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# University of Sunderland Faculty of Applied Sciences Department of Computing, Engineering and Technology

## ELX303 ELECTRICAL POWER EXAMINATION

Date: Monday 11th January 2010 Time: 09.30 - 11.30

Instructions to Candidates: Time allowed - 3 hours There are SIX questions set. You must attempt FOUR questions. This is a closed book examination this means you are not permitted to use any text books or study aids in the examination. You are forbidden to use programmable calculators You must answer the required number of questions only. Any additional answers will not be marked. You should put a cross through any work you do not wish to be marked.

Question 1
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a) Describe how the voltage is controlled using Tap-changing of the transformer using the relevant line diagrams of radial transmission system of two tap-changing transformers. (10 Marks) b) Determine the power factor the generator must operate at in figure below to deliver power at the power factors stated. All p.u. values are referred to the voltage bases shown and 100 MVA. You may ignore the reactive loss in the generator-transformer. (10 Marks)

c) The sensitivity of a node to real power changes is 150 MW/kV of line voltage and that to reactive power changes is 20 MVAr/kV of line voltage. How much reactive compensation would have to be introduced at a point to maintain the voltage constant for a real power change of 1000 MW? (5 Marks)

Question 2 a) Explain the Separation method for predicting the synchronous generator voltage regulation using the phasor diagram and the test set-up diagrams. (8 Marks) b) Sketch and describe the Open-circuit and Zero power factor load test characteristics used to predict voltage regulation and also explain how the various components can be evaluated using these characteristics and potier points. (5 Marks) c) Two three-phase, 6.6 kV, star connected generators supply a load of 3000 kW at 0.8 p.f. lagging. The synchronous impedance per phase of machine A is 0.5 + j10 and of machine B is 0.4 + j12 . The excitation of machine A is adjusted so that it delivers 150 A at a lagging power factor, and the governors are so set that the load is shared equally between the machines. Determine the current, power factor, induced emf and load angle of each machine. (12 Marks)

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Question 3 This Question relates to the symmetrical fault analysis and calculations a) State the factors that raise the fault level in power system networks. (2 Marks) b) Explain the methods to reduce the faulty level in the power system network using relevant diagram. (8 Marks) c) In the network shown in Figure below, a three-phase fault occurs at F. Calculate the fault MVA at F. The per-unit values of reactance given all refer to a base of 100 MVA. Resistance may be neglected. (15 Marks)

Question 4 a) Sketch the typical combination of over current and earth fault relays found in bus zones, transformers and generator application with relevant current equations. (5 Marks) b) A 30 MVA, delta/star, 66/6.6 kV transformer with a reactance of 18% is fitted with restricted earth fault protection on both the HV and LV sides. The 6.6 kV neutral is resistance earthed at 1.0 per-unit. i. Draw a schematic diagram of the transformer showing the connection arrangements of the protection fitted on both primary and secondary sides. (5 Marks) If the source fault level is 2000 MVA, then calculate the three-phase fault current for a fault on the secondary side of the transformer. (6 Marks)

ii.

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iii.

The 1400/1 current transformers fitted on the secondary star side of the transformer each have a secondary resistance of 2.5 ohm. The relay has voltage settings of 10, 15, 29, 25 and 30 volts. Determine a suitable setting for the restricted earth fault protection from this list. (3 Marks) If these C.T.s each have a magnetising admittance of 8 X 104S and the relay operating current is 150 mA, calculate the percentage of the star connected winding that is protected using the voltage setting selected in the previous section. (6 Marks)

iv.

Question 5 a) Sketch the symbol and simplified structure of Power MOSFET. (2 Marks) b) Describe in detail the two transistor analogy of PNPN operation with help of diagram. (10 Marks) c) A GTO thyristor with the two-transistor analogous circuit of Figure below has a common base gain for transistor T1 of 0.9 when carrying an anode current of 1000 A. What current level must the negative gate current exceed to ensure turn-off of the device? (7 Marks)

d) The phase rotation in a power system supplying a three-phase, fully-controlled converter is in the sequence R-B-Y. What must the firing sequence of the converter thyristors be to produce the correct output waveforms from the converter? (6 Marks)

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Question 6 a) Sketch the arrangement for i. a single-phase, half-controlled converter ii. a single-phase, fully-controlled converter. (2 Marks) b) Also draw the waveforms for the above mentioned converter. (3 Marks) c) Draw the variation of the average output voltage versus firing-angle for both of the mentioned converters in question 6 (a). (5 Marks) d) A dual-converter supplies power to a 500 V, 100 A, separately excited d.c. motor with an armature resistance of 0.5 W. The voltage drop on the bridge thyristors is 2VT = 3 V, at rated motor current. Power is supplied by a three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz source. Find the necessary firing angle and motor back e.m.f. for: i. motoring operation at rated load current with a motor terminal voltage of 450 V ii. regeneration operation at rated load current with a terminal voltage of 450 V. (15 Marks)

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