
lates,
10

inscribed," as

Frazer

trans-

AiSvuiov 'A0r/va?os ira.yKpa.Tiov


ivoiijfffv

but something painted. Paus. v. 21. 1 ev axpoiroXei pen yap

'A^aios.

168

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

held to be a high honour, and that this fact is sometimes On the other hand, we have stated or implied in the legend 1
.

seen that

was a recognised principle to make the votive a offering representation of the event and this could be done for athletes by showing them in some characteristic attitude or holding characteristic attributes. There is therefore nothing
it
;

in the nature of things to prevent the athlete dedicating in the true sense such a figure of himself. Further, some of the athlete statues have true dedicatory inscriptions; and the

chariot groups are admitted to be truly 'votive*. The truth seems to be, then, that some athlete statues

were votive and some were not.

Here

in fact

is

the earliest

beginning of that change which is completed in the fourth century, by which the votive offering becomes chiefly a means
of self-glorification. Why the change should begin here is easy to see. in the chariot-race did not owe their victory Victors 8 to themselves alone horses, car, and driver had a share in it,
;

and the group was distinct from the owner: but the athlete stood alone, and in his case to represent the deed in doing was The inevitable result was that pride to represent the man. swallowed up piety, and in the fifth century or even earlier the athlete's statue became a memorial of a personal honour.
I take it then, that originally the

Olympian athlete statues

were as truly votive as the chariot groups or race-horse and rider, and as truly as athlete statues continued to be votive

which the victor dedicated at home. Pliny gives a hint in the same direction, when he implies that they were generally not realistic portraits*. But those actually recorded must be divided into two distinct classes, those which are votive being
1

As by Euthymus

below, p. 169.

viK-^cras 8t

Kal diropuv xputn'ov, Kurd riva.

Inschr. von Ol. p. 239.

eoprijv tirfxupiov K(Kofffj.r)p.tvas ISuv rctj

3 Yet two chariot-victors, Timon and Telemachus, seem to have dedi-

ywaiKcu, wdvra. a^eJXero rbv Koapov,


Kal

fire^e

rt>

dvd6ri/j.a.

Perhaps

it

was

cated

their

own

statues

alone:

per-

in the car.
4 xxxiv. 4. 16 omnium Pliny, qui vicissent statuas dicari mos erat, eorum vero qui ter ibi superavissent,

haps the
vi.
i.

effect of the athletes (Paus.

NH

2.

7.

Diogenes Laertius 3 says that Periander offered a


8,

13. 11).

golden statue of himself: "E<popos Iff TOpei wj eCatTo, el vucfiatitv '0\vfjLina


Tt6plirir<f,

ex membris ipsorum similitudine expressa.

xpuaovv dvSpidvra dvadelvai.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


inscribed
to

169

that

effect.

If the

dedicator
offering,
I

was content to

describe

his

statue

as

votive

am

content to

take him at his word, without assuming that he would say what he did not" mean, because like a fourth-form schoolboy 1 he wanted to make his verses scan
.

One
was 472 Z
.

of the few that remained truly thankful for his mercies Euthyrnus the boxer, who won his third Olympic victory in

however not unmindful of his own pride, but 3 is more modest The same formula 4 and of Milo the wrestler 5 is used of Tellon in the fifth century These are the mainstays of my argument; but I may add 6 Cyniscus from the early fourth century, after which no others
is

He

another boxer Damarchus

demonstrably

use the formula until the


9
.

first

century

8
,

when

the practice becomes general If the principle of dedication which

I have adopted is the statues must have been intelligible to correct, dedicatory
1

As Curtius

in the Inschr. von 01.

and part of the older remains.


5

p. 239.
is

He

overlooks no. 213, which

Paus.

vi.

14. 5; Inschr. 264;

IGA

in prose.
It is

So Furtwangler,

AM v. 30.
were

589

MCXwv

AiOTt/iou dvWriKev.

Curtius

word

avt6-riKev

hardly possible to argue that the was losing its force thus

and Adler deny the restoration because it contradicts their canon about prose
;

early, because (1) athletic statues

actually dedicated at home, and (2) the word has full force elsewhere for an-

no other reason. They ought to have heard of Dawes. For Milo see Simonides 156.
there
is
6

other century or more, whilst Lysander has already given a sign that the motive of dedications was to change (above,
p. 132).
2

Inschr. 149;

IGA

p. 175;

Paus.

vi.

4. 11.
7

IGA

Other examples of avtOrjicev are 563 (stadium), and 355 (cp. Paus.
9 ?)
;

Inschr. 144;

IGA
Tr/vSe
a.irb

388

E06v/j.os
V'LK<I)V,

Aoel-

vi. 10.
8 9

but the object

is

obscure.

Kpbs 'A<TTVK\eos rpls 'OXv//7ri'

Inschr. 213.

Kova

d'

tffTri<Tev

/Sporots

fcropav.
av^O-r/Ke.
it

Furtwangler,

AM

v.

30 note, cites

E00v/ios AoKpbs

Ze<pvplov

Paus.

vi. 6. 6.

The

dedication,

will

the following (for which see the place, and the Index to Pausanias) early
:

I do not be observed, is in prose. think that even the fourth-form boy

4th cent.

Aristion,

Critodamus, Da-

would
3

believe the last

line

to

be a

hexameter.
Paus.
vi. 8.

moxenidas, Eucles, Pythocles, Xenocles; later 4th Troilus, Telemachus; 3rd Philippus, Archippus; 2nd Acestorides, Hellenicus.

2 uids Aivvvra Act/oiapxos


O.TT'

None

of

these

use

ravd' av46riKev elKov'


patriot
4

'A/caStas Hap-

yevedv.
vi.

Paus.
:

2.

9,

IGA
is

98; Inschr.

Telemachus won in the chariot-race; Troilus acknowledges the help of Zeus (Inschr. 166)
the votive formula.
;

147

the dedication

in later letters,

the others are bald descriptions for the

but the whole inscr. has been recut

most

part.

170

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

the chance beholder.

And

in fact so

were those which are


1

race,

minutely described. Damaretus, the first victor in the hoplite Glaucus was armed with shield, helmet, and greaves
.

was in the attitude of sparring Diagoras had the left hand 3 The base of Athenaeus the the mark, right uplifted guarding The the boxer shows that he was in the act of striking 4 knuckle-dusters or thongs of cow-hide bound on the hand
2
; . .

(//zai/res)

also served to
8
.

of Arcesilaus
6

out the boxer, as in the case the Tisicrates pancratiast was represented as

make

boxing
to grip
7

The

wrestler Xenocles was apparently poised as about Other motives are possible: as the luctator anhelans

of Nauceros.

weights

8
;

The leaper, or pancratiast, might hold the leapingthe discobolus holds or hurls his quoit, the doryphorus The racer might be crouching down to prepare for More general attributes would be the hand upheld
,

his spear.

the start 9

in prayer for victory, the oil-flask 10 the

wreath 11 and the palm


,

of victory
It

18
.

would serve no purpose here to enumerate the statues from the wooden figures of Praxidamas and of, Rhexibius down to the age of Hadrian 13 for without inscrip-

we know
tions

we have no clue to guide us as to the motives of the But it is fair to assume that statues in the attitude dedicator.
of adoration were really votive.
1 Paus. vi. 10. 4 (65th 01.). Helmet and greaves were afterwards discarded

In this attitude were Anaxanathlete

statues;

now

in

Ath. Mus.

for this race.


2

See YlavaO-^vaia, vol. ii. plates. 8 Paus. v. 27. 2 (part of spoil, yet

Paus.vi. 10.3 ffx^d' ffKiafjMx


vii. p.

""'1

'

^'-

early 5th cent. 3 Schol. Find. Ol.


4

Paus.
Paus.

vi.

4.

1;

157 Bockh. Imchr. 168: 4th


Schol. Pind.

an athlete statue originally). 9 So apparently Ladas, Anth. Pal. xvi. 54; and the running maiden of the
Vatican.

cent.
6

vi.

7.

1;

I.e.

the Olympian head are due to realism and have no


battered ears of

The

he would add ApoxyoCp. F.-W. 462 f.; Pliny, xxxiv. 76 pueri destringentes se; 34,
1(>

Keisch 46

meni.

NH

86, 87 perixyomeni.
11

value here.
6

F.-W. 325 (the Olympian bronze


Sybel 411; Pliny,
Paus.
vi. 18. 7

Lowy, Imchr. der


-

gr. Bildhauer,

head).
12

12
7

NH

xxxv. 75;
vi. 15.

2; Inschr. 164; Ergebnisse, Tafelband, ii. 150. Part of what


vi. 9.

Paus.

C p. 63, 71, 106, 130, 138.

w
It

Pind. Nem.

seems to be a group of wrestlers was dredged up in the sea at Cythera, with

was always placed


viii. 48. 2.

in the victor's

hand, Paus.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


drus, victor in the chariot-race
1
,

171

and Diagoras and Acusilaus a bronze boy in Berlin, holding up one hand in prayer, and with the other holding a leaping3 If it could be shown that this attitude was taken weight by any other of the athlete statues, we should have to alter
the boxers
2
.

There

is

our view of them


4

but we do not know how

far

it

was

customary

At Delphi, the wider religious interest eclipst the games and neither there nor on the Isthmus, nor at Nemea, did
Pausanias think
it

many
in

of the

worth while to go into detail. A. great victors did however win also at one or Olympic
places,

more of the other three

and we may shortly hope to

a position to judge how the monuments at Delphi are to be be regarded. Statues were, however, not infrequently set up

home for victories abroad. Callias in the fifth century stood upon the Athenian Acropolis, and the inscription may 6 There were also Herrnolycus confidently be taken as votive
at
.

the pancratiast 6 and Epicharinus, who won the hoplite race 7 Promachus of Pellene 8 and Aenetus of Amyclae 9 had statues
, .

dedicated at home.

Agias the pancratiast was honoured in the same way in his Thessalian home 10 The man "in the helmet" in the Athenian Acropolis may have been a hoplite racer 11
.

The

victor's portrait is
.

spoken of as a matter of course in the

fourth century 12
It does

not seem to have been the custom to dedicate

musical victors in this way.


1 2

The
9

statues which
Paus.
ii.

existed

at

Pans.

vi. 1. 7.

18. 5.

Schol. Pind.

OL

vii.

10

E. Preuner, Ein delphisches Weih-

3 Catalogue 6306; Paus. v. 27. 2, vi. 3. 10. 4

AM

vi.

158; cp.

geschenk (Teubner 1900), 17, 18: the victor borrowed the epigram used by

See Scherer,
ff.

DC Olympionicarum

Daochus

statuis, 31
5

n Paus.
dv/ip
;

at Delphi, p. 3. i. 24. 3 Kpdvos


(p. 39)
is

tiriKel[j.ei>os

CIA i.419Ka\Masdv^9riKvorKoT.
of victories.
;

Eeisch

163 KaXX/aj Ai8vjj.Covdv^Or)KJ'tK3v with


list

like the

phrase
ix.

points out how to what is said of

The

restoration of
8.

Telesicrates, avyp ^x (av Kpdvos, Schol.

dv^&rjKe is justified
6
7

see note

Pind. Pyth.
12

401 Bockh.
iii.

Paus.
Paus.

i. i.

23. 10.

Xen. Mem.
re

10. 6 OTI/J^V dXXofovs


iraXcucrras
ical

23. 9;
. .

CIA

i.

376

'ETTI-

Troietj apo/xeay
KO.I

na.1

TTWCTOS

Xapivos a.vidi)Ki>
8

irayKpaTiaffTas bpu re Kal olSa (said

Paus.

vii. 27. 5.

to a sculptor).

172

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

1 Delphi do not appear to have been votive in the true sense; and the same may be said of heralds and trumpeters 2 There were statues of poets or musicians in Mount Helicon who won
.

the prize there, and an epigram of the fifth century which was on one of them is votive in form 8 The relief of Pythocritus the
.

flotist in

Olympia

is

also uncertain

4
.

The

pretty tale of the

cicala is worth mentioning. musician broke his string, and a cicala settling upon the lyre buzzed the note of the broken

An image of the little string so well that he gained the prize. creature was dedicated in remembrance of this timely help 8
.

FIG. 27.

From Olympia.
vii.

FIG. 28.

The Tiibingen bronze.


Jahrb.
i.

Bronze.n

48.

pi. 9.

Some
been

of the statuettes found at

athletes,

Olympia appear to have and these are certainly votive. One naked
;
.

6 youth held an object in each hand, perhaps leaping- weights 7 others, with one foot advanced, are not clearly characterised 5

Paus. x.

9. 2.

Reisch, p. 54 note, gives examples. Ath. xiv. 629 A quoting Ampbion


TOV tv "EXiKwvi
'M.ovffetov
:

Pal.
6
all).

Clem. Alex. Protrept. i. 1. ix. 584 ; Strabo vi. 260.

Anth.

irepl

Bronzen von 01. viii. 47 (oldest of An Etruscan statuette holding


is

the weights
Avdpas' 6
8'

inscribed

Gaz. Arch.

ai)XjTaj yv "Avaicos

xiv.

59, pi. 13.

Delphi,

BCH

possible athlete at xx. 702.

pa
4

Bronzen von Ol. vii. 48. But these seem to wear ceremonial stlengis. See
7

Paus.

vi.

14.

dvrip

fig.

27.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


There
is
,

173

2 a boxer 1 a quoit-thrower's arm and many fragments bronze quoit-thrower was dedicated in of similar figures.
,

the Cabirium 3

4 5 group of wrestlers a boxer and the arm of


, ,

FIG. 29.

Victorious athletes with votive tablet and prize. Benndorf, Gr. und Sic. Vas. pi. ix.

a quoit-thrower 6 in small were found on the Athenian Acropolis. The running girl of Dodona wears the short tunic of the Spartan
racers 7
1
.

The hoplite-runner has been seen


Wien,
4
5

in

a remarkable

Bronzen von 01. viii. 57. Bronzen von 01. vi. 59 (5th century). 3 xv. 365 Kafilpov, archaic. Such statuettes are not rare, but it is uncertain whether votive Keisch re2

pi. 37. 4, 35. 1.

Cat. ACT. Mus. Br. 747. Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. 746.
Cat. Acr.

AM

6
7

fers to

JHS

i.

177

Sacker-Kenner, Die
k.

Carapanos, to be Atalanta.

Mus. Br. 636. xi. 1. She is not

likely

ant.

Bronzen im

Munzkabinet in

174
figure
called

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


.

1 At Delphi was found the Tubingen bronze of a very ancient statuette bronze, girt in a loincloth, the hands clencht as though holding something; which may be

meant

for a

runner 2

Pictorial representations of the act or process appear to have been common, although we hear little of them. Some

such are upon the Corinthian tablets dedicated to Poseidon 8 a pair of pugilists, riders, and what not. There is a vase

which shows a youth, carrying a Panathenaic vase and a tablet 4 one was held in the hand on which a human figure is painted 8 I do not know of a statue which used to be at Olympia
;
.

whether we might venture to explain the scenes on some Athenian tablets which remain as due to mythological precedent otherwise the apotheosis of Hercules might be used by some one who could claim connexion with him, to indicate
;

The painter Nicomachus made a scene labours accomplisht of Victoria quadrigam in sublime rapiens, in which Victory seems to have been driving, and holding a palm 7 Nothing
.

but a more

group would suffice the imagination of Alcibiades, who dedicated two pictures in the Pinacotheca. In one, Olympias and Pythias were crowning him in the other, Nemea was sitting with him upon her knees 8 One is reminded of Pindar's phrase that the victor "falls at the knees of 9 Victory ." A similar picture, apparently the memorial of a 10 Nemea palm in hand is seated race, is described by Pliny
florid
;
.

L. Schwabe,

95; AA x. 183; Bronze, Jahrb. i. 153, pi. 9, believes him to be a charioteer,


1

Hauser, Jahrb.

ii.

Benndorf,
car,

pi.

iii.

Heracles and
iv.

Zur

Tiib.

Athena in Athena in
iv. 2, v.

car.

Others are:

Hermes standing by;


;

is impossible, because (1) the attitude does not suit, (2) he wears a

which

6 Athena meets car

v.

Pro-

cession of the gods.


7

helmet,

(3)

he stands on a base and

Keisch, p. 149.

therefore did not stand in a chariot.

Athenaeus
'

xii.

534

D,

5i)o

iriVaxas

See
2 3

fig.

28.

avtOyKev,

Ay\ao(f>uvTo^ ypa.<t>r)V
'OXu/tiridSa
ical

wv 6
<rre-

BCH xxiii.
Gaz.
Arch.
i.

620, pi.
vi.

x., xi.
fig.

/xei/

et^f

HvOidSa

107

Antike

Qavofaas
Ka0rj/j.^vri

airrbv, tv dt OartfHf Ne/iedj rjv


ical
;

Denkmfiler
fig. 17.

8. 24.

See above, p. 81,


Vatenb.,

tirl

TUV yoviruv
i.

a&rrjs

'AXw/StdSijj

cp. Pans.
v.

22. 6.
Isth.
ii.

pi. ix.

Benndorf, Gr. und Sic. See fig. 29.

PinA. Nem.
10

42;
27.

26:

viKas iv yovvaaiv, Iv dyK<bi>f<Tffi vtrvuv.

6 Pliny.NHxxxiv. 59Libyn, puerum tenentem tabellam.

pii nV)

NH xxxv.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


upon a
car
lion,

175
staff,

and by her side stands an old man with a

over whose head hangs a picture or tablet with a two-horse


I

upon it. must not omit

to

mention that the scene of the contest,


1

something connected with it, is sometimes depicted upon the and perhaps the quoits of prize (as in a Panathenaic vase Sicily and Aegina), or upon the base which supported the
or
,

offering.

An

a four-horse car

archaic base from the Athenian Acropolis shows 2 3 one from Aegina the pair-car others show
, ;

The well-known base of Bryaxis (4th the Pyrrhic dance which once upheld the memorial of the Athenian century), 5 was dedicated by a contest in horsemanship (avOnnraa-ia)
.

Upon the hipparch is seen advancing 8 at full gallop to receive the prize, a large tripod A boy on 7 a race-horse appears elsewhere
father
sons.
it
. .

and two

But
features

reliefs

which I
8
.

independently dedicated form a very large class, cannot here do more than indicate in its main

The
and so

interpretation
forth, is still

of

details,

the fixing of the

mainly a matter of guess. The mass in some handy form would of the whole publication to advance a step or two further. make it possible probably to see it is that most of the existing Meanwhile, encouraging reliefs fall into certain main categories, and that these fit in with
occasion,

what we see elsewhere.


Taking the pieces which seem
divide
Prize,

to

be agonistic, we

may

them threefold (iii) The Sacrifice


:

Contest, (ii) The Victory and or Libation. Each is a different aspect


(i)

The

of the act or process blest by the deity. shall take first athletic and equestrian contests,

We

and

secondly those relating to music or the drama. The Contest. Part of a chariot and pair in (i)

found at Cyzicus,
1

is

full course, ascribed to the sixth century; but there is

Baumeister, fig. 1156. Schone 73 Sybel 6741. Collection Sab. i. pi. xxvi.
;

CIA

iii.

1291

d.v6tinra.(rlq.

Uava-

Orivaia TO, fj.eyd\a.


;

another,

7
8

AZ

Sybel 6739. 4 Sybel 6569.


5

Reisch 49

xxxv. 139, no. 89 (von Duhn). ff. has discussed this

group, and I have borrowed a


iii.

number

Xen. Hipparch.

11.

of examples from his

list.

176 no proof that


it

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


is

votive 1

Archaic

reliefs

of the Acropolis

scenes, one with a shielded person who may be an There is no doubt in the case of apobates*. perhaps a remarkable Spartan monument. Damonon, who has won

show

similar

a number of
dedicates
relief of

victories, several of

to

Athena a

pillar

them with the same team, recording the victories, with a


3
.

himself driving his quadriga group of athletes has also been found with names
4
.

inscribed

There are representations of Pyrrhic dancers 5 and


8
.

of victors in the torch-race

Some

of the scenes are explained


.

as referring to victorious apobatae, since the driver is armed 7 The scene may depict various moments of the contest or its
conclusion.

Here the driver


;

is

mounting upon

his car

or

driving at speed in the race or the steeds 9 pace, before the start or after the finish
.

move

at a moderate

more solemn pace

again, a boy gallops 11 his racer Lads on horses, perhaps victorious leading past 18 13 one Atttc relief a mounted on boy on another ephebes, appear
is
.

seen in a tablet from Palermo


.

10

Or

horseman leading a group of other horsemen may refer to the u A puzzling relief shows two male figures seated, anthippasia
.

whom is a lad leaning upon a spear, and 1S the jumping weights holding apparently
of heroic size, betwixt
.

BCH xviii. 493.


Acr. Mus. no. 1391

Pliny,

NH xxxv.

F-W.
8

1838.

99, describes a similar piece

by Aristides

the elder.
2
3
:

Sybel 6741. Compare F-W. 1838 Gazette des beaux arts (1882), 452, 456.
Sybel 6739; cp. Coll. Sab. xxvi.; Oropus, Cat. Berl. Sc. 725, and perhaps Bull, de Com. Arch. iii. 247
(Athens)
Firenze,
;

traces of inscr.

IGA

79;

Roberts 264.

^a^vuv
rdde

dvt6r)Ke 'AOavatai IloXtdxwi IHKCL&S ravra


cir' otfSrjs
Tr-rjiroKO.

ruv

vvv.

Mnat
aiirbs

cp.

Sybel 5128
2,
pi.

Gall,

di

Aap.wvwv avioxiw (list)...<MKij "E\


d/j.5.

rtDi

avrui

TtQpiirirui
/cal

iv.

vol.

86.

Thebes,

6 /cAij

avrfa dvioxiuv ivfifiwais

Virirots, etc.

Le Bas, pi. 92. 2; AM. iii. 414; Delphi, Pomtow, Beitrdge zur Topographie von
Delphi, 107,
10

Sybel 6154

'Avriy^s,

Aad57?j,

pi. xii. 32.

'ISo/iifvfvs "Orjffev, 'Avr... 'Axap"etfs.


5

Beisch 50.

relief,
6

Sybel 6151 CIA iii. 1286 with seven lopevroLl and x<V"776s.
Cat. B. Mus. 813 (slab)
; ;

" Terra-cotta from Thera;


436.
12 13

BCH v.

Cp.

F-W.

1206.

CIA
xii.
;

ii.

Sybel 307.
F. von

1221
7

cp. 1229.

Duhn,
79.

AZ

xxxv. 139

ff.,

Cat. Berl. Sc. 725;

AM

146;

no. 88.

Bull,

de Com. Arch.

iii.

247

some
ff.;

u Schone
15

reliefs in

Lisbon, see

BCH xvi.

325

AZ

xii. pi.

13. 2.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


(ii)

177

the Prize. The moment of victory is throws when a wreath on the driver's head Victory anticipated, as he mounts or flies through the air to place the crown on

The Victory and


1

the victor's head, he driving at full speed the while 2 ; or upon the head of a victorious steed 3 Victory herself may even
.

drive the chariot

4
,

or the victor wears a

fillet

upon

his

brow 8

The quadriga, and apparently Victory in it, appears on a curious relief dedicated to Hermes and the Nymphs, from Phalerum 6
.

7 Perhaps the deity offers a winged Victory to her worshipper 8 or Victory holds a fillet over his brow There again stands
,
.

the prize by the hurrying chariot an amphora in one relief 9 Even the votive tablet appears a tripod perhaps in another 10
;
,
.

to be depicted in the left-hand corner of the Oropus relief". The judge crowns the victorious runner in the torch-race,

whilst three athletes are grouped near by 12 or the whole troupe fine relief in the British Museum shows a of runners.
;

company
of

whom offers a torch to the statue An Athenian relief assigned to


i.

of eight naked youths headed by two men draped, one of Artemis Bendis 13
.

the

fifth
:

of two horses

There are two divisions 14 above, a man as it were engaged in sacrifice I know no instance which The of (iii) Sacrifice. distinctly refers to athletic or equestrian contests, although some of those The class of sacrificial in which Victory appears may be such. relief is, however, very large, and as a rule the occasion is not

Types

and

ii.

century combines below are fragments


.

15 clearly indicated

Brit.

2 3

Cat. Brit.

Mus. Anc. Marbles, Mm. Sc. 814


;

ix.

38. 2.

(archaic).

These

may

refer

to

the

cp. 815.
;

Panathenaea.

Schone,
Hiibner,
;

pi.

18,

80

F-W. 1142
in

n
12

Berl. Cat. 725.

cp. Sybel 7014.


4

CIG
;

257

\a.fj.irddi vucfiffas yv/jLvaffiI.

Bildwerke
d. Hist.

Madrid,
pi.

apxCiv

Hicks, Inscr. B. Mus.

xli.

241, 559
p. 103
5
;

Ann.

1862, 1342.

G,

Cat.

Brit.

Mus.

Sc.

813.

The
;

lad

Acropolis
'A PX

Museum
relief,

carries a
is

whisk for sprinkling

there

In the Palermo
"E<f>.
.

Reisch 50.
pi. 9,

an
13

altar.

6
7

1893, 108,

10

A.

Br.

Mus. no. 7*
i.

AA

xi.

143

Schone

xix. 85, xxi. 93.

Plat. Rep.

1.

See C. Smith, Class.

8
9

AM xxv.
;

169, to Hera (Samos). Reisch 50; Marm. Taurin. ii.

Review,
14

xiii.

230.

pi.

von Duhn,
See chap.

AZ

xxxv. 139

ff.,

no.

xxxiii.
10

Dutschke,

iv. 92,

no. 174.

69.
15

Sybel 308, 6619, 6741 with biga


R.

vm.
12

178

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

We

now come
is

to the musical

direct evidence
in the fourth

scanty.
is

century
" "

and scenic class, for which That some dedication was customary clear from what Theophrastus says of
he wins a prize at the tragedies," content to offer a wooilen slab to
1

the

Mean Man.

When
he
is

says Theophrastus,

Dionysus, with his own name upon it that Themistocles dedicated a TTIVU^ r^
the same word
is

."

Plutarch

tells
2
;

us

viict)<$,

inscribed

and
.

used by Aristotle of the victory of Thrasippus 3 Simonides also alludes to a dedicatory iriva% which he finally
after
.

4 Now the word TriWf winning fifty-six prizes slab and no used of an inscribed be more, and we know may that the yearly victories were recorded on such slabs. But on the other hand, this was done officially, and our authorities

offered

refer

to the victor's dedication.


reliefs or paintings,
.

Moreover, iriva%

is

so often

used of

that

we may assume some such

At all events, there exist still memorial was meant here 5 a certain number of reliefs whose subjects are connected with the stage and we may provisionally take these to be the votive
;

offerings of victorious composers, or perhaps actors.

date,

The Contest. There is a work apparently of Roman which however seems to imply an earlier Greek original, where we see a man crowned with ivy and clad in stage costume
(i)

and buskins, seated upon a kind of throne, and holding a On one side is a boy playing upon sceptre in his right hand.
on the other what seems to be a dancing girl 8 Another is a relief in the Lateran. Here a young man, apparently a portrait figure, sits on a chair, holding a mask in one
the flute
;

roll

hand, while on the table before him lie two other masks and a woman stands beside him in the attitude of manuscript.

of declamation 7
1

variant of this type shows the artist gazing


xxii.
:

Theophrastus, Charact.
Tpayydots raiviav

viic/i-

avSpCiv tvS6!-ov NiVew ay\ai>v apfji


8

(raj
T(j3

v\lvijv avaOtivai

The Picture Gallery on the Acrowas called the Pinacotheca. Paus.

Aiovfat?, 4iriypd.\f/as tavrov rb 6vofJLa.

polis
i.

2 Plut.
3
4

Them.

5.

22. 6.

Arist. Pol. viii. 6. 1341 A.

Simonides, Anth. Pal.

vi.

213 |

firl

tales,
ii.

Reisch 56, quoting Cabinet Pourxxxviii. HUB. Pio-Clem. pi.


;
;

TTfvrriKovTa, 2i/xuW5i;, ijpao ravpovt Kal

I, iv.

Wieseler, Denk. der Biihnen10.

rpLwoSas, vplv T&V$' dvOtntvai vivaKa.


5'

wesen,
7

iv.

IfjifpfavTa.

di8adjjvos xopop

Reisch 54, quoting Benndorf and

GAMES AND .CONTESTS.


upon a mask which
his hand'
(ii)
2
.

179
,

lies in

a box before him 1 or holding one in


the

The
reliefs

Victory

and

Prize.

certain

Athena

may belong

to this class.

number of The goddess sets

3 upon a man's head; she is armed, standing or 4 sometimes with her owl fluttering near, and worseated shippers are present. Similar scenes with armed men may 5 Hints of the same represent the victorious hoplite-races in the case of the wreath, origin, appear on Dioscuri reliefs A relief-fragment from Athens 7 shows a from Tarentum 6 bearded man beside a gigantic tripod, which should be regarded

a garland
,

doubtless as a choregic offering, or perhaps the poet's own 8 the offering of the bull, so often coupled with the tripod on In vase paintings, occupied the missing part of the scene 9
;

yet another scene, beside the man whom we may regard as the poet and dedicator is a bearded satyr, who places the tripod 10 the satyr may be a personification of the upon a base
:

dithyramb, as such a one

is

inscribed on a certain vase 11

A boy

holding a palm is seen on a late relief standing beside a grown man and a herm 12
.

The so-called Harpist (iii) Sacrifice or Libation. On one Reliefs are perhaps memorials of a musical victory 13 of these the scene is laid before a temple ; Apollo, holding the
The
.

lyre in one hand, with the other reaches a


SchSne, Lateran, no. 487 Wieseler, cit. iv. 9 ; Michaelis, Ancient
;

bowl towards Victory,


is

as Sybel 5013 says, there

a tripod.
vi.

op.

None
s

is visible

in Schone's sketch.

Marbles, 457 (replica).

Schreiber, Cult-

So Simonides in Anth. Pal.


Reisch 57.
Sybel 3983.
Ai0upa.fj.j3os,

213

hist. Bilderatlas, v. 4, for reasons best

4 (above, p. 178 ).

known
1

to himself, entitles this Philis-

9
10

cus tragoediarum scriptor meditans.

Mm.

Borbon.

xiii. pi. xxi.

(Naples);
(Villa

u
iii.

Welcke, Alte Denkm.


xi.

Zoega, Bassirilievi,
Albani).
2
3

pi.

xxiv.

125, pi. x. 2, quoted

12

Maas, Jahrb.
Didascalia,

102

by Reisch. ff ; he sug.

Cat. Berl. Sc. 951 (Hellenistic).

gests for the female Tragedy,


crisis,

Hypo-

Sybel 5026.

the T^x" 7/ of t^ 6
Inscr. 'Hpaeis

4
5

Sybel 5121

Schone

87.

guild, or
13

what

not, 104.

Schone

85.
1
ff.

6
7

EM xv.

Aiovvvui ai^(h]Kav.

We

must not be too

sure,

how-

F-W. 1196

Vorl.-Bl.

viii. pi.

Schone 82; Wiener So the relief with x.


83, if

ever, since the traditional attributes of

Athena and seated men, Schone

a deity need not indicate the occasion. See ch. xrv.

122

180

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

beside an altar pours from a jug into the bowl. Artemis and Leto follow the god '. One found in Euboea, near

who standing

a shrine of Artemis, bears Artemis, Leto, and Apollo with a male worshipper*. Much the same type is seen in the rest of
this class.

An

by an

actors'

Attic relief of the fourth century was dedicated guild to Dionysus. draped female figure,

probably a personification, holds a tragic mask, and three more masks hang on the wall; a boy is engaged in libation, and
there are traces of a male figure, perhaps Dionysus himself 3 The Sacrifice proper may be rendered in some of those
.

obscure

indeterminate scenes where Victory sacrifices a bull. Less is a relief from Coropi, where a male deity, perhaps

Dionysus, holds a cup, and by him stand sixteen men (the choregus, that is, and his chorus), whilst a boy leads a pig to
the altar
4
.

The Sacrifice proper is often replaced by the Feast scheme, which we have already considered. Here the type has clearly become traditional, and that it is votive is attested by an
Athenian example which bears the inscription of a choregus 8 Another appears to be the dedication of a poet 6 An old man, crowned with ivy, whose features are distinctive enough to be a portrait, reclines on a couch. At his feet sits a maiden, and
. .

before

a table laden with light food a lad pours wine To them enters the youthful Dionysus, for the banqueters.
is
;

them

holding a thyrsus, and a snake appears on the scene. The female figure is probably allegorical 7 Poesy or Comedy perhaps,
,

as she probably

is in

a relief of the fourth century not dissimilar.


figure

Here the reclining male


stage dress and masks
as Tlai&rja
1
;

may be Dionysus

the female wears a fawn-skin.

Hard by stand

himself; three actors, in

(i.e.

and the inscription has been interpreted 8 A large class of reliefs, which have HcuSet'a)
. :

Cat. Berl. Sc. 921 (archaistic


;

im-

F-W. 1843

AZ

xxxix. 271, pi. 14

perial age)
2

F-W. 427

ff.

'E0. 'Apx- 1900. P- 4, pi. 2 (4th


Cat. Berl. Sc. 948

(Louvre). 7 So in the Decree relief

F-W. 1181

century).
3
4 5
;

the figure
cp.

is

Eirraa.

10556.
ii.

Beisch, p. 124, fig. 12. Milchhofer, Jahrb. d. Inst.


'

27 12

F-W. 1135. The reading is very unlikely to be right, but it is clear that the female has something to do with
Dionysus.

Av<r/as AiroXXoScfyxw xopayCiv.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.

181

been interpreted without good reason as the visit of Dionysus to Icarius, show the god, sometimes with satyrs in company, Masks are also somebreaking in upon a scene of feasting. times represented in these scenes and taking all points into
;

consideration,

it is
1
.

poets or actors 2 base which once stood in the Street of Tripods These examples do not by any means end the tale of scenic
.

possible that they were the votive tablets of Dionysus and Victory are found on a tripod

but the most part give no hint of the object We may fairly assume, however, that since these dedicated. dedications, ranging from the earliest times to the Roman empire, from Sicily to the Crimea, from Macedon to Crete,
dedications,

which have perisht some of them. A few early examples may be here added. There is an archaic pillar from the Argive Heraeum, inscribed with a dedication, and mentioning Nemean and other
fall

into a few well-defined classes, those

belonged to

Aristocrates son of Scelius made a dedication at games 4 there are records of a chariot- victory at Eleusis 5 Athens and at Athens of the victory of Alcibius, a flotist from Nasus in Asia Minor 6 There is a dedication to the Twelve Gods for Isthmian and Nemean victories 7 and the offering of Phayllus, thrice Pythian victor 8 and a pillar on which can be dis3
.

tinguisht an allusion to the games dedications made for such victories 10

9
.

Plato also speaks


still

of

In the fourth and succeeding centuries we meet


victories in the great

with
11
;

games Hegestratus conquers


:

at

Nemea
;

Diophanes wins the youths' pancratium at the Isthmus, and he mentions with pride a success of his grandfather's 12 another

man, whose name has been

lost,

wins the pair-horse race at


fewer, however,

Olympia
tions
1

13
,

another

is

victor in the three remaining celebra-

14
.

The

allusions to these
;

games become
47
:

F-W. 1844,
;

1843, 2149, etc.

Cat.

he commanded a ship at Sala-

Berl. Sc. 919, 920.


8

mis.
305.
9
tO-qice.

F-W. 2147 Sybel

CIA

iv.

1.

2. p.

91,

373 108

rbv

3
4

A JA

ix.

351

Tifj.oic\fjs

ayuva.
10

5 6 7 8

CIA i. 422. CIA i. 419. CIA L 357. CIA i. 420. CIA iv. 1. 373 258

Plato,

Laws 955
3. 3. 3. 3.

B.

see Herod,

viii.

u CIA 12 CIA 13 CIA " CIA

ii.

1300.

ii.
ii. ii.

1301. 1303.

1304.

182

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


find the -rrepioBovUt]^ quite late 1
;

though we do
is

and the interest

diverted to a host of minor celebrations which spring up elsea where. The Panathenaea is always with us and the 'Argive
,
'

shield
Claria,

is

not

uncommon 3
Iliaea 4
7
,
,

but along with them come Ephesia,


,

and

Eleusinia 8
8
,

Lebadea, Dionysia Thargelia Soteria 10 Heraclea in Thebes 11


, ,

Trophonia in Amphiarea and Naa in Dodona 9 Delia,


,

During the Roman period we find the Thesea", Epitaphia 13 Hephaestea 14 Charitesia in Orchomenus 15 even Panellenia, Hadrianea, Eusebea, and Capitolea 16
.
,

The events

in these are often athletic,

but oftener

still

of other

types which will shortly engage our attention. Outside Attica the records are less complete, but they suffice to show that the victor's pride was as great, and his gratitude

acknowledged in the same way, all over the Greek world. An ancient inscription of Argos describes how Aeschyllus won the stadium four times, and the race in armour thrice, at the home
games,
for

them
his

in relief 17

which he dedicated to the Dioscuri a slab depicting A Theban pancratiast erects a memorial to
.
. .

18 Another has won the boxing Pythian victory at home at the Trophonia, Coriasia, and Poseidea 19 redoubtable boxer 20 and of the second century has twelve victories to his credit

another athlete of three or four centuries later no


21
.

less

than

of Tegea wins forty-three victories in twenty-four on foot or on horse back, including the Asclepiea, Lycaea, racing

A man

A Delphian records victories at Hecatombaea, and Basilea 22 the Victories are Isthmia and the Pythia 23 Olympia, Nemea,
. .

also

still

recorded in Sparta 14
addenda 758 a
3.
ii.

An

Athenian commemorates at
ia
13

CIA

Hi.

cp.

3.

1319, 1323.
2

CIA

ii.

1289, 1302, 1304, 1314,

14

1318, 1319.

1S

CIA ii. 3. 1320 iii. 116, CIA ii. 3. 1311. 6 CIA ii. 3. 1313, 1316. 6 CIA ii. 3. 1312. 7 CIA ii. 3. 1314. 8 CIA ii. 3. 1302. 9 CIA ii. 3. 1318. 10 CIA ii. 3. 1319. 11 CIA ii. 3. 1323.
;

127.

16

CIA CIA CIA CIA CIA

iii. iii.
iii.

107.

108, 110.
111.

iii.
iii.

115.
128.

" IGA 18 IGS "> IGS IGS M IGS ** CIG * CIG M CIG

37.
i.

2533, Add. p. 749.


47.
48.

i.
i. i.

49

age of the Antonines.

1515.
1715.

1397, 1418, 1430.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


Oropus
his victory in casting the javelin

183
on
horseback
1
.

victor of Elatea

mentions eight
.

victories, the

them 2

victories abroad

Victors of Megara dedicate 3 So too with the island communities.

Nemean amongst some building at home for


Doro-

Thera wins the boxing and pancratium, and dedicates a thank-offering to Hermes and Heracles 4 A Rhodian wrestler
cleidas of
.

commemorates his success at half-a-dozen places, including Nemea and Delphi 5 others a victory with a chariot in Olympia 6 a pancratium 7 arid so forth. In Asia Minor the same features
; ,

offer

themselves 8

The

variety of local

games

will

not

fail

to have

struck

the reader in examining the inscriptions quoted above. And along with the new Games new kinds of contests come into
notice.

At

Delos, for example,

we

find recorded

the regu9
.

lations for a yearly feast, probably that called the Coressia The youths are to be carefully trained, and fined for absence

in the final contest there are prizes for shooting with the bow, (1) a bow and full quiver, (2) a bow ; for casting the javelin,

(1)

three javelins

and a

irt-piKefyaXaia,

(2)

three javelins

the KaTa7T\ra(f)Tr)^ receives (1) a 7repiK(f>a\aia and KOVTOS, the leader of a torch-race, a shield and boys, (2) a KOVTOS
;
;

These contests of the youths on entering manhood were customary also elsewhere. In Athens 10 the ephebes appear to have been educated by the state for military purposes. We have no record of their organisation, if there was any, in the fifth century, and it is now generally believed to belong to the fourth, from which time the inscriptions go on for some six hundred years. In the fourth and third centuries the
a portion of meat.
military spirit gives

way

intellectual or artistic.
1

before a growing interest in things In the fourth century they were under
pia
5'

2
3

IGS i. 444. IGS iii. 1. 138 (Roman IGS 47; cp. 48, 49.
i.

dws

dls

Awpo/cXet'Sax ftttv de6\o-

age).

<f>bpov. 8

IGIi. (Rhodes) 73.


irwXucwt.

IGI

iii.

(Thera) 390, Anthol. Api.

pendix (Cougny)
'I/*I'/JOI>TOJ 'Epyitat
?ri;/cTcu0
p

168

Awpo/cXef5as
vlKa.

7
8 9

IGI i. (Rhodes) 76 apfiari. IGI i. (Rhodes) 77.

*ai

'HpaK\- a
a\X'
Irt

Si'

afyiaTos'

BepfjAv
10

GIG CIG

2723, etc.
2360.
in

in>ev/j.a

(fitpuv <TK\r)pas ircus dir6 iriry/xa-

See Art. Epheboi

Dar. and

X^as

1-ffTa

ira-yKpariov flapiiv

irbvov

a.

Saglio.

184

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


,

the charge of Sophronistae 1 who at the end of this period were themselves subordinate to a Cosmetes*. During the same
period we find two Paedotribae who managed the gymnastic part of the youths' training, assisted by other officials for the 4 bow, the javelin, the catapult, or other arms They cele.

brated feasts with appropriate competitions, including races and Athenaeus tells us that the prize for the foot-race regattas.
it was customary to whose statues or busts were officials, and reliefs have been found, which appear to have been dedicated on such occasions, bearing
KtsXtff*.

was a

At

the end of their time

pass votes of thanks to the 8 put up in the Gymnasium

7 Similar representations of the boat-races or athletic exercises institutions are recorded for all parts of the Greek world
.

Megara, Peloponnese, Boeotia, Euboea, Thessaly, Thrace and Macedon, Chios, Cyprus, Corcyra, Cos, Delos, Icaria, Naxos, Paros,
Rhodes, Samos, Tenos, Thera, the chief cities of Sicily and Asia Minor, Gyrene, and Massalia 8 Amongst the competitions of later days, which we may assume to have been .practised by
.

this class, are reading, painting, calligraphy, general progress, and others which are hard to interpret, besides various kinds of

musical and dramatic competitions 9

As

regards

the more

10 mentions general competitions, an inscription of Aphrodisias

the trumpeter, herald, encomiast, in addition to others more familiar. Mention is made of the erecting of statues for the In the commemoration of these victories, the old victors".
1

BCH

xiii.

283

represented on a

"

viropoXrjs
iro\v/Jia6ia,

dt>ra.ir{>8uff<.s,

relief,

D. and S.

fig.

2679; CIA

iii.

faypa<pla,

Ka\\iypa<f>ta,
pvOfjio:

1152.

AM iv.
3 4

^aX/uos,

/aflapicr/uos,

KiOapydia,

326.

ypa<f)la, Kwfjufdia, Tpa.y<pdla, fif\oypa.<f>ia

Arist. Ath. Pol. 42.


d/coi'TtonJs,

CIA ii. 471 6ir\ondx^> To6T7j, d^TTjs; Arist. I.e.


6

GIG 3088 (Teos). The probably a priest who


mula.
Collitz
10

dvayvAffr-ns

was

recited the forofficials in

See
iii.

list of

Spartan

Athenaeus xi.495F

ty-fifiuv &p6/j.os-

4440.
icrjpv, tvKWfuoypdipot,

6 viK-fiffas Xa/n/Sdvet KV\IKO. rijv XtyofUvrjv

ffa\iriyKr/it,

Trfi>Tair\6av Aral KUfidfei /aera \opov.


6

iroir)T^,
TTJJ,

Tratj

KiOapwtdos, 116010* av\r)-

fine series in the

Athenian Naii.

KIJK\IOS av\TjTris, rpaywtSos,

KU^UI-

tional
etc.
7

Museum.

Cp.

CIA

466, 480,

56s,
Xi;j,

ypannarcvs,

iravriyvpidpx'ri*, x<v>ai5-

xppoKiOa.pos, irvppi\^, vdrvpos,

and

D. and S.

figa.

2681, 2682.

To

athletics:

CIG

2758.

Heracles (Rom. date), CIA iii. 119. 8 References in D. and S. p. 634.

"

Ephesus

dv$piivTa.t TO?J dyuviffraTt

dvaffTJi<ravr&:

CIG

2954; cp. 2758 Jin.

GAMES AND CONTESTS.


simplicity of dedication

185

is quite gone. The statues become and the old is used, formula although practically honorific, they are placed in the gymnasium or elsewhere whilst the word has so far lost its old meaning, that a sacred month may be said So too the victors no longer dedicate dvatcelffOai rfjt 0(bt
; l
.

their offering out of pure thankfulness of heart. The inwith their list of distinctions and their carven long scriptions,

wreaths,
cation.

become a means of advertisement or self-glorifiFinally, the offering becomes compulsory, and is


.

looked on by the temple officials as a source of revenue 2 In reviewing the dedications of this chapter the reader will be struck with certain contrasts as against those of other

no dedicating of shrines, divine statues, or of the kind I have met with is a couple of model shrines of bronze, offered by Myron tyrant of Sicyon for an Olympian victory in 648 3 Victory appears in but not unless it be in a late inscription of alone, groups, implied
kinds.

There

is

Victories.

The only thing

4 A dedication Tegea which records victories in the games which I am at a loss to explain is the p.rj\a of latter-day Athens 5 Another freak is the slab with a shaggy head in relief, dedicated with a set of verses to the Muses at
.
.

Thespiae
idea

6
.

when he

Stratonicus the musician plays with the dedicatory sets up a trophy in the Asclepieum, after
it

vanquishing his rivals at Sicyon, and labels the bad harpists

"Stratonicus from

In this chapter we see the old simplicity and devotion being gradually overlaid with ostentation and show, until nothing
else remains.

The beginnings perhaps

are earlier here than

elsewhere
1

and the seed of degradation which lay in the


6
ii.

GIG

2954.

BCH
Ath.

xiv. 546, pi. ix., x.:...'A/^tai>{0r)ice.


viic/iffas d'

Delphi: Collitz
[sic']

2501 ^
jrap^x'7 l >

X/w/o-n}fKa/rov

Kplrov
7

Modern
viii.

piov

afrts

.fj.rj

351 E

v St/ci/wvt

ffTarfipas 6<t>e<.\ru (4th century).


3

robs array wviffTcis dvtOrjKev


^leto-

els

rb 'AffK\ri-

Paus.

vi.

19. 2.

Frazer in his note

rpoiraiov

iiriyptyas-

CrpATO-

shows that Pausanias was wrong in


including the Treasury itself. 4 GIG 1519 'A-ya^/ww lics in
ffov
8

NtK oc <ur6 TU>N KAKCOC Ki0&pizoNvil( ^ fffri)ffe TpArata ig U8ed TCON


metaphorically of Magnes, by Aristoph.

XP*>-

^pei.

Knights 521.
116.

CIA

iii.

186

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

dedication of athlete statues began to sprout, it may be in the sixth century; but the critical point, or rather perhaps the

point where the new spirit stood revealed to itself, was in the fourth. The lowest pitch of degradation, and the highest point of self-glorification, is reached in that hideous monument of

In Porphyrius, victor in the chariot-race at Constantinople. of that monument piety there is none but every feat the victor
;

represented in artistic style as bad as its taste, and we leave him with relief to enjoy the applause of a shouting
is

populace

1
.

AM v.

294

ff.

pL

xvi.

V.

DISEASE
\Afpoic
KA!

AND CALAMITY.

ANA TT&fHON, 6c MeAeic TPI'KKHC KCON r^Y Ke ^ AN KHTT(AAYPON CPKHKAC.

HEKODAS

iv. 1.

rroAAol TOYT<*> AoycAMeNOi ocjjGAAMoyc eKO/v\fcANTO, noAAol Ae TTIONTGC CTepisiON IAGHCAN KA} TO ANAI-KATON TTNeyMA AneAABoN, T>N

Ae TioAAC eScopGcoce, TOON Ae AAAo


<t>60NHN A()>HK6N.

TS,

HAH Ae

TIC ni<i)N e5 A<J)CONOY


445.

ARISTIDES, Els TO

(frpeap roii 'A(rcAi;7rto{;,

have seen reason to believe that the cult of heroic was widespread on Greek soil, and prevailed from the spirits earliest to the latest times. They were propitiated or worshipt as beings of great and mysterious powers, and as such likely to be useful both in their general influence on the daily life and in occasional times of need. In their first aspect we find recurrent feasts held in their honour, and memorial offerings of these feasts dedicated, whilst tithes or firstfruits are somenor have there been wanting some times offered to them All indications that they were approached in time of need. which mention the vow or inscriptions prayer imply help given in some such time We have seen that the hero-shrines may be supposed to have had much the same part in the national worship as the scattered chapels of to-day they would be the natural
;

WE

places for use of the country folk who lived afar from large cities. In the cities themselves ancient shrines of this sort would

remain by tradition when new manners had come


1

in,

just as

See ch. xn.

188

OREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

Holywell so long remained in London, or Baruwell still remains in Cambridge as the well of divination remained and still
1
,

remains in Patrae 2 or like the shrines of Amynos and the Hero 3 But side by side with this Physician in ancient Athens
, .

ancient popular worship grew up the cult of the great gods; and it usually happened that the gods were invoked for the same purposes as the heroes were, and under similar titles.

Zeus
he
is

is

connected with the underworld as Catachthonios 4 and


,

7 and Soter 6 Apollo is Alexicacos and 10 8 9 latros Artemis is Soteira and so is Demeter Dionysus is " also latros Athena is Hygieia, Health 12 The worshipper in

also
;

Meilichios

offering his prayer adds naturally such titles as these, to indicate the manifestation of the divine power which he desires. Indeed,

he goes into detail so far, that when about to sacrifice he may 14 13 invoke the hero as Flycatcher or Zeus as Averter of Flies
,
.

No

less naturally

does he address his prayer for protection to the


city,
if

patron deity of his powerful there and


;

who may be supposed


.

to

be most
local

at the

same time he addresses the

hero, that
1

is

but prudence 18

have known a person send to


for

10

Arist. Frogs

378 she
;

is

also Chtho-

Barn well
2

water in case of sickness,


21. 12.

nia:
11

GIG

1198.

for superstitious reasons.

Paus.

vii.

There

is

a well

12

Kock, Com. Frag. iii. p. 423. Ancient worship on the Acropolis.


i.

there

still held in repute, close by St Andrew's Church, which therefore probably covers the site of Demeter's

Farnell,
'A.9i)i>aiti)v

316.
ol

Cp. Aristides
KO.I

ii.

25

wptffpfrraToi

'T-yie/oj

temple.
8

13

Paus.
Paus.

ix. 26.

7 Aliphera.

Demosth.
fact,

xix.

249,

CIA
this

ii

403.

14

v. 14. 1 Elis.

We see, in
worshipt

Asclepius and
in

Amynus
shrine
:

AM xviii.
4

together 234.

18 Very few of the old Acropolis dedications can be referred to sickness.

have noted two ancient ones from the

II. ix.

457; Hesiod, Op. 465.


407.

Acropolis:
Ei/^pdftos

CIA

i.

362,

iv.

1.

p.

79

5 6 7

ECU vii.

xepa.iJ.fvs ittttriav'Tyitlai.

Kar.

Aesch. Suppl. 26. Paus. i. 3. 4. Dedication to Zeus

96

'Affrjvalot rrji

'AOrivaiat

riji

'Tyiflai.

Eubuleus in Amorgos: Zeus Asclepius GIG 1198.


8

AM

i.

331.

To

Several have vvtp (49, 189, 238, 246), but this formula may be used of an

ordinary tithe or

firstfruit (238).

We

Arist. Birds 584, cp. Kaibel


IrjTijpi.

Ep. Gr.
Farnell
title

798. 1
9
ii.

v6<rtav.

Anth.

Pal.

vi.

267.
to

1.

may infer that the people visited latros or Amynus in that case. Perhaps Pericles' own dedication was made
on purpose
to assist in transferring the

585.

A dedication
:

her by this
ii.

comes from Phocis

Collitz

1528.

popular allegiance.

DISEASE

AND CALAMITY.

189

sudden calamity which and these are the special occasions when the ancient Greek paid his vows or exprest his One constant and pressing source of danger was gratitude. but the dedications connected with war have been already war,
It is chiefly sickness, danger, or directs the soul to the unseen powers :

dealt with

in this chapter

the vows and dedications

we made

shall take the rest,


in

and chiefly
This
it

time of sickness.

so

happens is the easier, because in early times certain divinities had come to be regarded as specially powerful against the ills which the flesh is heir to. We have already seen that the
protective power of the heroes was quite general; but as the great gods relieved them of responsibility in their more public and striking aspects, the private function of alleviating the

became their peculiar care, and in particular devolved upon two or three personages who by accident or
pains of sickness

otherwise achieved notable fame.

In accordance with the principle suggested in the last paragraph, public offerings for deliverance from plague and pestilence are generally dedicated to one of the great gods.
Epimenides, summoned to Athens in time of pestilence, is said to have cleansed the city, and built a shrine of the Eumenides 1 Three temples are referred to afterclaps of the great plague
.

at

Athens (430 427). One is the romantic fane of Apollo the Helper, erected among the mountains at Bassae by the village of Phigalea, and looking down over the Messenian plain
to far

Ithome 2 Next comes the temple of Apollo and last that of Pan Deliverer in Troezen, Healer at Elis who had revealed to the city magistrates in a dream how they 4 A public dedication of some statue might heal the plague to Athena Hygieia exists, but this is too trifling to refer to the 5 There seems to have been a temple and statue great plague
distant
.

of Heracles Averter of

111,

dedicated in the

deme Melite
24. 6.

whilst

Eudocia, no. 349

TWV

cre/wwj'

0ewv

3 4

Paus.

vi.
ii.

lepbv Ka.6a.irep
2

v Kpriry lSpfiira.ro.
:

Paus.

32. 6.

We have no

means

'EiriKotipios

Paus.

viii.

41. 7.

The

architect

was

Ictinus,

who

built the

of determining the date of the last two.


5

Parthenon, and the style favours a date later than 431.

CIA

i.

335,

Kar.

96

(above,

p. 188).

190

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

the plague was raging Early in the fifth century Hermes was said to have averted a plague at Tanagra by carrying a ram about the walls and in gratitude the people caused Calamis to
;

make them a

statue of

Hermes the Ram-bearer 2

In similar

danger the people of Cleone, in obedience to an oracle, sacrificed a he-goat to the sun and when the plague was stayed, they
;

dedicated a bronze he-goat to Apollo at Delphi Statues of 4 and of Heracles Averter of Calamis under Mischief, Apollo by
.

the same

title,

by Ageladas

which existed at Athens, may be


Indications are not wanting that

referred to a similar origin.


;

the practice continued later one such is a hymn composed and 6 sung to Asclepius on deliverance from a noisome pestilence
.

Deliverpractice holds for other dire visitations. ance from a plague of locusts was recognised by a statue of 7 Locust Apollo, attributed to Pheidias Perhaps the cult of
.

The same

Troad was originally due to a plague of mice, although it may be propitiatory or even totemistic 8 There was a statue of Earth praying for rain on the Athenian
in the
.

Mouse Apollo

Acropolis, dedicated therefore probably to Athena, which commemorated a drought 9 do not know the date of this, but
.

We

it if it had been near and if not, the dedication may be illustrated by an inscription on the rock, of the first or second century after 10 We read of another Christ, which mentions Earth the Fruitful

Pausanias would have heard more about


his

own day

lytvero
2

Schol. Arist. Frogs 501 77 6t Wpwrtj KO.TO. TOV /jL^yav \oifjav, oOev Kal
i]

24. 6.
*

Schol. Arist. Frogs 504.

ira.vffa.To

v6<ros.

CIA

iii.

171.
:

Kpto06pos:

Paus.

ix. 22.
it

1.

The

napvoirtos
Zfuvffftis:

Paus.

i.

24. 8.
5.

type will meet us again ;

occurs also

Paus. x. 12.

Votive

on

coins,

Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner,

bronze mice have been found in Palestine


:

Niimismatic Commentary on Pausanias, The story seems to 116, pi. X. x. xii.

M. Thomas, Two Years in Palestine

(1899), 6.

The reader

will recall the

be an attempt to explain the type, but is good evidence for all that. Paus. x. 11. 5; see Frazer's note
:l

cult of the
xxi. 1

9;

Brazen Serpent, Numbers and the mice in the Ark,


vi. 5.
i.

Samuel
9
10

for
4

connexion
Paus.
i.

of

Apollo with the goat.


'AXei/ccucoj,

Paus.

24. 3.

3.

wrongly

yrjs KapTrotf>6pov
iii.

Kara nwreiav

CIA

assigned

the plague of Calamis flourisht 500 460.


to

43027.
Apollo Paus. vi.

166.

sacrifice

The Delphic oracle to Ge Carpophores and


Collitz
ii.

orders
Posei-

was

also

Healer in Elis

don Asphaleios,

2970.

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.


great drought that
fell

191

over

all

Greece, so that envoys were sent

to Delphi to enquire what help there might be. They were instructed to propitiate Zeus by means of Aeacus as inter-

mediary, and messengers were sent to Aeacus asking his aid. By prayers and sacrifices to Zeus Panhellenian the drought was
stayed
;

and the Aeginetans

set
1
.

up images

of their envoys in a

precinct called the

Aeaceum

were most naturally promised beforehand and paid on deliverance, but they were occasionally made in
offerings
faith while the devastation

Such

went

on.

Thus during a
.

flood of

the Eurotas, an oracle

temple to

commanded the Spartans Hera Protectress, which they did 2 To

to build a

avert from

their vines the baleful influence of the constellation called the

Goat, the Phliasians dedicated a bronze goat in the market 3 To end a barrenness in the earth, the Epidaurians set place
.

up statues of Damia and Auxesia, and Increase 4


.

personifications of

Subduing

There are not wanting private dedications to the gods for healing and deliverance. Alyattes the Lydian, early in the
sixth century, offered at Delphi for the cure of a disease a great silver bowl, with a stand of welded iron, which struck the
5 imagination of Herodotus
.

A
.

relief dedicated to
6
,

to acknowledge help of this sort 7 Pericles Apollo is of the same class

Athena seems and perhaps another to Paean

we know dedicated a

statue to

who
1

fell

saving the life of a workman 8 from a scaffolding there Demeter was a healer at
for
.

Athena Hygieia,

Pans.

ii.

29. 7.
iii.

2
3 4

"Tirepxeipla: Paus.

13. 8.

Paus.

ii.

13. 6.
v.

Athenian people. See for Ath. Hyg., Farnell, Cults i. 316. I suggest that Pericles made the dedication on purpose to support the worship of Athena, then not fashionable with the confolk.

Herod,

82.

These

occur on

inscrr.; as Collitziii.

3337 (Epidaurus),

4496 (Sparta). 5 Herod, 24. i.


560.
of

The

Alyattes died in stand was there in the time


(v.

servative nobles or with the country The question is too wide to be

discussed here

Athenaeus
6
7 8

210

B).

evidence

is to

but some suggestive be found in Aristophanes,


;

F-W. F-W.

117.

where the oath by Poseidon

is

the

1849.

favourite with these classes (see e.g.

Plut. Pericles 13.

The

statue

CIA

Knights
notes).

144,

551,

843,

and

Neil's

i.

335 cannot be this offering, for that of Pericles was not dedicated by the

192
Eleusis 1
;

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

and when Asclepius came to Athens he must needs be initiated into the mysteries and so be affiliated to her*.
appears to have had the same function elsewhere*. Artemis Lye was invoked for sickness in Sicily* Artemis Oulia and Apollo Oulios at Lindos in Rhodes", and at Miletus 8 8 7 Appeals in sickness are made to Lathrie and to Cytherea

She

Micythus of Rhegium, who in his son's sickness had spent much on many physicians without avail, dedicated at Olympia
" a number of statues and other offerings to all gods and god10 12 9 desses ." The Mothers in Sicily Hecate", Cybele and Men" are appealed to in sickness, and a river is called Saviour 14 The
, ,
.

Dodona, and doubtless not only that oracle, was consulted in the same case 15 Perhaps Good Luck and the Good Daemon may be added to the list. But although the greater gods were a present help in time of danger, if they could be prevailed on to act, a being of humbler origin won the highest fame in this sphere, and finally himself
oracle at
.

attained to divine honours.

This was Asclepius. All indications point to Thessaly as the original home of 16 He was the founder and deified ancestor of the Asclepius
.

Phlegyae and Minyae, the or two neighbouring towns.


hero,
1

ruling

class

in

Tricca and one

In

Homer he

and

his
361.

two

sons, Podaleirius

is neither god nor and Machaon, are mentioned

AM xx.

in the Asclepieum,
p.

She was recognised and at Epidaurus


;

Macrob.

i.

17.
vi.
vi.

Anth. Pal.

300.
190.

3656.
2

Anth. Pal.

'E0. 'Apx- 1894, p. 171.


to

Herodes,

Herod,
Cp.
:

vii.

170, Pans. v. 26,


p.

IGA
751,

who brought

Athens, Asclepius dedicated the god's statue on this occasion as a mystic. 3 See below for the marble breasts at

532.
no. 32
"
;

Newton, Branch,
'
y

" x a P ta re a

TO-PI Otois, Oepairev-

?.

10

Diod.

iv.
i.

80.

Cnidus, p. 216. Artemidorus, Onelrocr. ii. 39: AT/^TT/P Kbpy ical "lajcxoj TOUJ

u IGI
Mitth.
12 13
14

xviii.

958 Itpa aurretpa, 4, Roberts 242 a.


iii.

A.-E.

voaowTas
1

dittffTaffi

Kal ffu^ovffi.

Relief

from Philippopolis Overb. Kunstmyth.


pi.

AM xxi. 292, CIA BCH xx. 75, etc.


Herod,
Collitz
viii.
iii.

134.

and 7

inrtp rrjs 6p<f<rewy 0e

AT;-

138.

rfrpt. 8upov,
4

Anth. Pal.
iii.

ix.

293.

"
16

3407*.
of Asclepius
is

Diomed.
vi.

p.

483,

Probus on
Anth.

The account
articles in

based

Virgil, Eel. p. 2.

28

(Keil); cp.

on the
514
ff.

Pauly-Wissowa and

Pal.
5

240, Theognis 484.


,

Roscher.

See also Preller, Gr. Myth.

IGI i 834 3

cp.

CIG

2566.

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.


in the Catalogue of the Ships
1
.

193

If there were legends connect-

ing him with Messenia and Arcadia, these rest on later authority, and were doubtless local attempts to claim him when he had become famous. The Arcadian legend makes Apollo his father, which alone is enough to condemn it 2 this is just one of those attempts which we not seldom find, to make the pantheon
:

symmetrical, by reconciling conflicting claims. Strabo follows the general opinion of antiquity in calling the shrine of Tricca
"

the oldest and most famous" of those which Asclepius had*.

Cheiron was his teacher, and Cheiron stands as the embodiment On the mount of all natural lore, woodcraft, and herb simples 4
.

Pelion, where he got all his master could teach him, Asclepius first associated himself (we are told) with the serpent, which

afterwards became his attendant and attribute.

He

is

still

a mighty and wise man, and his death by the bolt of Zeus is not consistent with any higher character. After a man,
if

death he becomes a hero, famed for his healing powers, and a chthonian oracle.
of his clan, in their career of migration or conquest, Asclepius gradually moves southwards, and we find him next in Boeotia and Phocis. Here he comes into conflict

With the wanderings

with Apollo: the god proves victor, but their feud is reconciled by the legend which makes Asclepius son of Apollo by Coronis,

who should be
claims

faithless to her

husband.

We

next see traces of

Asclepius in the Peloponnese, in Titane

and Arcadia. Messenia

for her own, and warps the legend to suit her claim. he appears in several parts of Argolis, and particularly Finally in the great shrine which afterwards became most famous.

him

That the Epidaurian shrine

is

one of the

latest is

shown by
.

the fact that the legends have changed under the influence of Delphi, and have forgotten their origin at Tricca 5 From

Epidaurus,
'offshoots
1

now become

his headquarters,
:

6
.

Chief of these were


32
;

(1)
5

came a number of at a date unknown Sicyon,


;

II. ii.

729

Machaon again

II.

iv.
2
3

200, 219, etc.

united
6

Maleatian Apollo was apparently with him here: Cavvadias,


i.

Paus.

ii.

26. 4.

Fouilles d'Epid.

75, no.

235.
iii.

Strabo p. 437.
II. iv.

Paus.

ii.

26. 8, x. 10. 3,

23. 6;

202, 219;
48.

Mannhardt, Wald

Julian, Adv. Christ, p. 197.

und Feldkulte,
R.

13

194
(2) Athens,

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


founded in 420
;

(3) Balagrae in
1

the Cyrenaica

(4) Epidaurus Limera; (5) Cos, though Herodas will have it the cult came straight from Tricca (6) Naupactus, about 300; (7) Tarentum (8) perhaps Syracuse (9) Pergamus (10) Rome. Besides these he is found at Clazomenae, Delos*, Teos, and Phocaea, and cults connected with him at many other places. By this time Asclepius has become a full-fledged god, and His sons Machaon his family has increased and multiplied. arid Podaleirius belong, as we have seen, to the earliest period of the legend but he has now more, whose names indicate 3 and personifications of his powers, laniscus and Alexenor
;
; ; ; ;
,

A blooming Telesphorus or Acesis has also of around laso, Aceso, him, up daughters sprung bevy 5 and Panaceia with the more together general personiAegle,
Euamerion
also

called

fication

Hygieia or Health.

The

last is

assumed by some

to

be

not a daughter, but an independent personification, which was naturally associated with him and then became younger to suit her

new

character

8
:

the cult of Athena Hygieia makes for

this view.

His

wife's

name

is
7
.

differently given

as Xanthe,

Hipponoe in some He appoints resembles Asclepius. Amphiaraus as a who took in in adventures hero, legend doughty part pears such as the hunt of the Calydonian Boar 8 the voyage of the 9 Argo and through the covetousness of his wife Eriphvle, who accepted the famous necklace as a bribe, in the war of the
Lampetie,
, ,

Aglai'e, or

10 Seven Against Thebes Fleeing before his foes in his chariot, drawn by the two renowned horses Thoas and Dido, he was about to be overtaken, when Zeus cleft the earth with a thunderbolt and he plunged in. Hence arose the great shrine of Amphiaraus at Oropus near Thebes, the seat of an oracle and a health resort, where the heroized seer gave responses and healed the sick".
.

Herodas

ii.

97.
,

p.
xvi. pi. vi.

BCH vi.
Paus.
i.

343 M
11. 7.

28 (Teubn.). Roscher i. 621


Apoll.
Apoll.
i.

c.

3
4 8

Schol. Arist. Pint. 701.

8. 2. 9. 16.

i.

Schol. Arist. Plut. 701

Suid.

s.v.

10

'Hirt6?i7.
6

Apoll. i. 9. 13, iii. 6. 2. He received the gift of divination

Eorte,

AM

xviii.

250.

She

is

called daughter of Asclepius by Eudocia,

" by sleeping one night in the House of " Divination at Phlius, Paus. ii. 13. 7.

DISEASE

AND CALAMITY.
1
.

195

As Amphiaraus was not, like Asclepius, a colonising deity communication became easier, patients made it a commoner practice to visit shrines of repute, which thus became healthresorts and places of pleasure not unlike the Baths or the Wells of eighteenth-century England. Moreover, Amphiaraus had and not the advantage of belonging to a wandering clan for when the time of his fame arrived, it was too late colonising 2 Like Asclepius, Amphiaraus he had been outstript by his rival in time becomes a god, first recognised by the Oropians but
;

afterwards by all the Greeks 3 It is with these two deities


. ;

we

shall

have chiefly to do in

the following pages but it will be convenient to collect at the same time such instances of thank-offerings to other gods as come within the scope of this chapter. In the Roman age we
find a large

number

of

new

rivals for

fame as healers and

deliverers, especially Men and Anaitis in Asia Minor, Sarapis in Egypt and in Greece. But by this time the old ideas had lost

their significance,
illustration.

and such examples will only be adduced for For the same purpose I shall refer to Cybele, Hecate and others, whose functions were not restricted to healing. Hecate, indeed, with or without a consort, had sometimes
rock
a special power in this department. throne cut out of the 4 is dedicated to her in Rhodes as Saviour and in the
,

island of Chalce a similar throne

is

ascribed to her

5
.

Three shrines are chiefly important for our survey those of Asclepius at Epidaurus and at Athens, and that of Amphiaraus in Boeotia. Each of these fills up a gap in the record, and
:

from the three we are able to piece together a fairly complete account of the cult. We may assume that the practice at

Athens and at Epidaurus did not materially

differ;

and the
is

points peculiar to the third will be noted in their place. The story how the Asclepieum at Athens was founded
1 He only colonised Byzantium ; but he had another shrine at Ehamnus.

through Greek history,


3 4

Paus.

i.

34. 2.

The Theban

oracle

but the sanctuary of date only from the


(Frazer on Paus.
oracles

was very old, Oropus seems to


fifth

IGI
IGI

i.

914

lepb.

adrreipa

evaicovs

century.
all

<f>w(r<t>6pos eivoSia. 6
i.

958
4.

Aios,

'EKOTIJS;

A.-E.

ix. 8. 3.)

For dream-

Mitth.
iii.

xviii.

For Cybele

see

CIA

Amphiaraus was worshipt

134.

132

196

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


more ways than one, and
it
1
.

interesting and instructive in

fortu-

nately we have a

In founding a new shrine the custom of the Epidaurian priests was to send out one of the sacred snakes* from their sanctuary. Pausanias describes how
full

account of

Asclepius came to Sicyon under the form of a snake, in a car drawn by a pair of mules 3 The same thing is told 4 of the founding of Epidaurus Limera and of the temple
.

on the Tiber Island at Rome 5 So when Telemachus of Acharnae proposed to found the Athenian shrine, in the year
.

420, the

same procession of snake and car may be assumed 8

Asclepius then, or the priest perhaps or even the serpent, in place of him, was actually initiated into the Mysteries at
7 The priestup on that occasion hood of the Goddesses appears to have welcomed him at first, it may be in the hope of retaining him in their shrine but when it appeared that Telemachus was for building a new shrine at Athens, they turned round and fought him tooth and

Eleusis,

and a statue was

set

nail.

as

we know was

Part of the precinct would lie in the Pelasgicum, which 8 and whether or not for this better empty
;

reason, the college of State Heralds were egged on to claim the In time however the god prevailed, and after a few years land. he had settled down comfortably at Athens.

shrine of Asclepius at Athens thus erected at the close of the fifth century, stood in a grove of trees like the ordinary hero-shrines' There were porticoes or covered buildings for the
,
.

The

patients to sleep in
1

when they consulted the god


~>

11
.

In the

Paul

Girard,

tkenes (Paris,

L'AscUpieion d'AErnest Thorn, 1881)


;

'E<j>.

'Apx-

1894, p.

171:

'HpuSrjs

'A.<rK\riiri&i>

etaa.ro Aijol vovaov

Korte,
2

AM xviii.

249.

dXe^ffavr'

dprtxa/uftf/xei'os.
;

See

also

These were of a special breed kept

Paus.
18.
8

ii.

26. 8

Philostr. Apollon. iv.

in the precinct: Paus. ii. 11. 8; Arist. Plut. 733; Herodas iv. 90.
3
4 4

Thuc.

ii.

17. 1 rb

neXaayiKOv apyov

Paus.
Paus.

ii.

10. 3.

ap.ti.vov.
9

iii.

23. 7.
xi.
;

There was another in Peiraeus:


Beliefs

Livy, Epitome
If

Ov. Met. xv.

Schol. Arist. Plut. 621, etc.

626744;
8

Plut. Quaest.

Rom.

94.

have been found there.


10

tion,

we accept Korte's clever restoraA 31 xviii. 249. In CIA ii. 1649.

f<f>vrevfff

occurs in

CIA

ii

1649.

A
see

tree appears

on

many
for

of the reliefs.

7 the letters ...ytv Sevpe ty\.. suggest See also rjyaytv devpe ty apfiaros.

n Girard 19;

regulations

'E#. 'Apx- 1885, p. 96.

1650.

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.


precinct

197

and perhaps a basin of water for In the same precinct were afterwards erected ceremonial use a number of altars and statues of various divinities, Demeter and the Maid, Athena, Aphrodite, Hermes, Pan and the 2 Many Nymphs, the hero Heracles, and later Isis and Sarapis of the votive offerings stood here, but the more precious were kept within the temple, stored away, placed on shelves, or on 3 the walls and ceiling Withinside was a statue of Asclepius a sacred couch and himself, table, tripods, altars, and tables of
spring,
1
. . .

was a

offerings.

The

effect of the scene is well described in

Herodas,

who

represents two
is

women

in the
.

temple of Cos, in a passage

which

worth reproducing 4
Hail,

abode

healer Lord, who rulest Tricca and hast made thy Cos and Epidaurus and withal Coronis thy mother and Apollo hail, and Health, whom thy right hand touches, and those of whom are these honoured altars, Panace and Epio and leso, hail and ye who
Phile.
in lovely
; ;

sackt the city of Laomedon with its fortress walls, healers of fierce disease, Podaleirius and Machaon, hail, and all gods and goddesses who are housed 5 by thy hearth, father Paean .... Put the tablet on the right hand of

Health, Coccale.

wrought

this stone,

Ha, my dear Cynno, what and who offered it ?


of Praxiteles
:

fine statues

why, what

artist

Cynno. base there

The sons
?

And

Euthies son of Prexon

don't you see the writing upon the is the dedicator. Paeon bless

them and Euthies for the fine things. See yon girl, Phile, looking at the apple ? Wouldst not say she will die outright if she do not get it 1 Phile. And the old man there, Cynno. By the fates, how the boy
throttles the fox-goose.
If 'twere not for the stone beside you, you would say the thing will speak. Ha, the time will come when mortals will make the very stones live. Dost see how that statue of Batale 6 stands, Cynno ? If one has never seen Batale, look at this portrait and never miss the

And if I scratch this naked boy, won't there be a wound There's the flesh throbbing warm as it were, all warm on the tablet. And the silver tongs why, if Myellus or Pataeciscus see it, won't their eyes
other....
! !

fall

out of their heads thinking

it is

really

made

of silver 7

And

the ox,

1 Girard 19; Arist. Pint. 656: 0<L\arra does not necessarily mean seawater, Aesch. Again. 932.

1482.
5 A paean was sung when sickness was cured, according to Schol. Arist.

2 3 4

Girard 19.
Girard 16;

Pint. 636.

CIA

ii.

766, 835.

EaraX^
a
her
ii.

TTJS

fUJTrew.
is it

Is

this

Herodas

iv.

It is curious that

proper name? or
girl?
7

Batale the blind

woman named

Phile

dedicates

breasts to Asclepius in Athens,

CIA

This points to painting or

silver-

198

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

and the man leading him, and the woman who follows, and this old hookI don't want to do what ill becomes a woman, or nose, to the very life I would have shrieked for fear the ox should hurt me, with that wicked
!

squint in his eye.

The Epidaurian

shrine was laid out on a

still

nificent scale, with every convenience for patients

more magand visitors.

The temple
.

contained a gold-ivory statue of the god seated, which is copied in many of the votive statuettes or reliefs there found 2 Besides the ordinary dormitories and porticoes, there

was the curious Rotunda, perhaps a pump-room, with a grove, a stadium, and a theatre which was the pride of the place 8 Its fame lasted undiminished to Roman times, and under the empire Antoninus (probably Pius) built a place outside the 4 precinct for women lying-in and for the dying Our information as to the priesthood of the Athenian shrine
.
.

is fairly full

8
.

Chief of

all is

the priest, elected yearly until the

Roman

into greater importance. period, board of officials presides over the sacrifices. Of temple servants we read of the sacristan and fire-bearer, and two

when the Zacoros grows

women, the basket-bearer and the Arrephoros. went by the title of physician, and both the
.

Some

persons

Zacoros at least occasionally held this office 6 nominated yearly by the people to inspect and catalogue the ex-voto. In Epidaurus there were priest, pyrophoros, dadouchos, and zacoros a hierophant is also mentioned 7 In Cos we find
.

priest and the A board was

a Neocoros presiding at the occasional sacrifice of the devout, 8 There were two great killing the victim, and offering prayer
.

feasts in Athens,

Epidauria and Asclepiea, and apparently

also

a more modest feast, the Heroa.


leafing of the reliefs, unless a picture

The Epidauria
8

celebrated the

Girard 22

34

lepevs, fik-opoj

Itpo-

be meant.
traces
less
1

The Athenian reliefs show of colour. The names are doubtfor

votoi;

*c\ei5oi/xos t Trvp<pbpos, Kavrt<p6pos,

meant

well-known silversmiths.

appri<f>6pot. 6

See Frazer's Pausania*, iii. p. 237 for a map and account of the place.
2

CIA
780.
7

Onetor the priest and physician: l3 74 ii. 835 Zacoros: CIA iii. 1.
-

pi. ix.
3

Cavvadias, Fouilles d'tipidaure, 21 24; Paus. ii. 27. 2.


ii.

i.

Asclepiasts
p.
8

Cawadias, p. 114. was found

society of
later:

there

Paus. Paus.

27. 3ff. 27. 6.

115.

ii.

Herodas

iv.

79.

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.


;

199

initiation of the god at Eleusis and a relief offered perhaps on this occasion has been found, where Asclepius, leaning upon
staff, stands in the presence of Demeter and the Maid, and 1 a troop of six worshippers approaches them This is conto be a formal on behalf of five magispublic offering jectured trates or others who represent the city, having received a vote

of thanks and a crown each for their services

2
.

The Asclepiea

seems to have been found which relate


keep up
feasts
tradition,

less

important, as no inscriptions have been to it. The Heroa was doubtless held to

when the Death -feast

and we may suppose that this is the occasion reliefs were dedicated. At the public an ox or a bull was sacrificed there was a lectisternium
;

in the worship of It is to be noted that the sacrifice had to be other gods 3 consumed within the precinct at Epidaurus and Titane 4 at Athens 5 and at the oracle of Amphiaraus 6 which was the
.

and a watch-night with illuminations, as

custom with heroes in some cases at

least 7

The

private worshipper,

who wisht

to offer his prayer or

find a cure for his complaint, probably

had to prepare himself

by a ceremonial purification. We know that death or birth was supposed to pollute a Greek shrine 8 and in particular neither should take place in the shrine of Epidaurus. So there are indications that the worshipper was expected not to come in contact with such things, and must keep continence for a certain time before he approached the god 9 But and now suppose the worshipper duly prepared. let that pass
,
. :

AM
ii.

ii.

pi.

18,

Girard

pi.

ii.

835
3

6, e.g.

836 82

87 94
-

CIA

1449.

Names

are engraved
five

0v<ria,
TT?J

ffrpwffis Trjs K\ti>ris, /cioy^crtj


'

above the

figures,

and below are

rpcnrtfrs,

iravvvxl*

Girard

39.

names within have the hand

garlands. Only three uplifted; the rest may

be friends, three of each set being the same. A dedication to Demeter and Asclepius was found in the precinct, AM ii. 243; and the two are again associated on a relief, BCH i. 163,
no. 33.
2

Compare CIA ii. 1. Add 435 b, 453 c, Add. Nova 3736. For the table in other cults see CIA i. 4; Herod, i. 181 3.
4 6 *
7

Paus.

i.

27. 1.

Arist. Pint. 1138.

IGS
'E</>.

i.

235 31

Paus. x.

4. 10.
f.

Five

human names
Girard
"
I.e.

are enclosed

Thuc.
9

iii.

'Apx- 1894, p. 167 104.

(inscr.);

in wreaths:

Dedications

Rev. Arch, xxxix. 182.

of "the people

to Asclepius in

CIA

ii.

200

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


,

He must

1 probably first pay an entrance fee of a few obols and then perform the preliminary sacrifice*. At Epidaurus, when the worshipper desired to be cured of a disease, it appears that

the

7rvp<f>6po<;

asked for a solemn engagement that he would

the customary sacrifice and offering if a cure was effected, which was undertaken by the patient or by some one else for him 8 The patient then underwent a ceremonial cleansing
.

make

with water 4

after which prayers were offered at the altar, and cakes were offered upon it, sometimes perhaps being burnt 5 This done, he waited for the night.
;

in the precinct, technically called incubation place originally in the temple there can be
.

ceremony of the whole was that of sleeping 8 That this took no doubt, and at But at the larger Tithorea such continued to be the custom 7 health resorts, halls or colonnades were provided for the purThere were two at Oropus, and probably at Epidaurus 8 pose.
central
.

The

but the description of Aristophanes implies that men and women occupied the same hall at Athens, doubtless each sex to a side 9 Even their friends could accompany them, if the
.

This

is

not certain for the shrines

<rrov <(>\oyL
6
^yicofyiijtns,

of Asclepius, but

was the
235

practice at

eyKafJetSeiv

the dormi-

Oropus:
It

IGS

i.

etrapx-f)

9 obols.

ffOLVpos).

was placed in the Treasury (0ijThere was a Oyffavpbs at the shrine of Asclepius in Lebena (Crete).
2
tlffiTfjT-fipiov, irpoOvfffffai

tory was ^y/cot/^rpioc or cLfiarov. See besides the authorities to be cited,


Aristides
v.
ii.
i.

p.

446 ; Marcus Aurelius


i.

Philostr. Apoll.

9,

Vit.

Soph.

Cure inscr.

25.

Incubation
ii.

is

known

also at

3339 42
3

TT

The formula
4
6
ITOUJ

pod u ^ara. Arist. Plut. 660. is given in Cures 3339.


6

Sicyon (Paus.
dias,

10),

Troezen (Cavva-

no.

2),

Rome

43

r$ 6e$
TO.

irvp<f>opwt> ...

TOV tviavrov Tvx&vra ttf d


airo8vffeit>

ta.rpa.',...vvoUKO-

See Pauly 1690. Incubatione (Teubner, 1900). A vivid account of the visions of a

(Plant. Cure. 245). See also L. Duebner,

De

IMI.

dwoirt/j.irfii>
,

35 tarpa 3340 , airoSi.

neurotic subject
xlviii.. (Keil),
'

is

given in Aristides
ii.

56wt 3339 88 dirdyftv 3340 8 4 Arist. Plut. 656 vpCrrov


cirl

ifpw \6yuv

^v

avrbv

6d.\a.TTav

yyouev,
sea,

lireir'

tXovutv.

This was not the

for the scene

The reader will remember how young Samuel slept in the Tabernacle and had a dream 1 Samuel iii.
:

was in Athens not at the Peiraeus: Schol. v. 621 and Frazer on Paus. ii. 27. 2. At Epidaurus there was a well.
8

For a description of the remains It was see Frazer on Paus. ii. 27. 2.
certainly
B

enclosed
i.

with
p. 118.

walls:

see

Arist. Plut. 655 with Schol., 661:


Kal wpo6v/jMTO., irt\avos 'H<f>ai-

Cures in Baunack

ir6iraa>a,

Arist. Plut. 688.

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.

201
.

1 poet has kept to fact, which there is no reason to doubt the was expected to appear in a vision, god During the night, and either to treat the patients or to tell them what to do.

Hear Aristophanes
manner
;

describe the scene

"All round," says Carion in the comedy, "were people sick of all of diseases. In comes the verger 2 puts out the lights, and bids us So we all sleep and, quotha, if you hear a noise, keep a quiet tongvie.
,

composed ourselves decently for sleep. But sleep I could not, for my eye caught a pot of pease which stood just behind the old gammer's head, and Then I looked up, and what I had a monstrous craving to crawl after it. should I see but the priest grabbing the cakes and figs from the sacred Then he made the round of all the altars, to see if there was a table. biscuit or two left, and these he consecrated into a bag he had with him. I looked on the performance with much awe, and up I got to fetch the " " You bold bad man," says the other, weren't you afraid of the pease."
god ?"
"Afraid yes, afraid that he might get there first with his garlands ; the priest showed me the way, you see. Well, when gammer heard the noise I made, she got hold and tried to pull it away but I gave a hiss and
!

bit her, as

though

had been one of those hooded snakes."

the priest, with laso and Panacea, went the diseases and although the story inspecting now becomes pure farce, it is clear that he diagnosed them after a fashion, examining the wounds, and treating them with

Cario then

tells

how

round

all

his drugs.

When

he came

to Plutus, after treating his blind

eyes, he whistled, and a couple of great snakes came out which 3 proceeded to lick them and the blind was made whole
. ;

This picture

is

certainly true to

life,

for it

in almost every particular

from the votive

reliefs

can be paralleled and from the

Cures of Epidaurus. These remarkable inscriptions, which Pausanias saw in the dorter 4 contain a long list of miraculous cures, which remind one of nothing so much as a modern patent
,

There were similar tablets at Cos and Tricca 5 which have not yet been found; and fragments of others have been
medicine.
,

Arist. Plut. 658.


TT/aoTroXos,

The
ff .

inscrr. date

from the 4th

cent.,

2 3

Plut. 670

Arist. Plut. 732.

but they contain older cures (Aelian, Nat. An. ix. 33, mentions the woman
i.

Paus.

ii.

27. 3; Cavvadias,
i.

23

ff.;
i.

Baunack, Studien,

120

ff.

IPI

Troezen with a worm inside her). Another Epidaurian miracle in Didot,


of

9512;
iii.

Collitz,
I

Gr. Dialekt-Inschr.

Frag. Hist. Gr.


5

ii.

158. 374.

33393341.

quote from Collitz.

Strabo,

viii. p.

202

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


in

unearthed at Lebena

Crete

1
.

In the Epidaurian Cures we

see that the patient lay to sleep just as the poet describes.

and

Faith he must have had, or he would never have got so far in his exalted state he was prepared to believe that the

him were really divine. We can that his attendants were got up to doubt the and hardly priest his the and sons and represent god daughters, which would help the illusion. So in the votive tablets, which we shall examine by and by, the divine personages feel the diseased part, and
figures which appeared before

In the Cures the god, or a "handapply remedies to it. some man," as he is realistically described sometimes 8 pours medicine into diseased eyes, and anoints them with ointment 3
, .

uses massage, chafing the stomach 4 or the head 5 and 8 He even giving medicine and instructions how to use it 8 7 a or lance-head an ulcer attempts surgery, extracting cutting
,

Or he

and then he enquires the symptoms 9 he even condescends to ask what the patient will give if he be cured, and can enjoy a humorous answer 10 Nothing is too humble for him he will even compound me a hair-restorer for one whose bald head has
;
. :

Now

been the mock of his friends". The tame snakes 12 and dogs 18 are frequently mentioned they come out and lick the sores or the
;

eyes of the sufferers. in Peiraeus 14


.

Dogs appear

also at the Asclepiari shrine

Some
effect.

of the cures are clearly

made

up, or doctored for

Sheer impossible miracles are to be found among them, such as the mending of a broken earthenware pot 18 The sceptic who will not believe is trotted out and convinced 16 and solemn
.
,

No
2

I saw them there in August, 1900. doubt other such were found else-

9
10

Cures 3340 30

Cures 3339 69

where.
Cures 3339 117 SoKftr veavlffKov
rii/j.

" Cures 3339 l24


et-

Cures 3339 113


vv6
o<f>ios...0wov

6.vr,p

SO.KTV\OV laOi)

irpevi)

p.op<pdv

lirl
.

rbv

SO.KTV\OV

dt

viv

Xa/SjpTos

Iv

iirnrr)v <f>apfjMKoi>,
3 4 6 8

3340 30
77 - 121
, .

TOI/TOH
.

Spaicuv

K rov

dparov ti-eXOuv

Cures 33S9 39

'

3340 in

lnaa.ro rai yXAffffat.


13 Cures 3339 127 <j>a.ptMKwi...lhrap i/iro KW&S Oepawevbutvos, 3340 87 rat y\uff<rai

Cures 3340 125


.

Cures 3340 M Cures 3340 1M

he gives a 0td\o,
.

tOfponrfwre.
14

with directions.
7 8

'E#. 'Apx- 1885, 88;

CIA

ii.

1651.

Cures 3339 98 3340 67


,

Cures 3339 79
16

Cures 3340 61

Cures 3339 M

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.

203

warnings are addrest to the scornful. Aeschines was a naughty lad, who climbed up in a tree and peept into the place

where the suppliants were sleeping. He immediately fell down, and his eyes were put out by the fall. Now he was compelled to eat humble pie, and to become a suppliant himself, when the
Terrible also is the fate of god magnanimously cured him those who forget to pay their dues after they have been cured. A blind man who received sight and then declined to pay, became 8 blind again until he had done so Another man, who had been cured of disfiguring marks on the face, sent his fee by a friend's
. .

hand, but the friend disowned the payment. It so happened that the friend came to be cured of a similar affliction and as he lay
;

god took down from the wall the other man's bandage (which had been left in grateful remembrance of the cure) and laid it upon the deceiver's face who departed
in the holy place, the
;

thence punisht like Gehazi, with the original scars besides his own 3 In view of such things as these, it may be objected that there is not a tittle of evidence for the truth of one of
.

To this I reply, that there them should not be true. In cases


them.
,

is

no reason why some of

of nervous disease, such as

4 the high-strung imagination may have worked a paralysis as it does to this day at Tenos or Lourdes. Nor is there cure,

any reason why the priests or doctors, call them what you will, should not have had some rough and ready knowledge of drugs and surgery, like the bone-setters or herbalists of rustic England, which they found it convenient to use with a certain amount of

mummery.

to the unlearned, as in our

In fact they took up the same position with regard own day priestly advocates of the

esoteric interpretation of ritual take up towards the laity. One of the Epidaurian cures, that of a Roman, M. Julius Apellas, describes minutely both the symptoms of the disease and the
6 and a fragment of a treatment, which was chiefly dietary similar document was found at Lebena 6 Hippocrates himself,
; ;

if

we are

to believe tradition, learnt the elements of his craft

from the Cures of Cos.


1

But whatever be the


5

fact

about the

Cures 3339 90

Cures No.

Ix.

Cures 3340 7
Cures Nos.

Cures 3339 60

Seen by the writer, 1900. records from this place in


67
ff.

Other
xxi.

AM

xiii., xiv.

204-

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

If there cures, yet the setting of them must have been true. were no incubation, no vision of a god or a handsome man, no

dogs and snakes, the testimonials would have simply excited the laughter of those who came to seek health from the god.
but the ceremony which preceded
described above.

Incubation was also practised at the oracle of Amphiaraus, it differed from that we have
1

Those who would consult the oracle first purified themselves, then sacrificed a ram, and slept on his skin
.

now, in spite of all reasons to the contrary, the patient is cured he is to pay the thank-offering due. private person, unless he be rich, can hardly be expected to offer a bull,
:

And

or even a pig

2
;

his tribute

was commonly a

cock.

We return to
.

8 Herodas, who describes this part of the proceedings

" Hither " come," cries Phile, invoking the gods named, and be kind to us for this cock which I sacrifice to thee, the herald of the house, and
4 We have not much substance nor to spare, accept the cakes and fruit else would I bring thee an ox, or a sow in pig 5 fat enough, and no cock, to 6 pay for the healing of the diseases which thou hast wiped away, with thy
.

gentle hands touching them. Coccale."

Put the tablet on Health's right hand,

The victim
kills
it.

is

handed

to

the attendant 7

who goes out and


,

When the worshippers have gazed their fill at the recall him, and he enters through a door 8 with the they sights,
words 9
,

Good is your sacrifice, women, and promises well for you no one ever had greater favour of Paeon than you have. Ie ie Paie'on, be gracious to these women for this sacrifice, and to their lovers if they have any, and their offspring to come. Ie ie Paieon, so be it, amen
;
!

Pans.

i.

34.

5;

cp.

Lucian,

De

models have been found at

several

Dea

Syria, 55 ; Strabo, vi. p. 284, describes a similar rite in the shrine


of Calchas at

places (see chapter vm.) ; but I do not venture to assert that these are for
healing.

Drium

(Apulia);
.t>.

so at
Aio?

They may be models


sacrifice.

of a

Athens, Hesych.
KuOiov.
2 3

and Suid.
Herodas,
;

quite
*

common

rdiriSopira.
ii.

BCH

70

iv. 15.

6 6

vevrjutviiv xotpoi'.
trjrpa
;

Herodas iv. 12 ff. Ace. 5; Artem. Oneir.


Pyrrhus
tes" last
iii.

Lncian, Bis
v.

cp. tarpa

Cures passim.
icdvfiO' 6 iraoroj,

9;

Pint.

veuK6pos.
i]

8;

GIG

5890. 66.

Socra-

Otpri

yap wucrai
iv.

would
should

words, then (Phaedo 118 A), It appear to be ironical.

55.
9

Herodas

79

ff .

be

mentioned

that

cock-

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.


Phile.

205
health

Amen,

so be

it,

mighty! and in

all

may we come

again with husbands and children bringing greater victims. Coccale, don't forget to cut the leg of the fowl for the attendant, and pop the cake into the serpent's hole in dead silence, and moisten the barley-meal.
We'll eat the rest at home.

And

don't forget to give


is

some

for Health.

Thus the thank-offering


temple receives merry at home.
its

made, the prayer


at

is

said

the
all

dues, and the rest of the victim

makes

Oropus the whole had 1 we to be eaten in the precinct, and none might be taken away do not know what was the rule at Athens.
;

At Epidaurus and

be remembered, in the worth while enquiring what inscriptions, the relation was of the Asclepian shrines to scientific medicine 2 or surgery Scientific doctors there were in ancient Greece, as
read
of a
physician,
it

We

will

Athenian

and

it

is

we know,
with
its

the most notable being the medical school of Cos 3 where also at a later date great leader Hippocrates
;

the professional physician is come down to us under this


are
of independent treatises of real value, and

known 4 In the works which have name are included a large number
.

by different persons some of which show that the ancient schools used research and experiment, and had more than empirical knowThere are also collections of cases among ledge of their art. them, which describe symptoms, treatment, and result. How
;

seriously the physicians took their calling may be seen from the remarkable oath which all had to take before admission to

the guild 5

at Athens in

That there were professional physicians practising the sixth century is proved by the tablet of
. ,

Aeneus already described 6 In the fifth century we find private 7 practitioners and also public physicians appointed by the state
1

Paus.

ii.

27. 1

IGS

i.

235.
I'anti-

La

Medecine publique dans

grecque, Rev. Arch, xxxix. 99, 231, 309, 348.


quite
3

Did Thucydides draw on professional knowledge in describing the plague ? 4 Collitz iii. 3618 TUV larpuv rwv
8ajio(Tiv6vTwv, etc.
5

chapter Greek Thinkers, i. 275

See

the

in
ff.

Gompertz,

Littre,

(Euvres d'Hippocrate,

iv.

An

interest-

628 S.
6

ing inscription of Cyprus records the hire of a doctor by the king of Idalion
to treat his
i.

Above, p. 79.
Idturetoi'Tes,

Plat.

Polit.

259 A ;
6.

wounded

soldiers, Collitz
i.

Gorgias 514 E; Aristoph.-Eccfes. 365

60.

So in Carpathos, IGI

1032.

206

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

to a dispensary or hospital

cedes,

of Croton,

most famous physician of

Herodotus* speaks of one Demohis day and at


;

an early date we find Menocritus of Samos practising in 8 These physicians were distinct from the staff of Carpathos the Asclepieum, but there does not seem to have been any antagonism between them. In the third century it was an ancient custom for the public physicians to sacrifice twice a year to Asclepius and Hygieia, and to make an offering on 4 their own behalf and their patients Such may have been the of the relief where six worshippers described, origin already
.

'

'

of the three approach Asclepius, Demeter, and the Maid names inscribed above the tablet, two are known to have been
;

Perhaps the people on physicians, Epeuches and Mnesitheus this occasion voted money for the cup mentioned in the Ascle.

7 The fact is, pian lists, as they did for the ephebes at Eleusis the physicians and the temple appealed to different classes of
.

persons.

The

fullest

information available as to the ancient


8
.

dedicators comes from the Inventories of the Athenian shrine


9
.

There the women are slightly in excess of the men A number of priests are among them, but their dedications do not
concern us here 10
as
priest",
.

Nicomachus
is

is

and so

Onetor 12

called physician as well Half-a-dozen more priests

iarphs

S-rjuofftftjuv,

elected

by

x-

CIA
8

ii.

835
ii.

6.

porovla: Schol. Ar. Ach. 1030.

Plato,

CIA

766

(B.C.

341/40), 835, 836

Gorg. 455 B. Arch, xxxix.


2

For the
I.e.

larpetov see Eev.

Herod,

iii.

125, 131
viii.

2.

Rev. Arch.
.

469 (Girard).

See

p.

205 3
4

32017), 839. 9 I make the proportion 291 233, but the same name often recurs, so that the number of dedications is considerably greater. One person dedi(B.C.
:

CIA

ii.

352 b (Add. Nova) {weidy

cates
10

no

less

than

fifteen times.

Tr&rpwv
ovffiv

tffTiv rot-s larpolt Sffoi 8i)no<rifu-

0uivTui'A0K\Tiiriui Kal Trji'Yyiflai

TOV tviavTov vvep re avT&v Kal ruv ffufidrwv uv ZKCUTTOI Idaavro: early 3rd
Sis

century.
5

They were official, not thank-offerings; thus Nicomachus dedicates a censer made out of old offerings melted down CIA ii. 836 33 Lysanias spends the price of a sacrificial ram on an
;

AM

ii.

243, pi. xviii.


ii.

Girard 43,

offering 836

33
.

pi. ii;
6 7

BCH

88.
.

AMi%. 80; above, p. 199 1 CIA ii. 471. 34. There are

" CIA 12 CIA


several
MeXtrei/j.

ii. ii.

836

17 ss

'OvtJTwp larpbs.
'

835

13 - 84

itpevs

dedications of the people in the lists

DISEASE
are

AND CALAMITY.

207

named

Archicles, Antocles, Ctesonicles, Philocrates, Theo-

dorus,

Xenocritus.

One

dedicator

is

termed

ap^i^e'topcx?

Beyond these there is nothing to tell 2 The or what was their calling in life
.

names, but those of women are often borne in mind that these lists do not include

who the dedicators were, names are as other Greek diminutives. It must be
all

the offerings

There are no inventories amongst the Epidaurian inscriptions, but in the Cures there is evidence that it was usual to dedicate a
in the temple, nor perhaps the chief of them.

Childish anecdotes like the Epidaurian Cures would have been rejected by Plato or Sophocles as readily as by any educated man of to-day such as these, and doubtless the richer citizens, with a few exceptions like Theopompus 4
. ;

8 memorial after cure

went

and

to the physicians. tried the faith cure,

But the ordinary Greek was simple, which was at once cheaper and more

in accord with ancient tradition.


officials,

If we set aside the temple would naturally support the establishment, most of the dedicators' names in the lists lack the demotic adjective; which may imply that they were foreigners, or humble trades-

who

men, not

citizens of Athens.

Or the temple might be the

last

resort of those

who could get no relief from the physicians, as 5 6 Micythus of Rhegium and the sufferer in the Anthology a small indication, but it points the same way as our theory.
, :

In this respect modern analogies are instructive. To pass by the peasants of Europe, who still consult their wise women and seventh sons of a seventh son, the sanctuaries of the Levant

show much the same thing as we are assuming for the ancient. There are properly trained doctors in every part of the Greek
world
;

yet the people

still

throng to the feast of the Virgin at


39 3339 59 Cp. 3339 See below, p. 217 l Herod, vii. 170; above,
.
.

CIA ii. 835 *>. From Phocis we have a


<f>L\uv
ii.

foOt^a.

7 - 60 89
-

stone-

4
5 6

mason's dedication:
'Ao-KXcuriwt, Collitz

\t6ovpybs

p. 192.

1541.

On

the

Anth. Pal. \i.S30


5

OvriTtav

ptv T^xva-i?

Acropolis, before the Persian invasion, & fuller makes a dedication to Health,

airopovtj.fi>os, es

TO Oeiov tXirtSa irairay


'Atfi^as, Id6r)v

tx uv

>

TpoXnrwv eSTraiSas
'Ao-/cX^7Tie,

above
3

p.

188 13 191 8
,

t\dwv,

ny>ds

TO

<r&v
,

<SX<roj,

whiMTa. ware avOtnev T$ Oe(j) Cures 3339 54 el \oi xp^juara eiriBrjv


Xti/Suv
,

AKOS fyuv

Ke0aXijj eviadffiov

tv rpurl

208

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


;

Tenos or Ayassos, and to many another shrine the monasteries generally contain one or more families who come in hope of 1 healing and deliverance We may classify as follow the offerings which commemorate
.

a deliverance from sickness.


1.
2.

The Image The Image

of the Deliverer.

of the Person Delivered.

3.

Representation of the act or process.


Miscellaneous.

4.

(1)

Image of

the Deliverer.

number

of bases, or frag-

ments of

bases, found at Athens,

seem

to have borne statues

of Asclepius. Asclepius was probably dedicated by Cichesippus 8 in the fourth century*, and Hygieia with him in another case 4 she also stands alone Herodes dedicates to Demeter a statue
;
.

of the god as initiate 8 It is possible, of course, that some of these bases bore statues of the persons delivered. At Epidaurus
.

were found many statuettes of the god, some inscribed, but none of early date 8 One bears the legend, " Ctesias to the
.

Saviour 7

another has a verse inscription of Plutarchus, highof Bromius in Athens in the fourth century after Christ 8 priest Statuettes of Hygieia are also preserved 9 one dedicated to her
; .

"

as Saviour and Telesphoros 10 one as medical fee". statuette of Athena, of Roman date, is inscribed to Athena Hygieia by a priest of Asclepius 1 *. It would seem, then, that the image
,

of the god was not dedicated by private persons in early times for the healing of disease. Perhaps the seated image of Hecate

from Attica belongs to this place


1

but who knows 13


in Crete.

See below, p. 236. CIA ii. 1455 'Ao-KXijTrtwi

Lebena
"

Ktxi}<riir8 9
10

Cat. Ath. Sc. 270. Cat. Ath. Sc. 264. Cat. Ath. Sc. 271
ff.

iroj

Atocvo-fov 'Avaicaiei)? <W0rjK, 2rpa-

There has been a ruvidrjs tirbrjtrt. verse inscription below, of which the words dujpov 0u>( tlvat appear.
3 4

Cat. Ath. Sc. 272 ffUTeiprj xal Te-

\tff<p(tpu.

CIA CIA
(?).

ii.

1551. 1446,
if

"
the inscr.
is

Cat. Ath. Sc. 271 tarpa; cp. Epid. Cat. Ath. Sc. 274 'ABijvai "
'

ii.

com-

Cures.
12

Plete
5 9

7 'E0. 'Apx- 1894, 171; see p. 196 Cat. Ath. Sc. 263 ff. Others at
.

6 2epei>j rov ffurrjpot

A(nc\T}iriou.

" CIA

iv.

2.

422 s Atyuv

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.

209

The same
girl

the physician.
father paid
falls after

but distorted, suggested the dedication of In the latter part of the fourth century a sick seems to have vowed this offering in ease of cure, and her
idea,
it
1
.

This

is

practically a honorific statue,

and

it

the great dividing line. The statue of Polycritus, was which represented with a libation vessel in its hand, if he
;

but

were the famous physician of Mende, was probably honorific 2 it may belong to the next class
.

Four little snakes are Several of the offerings are snakes. 3 a woman of Megalopolis gives a silver snake, 4 another is given by Philista 5 weighing nearly 25 drachmae
offered together
; ;
.

conceivable that these had some reference to the temple snakes, which as we have seen used sometimes to lick the
It
is

patients

and the snake

is

found carved alone on

reliefs of late

The snakes in that case would by a convention represent the instrument by which the god acts. But there is no evidence whatever for this, and I do not believe it. They may be all
date
.

ornaments, bracelets or what not but it is only fair to mention them here, because at the end of the fourth century many things are possible which would have been impossible in the
;

fifth.

It should also be

added that terra-cotta serpents were


.

found in the shrine of the Mistress at Lycosura 7

The Image of the Person Delivered. There are no (2) examples of this class before late in the fourth century, when 8 honorific statues were common Herodas speaks of a portrait
.

statue of a worshipper at Cos 9 but we do not know the date of Herodas. At Epidaurus, Clearista dedicated a statue of her
,

Berl.

Hus.

Three - figured

pbs TOU dvdpidvros TOV HoXvicplrov.


3

hecataea are more probably the memorials of some feast: xxv. 173

AM

4 5

(Samos).
1

CIA CIA CIA

ii.
ii.

ii.

836. 14 SpaKovria r^rrapa. 836. 66 dpdKuv dpyvpovs. 835. 7 otpidiov dpyvpovv.


I

CIA ii. 1461 Qavforparos.

A-n\o(pdv-r]s

6 7

XoXap-yevs tlicova njvSe rrjs avrov Ovyarpos AupCSos v|a(ivr]s A.V&I8os ircuwviov \8wv /tax 7?' yap
dv^6r]K

Page 222. Frazer, Pausanias iv. 370.


those serpents.

should

like to see

Ancient

Wpl

\eipa. fitja-s (rwTT?/3...opryv.

As

to the

bronze serpents were found on the Acropolis of Athens, all which may

part of the restoration which I


1 below, p. 217

am

re-

have been parts of larger objects and


probably were so. 8 For IGA 549 see ch. vni.
9

sponsiblefor, seeSuidass.i;.0e67ro/roy,
.

CIA
R,

ii.

766. 28 olvoxo-n

tic

rfc

x-

Herodas

iv. 36, 37.

14

210
son to Asclepius
1
,

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


and the date of
this is taken to

be about 300.

father similarly dedicates his son in the Athenian shrine to Asclepius and Hygieia*. No doubt other bases, inscribed on

a son or a daughter's behalf, bore portrait statues. The only 3 parallel I have noticed in the lists is the child of Philostratus
,

a gold or

silver statuette of eight

of statuettes of children,

drachmae weight. A number found in the Athenian precinct, were

doubtless votive*.
to set

up a portrait

sons in

patient in the Epidaurian Cures promises and a man and wife dedicate their two 8 fulfilment of such a vow We must not forget, how8
;
.

One

ever, that these images or reliefs, as the descriptions show, are commonly in the attitude of prayer, and thus fall into line with

the earlier representations of the act or process which the god has blest (section 3 below). It is only late we could expect to find a realistic figure of a patient in the last stage of
7 consumption, like that from Soissons During the same period another custom grew up, that of 8 This custom shows dedicating models of the diseased part
. .

Cawadias, no.

23.

of

his beloved
iii.

lady:
6
:

Chaereas

and
Oebv

CIA CIA

ii. ii.

1500.

Callirrhoe,
ircuSiov
eli<6va.

elSe irapd rrjv

836 ^

Kd\\ipp6j]s
It

xP vff^ v t

dvddrjfia.

end of 4th
*
8

cent.

AM
;

ii.

197, note 2.
oi

was recognised by her husband. The same feeling in modern


Aiowffiov.
ypaij/d/j.evos

avOrjffelv

flKbva

marble was painted, so it not possible to say which is meant.


6

3339 M

is

Greece is echoed by the poet Solomos, who, speaking of a shepherd girl who has lost a lamb, makes her say: a>
TravayLO. ftov, icdfie
Kdfj.w

Collitz

iii.

3301 ZTpdruv
y

Qeuvls

TO 6avfjM, Kal

va.

at

'Apyeioi robs

fioi)s

Air6\\uvi

'Ao'/cXa.TritDi

Zva dpvl. 6V
fiKova

dffrjfjif'vio va.

TO Kp/j.diru

Later, and in modern times, the idea has seemed natural. Compare
fvxdv.

eh
7

Ti)v

(rov

TT)

(mm-/!

(Works,

p. 285).

the passage from Aristides xlviii. quoted below, p. 211 *; and see De Brasses'
Letters, tr.

Rev. Arch.
;

i.

458,

pi.

CIO
:

6855 b

Michaelis,

Richmond 29

sick

Lord Ronald Gower,


silver

p.

283

man
8

in chair, bronze with silver eyes,

(Casa Santa at Loreto):

an angel in

presents

"Opposite, to the
in gold,

C. F. Pezold,

De membris humanis
;

Madonna a
of

little

Louis

XIV

the

same weight as the prince


:

gentium dedicatis J. J. Frey, De more diis simulacra membrorum condiis

weighed when he first appeared in this world it was a vow of Anne of


Austria."
lover in

secrandi

these books I have not been

able to get.

The bronze
all

or marble

With the same idea, the a late Greek romance dedia golden image

hands, with

kinds

of

symbolic

cates

to Aphrodite

things upon them, have nothing to do with us here (see Elworthy, Horns

DISEASE

AND CALAMITY.

211

how low the


but
it is

artistic taste
its

not without

moral interest.
1
;

of the Greeks had already fallen, are not to suppose

We

as before, it is the simple wish to perpetuate the memory of the divine help, but the fact that the old idea takes a new shape proves that it is alive. Whilst in other directions piety had generally become an empty

any idea of mystical substitution

form, here

it

lived

still,

and

it

has continued living from that

time to
in the

this.

These objects made of gold or silver are extremely common In modern times they are made of the thinnest lists.
2
;

but as one possible silver foil, very rarely of gold or gilded or two in the lists are said to be hollow 3 the implication is that
,

they were then usually

solid.

It

must be remembered that the


bills in this

patients practically paid their doctors'


of Honour).

way
CIA

and
403:

Some

of the Italian offer-

Shrine of Hero latros


/j-Tjpoi,

ii.

ings of this class have been described by L. Stieda, R. M. xiv. 230ff. Aristides
vi.

69 dXXa Kal
TOV

fj.t\r)

TOV

erw/ctaroj airovv-

Golden models of parts of the body in India North Ind. Notes and Queries, 1893, ii. 6;
6(f>6a\/j.ol,

xdp.

TaL Tives, Kal avSpes \tyta Kal yvvaiKes,


Trpovoia

silver eyes offered in smallpox, iv. 42.

6eov yevecrOai.
(ftvffew

ff(f>iffl,

TUV
Kal
airb

irapa

T??J

SiatpOaptvTwv.
ol
/J.ev

KaTa\eyovffiv aXXos aXXo n,

Nor the sacrifice of a part for the whole, another idea which is found Aristides xlviii. 27. 472 describlate.
1

<TT6fjiaTos ovTWirl (ppdfrovres, ol


avad-f]fJ.O(Tiv

S' Iv TO?J

ing what the god told

him

to do, says
'

e^r]yov/j.evoi.

ij/juv

Toivvv

5eiv Se Kal TOV <rw//.aro$ avrov irapa,Tp.ve(.v


virep

ov"xl
ffCjfJLa.

fdpos TOV (rwytiaros dXX" ciirav rb ffvvffets Te Kal ffvfaw^^as avTbs

ffUTr/plas

TOV iravTbs
'

dXXa yap
/Jifv

flvat TOVTO

pyu>5fs

TOVTO

yap

Si)

ZSuKe Supedv.
v.
oi

Clem. Alex. Stromata

566 D

TO.

Te

uTa
el-

Kal TOI)S 6(pda\fju)vs


v\-ns
Ti/jdas
tls

TrapUvai fj.oi, dvn Se TOVTOV TOV SaKTV\tov ov efopovv irepi{\6/j.evov dvaOeivai T$


Te\e<r<p6p<j}.

8-rifj.iovpyovvTes

Ka6ie-

TO yap avTo

Troieiv

uxrirep

pouffi rots 6eois

ava.Ti6vTes

rous vewj.

av

ei

TOV SdKTvXov avTov

TrpoelfJ.r]v.

At

Parts of the body named in CIA ii. 835 and 836. Doubtful names and

words are not counted


aido'tov 11,
TJpr)

the numbers must be taken as approximate only.


:

Gurgaon, in India, there was a man so fond of a shrine, that he happening to die there his body could not be re-

moved
off

y6vv 1, SO.KTV\OS, SO.KTV\OI 3, ywaiKbs 2 (once ^77 of a man),


2,

until one of his fingers was cut and buried in the shrine: North Indian Notes and Queries, v. 544. The
sacrifice

iffxta
1,

KapSia 4,
<5ra,

Ke<pa\ri

1,

6d6vTes

of a finger
for

is

sometimes a
sacrifice;

ouj,

wrdpia
7r65ej
fftay<l}i>
/

20,
1,

6<p6a\/j.6$ ,

substitute

human

see

6<f>0a\fju>i

121,
1,

irpbauirov

(or

part) 10, pis


36,
ffTrjtios 2,

2, cncAos, ffK^Xrj
crw/io, <ru/juiTiov

<rr6 ixa 7,

Frazer, Pausanias, iv. 355. 2 I have seen gold or gilt specimens in Patmos, Tenos, and Calymnos, but
I

58, TiT06s,

TT^, TiTdlov
1,

(sing, or pi.) 12,


"Xfi-pi^ov

x e^P> X e ip e *>

18.

remember no others. 3 CIA ii. 835.

142

212

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


fee

would make a very respectable Athens during the fourth have seems to been bad century eyes votive eyes, in ones and make two-fifths of the whole number. Next to the twos, up comes the trunk this eye may betoken internal pains, or it a fashionable physician's
silver leg.

The

favourite disease in

may

different tales if
fifteen suffered

include various segments of the body which would tell we could see them. Two patients out of every

from bad

legs,

and one out of

fifteen

from ear-

Breast, face, mouth, and penis are each several times represented and now and then half

ache or diseases of the hand.

Head, feet, fingers, knee and jawbone also appear; one man had toothache, while one man and one woman gave their hearts to Asclepius in fact
a face or the lower part
is specified.

the

woman

If Asclepius
to

actually offered two. was successful as an oculist,

Amphiaraus seems
;

have been a specialist in lung complaints. At least his list contains dozens and dozens of breasts, all presented by men one man gives sixty or seventy of them to the shrine. There
;
.

are also the face, the hand, the nipple, and the pudenda but the number of such things is small 1 The worshippers evidently

consulted the oracle about other things than bodily health, so that we cannot assume that the votive bowls and baskets,
scrapers,

lamps, and masks, or the figures of Victory", had necessarily to do with sickness or health. How far these things

were common elsewhere we do not know but there is apparently 3 a golden model of the pudenda muliebria in Delos where also 4 were a bronze leg and ear (perhaps fragments of vessels), and a number of golden or silvern breasts 8 (possibly a kind of vase). Parts of the body were also made in relief or repousse* work. 9 8 7 6 Amongst these we have the trunk the eye the ear the leg
; ,
,

The
:

parts of the body mentioned


for yua<rr6$ see note
5
.

BCH vi.
CIA CIA CIA
CIA
ii.

33, lines 44, 93, xiii. 412.


B.
TI/TTOJ

are
2

aldoiov, /uaoTos, irpbffuirov (wpoffA-

See Athenaeus 487


6

irtov), TiT06s,

x e fy>

835 ^ 835 835


14

n-pAs irivaidui,

Yet there were Victories dedicated


:

tvi ff&/j.a dv5/>6s.


7
ii.

in the Asclepieum

CIA
:

ii.

766

15
.

No

trw/ta

fr

-njirwi

Kal

doubt ornaments.
3

600aX/x6s.

BCH vi. 50, line 202 BCH vi.

xp^ofo

TI/TTOJ
rt>

ii.

17

TUTTOI, oCs

jur7T/HK6s. *

elanrpaxO^v.
ii.

47, line 167.

835 *

<rxAof.

DISEASE

AND CALAMITY.
members and

213
sections of

and doubtless a
them.
the relief
is

fine variety of other


is
;

But while the round form


suited best for stone
this

best suited to metal work, and the parts of the human

are very numerous. These hardly in the fourth century, but in the third they spring appear into favour and never lose it again. The reason may suddenly

body represented in

way

well be, as Bruckner has plausibly suggested 1 the law which Demetrius of Phalerum made during his rule over Athens
,

(317 307), forbidding the custom of erecting sepulchral reliefs. This killed the whole industry, and in a generation there were
skilful enough to do more than rudely to carve There appear to be only three which can be assigned to the fourth century. One is a woman's breasts, dedicated by

few workmen

a limb.

another is also a breast, found in the Phile to Asclepius of the hero Amynus 3 the third is a foreneighbouring shrine
;

head and a pair of eyes dedicated by Praxias 4 Amongst others 8 6 are Menestratus' leg a foot and leg part of the trunk 7 the
.

9 8 10 11 Most upper part of a couple of thighs breast penis finger of those just mentioned are quite late. A new type which comes
, ,
,
.

into favour in the

Roman

age, is represented
.

by a pair of large
In

feet in the round, placed

12 upon a small base

Roman

times

must have been very common, and feet in clay of all sizes may be seen in nearly every museum. Of those which may be assigned to Greek cities I would name one which came from Athens 13 and two colossal feet with sandals, finisht off at the top and not fragments, coquettishly poised
this practice
;

AA

1892. 23; cp.

AM

xviii.

245.

and Hygieia.

Compare 3709, 4764;


h.

So in one generation the art of wood engraving has been killed by the detestable 'process.'
2

CIA
7
8

iii.

132

Sybel 2982 4 ('A<r*cX. ei>xw), 4689. CIA iii. 132 g: inscr. to Ascl. and

CIA CIA CIA CIA


:

ii.

1482
:

$1X17

'AoTcXTjTrtuH.

Hyg. evxfy9

Other breasts
3
ii.

Sybel 941, 1133, 1154. 1511 c; xviii. 241

CIA

iii.

132 k

Ascl.

eW-

Sybel

AM

2995, 3015
10

&vd8wa

'E/cdX^s.

(woodcut).
4
ii.

1453 1503

inrtp

rfc

yvvaiKtis

n
12

Sybel 4058. Sybel 4385. Nose Sybel 1126, ear

IIpata.s
5

'Aer/cXTjTriwi.
ii.

1151.

avifa\Kev
6

MfvtffTparos Sybel 7213.


:

evxV

Ascl.
13

CIA iii. 132 i <X. and Hyg. ei/xty:

'Ea-f/mjTos to

Sybel 2980

inscr.

to

Asclepius

Cat. Berl.

Mus. 661.

214

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
:

on a base, which were found in South Russia these are of Melition of Thera, who seems to have suffered from stone. elephantiasis, hit on a quaint way of indicating her gratitude
to the god

around the word which described her disease she had drawn a line representing the gigantic size of her foot
;

before the divine power

came upon

it

8
.

A ghastly
.

pair of ears,
to

done in

relief
3
.

age There were even models of disease, like the golden boils and blains in the ark of Jehovah. Thus Timothea dedicates an
ulcer 8
;

Roman

and painted, from Epidaurus, belongs From Melos comes half a left leg 4

the

of the

way

6
.

and possibly the Epidaurian patient who was cured same thing may have commemorated it in the same Perhaps the inner part of another's ear was realistically
.

7 portrayed in diseased form A large number of these articles come from the shrines of

other healing deities. There was in Athens, near the Areopagus, a shrine and a cult of a hero Amynus, the Helper, excavated a few years since 8 It was ancient, as is proved by archaic terra-cottas which were found in the precinct; as old
.

as the sixth century, and probably older. At the coming of there was a of the old hero Asclepius danger losing the popular favour but perhaps through the influence of the poet Sophocles*
;

he continued to be worshipt, and a society of Orgeones kept his name alive. Here was found one of the oldest limb-reliefs, to the fourth century it shows the lower part of belonging
:

In the Hermitage

no.

110

cp.

117, 123.
2 3 4

have been a priest TOV "AXwvos, which Meineke emended to "AX/cwvos. Korte
ingeniously suggests that the reading should be 'Apwov, and uses this to

IGA
'E</>.

iii.

388 X^TTOI/J MeXinov....


'

'Apx- 1885, p. 199. Cat. Brit. Mm. Sc. 809

A.<rK\r)irt<p

Kal 'Tyiely. evxapiaT-fipiov.


8

explain the heroizing of Sophocles under the name of Dexion, " because

CIA

ii.

836 B1 Kapidvos.
.

Cures 3340 68
7
n-fiKtav,

he welcomed Asclepius" (Etym. Mag. Sophocles may have been Aeiu>').

CIA
ff.,

ii.

836 *.

By

Dorpfeld.

xviii.
it

231

See A. Korte, xxi. 303 ff. As usual,

AM

had a spring of water. The has a snake carved upon it


9

altar

the priest of the old deity, and have welcomed Ascl. into the shrine, as was done at Eleusis, so that the shrine became sacred to both jointly. There
are

dedications

to

both

personages

In the Life Sophocles

is

said to

together,

AM

xxi. 294, 296.

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.


.

215

There were found also a female body, from the ribs down 1 a female breast, of the third century 2 several fingers, a pair of ears, and a penis, with ground painted red, and a hole in
,

the tablet for hanging. Another series of these objects, found in a cave, on the terrace called the Pnyx, are dedicated to Zeus the Highest 3 Amongst these are several breasts, the
.

pudenda muliebria, a female body from the waist downwards, a pair of arms, part of a thigh, the eyes, and the forepart of the right foot. From Golgos in Cyprus 4 come a face, ears, eyes, thumb, breasts (perhaps with disease markt), a penis, and an inscribed slab with two painted eyes in relief 5 Other and were doubtless had visible them, fragments upon nothing From Cyprus also comes an ear with the disease painted. 6 There is a model of pudenda muliebria inscribed in words in Samos 7 a relief of the hands and part of the arms is in 9 8 A foot dedicated to Zeus Sparta with a small stone foot 10 from Asia An is comes dedicated to Athena in Lesbos 11 eye 12 a foot in Samos to Hera A tiny leg from the Idaean cave
.
.

in Crete 13

is

was found
1

there.

perhaps an ornament, as nothing else of the kind A series of double breasts in marble were
9

...owis (W9r]K 'A\kwui. CZ4ii. 15116; .Ofxviii. 241'H5era

Not

inscribed.

Other limbs

in

the School at

Mavromati (Ithome),
private

'AffK\r)Triui.
3

M.
Mus. Sculpt.
;

Carapanos'

museum

at

Cat. Brit.
in.

799808;
Ad

Athens (from Dodona), Odessa (from


Olbia).
10

CIA

150156
They
in

Cat. Berl. Sc. 718

721.
vil/lffTip

are mostly inscribed

GIG Add.

iv.

6832

'

A/j.fj.eiai>bs

Aid

evxfy or without At.

The

title

ei/x^"-

is

known
:

Olympia Paus.
i.

Thebes, Corinth, and ix. 8. 3, cp. Find. Nem.

u IGIii.
foot

121.

have a clay eye and


that

from Borne.

We may suppose
An

60.
4
5

the very poor offered these models in

Cesnola p. 158,
6t$ tyiffTy

BCH xix.

362.

clay.

Numbers have been found


Veii.
altar,
relief,

in

eva/ji:fvi\.

The same
Another

Rome and
ears in

with two

deity

was worship! Museum, no. 130,

in Olbia (Odessa
inscr.).

inscribed to the
at Aries.

Bona

Dea,
12

is in

the

museum

Others

penis from Rhodes, Cat. Berl. Sc. 728. An Collitz, i. 103 air' urodaKuv.
ear from Cyrene not inscribed, Cat. Br. Mus. Sc. 810.
7
ii.

in Orvieto.

AM

xxv. no. 55 in

Samos Cata-

logue.
pilia,

One, inscribed of Lucilia Pomwas found in the Pool of Bethesda:


Palestine,

AM

xxv. 174 ZfMpdySiv


iv. 2.

cp.

CIA
,

M. Thomas, Two Years in


132.
13

1569,
8

155S (Aphrodite, Daphni)

Cat. Berl. Mus. Sc. 721.


Aa/actr/Mos 'Etriyevfia 'KOa.va.Te....

Annual

Brit. Sch. Ath. vi. 112.

216
;

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

found at Cnidus but as each specimen has a handle, and as they bear some proportion in weight to each other, it is very 1 unlikely that they had to do with disease
.

Another shrine which had similar reliefs was one sacred to Artemis Anaitis and Men Tiamou in Asia Minor 2 The objects One reare of late date, and inscribed in horrible Greek. a the arm from the elbow another has whole batch presents a on a two female breasts, cushion, right leg percht together, and two eyes, dedicated by a whole family in common 8
.

(3)

Representation of the act or process blest by the god.


relief carvings

which are among the most interesting remains connected with the worship of Asclepius, fall into four
classes,

The

according as they depict the Visitation of the Sick, the 4 Prayer or Adoration, the Sacrifice, or the Banquet This type is voucht for in the Visitation of the Sick. (i)
.

early days of the Athenian shrine.

Suidas

tells

us that Theo-

pompus, the comic poet, who flourisht about 400, fell very ill, but being cured by Asclepius, he was able to go on composing comedies. On his recovery, he caused a memorial to be carved
of Parian

marble, inscribed with his

name and patronymic.

Theopompus was represented lying upon a couch, and beside him the god stood " stretching out his healing hand." Another
figure
1

was a young lad with a smiling countenance,


are standard

whom
T^KVUV

Newton thinks they


:

ffdntw
/ecu

jjuirtpav

'Avatinv

virlp

weights
,

Branchidae, Halicarnassus,
ii.

Ope^druv,

tvypa<f>ov tcrTijaav frous

and Cnidus,
j
.,

already
,

seen

^ u iDemeter as a healing

386, 805.

We

have

T-K'AM
J take

favSiKov.

Leemans reads
is

ei\Affa/j.ev Ofj.ijTfpay,

which

nonsense.

'

See Verhandl. der kon. Akad. der


xvii.

d**"^

to be for

IX^d/ie,
'

Wetemhappen,
Griekshe

fit.;

Leemans,

Opshriften uit Klein-Azie. Perhaps the shrine was in Coloe, where a similar relief was found: iv.

BCH
CIA

128. also

The Mother
addrest
~
>

of

the

Gods was
iii.

and r ^ av an earl y form of the acc which afterwards became regular, as U now is < Co P ied from the 8toue ') " They have been collected and examined bJ P Girard Ex-Vato a
'

>

as a healer:
,

134
3
/, Ota AvafiTi KCU M^vi
.

ii. 68&.; I^Asclepieion Esculape, 29 ff. F. von Duhn, AZ 1877, 139 ff. I. Ziehen, Studien zu den Asklepios; ;

BCH

Tta/xoi;
Acat

Ti/x?
reliefs,

Kol 2ocpa7-ns
.
, .

/cat

Auutacos
.

AM xvii.
214
ff.

229

ff.

Compare
xvii.,

also
i.

ol

Afj.ti.iov,

Kal

<PiA77T77
,

KCU
.

_ iwKpcma

Tp6rf)iuoj

at

AM
156

ii.
ff.

pi. xiv.

BCH

..

A/x/aiddoj, iror}ffa.VTCS

ro

ifpoir(rr)na, el\a-

92 pieces).

DISEASE

AND CALAMITY.

217

Suidas takes to be a personification of the comic poet. " If any " one thinks otherwise," quoth he, let him keep his opinion but
;

he must not worry me." I would fain not disturb Suidas in his grave, but the figure is more likely to be one of the Asclepiad
family, or perhaps the attendant who carries the medicine-case The existing remains well illustrate this description. They represent scenes in the dortor, where the god's representative
1
.

attends to the needs of his patients.

The

taken as types,

(a)

Now

Asclepius

sits

following may be the bed near the by


;

FIG. 30.

Asclepius by the sick-bed. Sybel 7161.

one of the god's sons, holding over him an object which cannot be made out, perhaps a surgical tool. Behind the god's throne are two worshippers, distinguisht as

head of the sufferer

is

Suidas
/cat

s.v. Oe6iro/ti7roj

ori 'Atr/cAij-

os
(Tiffa/j.evov

airrbv
rjv

TOV
dSui\ov Ilap/aj

TTIOS

T<J)V

iv

iraidelq.

rjv

vpo^Or)^.
re Kal

yap

ui6$,)

ipObri

yovv

Qe6iro/J.irov
ld.cra.To,

pLviJj^fvbv

\L6ov.

Kal Hffri rb tvda\fj.a TOV iraQovs

\eif36/j.fvov

Kal

Ku^diav
re
/cat

avdis
<rwv

SiddffKeiv iTTTjptv,
/cat

6\6/c\77p6j'

yaaXa evapyts, K\ivr) Kal 01)777 \i0ov. eir' avTrjs /cetrat voffovv TO teeivov <pdff/j.a

aprefJiT)

pyaffd/j.evos.

/cat

Kal vvv VTTO \i6<p QeoTr6fj.irov, irarp

Oeds Kal

dptyei

oi

TT^V

iraiuviov

x e *P a

>

218

GHEEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


,

1 usual in such cases by their smaller size

(b)

Or Asclepius
is

stands, leaning Over the sick

upon

his staff,

about which a snake

entwined*.

man

leans a bearded figure,


,

who

holds the man's

head

in

both

hands 8

(c)

Or

again, a female figure, Health, or one of the four daughters. Those

who attend
meant
the
for

to the sick

man

are,

in this case, from their size, clearly

human
is

beings.

By

bedside

another

figure,

apparently female, but also not

Behind Asclepius, who gazes upon the bed, are four worshippers, men and women, and an attendant leads up a pig for
divine 4
.

sacrifice.

At the

side of the bed


.

a large basin rests upon the floor 5 (d) Another relief shows not only

FIG. 31.

Tending the
Sybel 3010.

sick in the

Asclepius seated, with a snake under his chair, but Epione seated,

sanctuary of Asclepius.

and

Aceso,

laso,

and

Panaceia
,

6 standing. There are traces of a group of worshippers (e) The two sons of Asclepius, Podaleirius and Machaon, are seen with

Kal

irais

veapbs

viro/j.eiSiitji'

Kal

ouros.

Sybel 7161
231.

von Duhn 115. Fragreliefs are figured in


fig.

ri df

apa

voei 6 vats;
ironfrriv
KW[j.u5ia.s

ycb

ffvflr)/j.i
'

TOV

ments of similar

<t>i\oira.lffTip>

inrodr)\ovv

yf\q.

AM xvii.
8

See

30.
fig.

yap Kal
/36\w'
s,

T?Js

rb IStov
8

dia, <TV/JL-

Sybel 3010;
:

Ziehen,

3.

In-

alviTTfrai.

el

dXXoj

voei

scribed
fig.

dW07?/ce 'AffK\T)irup. In Ziehen,

Kpareiru

rrjs

eavrov

yvd/j,r)s, t/d-

4,

the doctor

also touches the

The account is quoted


from Aelian, as may be seen under I cannot llamas \l0ov and <f>96i].
follow

head.
3

See

tig. 31.
;

Cp. Arist. Plut. 728


117 .

Epid. Cures

3339
4

Ziehen
for the

meant

in regarding this as Death-Feast the god's


:

Another attendant? or a friend?

See Arist. Plut. 653.


6

healing hand seems conclusive. It is to be noted, however, that in one relief, while Asclepius sits, Hygieia

From

Peiraeus;
fig.

hands;

Ziehen,

5.

now in private Drawn from

a photograph of the English Photo-

standing holds forth a hand as it were blessing a suppliant who is seen beside
the altar

graphic Company. 6 xvii. 243:

AM

inscr.

'Hiriovt],

(AM ii.

pi. xvii).

w, 'Ia<ro>, Ha.va.Keia.

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.


1
.

219

of

him in a fifth tablet, which comes from Epidaurus One them offers Asclepius something which may be a surgical
tool.

Two
is

there

a dog 2

worshippers are present with uplifted hands, and On another tablet a woman receives something
.

in a bowl, perhaps a medicine


differ

The gestures and implements with each case, and suggest that these tablets were It is usually made to suit the dedicator and at his order. to be noted that two distinct scenes are represented, both
.

the cure and the service of thanksgiving. The divine persons take no notice of the worshippers, who are of course only present by a convention the interest centres upon the sick-bed. A
:

relief of this

type

may be

that in which Athena hands some


.

4 indistinguishable object to a man seated in a chair (ii) Prayer or Adoration. The scene is laid usually in a shrine, symbolised by a couple of pilasters supporting an archi-

trave and gable end. On one side sits Asclepius, with or without the deities associated with him on the other the
;

suppliants approach, upraising the right hand. There is nothing characteristic in the attitude or the dress of the suppliants. In

one fragment, the oldest perhaps of


.

all

which have survived,

Asclepius stands, while a horseman approaches him, followed by his horse 5 Hygieia stands behind the god, holding a jug. One
of this type was found in the shrine of Amynus 6 remarkable tablet from Cythnus shows Asclepius and his four sons,
.

with a worshipper; and the god holds out his right hand to another heroic figure. It is suggested that Asclepius here recognises the power of a local brother in the craft, as we have
seen him in partnership with Amynus 7 There are a few reliefs from the sanctuary of Anaitis, which
.

AM
See
124

xvii.

244,

fig.

8.

Machaon

named
25.
2 3

also in Sybel 4047,

= von Duhn

There is no altar god and worshippers touch; and the face looks like a por;

trait.
p.

202 13
i.

AM
So Cures
fyaaOai.
117

xxi.

290,

male and female


xi.

BCH
3340

168, no. 79.

worshippers.
1

3339
KOV,
4

6 0e6s
126

xpls>

^iirrjv ipapfui-

AM
his

xvii. 246, pi.

there were

63 <f>ia\av ol d6/j.ev,

hot

springs

in

Cythnus.

Asclepius

Schone
clearly

and
5

AN

The human. 201


86.

figure is small,

whole family appear only on one relief from Argos Annali xlv. 114,

and
pi.

is
ii.

in

the pre-

MN.

Eucl. alphabet:

AM

214, pi. xiv.

220
I

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


for their intrinsic interest,

may just mention

although they

Greek religion. One represents a god with radiated head, and Artemis-Anaitis in the mural crown, with the inscription mentions that the veil, fillet, and crescent dedicator was healed by an incantation chanted by the priestess The standing goddess appears on others, but the formulae
hardly belong to
;

greatly differ
(iii)

2
.

scene is intended to reprepresent, sometimes with fire burning 3 The only animals found on the Athenian reliefs are upon it ram or sow 4 the cock is not found at all it is the poor man's

The

Sacrifice.

Where the

sent a sacrifice the altar


.

is

FIG. 32.

Sacrifice to Asclepius.
ii.,

BCH
gift,

pi. vii.

and probably those who dedicated


.

it

would be not usually

much more. In Cos, however, we have seen the The worshippers approach with the same two combined 5
able to afford
1

No.

'Aprffjddt

'Avaetrt
cr^oCc
iea.1

'ATro\\uvlov,
tfoffBeiffo.
2
iiirb

TffpLirrufjLO.

(date).

The

others

TTJS

iepdas,
etc.)

evxtf virep

call for
3

no remark.

No. 2: (names,
6<j>6a\fjiuv

vyieias

Nat. Mus. Ath. 1333.

TUV

evxfy,

a.vt<si~t\atv.

No. 3

4
:

Ram

and pig

together, Nat. Mus.

(names) dvtSuKav TO iepoirbrifjia. evxo.No. 5 (name) dva(date).


:

Ath. 1395.
6

Herodas, quoted on p. 204.

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.

221

gestures as before, and the animal is held by a small figure, Behind follows which often has likewise a knife or a bowl 1
.

a figure with a large cylindrical box or basket upon the head, half covered with a cloth this may have contained cakes or
;

casket is carried, containing perhaps a more precious offering. Fruit often appears, grapes or pome3 The granates and the poppy; snake and tree also appear a Boeotian from be of the scene vase, completed may picture
.

fruit 2

Sometimes a

little

which shows a

girl

bringing in a tray of cakes, in one of which

FIG. 33.

Offering in a healing shrine


lighted taper,

and a

jug.

a girl bearing a tray of cakes with Votive limbs on the wall.


:

'E0. 'Apx- 1890,


is

pi.

7.

a lighted taper. The remains of a sacrificial relief, with the " " hero upon it, were found in the leg of an ox and the word

Amphiaraum

at

Oropus

4
.

Others were

in

the

shrine

of

Amynus
(iv)

5
.

The Banquet. Beside a table sits or reclines a male naked On a table are cakes of various to the waist. figure, of a The some sorts, always pyramidal or conical shape. face the and a in the horse's head deities, worshippers appears Near the table is a crater, from which an attendant corner.
1

BCH
Arist.

ii.

pi. vii.

In Nat. Mus. Ath.

AM
ii.

ii.

1408 an adorer kneels, receiving a bowl from Asclepius.


2

BCH
4
5

73, pi.

220, pi. xvi.; CIA ii. 1477; viii. ; Cat. Nat. Mus.

1330, 1333.

Thesm. 284
KQ.T'

<3

Qp^rra,
TO

rj\v

IGS

i.

440.

Kiffrrjv

Ka.6e\e,

IfeXe

irdiravov,

AM xviii.

238 (woodcut), 241.

OTTWS \afiovffa. 0i5(rw rolv Oea.lv.

222
takes wine and

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


offers
it

The scheme the banqueters 1 resembles that of the Death-Feast, which was doubtless the
to
.

it. Fragments of this scheme, showing amongst other things the horse's head in a frame, come from the shrine of Amynus*.

original type of

We

have seen above that there are combinations of the

types of healing and of worship. There is also one relief, found in Delos, of careless workmanship, which

combines the types of Banquet and Sacri-

The god, holding a patera, reclines a one table heapt up with fruit by in and the an stands corner, worshipper
fice.
;

attendant leads up a ram for offering 3 Ruder reliefs, all of late date, some.

times show the serpent alone. There are several serpent slabs now in the Museum
others were found in Athens, with the serpent only 4 or entwined about A serpent-relief was found in a tree 5
at Sparta
;
,

the

Athenian
6
.

sanctuary

of

the

hero

Amynus

In the same shrine, amongst fragments of the familiar types of Reliefs


with libation or with victim, and the Death-Feast, came to light a
sacrificial,

FIG. 34.
leg
:

Man

with votive

votive feet visible, affixt to the wall.


pi. xi.

relief

It represents unique. a bearded man, who holds in both hands a colossal leg, nearly as big as himself, with a thick varicose vein, which may be
is

which

AM xviii.,

anatomically correct, but does not look it. He is evidently offering this in the shrine, for a pair of votive feet can be seen 7 inside a recess of the wall
.

Girard

BCH

ii.

68

ff.

mentions
5

See Cat. Nat. Mus. 1462.

three only of this type.


'Apx- 1885, p. 9, pi. 2.
2 3

See also

'E<p.

CIA

ii.

1509

of a larger scene.

perhaps a fragment See Cat. Nat. Mus.

AM xxi.
BCH
'

290, xviii. 241.


:

1335.
6
7

xvi. pi. vi.

'Ep^to/cpdr^s avi-

0t]KV A<TK\TJ1TIW. 4 CIA ii. 1445 Hv66dwpos Al6a\ldr)s

AM xviii. 242. AM xviii. 235,


wv

pi.

xi.:

....wv rev-

|a

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.

223

From

the

Inventories

it

is

clear

that similar reliefs or

of gold or silver, were equally common. This repousses, kind of course were sure to go into the melting-pot when hard

made

times came, or to be carried off by a Sulla or a Brennus indeed, they were melted down each year to make room for others so
;
:

no surprise that none have survived the changes and the chances of two thousand years. Those we read of bore the same general character as those I have described. There were usually figures of one or more worshippers some2 times the god stands with them but no further description of
that
feel
1
;
,

we need

the scene
3
.

is

given.

One

or

two are said to be

in

little cell

or

shrine They were generally inscribed with the names of the the figure on the relief is always of the same sex as the offerers dedicator, except where it is given on another's behalf and in
;
;

one case at least the worshipping figures are expressly identified The figures were intended then to reprewith the dedicators 4
.

They were therefore made to order, same sort are made in Italy to-day. Considerably over a hundred reliefs or chasings are mentioned in the lists and they are not only offered singly, but sometimes one person gives two, four, six, or as many as fifteen 5 The
sent or recall the dedicators.
as votive paintings of the
;
.

pious Sibylla probably did not consecrate all her fifteen at one time, but we may take her to be a chronic sufferer, whose faith rose triumphant after every relapse. The same practice held at other shrines whose
lists

the Hero Physician, where a


(4)

have been spared by time as that of number of reliefs are mentioned 6


;
.

Miscellaneous.

Heracles,

we

learn,

his hand, built a


Av<n/jAx v
century.

being healed of a wound in the hollow of 7 temple to Asclepius Cotylean Unfortunately


.

'Axapj/evs.

No

4th Early such indication of the

CIA

ii.

766 4

cp.

75

Trp6ffuiiroi>

interior of a shrine is

known on
see
fig.

the

/juKpbv lv KaXidSt. 4 CIA ii. 835

-rtiros

/j-tyas

Kard-

other
'E</>.

reliefs,
.

but one
3o

is
:

seen on a vase,
33.

HOLKTOS, Zveuri Trpocrevxbv-evoi KaXXto-rw,

'A PX 1890, pi. 7

'A06/3^Tos.
5

So in 766, the formula


835
403.
19. 7.
54
.

is

CIA

ii.

835

TIJTTOS

-y/*a/CTOs, irpdff-

6 deiva tv Tri.vaidi$.

wirov yvvaiK&s irpofffvxofitvrjs.


2

CIA

ii.

835 31

T^TTOS

Kard/uiKTOj,

6
7

CIA CIA

ii.

ii.

tv Jt tvi 8ebs Kal irpoffVX^>/J'i>o3.

Paus.

iii.

224
for

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


our
faith, in

the days of Heracles Asclepius was not yet

two patients showed their gratitude a new each temple for Asclepius, whom they thus by building One was Archias, who built introduced into their own places.
born.
in historical times

But

a temple at Pergamus, when a strained limb had been healed 1 the other, Phalysius of Naupactus, who received his sight in a
;

miraculous manner, which those who wish may see set forth by 2 Altars Pausanias in the last paragraph of his wonderful book
.

3 are dedicated to this god as to others, but late Asclepius, like other gods, received a vast

number

of odd-

ments which

it

is

impossible fully to classify.


for

with the temple just named, are given


others for their ideal
;

Some of them, their own value


of both

others again partake

kinds.
4

Amongst
which
it is

these

now and then we meet with

surgical instruments

if

the surgeon dedicated, they belong to another class, but

possible that the patient may have done so, on the same principle as he might dedicate his doctor's portrait or the image of the saviour god. The conception is crude, no doubt,
is not enough to exclude it. More natural is the a dedication of which something which the feeling suggests 5 has used or worn whose sores were cured at Pandarus, patient

but that

who left his bandage behind him hanging upon the and the lame woman who left her crutch by a healing 7 spring act on the same principle as the soldiers who dedicate
Epidaurus,
wall 6
, ,

a worn-out helmet.
different,

The
;

and

less

obvious

offering of a trinket or but it is difficult to see

reason there could be for keeping three pairs 8 or a cloke 9 slippers in the shrine of Asclepius
,

garment is what other of women's


,

a leather

Paus.

ii.

26. 8.

of magic.
;

Paus.

x. 38.

13

the remains deff.

6 '

Cures 3339 53

scribed in
8
4

AH iv.
'

22

Anth. Pal.

vi.

203.

St Giovanni

ECU xiii.
nrjXat

304 (Asia Minor). 64 probes,' CIA ii. 836


is

e
;

Paolo at Venice and St Nicolo at


half full of crutches,
8

per-

Verona are

haps
often

KadeTTjp vd\ivos or SidXitfos,

which
it

CIA

ii.

766
III.

30

occurs,

the

instrument for

Kflwv to

fetf-y??

viroSrm&rtav ywaiThese are not stated


;

emptying the bladder, though

may

be votive, nor the next

but of

be a necklace (Pollux v. 98). 5 This is not the same thing as the


dedication of garments or rags by

course they would have no inscription

on them,
9

way

CIA

ii.

766

18
.

DISEASE
bottell 1 ,
.

AND CALAMITY.

225

When Myrrhine dedicates together a soft pillow 2 " a female trunk and a bangle, on behalf of herself and her boy,"
.

not to see a relation between the bangle and the 8 none and so simple as that he should have worn it boy; Whether any such thought were in the worshipper's mind or whether the pious offer them simply as the most precious things they had, we find a great quantity of jewellery and ornaments, of gold and of silver, of brass and even of iron. The ornamental head-dress of wire 4 bracelets and armlets,
it is difficult
,

serpent-bangles, earrings, mirror, fan, unguent-box; fingerrings of all sorts, and engraved gems or cylinders; sard and
5 all these appear, some jasper, stones like the sea ," crystals of them again and again. The pushing snob in Theophrastus " dedicates a brass finger-ring to Asclepius, and wears it down

"

by his eternal oilings and burnishings "; but many folks offer their brass or iron trifle with a full heart, and poor
to a wire
6

surely with acceptance.

be assumed
bowls of
all

No such personal reference can fairly the numerous oil-flasks and horns, cups and 7 Some indeed, as sorts, which occur in the lists
for
.

the Thericlea, are of special make, or perhaps bought out of the income of a dead man's bequest, as has been suggested but most will have been given for their value. The same may be
;

true of a wooden seat, if this be votive 8 So with the rarer 9 as a a such or small scraper things tripod with chain and
. :

CIA CIA CIA


/cat

ii.

766 33 766 M

XiJ/c vOos

<r/cirrCvT).

scription such as Kpovov


vocative.)
4

iral,

a simple

ii.
ii.

TrpoffKe<pd\aiov epeovv.
cru>/jt.a

835. 47
6

ywaucbs

/cat

KeKpv<f>a\os.
5

irepiffKfXidiov

avtOriKev

Mvppivy

vTrtp

CIA

ii.

835

Xi'0os

0aXa<nroet5?7S

avTrjs

TOV waidiov.

Compare
:

Aris-

67

XtddpLov ffTpoyyvXov did\evKov.


6

tides xlviii. 27.


after
de'iv

472

in the
for

vision,

Theophrast.

Mi/c/xx^iXoTt^tcw

Kal

certain
8e
Kal

directions
crw/xaros

sacrifice,

dvadeis 5<x/cTi)\iov ^aX/coOy

&

TV

'Acr/cXTjciXet-

TOV

avTov irapa-

wieiy TOVTOV eKTpifieiv ari\in><2v Kal


(f>eiv 6<nr)[j.tpai.

aurypias TOV TravTbs- ciXXd yap flvai TOUTO ipyudef TOVTO fj.tv yap 5rj irapitvai /xot, curl 5e TOVTOV TOV 5a/cr^fj-veiv virep

One who gave a bowl


Opbvos
v\ivos

at

Oropus
i.

was Ptolemy Philopator, IGS


8

303 59

TV\IOV ov

(j>6povv Trepie\6fjLei>ov

avaOflvai

CIA

ii.

766.

T<> Te\fff(p6pij}.

TO yap avTb

irateiy wffTrep

<TT\eyyls (perhaps head-dress): there

Tbv SaKTv\ov afobv trpod^v eiriypdif/ai 5 ets TTJI> ff<pevd6ft]v TOV oaKTvei

an

another in Oropus, also a colander, a basket of metal, and a lamp with


is

\iov, K.p6vov Traf.


rrjpiav elvai.
(I

Tavra

TTOLOVVTI

ata-

three wicks.

have met with no

in-

R.

15

226
1

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


;

cauldron complete
or of Aphrodite here as elsewhere.
.

or small shields

8
,

or little statues of Victory


for

Almost anything would do

an

offering,

very great, and and all sorts of drachma, tetradrachm, they comprise triobol, intermediate sums up to 153 drachms and 125 tetrachms offered
of coins
is

The number

each

sum by one

person.
4
.

The commonest

What a four-drachma piece coins were kept carefully apart like the other offerings doubtless they were used eventually, but for a time at least there
;

the tetrachm, strikes one as odd is, that these


coin
is

So I have seen in a Greek they remained in little heaps. church coins affixt to the face of an image with wax 8
.

of one case, where the god of Quite unique bids an to a silver sow in memory unbeliever dedicate Epidaurus
is

the

humour

of her folly 6 from subtile


.

The worshipper's thoughts are generally very far and none of them would have understood the humble devotee, who in a chapel above the Pool of Bethesda
;

dedicates his heart to the Virgin "in gratitude for his conversion from Protestantism 7 ."

a good

As regards deliverance from many instances recorded.


.

peril of other kinds, there are

Alcathous,

when he slew the

lion of Cithaeron, built a temple to Apollo and Artemis in 8 On hearing of the death of Polycrates, Maeandrius Megara

his

an altar to Zeus of Freedom 9 The famous chest of Cypselus was dedicated to Zeus at Olympia by
successor

erected

his family, as the means of a notable deliverance, he having been hidden in a chest to the saving of his life 10 Themistocles built a shrine to Dindyrnene, who in a dream had warned
.

fnirvpov.
2

CIA

ii.

835 w

dffirlSey

rpets,

with

6 Sanctuary of St Michael in Mandamadhos, Lesbos. The figure is a black

lite,

representations of a horseman, a hopand Theseus facing the Minotaur;

image, not a picture. 6 Cures 59 s9 vv dpyvptov


TTJS d/xa&'as.
7

vir6(ju>aij.a.

datridiov in the shrine of

Hero
a
:

latros,

no.

403.

There was

Sarmatian
Paus.
15
,

M. Thomas, Two Years

in Pales-

corselet
21. 5.
8
ret

in the Asclepieum

i.

tine, 133.
s

paus<
Paus.

j.

4i. 3>
:

fuclSia

CIA
14 .
i.

ii.

766

'Atppo10

i\ev6fpios
v.

Herod,
17.
3.

iii.

142.

dtffia

Illl

836

There are

viKijr-ftpia.

Perhaps

the

in Oropus,

IGS

Treasury
cause.

at

Delphi

had the same

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.

227
return

him
from
in

of a plot to
v

murder him

1
.

His sons

also, after their

placed a memorial picture containing his portrait in 2 Pericles dedicated to Athena Health a statue the Parthenon
exile,
.

workman who had fallen from a scaffolding, but Athena too was the goddess whose help Lycurgus acknowledged for the sight of his eye, and built her a temple 4 So no doubt in under the title Optilitis or Ophthalmitis

memory

of a

was saved 3

other less

common

deliverances.

Parmeniscus,

we know, could

not laugh until he saw the wooden image of Leto at Delos ; and it is odd that one Parmeniscus in the fifth century
dedicates at

Delos a magnificent crater of silver 5 Battus consulted the Delphic oracle about his stutting tongue 6 and
.

it

would be strange help in that matter


beautiful,

if
;

he were not prepared to acknowledge or if the ugly babe, whom Helen's spirit
.

made

wife, had no thank-offering to make 7 Gratitude for any favour was cause sufficient for Amphictyon erected an altar to Dionysus Orthus, because he had taught him so simple a feat as to
;

and who after became Ariston's

mix wine with water 8


if childish

What a difference between this simple, the base flattery which deified the and thought, mistress of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and built a temple to
.

9 Aphrodite Lamia
1

Plut.

Them. 30.
i.

%opos 5t

'

'

<t>T)<nv

K^LKT^OVO. rbv AOyvatuv


Aiovfaov
rijv

'

Paus.

1.

doubtless not his

/Sao-iX^a, fj.a66vra irapa

rov
Kal

portrait alone.
3

otvov Kpa<riv,

irpurov Kepdvai.

dio

Plut. Per. 13.

Pliny,

NH xxii.

44

opdobs

yevfoOai

TOVS

dvOpwirovs

OVTW
Kafjar-

appears to confuse this statue with the famous splanchnoptes, a slave


represented in the act of inspecting the entrails of a victim.
4

Tvlvovras irpbrepov virb rov

aKpdrov

TO^VOVSfj.6v

Kal Sia rovro IdptiffavOai /3wti>

'OpOov Aiovtiaov

TQ
d'

TUJV

wpw^

lepQi-

avrai yap Kal rbv


KTpt<f>ovcri.
vti/jKpais

rrja

dfj.irt\ov

Kapirw
TO
Kal

Plut.

Lycurgus
xv.

11

Paus.
Ath.

iii.

ir\ri<riov

avrov Kal TCUS


vTr6fj.vrjfj.a

18. 2.
5

PW/JLOV

tdfi/j.ei>,

BCH

127;

cp.

614 A

(quoted by Homolle). The motive is familiar in folk-tales; see Grimm, no. Zeitschr. des Ver. f. Volksk. 4, 121
;

T?7 J Kpdcrews yap Aiovfaov rpotpol al

xpu^" 01 *
The

Trotoifytei'os
vtip,<t>ai

\tyovrat.

offering

epithet '0/>06s shows how such an was regarded as a memorial of

iii.

Mallorquines,

456 ; Alcover, Aplich de Rondayes ii. 193 Rand, Legends


;

the whole process. 9 Polemon ap. Ath.


KoXa/cetfopres

vii.

292 A

9i?/3cuoi

of the Micmacs, 34. 6 Herod, iv. 155.


7
8

rbv

Ar)/J.rfrpioi>

Idpijcravro

vabv 'A<ppodlrr)s Aaftlas'


avrri TOV Arjfj.r}Tptov.
ii.

tpu/j.tvr)

8t

j]v

Herod,

vi. 61.

Philochorus ap. Ath.

38 c

<i>i\6-

152

228

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


Most of the records of
this class refer to peril

by

sea,

and

Britomartis fishing with they begin with legendary times. nets fell into them, and being saved by Artemis, built a temple Daedalus delivered from of Artemis Dictymna in Crete
1
.

the sea erected a statue to Heracles at Thebes".


after

The Argonauts,
,
.

their perilous voyage, built a temple to Athena 3 and Arion dedicated the Argo herself to Poseidon at the Isthmus 4

on his miraculous escape placed at Taenarum a group repre8 Diomede, who escaped senting himself upon the dolphin
.

shipwreck after the

sack
;

of Troy, built a shrine to Apollo

6 Epibaterios in Troezen Hera in Samos, as the

Agamemnon
means

dedicated his rudder to


deliverance 7
.

of his

In

the

Odyssey Eurylochus vows a temple


safe 8
.

to the

Sun

if

he return

Herostratus voyaging from Cyprus, and having in his possession a small figure of Aphrodite, off Naucratis a storm
;

he prayed to his divinity, and the sea fell calm, and when he came safe ashore he dedicated the figure in Aphrodite's temple
arose
in that place 9 The idea of Divine protection at sea is thus regarded as It might be natural, but the deity is not always the same.
.

"

saving fortune
;

"

who

alighted upon the ship, and steered


,

it

12 13 11 might be Poseidon or the Cabiri or the Dioscuri who came to be confused with them a local protector, Apollo 14 Athena 15 or Aphrodite of the Fair Voyage 16 or the Delian Brizo 17

safe 10

it

Schol. Arist. Frogs 1356.

2 3 4 8

Paus.

ix. 11. 4.
iii.

10

Aesch. Ag. 644 rv^n


/XT;T'

&

ffWT

Paus.

24. 7.

6t\ovff' efafcro u>s

ev op/xoi
Trpds npa.Ta.l-

Apollod. i. 9. 27. Paus. iii. 25 Herod,


;

i.

24

an

^d\r)v tx eiv M^ T> ^o/cetXat Xeow yBbva..

epigram written for this is in Aelian Hist. An. xii. 45, Cougny, Appendix
to

"

"
1S 14

Apollod. i. Anth. Pal.

9. 27.
vi.

245.

Anthology i. 3. 8 Paus. ii. 32. 2.


7

Roscher, i. 1171. Paus. ii. 32. 2 CIA


;

iii.

236.

Callim.

Hymn
346

to

Art.

228 and

15

Od.

ii.

267, etc.
.

Schol.
8

i6

Od.

xii.

irlova. v-rfav rev^ofjifv, Iv

17

Stephani, Covipt Eendus 1881. 134. Ath. viii. 335 B TOUTTJ ovv \T-Q
Ovwaiv
<r\-d0as
at

Se

/te

Oeiptv dyd\fJ.ara iro\\a nal tcrOXd.


xv.

orav
O.VTTJ

AT/XtdSes
TrXijpetj
TO-tiry irepl

Polycharmus ap. Ath.


'A<f>po5irr]s
r-g

676

A,

irdvrwv

dyaXfidrtov
Xa-iov
e/s Trjv

ffiri9afudtoi>
jfei

dp-

irXriv

Ixdvwv, Sid rb tCxe<r&ai


Kal
virtp
rrjs

T^x v tl

&v-qadfj.fvos

<pipwv

re

irdvrwv

TUV

irXoluv

yavKpanv ...dvaOth

rrj 'AtppodiT-Q

DISEASE

AND CALAMITY.
.

229

Hermes 2 the Theban Heracles 8 But in any case, the rescued mariner must needs make his acknowledgment*. InHera
1
,

2 belong to the same class Asclepius himself was worshipt as a protector from peril in 5 and here I see not an extension of the older idea, general

scriptions

which record a

safe return

but a survival of the general protective powers of the Hero as In Syros offerings are made to him for protection Saviour.
from shipwreck 6 and even in Epidaurus he is acknowledged as a god with more powers than medicinal 7 Among the Athenian reliefs is one in which a man, together with his family, renders thanks to Asclepius and Hygieia for being ransomed out of the
, .

hands of the enemy 8 and the fragment of another, which shows only the remains of two horses' heads, may be part of a scene
;

which depicted the devotee in danger of being dasht over the From the fourth century we rocks in a runaway carriage 9 have a dedication of a portrait to Pallas for deliverance " from
.

10

great
1

dangers
iv.
1.

."

From Camirus comes


,

another,

offered

to

Callim. Art. 223 and Schol.

ToLvvv TIVWV TJKovffa \fy6vTwv ws avrois Kal Oopv^ov/j^vois (pavels 6 Oeos


tSpfi;et>,

CIA

373 208

p. 204:
'

'EP/J.TJI

aya\fj.a "Eipfj.offrpa.Tov

Hrepoi dt tprjoovffiv ws Trpdyd/co-

ZaTyffefi.

TroXXds

6t]<rd/j,evos irfaijas
iii.

5th

/j.ara

&TTO, Ka.Tup9w<Tav irrofrfJKau

cent.

Collitz,

3776 VOOTOV

XovOrfffavTes TOV 0eov...d\\d KOU


/J.O.Ta

ao<f>lffrjfjLUV

WVKTIKO. TTVKT7] Tivl T&V Ifi


irpoenrelv

3 4

Paus.

ix. 11. 4.
vii.

lyKaOevSovTL

\^yeTai...fia6^-

Diphilos ap. Ath.


iffrov

292 A

/jLaTa.

dt

i]fjuv

Kai /uArj Kal

\6yuv

VTTO-

vavK\Tjpos airo6vei TIS evxyv, aTro@a\ui>

Otcreis

Kat

irpbs TOVTOIS evvo^^aTa,

avrci

TOV
77

77

TTT/SdXia ffvvrptyas

j'ftis,

Kal TTJV
6
7

\tt;iv.
f.

<f>oprC t$-tppi\l/'

virtpavT\os yevbfj.evos.

'M-fivaiov iv. 20, no. 33

There
at

is

a story of drunken youths

Cavvadias, Fouilles, no.


iii.

2. 20,

7.

in Acragas,
sea,

who thought they were


all

57; Collitz,
8

3340 20

and cast

the

furniture

BCH
ii.

i.

157. 4;
<rw#ets

AZ

xxxv. 152. 32

out of the windows.

The town guard


cried

CIA
9

1474

K rw/u iroX^/juav Kal

came up and they


7TJ%w^tey
5<i)vos,

av

\i/j.4vos

airaXXayfrTes

TOffofrrov

K\V-

CIA

ii.

1441

TU>/J.

ireTpuv

(TWTTJpas i)/xas /nerd. v


TYJ

T&V 6a\afffftuv
idpv<r6fj.eda
:

...... v

ffwOels 5

'AffK\-r)irit,

TOVTO

d.vt-

Sai/J.6vuv
at'o-i'ws

irarplSi

u>s

0T|Ka

...... v ts T^/j.evos

ij/juv
ii.

eiri<j>a.v{vras

Timaeus

ap.

The last word

TWI SiSov evrv\iav. I have restored. Similar

Ath.

early inscr. of Cephallenia appears to record a deliverance Collitz, ii. 660 Mvdcrios
:

37 E.

An

scenes of runaway horses are common among the votive pictures of St Nicolo,

Verona.
10

KXedptos ffduffrpei Ath. Sc. 276.


5

(?

= (TWT%H);
(Keil)
p.

cp. Cat.

CIA

ii.

1427

ffuOels

<?/e

(jieydXw

KivStivwv eiKOvo. Tfybf ffTTJffev Avoifj.ax.os

Aristides

xlii.

337

17577

IloXXdSi rpiToyevei.

230

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
.

A wayfarer in Hecate and Sarapis on a similar occasion ford in a river, set Phrygia, who escaped drowning at a perilous up a memorial to Zeus, Poseidon, Athena, and all the gods*. Three persons with Roman names give thanks in Lesbos to God on High for deliverance after a tempest*. Eutychus, who may have been a skipper, returns thanks at Delos to Fairweather Zeus and the Egyptian deities, on behalf of himself In Delos also, and to Anubis, and his son and all on board 4 Demetrius of Sidon dedicates a part of the ship's deck, which we may suppose to have saved his life when the ship went to
.

pieces

There

is

a relief with a boat upon

it,

dedicated to the
6
.

Dioscuri, which possibly is a seaman's thank-offering second century after Christ, Artemidorus and his

In the

dedicate a
at sea 7
.

relief,

representing a

sacrificial scene, for

family deliverance

Perhaps a
sailor's
9

silver trireme in the


8
.

Delian shrine

may be a
silver

thank-offering

In the
10
,

same

treasury were

and a beak there was also in the Athens 11 No doubt the images of Calm and of the Sea, which were dedicated to Poseidon at the 12 A dedication Isthmus, had reference to perils upon the deep " Poseidon saviour of an admiral Pantaleon to ships and to by 13 was found at Kertch of Some of mistress Aphrodite ships" the paintings in the temple of Phocaea may have been thank14 offerings of seafarers, which depicted perils on the deep
anchors and a ship's beak
shrine of

Hero latrus

at

IGI

'

i.

BCH

iii.

(Rhodes) 742. 479 M?)m Adou Ail Kal


Kal
irdffiv

r\f/in48ui>...ovi>eKdoi eirfrevffa.*

I'Seii/

dX6s

&cro0t yaiav. this relief


iii.
:

The

tree

still

appears in

Hoffeidwm Kal 'AG-qva


ei>xapiffT-/ipioi>,

0ews

and burning
:

altar.

CIA

Kal iroTa/j.w

Evpu KtvdvveurQ>
:

170.

ffas Acoi SiaffwBels tv


3

rwSe

T6wu.

BCH vi. 32, line 31


an ornamental

Homolle takes

IGI

ii.

(Lesbos) 119
tv

(names)
vif/lcrru

xxp7!'

this for
"
10

vase.

es

ireXdyu
22

flew

BCH vi.
Paus.

47, line 168.

(sic). 4

BCH vi. 328

Zei)j Ovpiot,

Sarapis,
12 13

BCH. vi. 130. CIA ii. 403 72


ii.

Isis,

Kal

Anubis, Harpocrates, vwtp iavrov TOU vlov Eu/36\ov Kal virtp ruv

1. 9.

Stephani,
:

Comptes Rendus 1881.


'

ir\ol'fofj.^vuv irdvTiav.
5

134
1171: 'Aplt

Ilo<reiduin ffwfflvey,

A.<f>po8irri

vav-

BCH vi.

340 ".
i.

apxiSi.

Figured in Boscher,
:

Herod,

i.

164; cp. Anth. Pal.

vi.

yevldas 'ApiffToytvida Ato07c6/>ots evxdv. 7 verses addrest to Sybel 362

221.

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.

231

sacrificial relief
.

like cause 1

dedicated to Poseidon is probably due to a Another from Halicarnassus, now published for
:

time, represents three scenes carved on a marble drum two seamen in a boat under full sail; (2) Poseidon on a galley, resting on an oar, and holding a dolphin, and a (3) Asclepius, Hygieia, and worshipper kneeling before him 2 the serpent, with a worshipper between Of other occasions I may mention a few examples. The famous work of Lysippus, Alexander's Hunting in Delphi, was dedicated by Craterus who had saved the king's life from a 3 lion Deliverance from earthquake is also recorded 4 and deliverance in general terms 6 The people of Aegae build a " temple to Apollo Chresterius, for having been saved by the

the

first

(1)

consul

Publius

Servilius 6 ."

Prayer

and

thanksgiving
.

are

offered for deliverance from poverty 7 or for general goodwill 8

One

allegorical dedication

may

be added.

After the ex-

pulsion of the Peisistratids (510), the people set up a bronze lioness on the Acropolis, in memory of Leaena Aristogeiton's
mistress,

death 9

who had been tortured and found faithful unto The lion we have already seen allegorically used of

the courage of brave

never was more appropriate. Whilst athletic victories gave rise to the glorious odes of
;

men 10 and

it

AM xvi.

140

Horeidai'i evxfy-

ae/tv/iv

IGSI

1030.

6
tt-

IK

peydKuv

In possession of Mr W. R. Paton, to whose kindness I owe the photo2

Kw&tvuv
K
6

iroXXdicis,

997

vdaruv, 2564

iro\t}j.ov,

all late.

graphs. Efiir\oid aoi evTuxr) ( = evrijx.fi) Qe6dov\e' Trepl (?) idiov \[/v%aplov TW
OToXo; dv^drjKa.
3

Bahn-Schuchhardt,
dafjios

Alt.

vonAigai,
2epoi/t\/w

47: 6

'Air6\\tavi XprjffTTjpiwi xa.pivir6

arripiov
;

cruOeh

HoirXiu

Plut. Alex. 40
;

Pliny,

NH
;

xxxiv.

IloirXtw vlu
f 8
9

TU

dvdvirdrw.
vi.
vi.
;

19. 64

BGH xxi. 598, where


is

the inscr.
xxii. 566.

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal. Paus.
i.

190, 231, 245.


143. Plut. de Garrul. 8.

recently recovered

given

The motive has more


gratitude.
4 5

of pride than of

23. 2

When
later
;

the

Aetolian
dedicated

confederacy

in

IGI i. 23 perd rbv ffet<rfj.6i'. CIA iii. 134 (Mother of the Gods)
xx. 107

an image of Cylon, who freed the Eleans from the


days
tyrant Aristotimus (Paus. vi. 14. 11) or the Achaeans did the like for Philo;

BCH
Aii

Phrygia wepl ffunjpias


',

ppovrwvn evxfy
;

IGS
;

134

IGI
tic

i.

914, etc.

3416, iii. 1. Anth. Pal. vi. 109


i.

(nymphs).
0eis

GIG

6810 (Germany)
Kal
d/j-erp^Tuv

<rw-

poemen, after he slew the tyrant; we have little more than honorific
statues.
10

fj-eyaXw

ftdXa.

ev^dfievos dv^BrjKa Feviov eiK&va

Above,

p. 144.

232

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


mark
as
in litera-

Pindar, gratitude for deliverance has left little ture. The earlier dedications are as simple

they could

possibly be, and the vast majority of the objects described in this chapter were ticketed merely with the names of the giver and the god, or the giver alone. Verse dedications, so common in other cases, are rare in this, and I know of none which are very early. We have met with a few upon the offerings in Athens and one is quoted in the Epidaurian Cures'. In the sixth book of the Anthology there are only two dedications to
1
,

4 3 On the Asclepius and some half dozen references to disease other hand, the records of other perils are many. Dionysius alone was saved from shipwreck out of forty persons, by virtue
,
.

of a

charm which he
of the

tied

on his thigh

he now dedicates an

image

8 saving "tumour ."

Diogenes perhaps cannot

afford to

buy an
.

offering,

but dedicates his cloke to Cabirus,

who being invoked in a storm saved him from the perils of the 6 The hair might also be offered on such occasions 7 great deep
.

Shepherds delivered from a ravening lion dedicate to Pan, and 8 hang upon an oak tree, a representation of the adventure
.

epigrams, which describe how an emasculate votary of Cybele is saved from a lion, and dedicates to the goddess his trappings with locks of 9 his hair A father who had shot a snake which was coiling
variation

on

this

theme gives

several

about his son's neck, hangs up his quiver on an oak to Alcon 10 A mother thanks Aphrodite Urania for taking care of her
.

thirsty traveller led by the croak of a frog to a of water, dedicates the frog's image in bronze at this place 12 Self-conscious literary art plays with this idea, but spring
. .

children 11

Above, p. 209 e.g. Cures 3339 7 01) /tye0os irivaicos Oavv, d\\a rb 6tiov, wtvfl' frij wj
ey
Kaffrpi K\eu> /3d/>oj, (are fry/ecu

6
7

Anth. Pal.

vi.

245.

Lucian,

irtpl

ruv

tirl

mady

avvbv-

TUV, init.
8
9
10

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal.

vi. vi. vi.


vi.

221.

Ori,

/"

3
4

Anth. Pal.

vi.

Wi?*e 1)7*77. 147, 330.

217
331. 340.

220, 237.

Anth. Pal.
Pal.

see below, chapter vi.


vi.
5

Exclusive of childbirth, for which See Anth. Pal.


166

n Anth.
12

Anth.Pal.

vi. 43.

There
(Dar.

is

actually
Sagl.

191, 300.

a votive frog
vi.

known

and

Anth. Pal.
of

Vc*a

TTJS K^\?;S.

Sacrifices

animals for protection

Donarium), inscribed 'A/xaw ZcwAov Bofoovi or Bodawn, in


fig.

2538,

s.v.

upon the deep, 231, 245.

retrograde writing, Collitz,

iii.

3159,

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.

233

demus

hardly improves upon it. Thus Callimachus makes his Euoffer a salt-cellar to the Samothracian gods, in token of
1

deliverance from "storms of debt

."

There remains yet one class of dedications to be mentioned, those connected with trials by law, vengeance, imprisonment,
slavery and the like. When Heracles punisht Hippocoon, he built a temple to Athena
Orestes, acquitted before the of the Areopagus guilt of murder, dedicated 8 learn that those an altar on the spot
2

Axiopoinos

We
;

who were acquitted in that court used to and the occasion sacrifice to the Eumenides
would be a
.

fitting

one

for

a votive

offer-

4 Hypermestra, who had disregarded ing her father's command to kill Lynceus her husband and was brought to trial for the

FIG. 35. Votive frog.

Daremberg
Saglio, s.v.

same, on being acquitted set up a statue of Victorious Aphrodite, and built a shrine of
5
.

and Donafig.

rium, p. 375, 2538.

Artemis surnamed Persuasion In the temple of Athena Alea at Tegea were fetters hung, which the Spartans had once brought for the enslavement of the Tegeans but
;

being defeated, they had themselves to wear them, and they 6 were afterwards preserved in memory of the great deliverance 7 There was a similar memorial on the Acropolis of Athens and
. ;

in Phlius prisoners set free used to hang up their fetters in a sacred grove 8 The idea of memorial is clear, but with other as.

sociations, in a story told of Croesus. When Cyrus proffered him a boon, he requested that his chains might be sent to Apollo

IPI i. 357 from the Peloponnese)


(

The

Anth. Pal.
Paus.
iii.
i.
i.

vi.

301 \finuves davtwv.

was probably a local hero, addrest by an epithet appropriate to the occadeity


sion,

2 3 4

15. 6.

Paus.
Paus.

28. 5.
28. 6.

or the personification of

some

Compare Aristoph.

by-dwelling spirit assumed. Frankel, without authority, identifies him with


Apollo.

Plutus 1180.
8 6 7

Paus.

ii.

19. 6, 21. 1.

Those who wish may believe with Frankel that the frog was likely to
please Apollo, because the creature is " endowed with " seherische

Herod, Herod,

i.

66
77

Paus.
:

viii. 47. 2.

v.

of

ransomed Boeoprisoners, about

tian

and Chalcidian
Paus.
ii.

Kraft

B.C. 507.
8

(Jahrb. i. 48 foil.) TWV. See fig. 35.

4ft^ 5e

tvo-x\ovv-

13. 4.

234
at Delphi,

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


and that the god might be asked why he had
1
.

so

deceived him

dedications to Nemesis show the goddess trampling a prostrate man, and beside her a serpent and a griffin upon in one of them she is winged, and holds a wheel. They come
;

Two

from Gortyn and Peiraeus. The inscription which is found on A late relief the latter does not imply any special occasion 2 3 is dedicated to Nemesis as a thank-offering for freedom.
.

curious group of inscriptions, dating from the end of the

fourth century or thereabouts, refer to the dedication of a thank4 When a slave had acquired his freedom, offering by freedmen whether by purchasing himself or by his master's grace, he was
.

expected to perform certain duties to his old master, chief of The enfranchised now which was to choose him for patron 8
.

took the position of a fterot/co?, and could engage in business. If he failed to perform his bounden duty, an action at law

would under
the
it

lie

against

this law,

him 6 and won


.

If the former
his case, the

man was

forever free of

man was sold From our obligation.

master prosecuted him if he lost,


;

inscriptions

would appear that the slave on winning his case presented a Here we have lists of the bowls kept silver bowl to Athena. in the treasury, which all appear to have been inscribed with the necessary particulars they would serve as an official They were periodically melted down register of the fact. 7 The into silver hydriae, and a record made of the names connexion of these lists with the &IKT] anroa-raa-iov is shown by the recurring word aVo^trytuy or d-nofywyovcra, and by one
;
.

allusion to
1

the

trial

8
.

Men, women, boys, and


XaiWoio-i TVTTOIS.

girls

appear

Nicolaus Damascenus (Tauchnitz), alrovfjuil <re dovvai fioi Tr^/i^cu p. 11


:

The

voice of Artemi-

IIu0u>Se ras

iredas rdffSe,

/cai
fj.e

rbv Oebv
rrjs

dorus will be heard again. 3 GIG Add. vi. 6834 Aei>0e/>fas x aP iff Typta. rr\i Ne/*^<r

tpeffOat ri waBCev e'&irdTa


/lots e"irdpa.s ffrpareveiv
fj.evov.

xPr ff ~
l

'Pafivovvr66fv N^aipa

e"irl (re

ws

irepieffb-

'ABrjvaia xa/>""o/3X^0a/)o$ dveO^Kev.


*

('8TovavT<j>TddedKpo0ivia.Trtfj.iru.
xxii.

CIA

ii.

768
is

2
el/j.1

BCH
fiv,

599

ff.,

pi.

xv., xvi.

a7reXeu0e/>os,

the

775 4e\ev6epiicfa, not word used. See


iv.

us

iffopq.^,

ytfj.effis

p-tpovuv

AM in.
6 7 8

172,

AJA

154.

d'
i

0vfj.w, SepKOfj^va

dvd Kka^ov del wo\vdvaruv <pv\ov del


(reyw^s
dvi)p

Sixt) diroffTOfflov.

d\\d
'

fj.e

Tevas

CIA CIA

ii.

720 A

1,

729 A 8

11.

ii.

776

diroffrafflov.

The

Aprtntdupos

ffrqffev eir'

evx^dis

formula

is,

e.g.

Evrvxk

Kair^Xtj, diro-

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.


as parties; they follow all sorts of occupations
1
,

235

shopman shop6
,

woman
One

2
,

farmer
the

3
,

hired
,

man
,

4
,

vinedresser
10
,

8
,

woolspinner
11
,

shoe12
.

maker 7 merchant 8 baker 9


,

of

inscriptions

secretary harpist fishmonger 13 The formula here is a puzzle


.

differs 14 , the citizen's

and the seems natural to assume that in these cases the citizen won his suit and for reasons,
in the nominative
other's in the accusative case.

name being

It

religious or legal,

An

same way. enfranchised slave's thank-offering for freedom comes from 15 Freed slaves at Epidaurus dedicated a seat in the Thessaly

commemorated the

fact in the

stadium 16

an

practices of the modern Greeks show in many respects instructive parallel to the ancient worship of the healing

The

gods.

Everyone has heard of the famous sanctuary of the Virgin at Tenos, but this is a quite modern foundation, and there are many local shrines less known but no less effective to
their end.

The most remarkable

of all

is

perhaps the Church

The panegyris falls at the of the Virgin at Ayassos in Lesbos. end of the Sarakoste fast, on August the fifteenth (old style), and thousands of persons assemble from the villages of Lesbos
Greek settlements within reach. The last night of 17 there is a service in the church, and kept as a vigil afterwards all the world dance and make merry, feasting their

and from
the fast

all

is

eyes on the red joints of meat which to-morrow they hope to consume, which in the meanwhile hang tempting on their
hooks, covered with pieces of gold
<f>vyov<ra

foil 18
9

and adorned with sprigs

"ZuffTpaTOv,
<j>ia\T),

~M.vriffiffTpa.Toi>,

'A\wTreKrj0ev,

ffTadfibv

H
is

768 16

10
;

111 apToiru>\^. 773 Tapi^oiruiK-ris. 772 773


ypa.fifia.Tfvs,

or

IlXivva

t/j,

Heipaiei

olxovffa

768.

u
Tevs.
12
13

769

vTrorypafj.ua-

Occasionally the prosecutor

a cor-

porate body, 768. Cp. Arist. Pint. 1179 6 (lev av TJKUV Zfiiropos i-Ovffev lepeibv TI
ffwOeis, 6 5t rts
1

/a0a/>wt56s.
B.
'ETTIKIJ-

772

av

5'iK^v airo<f>vyuv.

14

HoXvffTpaTos Ho\vffTpdT(ov)
"Swcriav

773 768

/caTTT/Xos.
/caTTTjXfc.

<piffios

2 3

4 5

768 7eu>p76s. 769 /juff6wT6s.

yewpydv ev 'H<|>arr(a(duv) oiKovvra, <f>id\T) H. ls Collitz i. 368 'A.ir\owi TenireiTa


16 17

'

Ai'erxiAis "ZaTvpoi e\tvdtpia.

6
7 8

773 anTre\ovpy6s. 772 Ta\a0t.ovpy6s. 772


773
'

IPI

i.

12191245

(late).

0KVTOT6(j.os.
tfLTTopos.

18

So Asclepius had his iravvv^ls. So the horns used to be gilded,


.

3 above, p. 13

236
of leaves.

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


Those who are
ill

and hope

for cure take care to

spend the night in the holy precinct. The church stands in a paved quadrangle, the sides being formed by buildings in two
stories arranged much like an English College or Inn. The upper floor opens upon a loggia, the lower directly upon the

the buildings consist of a long series of small cells, with for the priests, kitchens, stores, and other such necessary apartments. During the panegyris all the cells are
court
;

living rooms

filled

to

overflowing, the balconies


all

and the court

itself are

strewn with beds, each family with


food,

and

itself is

invaded

things needful. the first comers have taken


:

bundle of rugs, stores of Not only that, but the church


its

up

their abode

here, with their blankets

and cooking

pots,

and
:

line the side-aisles

and almost every square foot of the floor there in the church they sleep and next morning, when the priests march round in solemn procession, the sick ones throw their bodies across the
;

path that the priests may step over them. culous cures are said to be wrought here.

Every year miraSo too at Tenos,

where those who can find room pass the night in a little underground chapel which marks the site where the sacred picture of the Virgin was found. Other shrines have a local reputation, such as the remarkable sanctuary of St Michael of Mandamadhos, also in Lesbos, which can boast of possessing the only image used in the Greek Church, where images are unlawful. Hideous is the archangel, and black as a boot he is said to be
1
;

be complete, though to outsiders nothing is visible but the head. This curious exception to a strict rule suggests that St Michael has inherited the powers
of plaster,
to

made

and

and the form of an


the

earlier deity. But sickness is not confined to month of August and those who are so unlucky as to be sick when there is no panegyris to hand, are accustomed to
;

take up their abode in one of these holy quadrangles, or in the nearest monastery, there to remain until they are killed or cured.

The

priests pray over them regularly, and although no charge is made, the sufferers if cured naturally make what acknow-

ledgment they can


1

some an

offering of value, or

even a lock of
the.

have described him, with a photograph, in the Annual of


i.

British School

at Athena, vol.

DISEASE AND CALAMITY.


hair.

237

So

every

it is that all the holy places mentioned, and almost other church in the Levant 1 has its store of votive
,

These are dedicated not only for the cure of disease, but for escape from peril of every kind, In Tenos are a host of silver boats, smacks, especially at sea. barques, brigs, and steamers, modelled in the round, and hanging by strings from the lamps; or made of flat foil, and arranged 2 There are also human figures of all along the walls in rows and ranks: soldiers and sailors, men or women in European ages
offerings

in

silver.

and others with the Albanian petticoat and leggings, boys and girls, and babies in their cradles or in swaddling clothes, and cradles empty. Here is to be found every conceivable part of the body hand, ear, leg, heart, breast, whole body or half body naked animals horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, turkeys, fowls, and fish: coach and four, carriage and pair, horse and cart: trees,
dress
:

barrels, ears of corn

swords, scissors, fiddles, even keys

huts,

houses, manufactories with

smoking chimneys
:

3
.

Sometimes an

to represent a scene in one piece, a patient is represented lying in bed, with the family standing round; in another, a row of men stands, each holding his hat in his left

attempt

is

made

hand and placing his right hand to his breast, a crude method of expressing adoration 4 From time to time accumulations of
.

1 Especially the churches in seaports or fishing villages, often sacred to St Nicholas, the patron of sailors, whose icon hangs in every ship. The

"Epfj.oinr6\ei,
3

1884, p.

7).

In a collection of these which I

bought from the monastery of St Michael Panormites at Syme, occur


babies in swaddling following clothes; women, girls, or boys, the hands folded across the breast others

old cathedral at Athens, sacred to St

the

Eleutherios
vourite for

= Eileithyia?),
in labour.

is

fa-

women

Eings,

earrings, parts of the body, children,

and ships are found here.


2

holding up the right hand, the left laid upon the heart figures with
;

paddle-steamer
/cat

is

inscribed

the

left

hand or both hands

uplifted,

TrXoiapxos

TO

ir\-/jpufj.a

dr/j.oir\oiov

So

Iltrpov 4>o(TK6\ou 6 AeKe/j.j3piov 1892. in Psara, as the historian tells us

or both held by the sides (many of these very grotesque); others holding

of the treasure of St Nicholas'

church
:

bust;

a cross or a palm-branch ; head and eye or eyes, ear, teeth, arm,

before the Turks destroyed

it

jjffa.v

finger, leg, ribs,

and nondescript.

One
and
one

8\wv TUV TrXoidpxuv


dpyvpa...elxoi>
Se
ical

TO.

Tr\ola...irdvTa

&vefj.6fj.v\ov,

6v

figure is a girl with a swollen face, an expression of pain, holding

TV<J>\OS
TTJS

ns

("H./j.epo6ffia

2u/i-

hand
4

to her cheek.
reliefs, p. 219.

dXwo-ews

rwv ^appuv:

tv

Compare the

238

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

these things are melted down, and a large censer or lamp made out of them, or the proceeds used for the purposes of the church
1
.

So
and

far as I

for dedication in

have seen, paintings of this class are never used Greek lands, but they are very common in Italy;
.

for the sake of the ideas implied in them, it may be worth This is preserved in the while to examine one collection 2

entrance corridor of S. Nicolo in Verona, and consists of about one hundred pictures. All the pictures are much of a size they are oil paintings of ten to twelve inches square, and coarsely
;

Most of them belong to the eighteenth century, but painted. one bears date as late as 1892. They have on them usually an
inscription, the giver's name, the circumstances of his deliverance, and the letters, P. G. R., pro gratia recepta, or per grazia
ricevuta, with ex voto

and catastrophe.

appended. They depict all sorts of danger The commonest type is the patient in sick-

In bed, with or without the friends praying at the bedside. the air usually hovers the patron saint, or the Virgin some;

times a group of heavenly beings is seen in the clouds, and below others in the pangs of purgatory. We see a boy tumbling from a ladder; a child falling down stairs; a man run
over by a cart, or a cart falling over a precipice a building and so forth. Here are falls, cariying some workmen with it
;

shipwrecked mariners on a raft, while a boat rows up to rescue them. There is an attempted murder outside the amphitheatre at Verona, which is unmistakably portrayed in the back3 Two women and a man are welcomed by nuns at a ground convent door, and the legend informs us that they were led by
.

God's invisible hand*.

picture, curiously realistic, represents two scenes, which are placed together without division. In the first, a man drest in tail coat and tall hat sits in a dog-

One

cart

drawn by a runaway

horse.

He

looks horribly frightened,


tall

throws up his hands in despair, and his


The former is done I know at and Ayassos, and probably The latter is done at elsewhere.
1

hat has been

" Italian Votive Offerings."


3

Tenos

Inscribed

P. G. K. 1847
il

M. P.

Tre Germani traviati

gran Gae-

Symi. 2 See

tano conduce a Dio con invisibil ma-no.

my

paper in Folk-Lore,

v.

11 ff. :

DISEASE

AND CALAMITY.
Back
1
.

239

knockt to the back of his head.


see the

to back with this

we

same dog-cart quietly stopt and his hat straight again happy,

at a door, the

man

looking

Votive limbs and other

offerings like those of ancient times are

common
:

not only in

Italy but in other parts of the Continent in France, Austria, Switzerland 2 The church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, in
.

Venice, has a shrine of S. Vincenzo,

who
:

is

credited with the


it

power of healing cripples by miracle


of modelled
limbs,

near

hang a number
of

together with

the crutches

grateful

patients

who no

longer had need of them.


from South America:
"

1 Others of great interest, which I have not seen, are in Locarno and Oropa (three hours from Turin by rail). They are mentioned by S. Butler, Alps

Upon

several

of the altars, pieces of solid gold and silver lay in security... while lamps of

and Sanctuaries, 220, 350, who gives a


sketch of one
(p. 160).

pure silver hung in profusion on every side, surrounded by votive offerings of


the same metal
retas,

Mr

Butler in-

such as shovels, bar-

forms
is

me

that the oldest he has seen

picks

and

sieves.... Pictures,

dated about 1480 in the

Museum

at

Varallo.
Cieli
etc.
2

Others in Sta Maria in ara and Pantheon (Kome), Naples,

representing terrible catastrophes, by falling masses of rock, irruptions of


torrents,

and down-pouring cataracts, showed what fates were ever in store

Ottilien near Freiburg

Ships at Marseilles; eyes at St i. B. At etc.


;

Marseilles are

votive pictures:

sick-

who 'forgot the Church.' to heighten the effect, wherever a cayman or a jaguar was sloping
for

those
as
if

And
off

'

beds, burning houses, runaway horses, lightning, railway train passing over a

with a miner in his mouth,' a

rough weather. Even pictures of limbs in Sta Maria in ara Cieli. Lever describes similar scenes
bridge, ships in

respectable saint was sure to be detected in the offing wiping his eyes
in compassion, but not stirring a finger to his assistance."

VI.

DOMESTIC

LIFE.

eyY err} AnAcy eB&iNe MOTOCTOKOC EiAefGyiA, AH TOTC THN TOKOC eTAe, MeNofNHceN Ae TKec6<M.
AMC})}

Ae

4>o(iMiKi

AeiMcoNi M&AAKO)'

B&Ae rrHxee, foyNA, A' epeice MefAnce Ae r<*f yneNepOeN.

HOMER, Hymn

to

Apollo Delian, 117.

SACRIFICE and offering was customary at each of the two great moments of human life at marriage and childbirth. We
:

may

fairly

take

it

that in

puberty and marriage came

prehistoric Greece, as elsewhere, close together and that the offer;

ings originally commemorated puberty, which is a natural change, and not marriage, which is an artificial institution.
is which attracts chief it is not and attention, possible wholly to explain how the Greeks regarded the two as connected. The most peculiar practice connected with puberty is the dedication of the hair, a very ancient survival which held its own long after the Greeks had outgrown any real faith in their It will be well to collect here the various instances theology. of the practice, although some of them will be obviously due to other occasions than puberty 1 The earliest form of the custom would appear to be the vow 2 or dedication of hair to a river to be cut either at puberty or some other crisis, or after escaping some threatening peril.

But

in civilised countries the second it

1 See on this subject Inscriptions du temple de Zeus Panamaros, BCH xii. 479 ff. Dar. and Sagl. s.v. Coma.
;

ship, Trans.

Roy. Soc. Lit. 1878, 173


to

ff.

For

parallels

the
viii.

hair

offering,

Frazer on Paus.

34. 3, 41. 3.

See P. Gardner, Greek River-Wor-

DOMESTIC LIFE.

241

The river- worship here, as we have seen it in conjunction with Pan and the nymphs, is a mark of antiquity Achilles at the
1
.

long kept for Spercheus, 8 made a similar vow to the if he should return safe ." Ajax 3 Ilissus Orestes laid on his father's tomb the hair he had
.

funeral of Patroclus shore the locks

"

vowed
as the

to Inachus

4
,

Brahmins use in India. 6 the Cephisus and the Neda

perhaps one lock of hair left to grow long, Similar vows are recorded for
at Phigalea
6
,

and the same

is

implied by the story of the mythical Leucippus, who was 7 When the great gods keeping his hair long for the Alpheus come in fashion, they attract this offering like the rest. Thus
.

Agamemnon
offering to

Artemis

10
,

in perplexity tore out handfuls of hair as an Zeus 8 hair was also dedicated to Phoebus 9 Zeus and 12 11 It was an old custom, says the Heroes and Health
; , ,
.

Plutarch, for lads to

"

offer firstfruits of their hair" at Delphi,


;

and

he describes how Theseus went thither for that purpose 13 the 14 The hair offering is known at custom is also recorded in history
.

19 Athens 15 Argos 16 Delphi", Delos 18 Megara Troezen 20 Titane 21


,
, , , ,

Like the worship of Poseidon and

9
10
11

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal. Paus.
i.

vi. 278.
vi.

the Cretan old

men
/ue

of the sea.

Cp.

242 ; Plut. Thes.


ii.

5.

the dedication from Asia Minor,


xix.

AM

43. 4,

32. 1.

313 \alveov

12

T^x.vafffJ.a
'

iffopq,*
13

GIG

2391.

dXnja ytpovra,
2
3

OrJKe 5

ATroXXaws

dvdffrj-

Plut. Thes. 5 dirdpxfffOai rip


op. Ath.

6e$
605 A

fia Noffeiddwvi.

II

xxiii. 141.
eis

14

Theopompus
'ZiKvuviov

xiii.

Philostr. Her. xii. 2.

AeXc^ous

ira.pa.yevofjL^vif T<$

HvOodupov
rty

Aesch. Choeph. 6
Paus.
i.

irXoKafj-ov 'I

rov

viq

diroKeipofdvq

K6fJ.T]V,

5
i.

37. 3.
6

7. 1

(Memnon)

Cp. Philostr. Imag. TUV fioffTpvxuv Sara-

15

Pollux,
tdri;

Onom.

iii.

Hesych.
66.

ydfiuv

Diphilus
ii.

fragm.

Xvs oOs ol/xai NeiX(fj frp<j)e. 6 Paus. viii. 41. 3. Frazer in his

(Kock).
16 17
18

Stat. Theb.

254 with Schol.


Callim.

note gives parallels from India and Australia. See also North Indian Notes

Plut. Thes. 5.

Paus.
Paus.

i.

43. 4

Hymn

to

and
7

Queries,

v.

544: children cat off

Delos, 296.
19
20
i.

their scalp-lock at a shrine.

43. 4.

Paus.
II.

viii.

20. 3.
irpo-

Eur. Hippol. 1421; Orest.113, 128;

x.

15 TroXXds eK Kf>a\T)s
Z\Kero

OeXti/jivovs

xalras

vtf/66'

tovrt

Lucian, De Dea Syria, 60. 21 Paus. ii. 11.

Aii.

R.

16

242
Paros
1
,

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


Thessalian Thebes
6
7
, ;

8
,

4
, ,

8
,

Phigalea

and Prusa whence it the custom Greeks. A special lock seems to general among 8 have been kept for the sacred purpose and it was so common
Alexandria
,

Erythrae Hierapolis would appear to be a

as to give rise to a proverb The later records attest the


.

same custom.

child's first

hair was so dedicated, with a prayer that he might live to be 10 old, or that Acharnian ivy might afterwards grace his head 11 Girls The first down on a man's chin was also thus dedicated
. .

also cut

(at puberty, according to the original conception), to Hippolytus at 14 13 and at to Athena in Argos Troezen", to Iphinoe at Megara of the in honour lasses shore it lads and both Delos, where

and dedicated their hair before marriage


,

that

is,

the lads winding their hair (or first beard) in wisps of a certain grass, the lasses their hair about a 15 Several Delian spindle, and laying it upon the maidens' tomb
;
.

Hyperborean Maidens

According to Pollux the hair was dedicated before regularly marriage to Hera, Artemis, and the
inscriptions relate to this.
1

16

CIG
it,

2391.

'Eira<f>p6di,TOS...virp

rov

wai&iov

. . .

Tyr

Inscribed tablet with hair carved


see below.
viii.

ircuSixV rplxa 'Tyitia

Kal 'AffK\t)irtw;

on
3

2392

ri}v trpwrdr/MriTov
;

Paus.

23. 3, 41. 3.

K^V Kelpas

rpixa TJ]V tyyfiiso 2393 with variations.


;

4 Inferred by W. Robertson Smith from the story of the rope of hair in Paus. vii. 5. 5 see Frazer ad loc.
;

n Anth.Pal. vi.242 Lucian, De Dea


Syria, 60
12

T&V yeveluv dirdpxovTai. Lucian I.e. Paus. ii. 32. 1 ; Eur.


: ;

8 6

Lucian,

I.e.

Catullus,

Coma

Berenices

Hygin.

Hippol. 1424. 13 Paus. i. 43.

4.
ii.

Poet. Astr. 11. 24.

"

Stat. Theb.

253

ff.

hie

more

Himerius, Or. xxiii. 7. Berenice vowed if her husband returned from war

parentum

lasides, thalamis ubi casta

adolesceret aetas, virgineas libare co-

unwounded

to dedicate her hair in the

temple, and did so (p. 245). 8 Diphilus ap. Ath. vi. 225 B tvravda.

mas,primosquesolebantexcusaretoro8. w Herod, iv. 34 ; Paus. i. 43. 4 Cal;

lim.

yovv

tffriv
ftfi>

TIS

virtpriKOVTiKus,

K6fju)i>

u
\ovv
Kal

Hymn
Pollux

to

Delos 296

ff.

Tp{</>uv

Ifpav

TOU Ofov,

ws

<f>rf<rlv

yla, TOI/TTJ

iii. 38 "Hpa rAetos y&p TOW TrporeXe/ots

rj

<ri'fu-

irpovrt-

ov 6ia TOUTO y' d\\' tffTiytufros, irpb TOV


(jLeruirov Trapajr^TOff/i' afirrjv
9

rets *c6/)as, rrjs


K6/j.ijs

Kal 'AprtfjiiSi Kal Mot'pcus,


Sf r6re

fai.

airJipxovTo

rats
ii.

Anth. Pal.
6veiap

vi.

310

tepos 6 irX6/cajuos,

Otals

al

K6pai.

Frazer on Paus.

Tofift^v

ffjLol.

Eur. Bacch. 494


Oetp 5'

32. 1 quotes parallels

from

Fiji

Jepdj 6 TrXoKa/ws10

r$
vi.

avrbv

Tpt<f>w.

Anth. Pal.

278, 279;

CIG

2391

Cambodia, America.

from

Africa,

and

and from

DOMESTIC LIFE.
Fates.

243
tells
;

In the Syrian Hierapolis, Lucian


offered
1

us that the hair

was preserved in sacred vases he himself in his A series of inscriptions, youth had conformed to the custom found at Panamara in Oaria, throw some light on the hair2 They belong to Roman times, and to Asia Minor offering but there is nothing in them which may not be genuine Greek.
. .

when

The devotees
form of a

enclose their hair in a small stone coffer, made in slab covers stele, which is set up in the precinct.

the hole, and an inscription is placed upon it. The poorer sort are content to make a hole in the wall, or even hang up their
hair with the
dedicators.

name

only attacht.

Even

slaves are

among
;

the

no women's names are found at and all, though the inscriptions number more than a hundred as that the deity honoured is Zeus, never Hera. the Possibly,
It is peculiar that

editors conjecture,

women

were not allowed within the precinct.

Pausanias saw the statue or relief of a youth shearing his hair in honour of the Cephisus 3 A curious memorial of the
.

custom is seen in a stone from Thessaly, upon which are carven two long plaits of hair dedicated to Poseidon 4
.

A
to
offers

few further examples

may be added from

the Anthology

show the variety of possible occasions

for this rite.

A woman
,

the hair to Cybele with a prayer for a happy marriage 5 or in honour of Pallas on attaining marriage with her lover,
1

De Dea Syria

60.

sometimes.

Formulae

are:

61
Ati

See Deschamps and Cousin, Inscriptions du temple de Zeus Panamaros,

Aiovveiov tvrvx.us, 66 T^xjl dyaOy

BCH
369
ff.

xi.

390,

xiv.

The

xii. 82, 249, 479, dedications are in

Havafj-dpy ef>x^ v KO/J.O.S with name, 74 {nrtp evxtjs; indications of a recurring


rite no.

80 8h

c6/iou.

An

interesting

varying forms, and

many

are illiterate.

We

find dedications of many persons together as xi. 39 firl ieptws Tt. 4>Xo. Atvdov 'Idaovos, KOfiai Xai/aiy/uovos 'AyaBofiovXov 'IepoK\tovs Aiovvvtov 'Hpct/r\e/dov MavTiBfov;

given in 76, 'EiriKT-f/Tov KO^OLI. In Egypt, parents used to pay the


is

name

weight of the children's hair in silver for a vow; see p. 244 9


.

Paus.

i.

37. 3.

The dedication

to

BCH
ff.

-ai.

390: a house6yucu <pafj.i-

hold, xii. 487

no. 115

Cephisus from Lilaea in Phocis be similar: IGS iii. 1. 232.


4
'

may

\las Qv\Triov'AffK\T)TridSov: of children,

$i\6/j.j3poTos
IloffeiSuvt..

A<p66i>T)Tos &e<.vo/j.dxov

no. 103
TOV,

K(5/uai

EfljraSos Kal iraidiuv at/cat

104 Kal vlwv, 111


c6yucu

T^KVUV; of

s.v.
fig.
5

Figured in Dar. and Sagl. Donarium, p. 376, fig. 2543. See


vi.

brothers, 110

and

BCH

'Epwros KCLI d8e\<j>ov xiv. 371, of slaves, 117 olsingular


KO'/W?

36 below.
Anth. Pal.
281.

KfTuv.

The

is

found

162

244

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


after the birth of a
hair,

and

male child desired


it

1
.

A man
first

offers his

white

having vowed

when dedicating the

locks of

FIG. 36.

Votive hair, from Thessaly.

Daremberg and

Saglio, s.v.

Donarium,

p. 376, fig.

2543.

his youth*.

eunuch
3
.

after his orgies dedicates his hair to

A lock of hair is offered by an elderly the Sangarian mother 4 So Marcellus on returncourtezan with other gifts to Cypris
.

ing to Italy victorious from the east, dedicates the first shaving 8 of his beard The offering takes a sportive turn, when Lucil.

lius

dedicates hair to

all

the sea deities


6
.

because he has nothing else to give


hair
is

named in a The growing of


,

string,

sacred

and Herodotus mentions that 8 the priests of Egypt wore their hair long and that vows were 9 He also tells us paid by weighing silver against the shorn hair
also attested for
;

Rome

Anth. Pal.

vi. 59. vi. vi.


vi.

* 8
4

Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal.

193. 234, 173. 200.


161.

29 (see the article cited from BCH). 8 Herod, ii. 36; Plut. Is. p. 352.
9
SLV

Herod,
77

ii.

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal. Anth. Pal.

-rb

Oriplov,

65 ei/xof^foi T< 0e$, rov vpovvres TWV iraidlwv rj


rj

8 8
7

vi.
vi.

iracrav

rr)i>

/ce^aArji'

rb rplrov fdpos
irpbs

TTJS

164.

KeQaXrjs, Iffraai ffraOfjup

dpytipiov

Martial

Suet. Nero 12; Xiphil. Nero 19; i. 32; Stat. Theb. 493; Petron.

rds rplxa.s.

rb

5'

&v

f\Kvffrj,

TOVTO Ty

fjie\fSuv<f rdiv Orfpluv diSoi.

DOMESTIC LIFE.
that the Arabs used to shave their heads in honour of

245

The custom
.

is

still

used,

when Arabs

offer the hair to

God God or
1
.

the heroised dead*, and 3 benefactors

women

lay theirs on the

tombs of

tribal

When the Delians place locks of hair on a tomb, they furnish a link with another common occasion of dedicating the hair. Heracles built a tomb for Leucippus, and offered there
some of
mourning
his hair
5
.

4
.

The Achaeans used


6
;

to cut their hair in

Achilles, as I have

mentioned, shore his at the


hair only but the manes of soldiers of Pelopidas over

funeral of Patroclus

and the

soldiers of Masistius, at their

leader's death, clipt not their

own

their horses

and mules 7
8
.

So did the

At Hephaestion's death, Alexander the It will be remembered that hair Great had his animals clipt 9 is the offered to heroes. Oddly enough, we are things among
their leader's corpse
.

told that the Syracusans shore the captive horses after Nicias There are several allusions to the custom in the was taken 10
.

and Sappho mentions it 12 Further, it was often vowed in time of peril and offered in 13 gratitude. Orestes shore his hair when he came to his senses 14 Berenice vowed and paid her hair for Ptolemy's safety in war The statue of Health at Titane was covered with locks of women's hair 15 A mariner offers his hair to the sea-gods 16 and Lucian mentions a similar vow". St Paul, it will be remem18 bered, shore his hair at Cenchreae in fulfilment of a vow We may now pass on to a general consideration of the
dramatists
11
,

marriage offerings in Greece.


Robertson Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Ancient Ara1

It is unfortunate that here, as in


10

Herod,

iii.

Plut. Nic. 27.

Aesch. Cho. 6
Or.

Eur. El. 91
*6juijs

K6ni)s

bia, p. 152.
2

dirrjpZdnrjv,

96

dirapxds,

Goldziher, Rev. de VHist. des ReGoldziher, op.


cit. xiv.

Phoen. 1525.
12

ligions, x. 351, xiv. 49.


3 4

Sappho
Paus.
Catull.,

119.
34. 3.

352.

ls 14

viii.

Paus.

vii. 17. 8,

where Frazer gives

Coma

Berenices; Eudocia,

modern
5

parallels.

no. 218.
15

Eudocia, no. 518.


II. xxiii.

Paus.

ii.

11. 6.

6
7

141.

16

Anth. Pal. vL 164.


Lucian,
irepl rCiv 4irl /uffOy

Herod,

ix.

24

Plut. Arist. 14.

17

avvbv-

8 9

Plut. Pel. 33.

TUV, init.
18

Pint. Pel. 34, Alex. 72.

Acts of the Apostles,

xviii. 18.

246

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


;

know
there

other things of every day, our information is scanty but we that sacrifices were customary before marriage, and where
is

votive offerings. In some places initiation formed part of the wedding ceremony 1 and the priestess of Demeter officiated at weddings*. The
sacrifice
,

there

may always be

Athens used to take part in a mystery 8 imitating bears in honour of Artemis Brauronia, whose shrine stood on the Acropolis. The accounts of this rite are confusing, but in one it is said to have been done by all the girls as a 4 and in any case it looks like an preliminary to marriage
little

girls

of

'

,'

ancient ceremony to mark the time of puberty If another 6 writer be correct in confining the ceremony to a select few the
.

word
it,

Setcareveiv used as a

synonym
.

for dpicreveiv to designate

suggests that the maidens were a tithe of the women, like 7 When marriage actually the tithe of men described above

took place, a sacrifice was made to the gods of marriage 8 who 9 10 are variously given as the Furies Zeus and Hera or Hera, 12 11 18 or the Nymphs later to Aphrodite Artemis, and the Fates
,

At Sparta, mothers would sacrifice to Hera and Aphrodite when their daughters married 14 We may assume that, as in other cases, each tribe would originally sacrifice to its own
.

Paton, Inscr. of Cos, 386: rah 5e


Kal
rats
tirtvv(j.<f>evo(dvais

irpore'Xeia,
yafj.ri\toi.

ydfjiuv,

irpoydftfta

Oeol

reXevfAf'vais
rin-ev

See also Anth. Pal.


for

vi. 55,

rai

dri\ojj.e'vai

K0.66.irep

Kal

irplv

318,
9

and

irw\r)Tav
j,

yeveaOon rav

lepditrvvav

crwe-

Schol. Aesch.

Sparta Paus. iii. 13. 9. Eum. 834 ws irportTCUJ 'Epivfoi.


v.

TrevTOJ36\os SiSowrcus diroXeXinrffai

dva.\w(j.dTwv irdvTUv

'

jrapaiepjjj

de rcus TeXevfdvais ras


TO, vo/j,Lfo/j.(va.

73; Aesch. Eum. 214. Cp. Ath. xv. 694 D "Aprefj.iv a ywaiKwv
Diod. Sic.
fj.ty'
11

10

fyei Kpdros (Scolion).

Plut. Con/. Praec. ad init., quoted

Pollux

iii.

38

Artemis in Boeotia
Aristid.
20.

by Paton.
T6/ui0T77/HO<rweTAovi', Schol. Arist. Lys. 645.
4
8 3

and Locris,
below.
14

Plut.

The

Furies in Aesch.
Plut.

Eum.

835; cp. p. 254


944.

*pk ydnov, a second schol. ad

lac.

Amat. Narr.
iii.

1, p.

given as five to ten years, but Mommsen gives reason for believing this to be a mistake (Heort.
is

The age

13

Paus.

13.

Hera-Aphrodite.

406 note).
6

He

suggests 10 to 15.

It will be remembered that Aphrodite was not a Greek goddess. She was, however, worshipt on the Athenian

etriXfybnevai wapOevoi, Schol. Arist.

Lys. 645.
7 It is usually referred to the children's age as being about ten years.

Acropolis in the sixth century, as inscribed potsherds prove: A A viii. 147.


14

Paus.

iii.

13. 8.

DOMESTIC LIFE.
gods
;

247

and that the country


sacrifice

folk,

perhaps following the oldest

nymphs or heroes. But as became Zeus and Hera as the divine theology systematic, wedded pair seem to have gained the chief importance as patrons of wedlock. Hera, indeed, as the Maid, the Wife, and the Widow, represents the whole life of woman on earth and the Holy Marriage ceremonial is connected with her and Zeus at
custom, would
to

the

FIG. 87.

Zeus and Hera, from Samos.


Farnell, Cults, pi. v.
b.

Samos and elsewhere

2
.

This ceremonial

is

perhaps

commemo-

rated by a terra-cotta group from Samos, probably representing Zeus and Hera as bridegroom and bride 8, which we may suppose
to

have been dedicated at some human marriage. The principle


,

reXeia,

x^P a see Farnell,


'

Cults,

i.

ism
2

is

But elaborate symbolforeign to early Greek religion.


190
ff.
i.

Theocr. xv. 24). 3 Farnell i. 208, 238, plate


see
fig.

v. 6,

37, in text.

scheme with

Farnell

192, 200, 208, 244.

It

appears to have been a very early part of the cult. Athens (Photius s.v.), Plataea (Paus. ix. 3. 1, 16. 57),

the same attitude as the metope of Selinus appears in the fragmentary


relief,

from Athens

(?),

Cat. Brit.

Mus.

Argos (Paus.
Arist.

ii.

17. 3),

Pax

1126),

Euboea Hermione

(Schol.

The relief may, however, commemorate the ceremony see chap.


Sc.

770.

(Schol.

248

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

would be that of mythological precedent; and that it was natural here is seen not only from a comparison of parallels,
but by the

an epithalamium sings of a is the mythological wedding Perhaps origin of an Athenian painted tablet, which bears the apotheosis of Heracles*. The sacrifice of a pig before marriage is attested by Varro for 3 and an inscription to be quoted below the Greeks of Italy
fact that

Sappho

in

this

may

refer to this.

Perhaps the dedication of a garland to Hera,


of,

which Alcman speaks

may

refer to the marriage feast

4
.

legendary dedications are connected with marriage, and are of interest as showing how natural the practice was
felt to be.

Some

Pelops,

when he prayed
.

for success in his suit for

Hippodamia, dedicated in Temnus an image of Aphrodite made 5 of a growing myrtle tree Theseus, when he took Helen to

He also dedicated in wife, built a temple of Bridal Aphrodite 7 Delphi a statuette of Aphrodite which he got from Ariadne
. .

8 and set up portraits of Ariadne in Cyprus Menelaus, after statues of Thetis and set Helen, recovering up sacking Troy and Praxidica (' exacter of punishment ') hard by the temple of 9 This temple was reputed as Aphrodite Migonitis in Gythium 10 let those the foundation of Paris himself for the rape of Helen
. :

believe

who will, and those who may commemorated the wooing of Odysseus by an image
it

will not,

choose.

Icarius

of Modesty". Odysseus himself founded two temples after vanquishing the competitors for Penelope's hand, but the motive must remain 12 doubtful Equally legendary, no doubt, was the temple to
.

Aphrodite Callipygos built by the two maidens who were so


1

Sappho
iii.

51.

Paus. Paus.

v. 13. 7.
ii.

Benndorf, Gr. und Sic. Vasenb.


7
ii.

32. 7

Ni^fa.

pi.
8

Plat. Thes. 21.


Plut. Thes. 20.

Varro R. R.

4.

9 nuptiarum
viri in

8
9

initio antiqui reges ac

sublimes

Paus.

iii.

22. 2.

Kuhnert conjec-

Etruria in coniunctione nuptiali nova nupta et novus maritus primumporcum

tures

Themis

for Thetis, Jahrb. f. Cl.

immolant.
tur.
4

Prisci

Graeci in Italia

quoque Latini etiam idem factitasse videnrlv eGxofi.cn. ftpoiffa.

Phil. 1884, p. 252 n. 3 (Frazer). Praxisee CIA dica is invoked in curses


;

Defix. Tab. 109. 2. 6. 10 Paus. iii. 22. 1.

Alcman 18

ical

u
12

Paus. Paus.

iii.

20.

10:

see the story

T6vS' f\ixpvffta

TuXewra KrjpaTu KViralpu. Athen. xv. 618 A, 678 A.

there.
iii.

12. 4.

DOMESTIC LIFE.

249
.

1 proud of their figures, when they obtained rich husbands Charmus, a lover of Hippias, is said to have built an altar to Love in the Academe 2
.

Maidens before marriage, originally perhaps at puberty, were accustomed to dedicate along with their hair the dolls and other toys of their past childhood, on the same principle
as the warrior dedicates his worn-out arms, or the
his tools.

workman

They

also offered their veils

bolism their girdles*.


girdles to appears to

Timareta, in an epigram which have been copied from the stone 6 mentions drest 7 Similar dedidolls, ball, tambourine, and her own headdress 8 9 10 cations occur of garlands, girdle mirror and /jbirpai Alcibie
.

Thus 5 Athena Apaturian

or with obvious symthe Troezeuian girls offered their


,

(perhaps the well-known courtezan) dedicates her hair-net to Hera on obtaining a lawful marriage 11 So Calliteles, on coming
.

of age,
scraper,

consecrates

to

Hermes
;

bow and arrows 12

hat, Philocles to the


13
.

his

buckle, cloke, ball,

same god

ball, rattle,

knuckle-bones, and bull-roarer

as these, being perishable could not have survived in any numbers.


14 were found at Delos
,

Such things

and not precious, Yet jointed dolls 15 in the shrine of the hero Amynus and
,

Ath.

xii.

554

T\V

KaXKiirvyuv feuavrai oSf, tiri\a'

10

Anth. Pal.

vi. 276.
'AA/ci/Sb;

705 tv

2vpa.Kovffa.is.

n Archilochus, 18 Bergk:
TT\OKa./j.ui> lepijv

fio/Mvai ovffias \a/j.irpds, ISpuffavro


5tT?js

A0poTTJV

iepov,

Ka\tffa<rai

Ka\\iirvyov
<h>

Oebv,

ws

IffTopei

Kal

'A.pxf\aos
is

rots

Kovpidiwv Pal. vi. 133.

av0T)Ke KaXinrTpyv "Hpy, Anth. evr' tKvpyffe yd/j-uv.

t<i^/3oty.

The

story

as throwing light
epithets

on

of significance the distinctive

Herod,
to

ii.

182.

Cp. 206, 270. Compare The courtezans appear

of the gods. KaXXiirvyos is not meant to describe Aphrodite, but


to recall the occasion.
2
3
4

have had their guilds and their own goddess, unless the curious inscr. of Paros stood alone (A Jfxviii. 17). There
they worshipt Olffrpu. 12 Anth. Pal. vi. 282.
13

Cleidemus ap. Ath.


Pollux
at
iii.

xiii.

609

D.

38.
/J.fii- iv

Anth. Pal.
iii.

vi.

309
5

iralyvia.
'Eixftdi'rjs

Com'Ejri-

yap

irapOtvoi ^XXovcrai irpfo

pare Collitz
Satipios

3339 70

<tp-X<fOa.(.,

dverlOeffav ras irapfffviKas


x.

at)-

irats...

I5oe
/J.QI

avrut 6 6e&s
TV
KO. vyii)

rdv fwvas rrj 'Apre/j-iSi, Apostolius in Corp. Paroem. Gr. ii. 513.
5

96

tiriffras eiTreiv, rl
TTOITJCTW;

8w<reis at

avrbs

<p6.[j.ev,

MK"

dar/ja-

Paus.

ii.

33. 1.
:

&5if\ov.
vi.

yd\ovs.

rbv Si 6ebv yeXdvavra

<f>dfj.ff

vw

KfKpv<f>a.\os

Anth.

Pal.

280

(Limnatis). 8 Anth. Pal.


9

In Thebes, dffrpaydXus 22 rapas IGS i. 2420 .


icavaeiv.
14
15

irtr-

vi. 59, vi.

210 (Aphrodite).

Anth. Pal.

210.

BCH xi. 423. AM xviii. 243.

250

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


1
;

on the Acropolis at Athens dolls, masks, and grotesque heads 8 8 2 4 in the Cabirium at Tegea at Calaurea at Lysi in Arcadia 7 6 in the temple trench at Cnidus grotesques at Naucratis and
, ,
, ,

many of the innumerable clay animals found upon may have been children's toys. In the Pelopium

sacred sites
at

Olympia
,

were found a number of miniature bronze kettles, cymbals, 8 small axes, and the like, some of which may have been toys

and a miniature bucket of silver in the sanctuary of Athena 9 Cranaia but all these may be better explained on the
;

principle to be set forth later


things, but there
12

10
.

is

nothing

to

The inventories include such show why they were offered;


11
,

we may however claim


Oropus
It
is
,

the tops of as toys the Delian rattles and Timothea's crab". also four little snakes perhaps probable that three dedications to Limnatis belong to
;

several small cymbals have been found in Laconia, which were probably children's toys 14 A fourth, the much
this place
.

discussed offering of Camo, is probably dedicated to the same 18 All the dedicators are women. deity for the same cause
.

In the Museum.

13

AM

xiii.

426, xv. 358

tops

and

I.e.

SpaKovria, KapKlvosTinoOtas, line 51 number of supposed playthings

other toys of terra-cotta and bronze, knuckle-bones, small vases, Sileni,


children in goat-waggon, caricatures of lyre-players, masks, are among

of lead were found in the temple precinct of Jupiter at Tarracina


tables,
:

chairs,

them, not to mention animals. 3 iv. 170. Archaic woman on

cooking utensils, candelabrum, boy with tray, plates with viands upon them, etc.
furniture,

and other

AM
437

AJA
14

o.s. x.

256.
xxi.

camel,
4 8

man

clinging under a ram.

See

AM
Above,

442

ft.

IGA 50
:

xiii.

3223.

Aifj.va.Tis,

Gl'Ojrwpis bvtOriKe AijtwdTt, 73


A.i/jn>6.Ti
.

horses,

Jahreshefte iv. 43,48: satyr, cocks, little axes marked as dice,


figures
:

noXvavflis avtdrjKe rdi given.


15

figures

p.

249 7
324.

swordlets, comic

century.
6 7

Many

miniature vases.

some 5th But

Ka/xw Ov

tffvffe

rat Kdpfai, Cat. Ath.

Sc. no. 7959,

IGA

This seems to
see

see chap. xiv.

record the marriage sacrifice of a pig.

Newton, Branch. 397. Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. v.

For another interpretation


72.
iv. 3.

AM xxi.
a ritual

240

ff .

it

Olympia

Ergebnisse, Textb.

point.
Ofays,

does not touch the present Collitz i. 373 takes f0vfff = ^y


it

But
9
10
11

see chap. xiv. below.

which would make

BCH xii. 47.


Chapter
xiv.

offering.

The

aorist

could not be

BCH
IGS

ii.

431

Kpt>ra.\ov.

Cp.

jrcu5i<ci

used to denote an official. It should be mentioned that the inscr. has also

\LOiva. ?f,
12

325.
i.

been read
<rrp6/3(Xoi.

Kdfj.ow

= K.dfj.ui>,

a man's

242025

name (AZ

xxxiv. 28).

DOMESTIC LIFE.
There

251

is a pair of cymbals, dedicated by a man to the same and one by a man to Asclepius On this principle I deity, would explain the woman's dedication in Plataea of " what she had on," her trinkets probably to judge from the context 2 I do not know what to make of the bridal baskets 3 the bridal cauldron 4 and the bridegroom's footstool 5 mentioned in the Athenian Inventories. There is no proof that these were votive offerings, but they may be such. At marriage, prayers and vows were offered for fruitfulness and prosperity 6 It seems likely that a relief from Sicily of the second century, dedicated by a man and woman to Artemis, Artemis Eupraxia was offered on the occasion of marriage 7
1
.

in her is clad in a chiton which leaves bare the right breast right hand she holds a torch, in her left a basket before her
;
;

stands an altar.
Polystrata's

We may

offering,

an Argive

suggest the same explanation of relief of the fifth century,

showing Artemis alone clad in Doric chiton, with bow, quiver, and torch 8 and of others which show the goddess with her 9 usual attributes, and a female worshipper or with male and
;
,

female

10
.

At

childbirth, prayer

and vow were made

to various deities,

no doubt to any patron deity of a tribe or a family. Hera and Artemis are the favourites. A late inscription u from Paros names a whole group of divinities Hera, Demeter, Thesmophoros, the
:

Maid, Zeus Eubuleus and Babo.


1

Asclepius was also invoked by


Aristid. 20.
8

IPI
2
T?;J.
3

Fava^'Xas K, i. 1202.

i.e. (c6/>eu

AA

xii. 73.

Cat. Berl. Sc. 682 TioXuffrpdra &vt-

AJA

vii.

406 74 'Hvi6x a Ta

<' ay-

tfij/Ke:

rough bottom to

fix in

ground or

KO.VO. vvfj-fpiKb.
ii.

CIA

ii.

678 B
721.

KO.VOVV

base. Farnell, Cults, ii. 539, pi. xxxiv.a. A similar one from Asopus, in private
collection
:

ya/MKbv
4
5

850.

Collitz

iii.

4559 Hedirls dvtvi.

X^STJS vv(uf>tK6$
vTrbfiaOpa.

CIA
.

ii.

6r)Ke 'Aprdfju;
ii.

AZ

xl.

145, pi.
:

VV^IKO. Svo

CIA

671

9
;

Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 779

huntress

55 appevos vTTofidTTjs 678


6

Artemis, hound, altar, stag.


10

Compare Aesch. Eum. 834


TTJcrd' ?r' dxpoBlvia,
Binrj

iro\\rjs

Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 778.


v.

dt x^po-s

trpb iral-

u Athenodor.

15

'

Epaffiinrr)

Upd-

Suv
7

KO.I yafj.rj\iov

rt\ovs.
Mevlirirrj
ii.

GIG
;

5613 b Tlpuros Kal

<Tuvos"Hpri A^yuijT/u Qftr/M)<f>6ptj> KO.I K6py icai Ad Ei5/3oiAet KCU Ba/3ot. Farnell, ii.

'AprffuSi EvTrpala.t..

Farnell, Cults,

194, takes

it,

no doubt

rightly, as a

531, 575

cp. Anth. Pal. vi. 276; Plut.

thank-offering after childbirth.

252
the

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


would-be
1
.

mother On such occasions a title appropriate would be added, as Courotrophos to Athena* and Demeter 3 Epilysamene to Demeter 4 Eileithyia to Hera 8 and to Artemis 6 Locheia to Artemis and it appears that Eileithyia and Lecho are titles of the divine powers, personified as
, , , ;

the protectors of childbirth 7

The

spirits
.

childbirth were also called Genetyllides 8 goes to show that the prayer for a safe

who preside over The scanty evidence

delivery was often accompanied by the dedication of a veil or hair-net or some such trifle 9 Articles of dress were also offered after the birth
. :

sandals

it

might

be, or

a part of the robe, a

girdle, a breast-

band 10
the

girl
11

Later we find these offerings made to Aphrodite; in Theocritus intended her breast-band for this
.

purpose
left

The

clothes of

women who

died in childbirth were


12
.

at the grave of Iphigenia in Halae Herodotus says that women made a special practice of dedicating their pins in
18 Argos and Aegina Perhaps some of the dresses dedicated to Artemis Brauronia or to an unknown deity at Thebes were due to childbirth or the like"; and the beautiful pins, earrings, 16 fibulae and diadems of Lysi in Arcadia, offered to Artemis There seems to have been a kind of churching for women,
. .

sitting publicly in the shrine of Eileithyia Women's dedications to Eileithyia, in


1

16
.

Laconian Eleuthia,
5, vi.

Cures ofEpid., 33397

Paus.

i. 1.

The

dM<i8pW

were

held
:

in

"
10

Anth. Pal.
Anth. Pal.

Aristoph. Clouds, 52. 270274, 276.

honour of Athena
docia, no. 54.
3

Koi;po7-p6<os

Eu-

vi.

200 Eileithyia, 201,


/rat

271, 272 Artemis.

CIA

iii.

172, etc.
s.v. ''EiriXva-a/j^vr).

"

Theocr. xxvii. 54

<f>ev <j>ev,

rav
rq.

* 8

Hesych.

ulrpav dWffxuras'
lla<pia vpdriffrov

&

fl S'

?Xi/<ras;

.r."Hpa fr'Apyti', Athens, inscr. in Roscher, col. 2091 Dedications to Hera, Anth. (Farnell).
Pal.
6
vi.

Argos, Hesych.

fyu r6de dwpov 6ir<ifa. In Herodotus ii. 181 Ladice vows a


statue to Aphrodite
ijv

ol

IT' ^Kflv^v

243.
ii.

Farnell,

615 2 gives reff.


,

Attica,

rty VVKTO. fuxOrj 6 "A/ucwts. ia Enrip. 1. T. 1464.


13

Sparta, Boeotia, Crete. Compare Anth. Pal. vi. 201, 271, and see IGS i. 3214,

Herod,

v. 88.

CIA
16 16

ii.

751

ff.

IGS

i.

2421.

33856, 341012,
ipopiu 'AprdMtSo*
7

'AirAXXcwoj Aet^cct-

ZowSkas 3407. So also Farnell, ii. p. 608.


vi.

Jahreshefte iv. 51 ff., diff. dates. Isaeus v. 39 rty de nrjrfpa rip


KaQri^vtiv
tv
r<#
TTJS

pare Anth. Pal.


find

200.
to

ComIn Sparta we
'

oirroO

El\i)0vias

2ep<p ird^res

tupav, Kal TOI/T^ fyKaXoCffar

an old dedication
52.

Lecho: Ae^

^y^
O

alffxtivojuu \tyeiv, ovros 5t

IGA

DOMESTIC LIFE.
Eleusia,

253
1
,

but what was the Lecho, are not uncommon not A does woman dedicated offers a bowl to appear. thing 4 and an amphora in Peiraeus to the Eileithyia in Delos
or
,

The Acropolis vases dedicated to Aphrodite Nursing Mother 4 have been already mentioned Existing remains are few. We may perhaps regard as a
.

wife's offering

found in Argolis

the silver pin dedicated to Hera which was 5 and a gilded bronze pin from Cyprus 6
,

Innumerable brooches, pins, armlets, and suchlike ornaments 7 have been found in the Argive Heraeum and one of the 8 A number mirrors is inscribed with a woman's dedication
, .

of women's ornaments are mentioned in the inventories, but it is impossible to decide upon what occasion offered. In Delos

we

find Melitta's crystal or glass


11
,

10 9 unguent box a bronze mirror


,

and buttons, earrings, necklets or armlets, headgolden pins 12 In a shrine on the bands, fly-flappers, and rouge-pots
.

Acropolis slope, probably the Asclepieum, we find mention of 13 Perhaps it was on such an occasion that Roxana earrings
.

sent a gold vase and necklet to Athens The shrine of Athena 15 with buckles, hair-pins, Cranaia has yielded up a gold bangle 18 At Dodona was found a mirror spirals, and fibulae of bronze
. , .

14

glass ring and toilet-casket, in18 scribed to Habrothaus, have been found in Cyprus

dedicated by a

woman

17

4584 (Hippola), 4462 Aexoc (Sparta), 4466 'A^poStrcu (ibid.),


Collitz
iii.

BGH
BCH

ii.

430 6 ^dXuirrpov

{id\ivov

MeXn-T?;s.
10
ii.

'E0. 'Apx- 1900, 59 Aphr. (Thessaly),


all

430

10

Kdrpoirrof

[sic]

by women 4431 MaxafiSas


:

dvtOrjKe

xaX/coOi'.

rat 'EXewtai (Sparta). 2 vi. 34, line 50.

u
12

BCH

BCH vi. 38 s5 ir6prri) xpvrfBCH vi. 125 dffin5i(TK-q, evtbiriov,


e^aXfiirrpa,
/Mvoabfiai,
Trepi.-

'E<. 'A.px~

1885,

94 JXiKOvrpdrr)

evuirldiov,
(T/ceXt's,

KovpoTp6^>tti.
4
5

Trepbvr), iropTrrj, ffrXeyyis, ffrXey-

AA

viii.

147

13 above, p. 246
:

yiSiov, <pvKla xpvffd,

^Xiov.

ras "Upas (arcbaic) in Britisb Museum.


6

AA
'

xii.

196

13
:

BCH
CIA

iii.

125.

14

ii.

737.

JHS

ix.

223,

pi.

xi.:

15

A.<f>podiTrj
TJ

BCH xii. 46.


BCH.
ColUtz
xii.
ii.
:

Ila0ta EujSouXa evxty }] ytiiT) TOV ffvyyevovs nai Tayakra.


7

'Apdrov

16 17

54.

1369;

Carapanos, Doraytv
dvaridriri.

Inventory 1105 ff. rings of various sizes, 1571 ff. mirrors, 1614 ff. small discs perforated, 1695 ff. the
:

Bronzes

done, xxv. 1
18

noXu^a

roi At Kal xprifJ-ara.

Collitz

i.

129130

Aa/3t'5^s 'A/3po-

same
8

larger.

6dw.

Bronzes, 1581.

254

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.

As regards the other offerings made on this occasion, we read of one or two temples which were due to it. Helen, after bringing forth a daughter, is said to have founded a temple of
1 Again, the women of Elis, long barren, Eileithyia in Argos when at length they found themselves with child, built one to
.

The image of the protecting deity here a natural offering. Phaedra is said to have A statue of dedicated two ancient statues of Eileithyia 3
Athena the Mother 2
as elsewhere
is
. .

Artemis offered at childbirth is attested by an inscription 4 There exists also a late statuette of Eileithyia dedicated by a woman 5 and a pillar inscribed with the name of Asclepius pro6 bably supported a statue of him dedicated on the like occasion
.

Perchance the archaic statue of Artemis, dedicated at Delos by Little altars are often dedia woman, belongs to this class 7 cated to Artemis the Nurse in Roman times 8
. .

from Argos are dedicated to the Eumenides by women, and the connexion of these beings with childbirth has been already indicated 9 The three goddesses
ancient
reliefs
.

Three

stand, holding each a snake in the right hand and a flower in 10 A relief of two the left, with worshippers in their presence female figures with torches may refer to this occasion".
.

The most

characteristic records of this occasion are those

which represent the act or process blest by the god. This class is represented by groups of statuary or small figures, and by reliefs. An archaic marble statue from Sparta represents a female figure kneeling, with a small male figure on her right holding one hand to his lips, while on the other a second

male figure presses his hand over the woman's womb. It should be remembered that women in ancient Greece knelt to
1

Paus.

ii.

22. 6.
3. 2.

^(C77/36Xwt loxeaipijt Qo^prj AeivoS6Krjo

TOV
6

2 3 4

Paus. v. Paus.
i.

Nation
8

|oxos

aXr/uv,
5'

Aeivo/jitvovs

18. 5.

Kaffiyv^rr),
'E<p.

<&p<i!-ov

a\ox6s (*.

GIG

24 'Aprefu, aol rbV &ya\n'

'Apx- 1896, 54 'Aprtfudi Kovpo-

tivydrrip (Peloponnesus). Sybel 3153 Ea\0ia 'A\e%di>5pov inrtp


'El\ti&viri ffufovvi)
8

Aesch.

sacrificed to

Eum. 835. Pregnant sheep them at Sicyon, Paus. ii.


pi.
ix.,

evxfyinscr.,
'

H-

4.

See p. 246.
iv.

Sybel

7215:

the

much

10

AM
f.

x.

Collitz

iii.

damaged, contains the words


dvtBriKe
7
-yi/vrj,
ii.
vt>

A.aK\tjirU,

3279

(name)
iii.

TZvfj.ft>l<ru>

u
tfipvov.

ECU

195.

BCH

DOMESTIC LIFE.
1
.

255

These two guardian daemons are doubtless bring forth a child assisting at the birth, one as a midwife does, the other signing

A statue in a similar from inauspicious words 3 4 and a relief from Cyprus from comes Nude Myconos pose female figures, apparently lying down, with one hand held to and these were the breast, have been found at Naucratis
for silence
2
.

perhaps

thank-offerings for childbirth

6
.

An

ivory casket from

Athens unmistakably portrays a birth. The newly-delivered mother kneels on the ground, and by her side stands a female As figure, much damaged, which supports her with one hand.
this figure holds a lance or staff she is interpreted to

The midwife
figure is

be Athena. bathing the babe. On the left another female standing, half-draped, with a long staff in the left
is

casket

hand, and in her right she holds a jug. I suggest that this may have been dedicated as a mother's thank-offering,

although there

6 nothing to prove it Perhaps I might venture to suggest further, that the female figure of gold sent by Croesus to Delphi, and called locally his baker- worn an/ was

is

'

really a

woman (his queen perhaps) in the attitude of childwhich birth, might easily be mistaken for one kneading dough, It should be noted that his or even so miscalled in jest. 7 queen's girdles and trinkets are mentioned along with it
.

Homer,

Apoll.

Del.

116 177

ft.,

and was no

other citations in an article on this

the original it is impossible to judge how far the reproduction is accurate ;

group by Marx,
in

AM
viii.

x.

f.

It

but
the

the position of the image of Eileithyia


48. 5), which Tegea (Paus. male eye might see (ii. 35. 11).
2 3 4
i.

AM x. pi.
Mon.

vi.
i.

no trace of an aegis, and if were not so clear this figure would be better taken as a midwife or an attendant. The figure on the right may then be Hecate or
I see
'

lance

'

dell' Inst.

44

AM x.

187.

Cesnola, Collection of Cypr. Ant.,

pi. 66.
5
6

Eileithyia with a torch. 7 Herod, i. 51 ywaucbs etdwXov \p6ffeov rpiirrfxy, rb AeA0o2 TTJS &pTOK(>irov
TTJS

Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath.

v. 83, pi. xiv.


it

Kpolffov eiK6va \tyov<ri elvai.


ical

Trpbs

Schone 149, who

refers

to the

child Dionysus.

I differ entirely

from

him
life.

the scene as sketcht has every appearance of a transcript from real


;

ewvrov ywaucbs ra airb TTJJ Sdprjs dv^d-qice 6 Kpoaros /cat ras fwvas. Compare the dedication in Plataea,
5
rrjs

'Hw6xa rb

In the sketch, the kneeling figure appears to be naked from the waist

down.

She

is

pouring water from a

74 airrijs, AJA vii. 406 add that Plutarch says this baker had saved Croesus' life, and the figure was dedicated in gratitude,

ty'

It is fair to

jug into the basin.

Without seeing

Pyth. Or. 10.

256

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


Other
reliefs

show

different

moments.

Some from Cyprus

a swathed infant.

have the figure of a woman There is a child stands, also holding a


:

seated upon a chair, and holding fruit in one hand, and beside her
fruit
1
.

In a

relief

from Sigeum,

the enthroned figure seems to represent Eileithyia or some to her approach three women bearing infants suitable divinity

upon
4

their arms,
'

2 and a fourth with a dish or casket

One

harpist
lyre

relief

may belong

to this

place.

Apollo,

holding

and bowl, stands beside Artemis (who pours a libation), Leto and a female figure who is inscribed KovpoTp6<f>o<> holding 3 a torch a male worshipper stands near, holding up one hand An archaic Italian relief in terra-cotta, where Aphrodite holds
. ;

too vague to interpret An attempt has been made to show that the mysterious relief of the Acropolis, where Athena is seen leaning upon a
is
.

Eros on her arm,

spear in an attitude of grief, and contemplating a square pillar with nothing upon it, is really a dedication to her as Nursing
(

Mother 5

vase
is
6
.

is

cited which shows a similar scheme, but


pillar,

a child's figure
to

upon the

and the

pillar bears

a dedi-

catory inscription

The

child's figure

on the

relief is

If this be correct (and it will an example of 'divine precedent'; the relief be ingenious), for Athena is supposed to be contemplating the infant Erich-

have been painted.

assumed is most

To the same occasion M. Lechat assigns a relief of fourth the century, where a babe lies on the ground between Demeter and the Maid 7 one which shows a man and a small
thonius.
;

child before

Athena 8

and one where are a man and

wife,

with

Cat.

Cypr. Mus.
Brit.

(Idalion)

6311,

6313.
2

birth, this is evidence that the harp has no special meaning in these reliefs.
4

Cat.

Mus.

Sc.

789
of

there

taken to be the
Similar

base

a statue.

Farnell, Cults,

ii.

697, pi. xlviii.


et

Roman reliefs show the mother


:

H. Lechat, Mon.
i.

M6m.
Sic.

iii.

21,

with a child in her arms, or the child being given to her, with other figures
Arch.-Epigr. Mitth. xix. 1 18 Italy.
3
ff.

pi.
6

Benndorf, Gr.
1.

und

Vasenb.

Pettau,

xxxi.

5th cent., oldest of the Harpist class, and the only one with dedicator. If it really belongs to
ix.
:

AA

26

7 AZ xxv. 94* &V^KI\V Benndorf 57. 8 Schone 87.

(sic)

cp.

DOMESTIC LIFE.
1
.

257

a child in a tub or basket on the ground These he interprets to represent the ceremony of the father's acknowledgment. The act or process is also represented by small figures of
2 nursing mothers, which cannot be meant for the deity Many have been found in Sicily and Paestum, and although the place of their finding is not conclusive, they were probably a votive
.

One of them appears to represent a woman in childknow that the Sicilians used to pray to the Mothers and make them rich offerings 6 In Cyprus, a great many have
type
.

bed

We

been found within temple precincts. In one case the infant holds up its hand in the familiar attitude of adoration 8 Some.

times a female figure enthroned holds the infant The figure of a woman erect, holding a child on her arm, was found in an ancient 8 shrine of the healing hero Amynus at Athens large archaic
.

9 and group of a woman suckling a child comes from Sparta statuettes with the same subject have been found on the
;

One mother, in Roman times, dedicates Acropolis of Athens an image of her breast to Aphrodite, a cruder hint of the idea". From the Argive Heraeum comes the unmistakable figure of a
10
.

pregnant

woman 12 but
,

know no

parallel.

regularly dedicates her silver babe, in its swaddlings, or even the cradles they lie in, made of the same 13 metal and it seems to us natural that the ancients should
;

The modern Greek

Schone 66. have one piece of direct evidence in the late romance of Chaereas
2

a
6

c.
ff.;

Cp.

Usenet, Gotternamen,
ff.

We

124

AJA

1895, 209
:

Callirrhoe. A mother places her babe in the arms of Aphrodite's statue, and the writer says: Kal uxfrOt) 6^afM /cd\-

and

Idalion 109, nos. 30959 ; Chytri 149, nos. 521747 ; Citium 153, no. 5520.
7 8
9

Cat. Cypr. Mus.

Cat. Cypr. Mus. 5217

ff.

\iffrov, olov afire

({>ypa<f>os

Hypa\j/fv o&re
i<rr6/>ij(re

Zir\a<rev otirc irotijr^j

AM xviii. 243. AM 297.


ii.

No.

in

Dressel-

v
17

ouSeJs
'A6i]t>a>>

yap

afrruv
dv

iiroi^ffev

/3/><?0os

ayKtiXais

Milchhofer's Catalogue. 10 In the Museum.

Kofj.lfov<rav (iii. 8).


3

u
12

23

Kekule, Terracotten von Sic., 8, 19, Gerhard, Ant. Denkm., 96. 8.

Sybel 4542 'A<j>po5^T7; iv r6icoi.s. Excavations of the Am. Sch.: the


i.,

Heraion,
ls

pi. viii. 19.


:

5
ficLffi

Kekul6, Terracotten, fig. 38. Diod. iv. 79 rCiv tiartpwv dvaOj. .

So in India

North Ind. Notes and

Queries, 1893, 198 Saharanpur: "Close


to the temple of the Deib, under a tree, on a raised platform, I found the broken

TroXXots KOfffjiovvTes rb lepbv atiTuiv.

Cp.

GIG 5570
K.

b,

5748 /;

IGS

2407.

17

258

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


for the child

have done the same


to prayer
1
.

Yet

I can find

granted like Samuel in answer no evidence for this, even at the

time when models of limbs were so common.

The marble

figures of little children found beside the Ilissus, hard by a dedication to Eileithyia, are not infants and their interpretation remains doubtful 2 Equally doubtful are the figures of young
; .

children found in the Cabirium, which are most likely toys*.


head of an image of Debi surrounded by wooden statuettes representing children.

touched by the hand of the children." 1 Anth. Pal. vi. 357 t fvxf)t
2 *

Women who

pray for birth or

longevity of children visit this place, and offer these wooden statuettes

AM 197. AM xv. 363.


ii.

VII.

MEMORIALS OF HONOUR AND OFFICE.


H Ae MiKpO(}>iAoTiM(A AoSeieN

AN eTNAi 6pe5ic TIMHC ANeAeyeepoc. THEOPHRASTDS.

oyY AN

erto Zep((J>ioc CON

epeNOMHN

eNAoJEoc, oyre cy 'AGHNAfoc.

THEMISTOCLES.

IT does not appear that in early times an official dedicated a thank-offering for his office as a matter of course. Only a few instances are found, and

we should regard these

as

due to the same

feeling of gratitude which prompts freewill offerings in other In the sixth century we find two altars which may be cases.

referred to such an occasion.

At Athens the

Peisistratids,

we

are told, kept up the old forms of government, but took care that one of themselves should be archon; and Peisistratus, son of
Hippias, who held this office under his father, set up an altar in the market-place to the Twelve Gods, and one to Apollo in the 2 1 Another altar Pythium the inscription of which still remains
, .

from Amorgos bears an inscription of the same date, recording that 3 it was the offering of two archons An archon of Ceos makes a
.

thank-offering to Aphrodite*. In the year 408/7 the Athenian prytanes of the Erechtheid tribe made a joint dedication to the
1

Thuc.

vi.

54.

UeurlffTpa.

CIA
r6d'

iv.
i$s

Suppl.

1.

373

e,

p.

41

'Iirirlov

TOV Tvpavvfv<ravTOS vios...os r&v


tie&v
fiufiibv
/cat

fj.vr)/jia,

dpx 7? 5

TleiaiffTpar

5w5e/cct

rbv

ev

T-Q

dyopq.

vif>s

OiJKev 'Air^XAwfoj

Hu6iov ev Te

apxuv dv6r)Ke
Ilv6iov.

rbv TOV 'Air6\\uvos tv

3
4

BCH vi.
IGA

189 apxovres.

397 apas.

172

260
1

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


.

goddess

It is stated that the

Athenian college of archons used


in the Street of

to dedicate an inscribed

herm

Herms

if

they

had reason to be proud of themselves'; and when the Long 8 Walls were begun, they did erect a statue of Hermes A
.

state herald dedicates a statue

of

Hermes

for

a memorial*.

There

is

overseer of moneys 5

a pillar dedicated on the Acropolis before 480 by an Herodotus saw a tripod at Thebes,
.

reputed

to

his rule*.

have been dedicated by Laodamas to Apollo during Pausanias also dedicated at Byzantium a bronze
.

7 bowl as a memorial of his rule

There

is

even apparently one

of that class of offerings which indicates the human activity or process blest by the god the figure of a man seated, and apparently writing upon tablets, which may be that of a recorder or
:

8 Probably temple steward, found upon the Athenian citadel we should also add the ancient statue of Chares, potentate of 9 Teichiusa, which he set up at Branchidae to the glory of Apollo
.

be regarded as another instance of the plastic representation of human activity, or (in view of the eastern

whether

this

character) as mere self-glorification. Later, the number of these dedications increases so enor-

official
is in

mously, that it appears to become the regular thing that an 10 It should make an offering on taking or leaving office
.

the fourth century that this change begins, and it coincides with other changes in the old simple ways, which rob the
1

Kar. 99

CIA

338.

/ww'

operas avt6i)Kt, Hofftidduvi

S.VOLKTI.

Harpocr. s.t'.'Ep/u; cp. Dem.Lept.

Ilowraiuas,
irbvrov
tir'

apx^" 'EXXdSos evpvx&pov,


Ev^fivov, \a.Kf$aifj.6vios yivos,

491.
3

Wachsmuth, Die Stadt Athen,

i.

vtos

KXeivx/3p6roi;,

apx a '<"

'H/xucX^oj

208.
4

yfveas.

CIA

iv. 1.

482, fj.vqp.oa'uv^

fr/exa.

AM v. 174, pi. vi. (so Furtwangler).


:

For Hermes as the herald's patron

see

Aesch. Suppl. 895. 6 CIA iv. 1. 373 23?, p. 199: bvi^Kev So ii. 1209 'M-nvala. Xaipiuv ra.fju.evuv.
rauias.
6

Perhaps the recorder of the old Acropolls inscriptions is a case in point


above, note
9

5.

IGA 488

Xd/j?;*

et/J.1

KXe/crtos

Tdxiovtrijt apxfo' aya\fj.a TOV 'Air6XXw-

Anth.

Pal.

vi.

8.

Herod,

v.

61

vos.
I0

Aao5d/taj rplirod' avrbv fiiffK6ir<i> 'A.ir6\\wvi fiowapxtuv oW077/te rttv vfpiKaXXts

This appears from the aorist tense

aya\na. 7 Herod,
ing to

generally used. The present implies that the dedication is made during
office,

iv.

81

inscribed accordxii.

and

its

cause can only be in-

Nymphis (Athen.

536

6)

ferred.

MEMORIALS OF HONOUR AND OFFICE.


votive offering of

261

its grace and moral worth, and turn it into a There are indications that these offerings, with formality. in the games, were even made compulsory by for those victory of an Attic deme exists which is not likely to A decree law. be unique in Attica. It appears that the deme, whether by battle, earthquake, or other cause, had fallen on evil days, so that money was scarce for religious purposes and it was con;

sequently decided that every person elected to an office should pay a contribution. The decree proposes a vote of thanks to a

man who had undertaken


in

to help in rebuilding the shrines


1
.

and

placing offerings in
2
.

them

similar record comes from

Here the dedication has become a duty, like the liturand that it was also regarded as a personal honour is clear gies from inscriptions which expressly give leave to dedicate 3 Thus
Caria
;
.

the freewill gratitude of earlier days has given place to a feeling which is partly public spirit and partly pride. We are not
surprised, therefore, to find dedications gods, but to the people.

made not only

to the

At Athens, the Senate appears to have made a yearly dediAthena at Athens 4 and perhaps to the goddesses at 5 One altar exists dedicated by them to Aphrodite Eleusis 6 We now find these Guide of the People and to the Graces 7 dedications made by the Archon the Basileus 8 the Polemarch 9
cation to
.

CIA

ii.

588

(late

4th cent.): KOI


trap eavrov tirl
oi
1

avrwi
rpets.
3

xpt> vul norr/pia rpia

rj

0iAas
:

(sic)

dva&ri/j.ara dvaBr/ffeiv fv ro?s iepo?j trpoff-

a.va\i<TKwv
TTji

TOW

5rj/j.6rais

IGI

iii.
:

lirapxyi

r}v

ttrdpxovrai
175

5ijn6rat
et's

dyopav6fio$
dvaffffifi'

dirb TTJS
rrjv

dpxw

ffooroj

av Xdx 7?',

to an 170 (Astypalaea) Qiffrw 5 avr&i KO.I dvd6i)fj.a oirai /ce XP 1? 1 ? ? 1 r* s dyopas.


7

oiKodopiav rwv lepCov Kai TWC dvaOij-

Not
4

in a temple

now, observe.
^d.-)(aipa....ra.'jTriv
;

/j.dT<i}v...VTrp vyitias
Si]|j.ov o-wTTjpfcxs-

ai)rwv Kal TTJS TOV Compare 741 e dedi-

CIA

ii.

652 46
r^

ij

f)ov\r) dv^driKev

M...

or crowns

(list

cations Kara rbv


2

vbp.ov.
/j.7)6v

A J/

xv. 261 OTTWS

r&v

ffvfi-

in 698, restored from others). adds Kara rbv v&nov.


5 6 7

741

<j>ep6vr<i> irapoXeiTTTyrot,

8&ox6ai

ocroi

av

r(av

<pv\eru>v rinyBuviv inrb rrjs 0u\ijj ...dvariOfrai %Ka.trrov rui Aii TM 'Tapr\

CIA CIA CIA

iv. 2.
iv.
ii.

767 b **

<pia\t).

1161 b

T]ye/J.6vei

rov

Sijfj.ov.

1325, 1348,

iii.

88,
ii.

fieavr&v irorripiov dpyvpovv

<pi<L\ijv dirb

apparently golden crowns in


(371 B.C.). 1. 88.
8

97; 698
iii.

Spaxpuv 'A\f$av8peiuv eKarbv, inscribed with the occasion, and weight, within
six

So down

to

Augustus

months nt

tav 8t
rini}0TJi

d(j>

er^pas

<f>v\rjs

avartd^ria

iv

TWI

CIA CIA

iii.

iii.

95 (Trajan). 91 (Trajan).

262
,

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS.


2
,

the strategus 1 the archon of a clan


secretaries
8
,

8 4 by thesmothets curators
, ; ,

7 8 dejnarch inspectors of markets gymnasiarch 10 11 lampadarch so the priest or sacrificer the leader of a pilgrimia 12 the Trvpo<j>6po<; Superintendent age or religious procession
, ; , ,
,

of the Mysteries 14 or of any public place 15 by a board chosen to make a statue of Aphrodite 18 or Dionysus 17 Demetrius of Pha, , .

rest

lerum, on being chosen Epistates, makes his offering with the 18 The gymnasiarch at the Dionysia appears once at least
.

to have dedicated tripods


silver goblet
20
,

19
.

Officials of
21
.

a guild dedicate a great

offered a silver

of the gods

28
,

The ephebes by custom bowl at the Eleusinian Mysteries 22 to the Mother 24 as it would appear in short at all to Dionysus
with

many fine offerings


,

the great public feasts they were concerned in the cosmete 25 would join in the offering and the gymnasiarch dedicate arms 28
; ,

The ephebes make


is

a dedication to

Hermes when

their training

over 27

In other parts of the Greek world we find the same practice


observed within the same limits of time
is

for earlier days there no evidence. The earliest official dedication of a prytany outside Attica comes from Corcyra in the fourth or third