7.1
7. SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE .................................................................................................... 1
7.1 Synchronous Machines Models ........................................................................................... 4
7.2 Equivalent Circuits and Machine Parameters of a Synchronous Machine ........................ 11
7.3 Measurement of Motor Parameters by an Electrical Drive (DTC Drive) .......................... 16
7.4 Finite Element Method (FEM) for Determining the Inductances of a Synchronous
Machine.......................................................................................................................................... 20
7.5 The Relationship between the Stator Excitation and the Rotor Excitation of a
Synchronous Machine .................................................................................................................... 25
7.5.1 NonSalient Pole Machine ......................................................................................... 25
7.5.2 SalientPole Machine ................................................................................................. 26
7.5.3 Referring Factor ......................................................................................................... 30
7.5.4 Referring (to the Stator) When Applying Space Vectors .......................................... 31
7.6 Vector Diagram of a Synchronous Machine ...................................................................... 32
7.7 Torque Production of a Synchronous Machine ................................................................. 37
7.8 Simulation of an Electrically Excited SalientPole Machine by Constant Parameters ...... 38
7.9 Current Equations of a Synchronous Machine .................................................................. 40
7.10 Simulation of a Synchronous Machine in a DiscreteTime System .................................. 41
7.11 Implementation of the Vector Control of a Synchronous Machine ................................... 42
7. SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
The subject of rotatingfield machines is approached by starting from synchronous machines, as
they represent the most versatile machine type and furthermore, they share basically all the charac
teristics of asynchronous machines. For instance the equivalent circuits determined for synchronous
machines are only simplified when we change over to the analysis of asynchronous machines.
Nowadays, there are several types of synchronous machines on the market, and their role as drive
motors in industrial applications is constantly increasing. New applications are emerging both for
permanent magnet synchronous machines and synchronous reluctance (SR) machines.
A polyphase synchronous machine is a rotatingfield machine, in which the rotor, that is, the pole
wheel, rotates synchronously with the rotating magnetic field generated by the armature winding of
the machine when the machine is in a steady state. The stator of the synchronous machine is com
posed of a laminated stack comprised of electric sheets and mounted to a steel frame. In the stator
stack, there are slots for the stator winding, which is usually a threephase construction. The rotor of
the machine can be implemented in various ways: either as a cylindrical nonsalient pole rotor, as a
salient pole rotor with separate magnetic poles on the rotor axis, as a reluctance rotor, or as a per
manent magnet rotor with magnetic poles generated by permanent magnets. The rotors can be im
plemented either as laminated constructions or as solid ones. In the nonsalient pole machines and
salient pole machines, the field current (rotor excitation) is conducted to the rotor either through
slip rings or brushes, or there is a separate excitation generator mounted on the shaft of the machine
to produce the field current. The latter case represents the socalled brushless synchronous machine.
In the permanent magnet machine, excitation is based on permanent magnets, and therefore excita
tion cannot be controlled similarly as in the two other cases. The final excitation state is determined
by the magnitude of the supply voltage; the flux of the machine can be influenced by armature reac
tion, that is, by magnetizing the machine with stator current.
In the nonsalient pole machine, there are slots in the rotor for the field winding, similarly as there
are slots in the stator for the stator winding. The field winding of the salientpole machine is wound
around the iron core of the magnetic poles. This assembly is mounted on the rotor shaft. On the
outer surface of the magnetic poles, there may be a damper winding, constructed as a cage winding.
It comprises bars on the surface of the pole shoe, the bars being connected together at both ends by
shortcircuit rings.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.2
Damper windings are used in synchronous machines to improve the stability of he drive. Directon
line machines in particular should be equipped with damping, however, damper windings are useful
also in controlled synchronous machine drives. In speedcontrolled drives, it is possible to reach
stability also without damping. Due to the effect of the damper windings, the flux linkage of the
machine changes more slowly, whereas on the other hand, the stator current changes faster than in a
machine without damper windings. Since the stator current can be adjusted in a short time, also the
torque of the machine can be altered rapidly, and thus the dynamics of the machine is improved
with damping.
The structure and vector diagram of a salient pole machine is illustrated in Figure 7.1.
Figure 7.1 Salient pole synchronous machine and its vector
diagram. Stator voltage u
s
, stator current i
s
, field current i
F
,
sum current i
sum
, stator flux linkage
s
, air gap flux linkage
m
. It is typical of a salient pole machine that the directions
of the vector sum of currents and the air gap flux linkage
deviate from each other in such a way that the flux turns
towards the daxis.
m
L
s
o
i
s
i
s
u
s
i
F
o
s
i
sum
Synchronous machines constitute a significant family of electrical machines among AC machines.
Different machine types can be categorized for instance according to the schematic diagram illus
trated in Figure 7.1.
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
SEPARATELY
MAGNETIZED
SYNCHRONOUS
MACHINES SM
SYNCHRONOUS
RELUCTANCE
MACHINES
SyRM
PERMANENT
MAGNET SYNCHR.
MACHINES PMSM
SyRM
L
d
/L
q
> 10
SyRM,
permanent
magnets
L
d
/L
q
> 10
PMSM,
with
saliency
PMSM,
non
salient
L
q
/L
d
> 1
L
d
/L
q
= 1
PMSM
embedded
magnets
PMSM
pole shoes
Salient
pole m.
L
d
/L
q
> 1
Nonsalient
pole m.
L
d
/L
q
= 1
Brushless:
ext. pole SM
(+PMgen)
axial
transformer
radial
transformer
rotating field
magnetizing
With brushes
rotating
magnetizing
machine
thyristor
bridge
With brushes
rotating
magnetizing
machine
thyristor
bridge
Brushless:
ext. pole SM
(+PMgen)
axial
transformer
radial
transformer
rotating field
magnetizing
Figure 7.1 Synchronous machine family
Slow drives are often salientpole configurations, and thus the machine is magnetically asymmetric.
A Finnish tradition has been to construct salient pole machines both for motor and generator use.
The cooling of a salient pole machine is easier to manage than the cooling of a nonsalient pole ma
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.3
chine, since there is plenty of room for the circulation of the cooling air. The implementation of a
salient pole construction is also technically reasonable. The salientpole configuration leads to
magnetic asymmetry, and consequently, to considerable problems in modelling the machine. The
problems in modelling are one reason why for instance Siemens manufactures nonsalient pole ma
chines also for slow drives. Therefore, the purpose of use is no longer a relevant basis to categorize
the machines into salient pole and nonsalient pole ones. However, highspeed synchronous ma
chines are typically nonsalient pole configurations, generally implemented with solid rotors. If
such a rotor does not include a separate damper winding, problems arise in modelling again, when
we try to model the damping effects of the eddy currents in the solid rotor frame.
In steam power plants, the machine powers may reach up to 1500 MW. The rotation speed of such
machines is often 3000 or 1500 min
1
, and the machines are typically nonsalient pole constructions.
In that case, a solid rotor is employed, which, even as a long and slim construction, is able to with
stand a high rotation speed without the critical speeds being exceeded. Excitation is often imple
mented by a brushless solution. However, when aiming at good dynamics, constructions with
brushes are selected (e.g. the Loviisa nuclear power plant).
Hydropower machines are typically salientpole constructions. The worlds largest hydropower sta
tion is located in Itaipu, upon the Paran River on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. The to
tal capacity is 14000 MW divided between 20 generating units of 700,000 kW each. There are 715
MW Francis turbines in the power plant, the water intake of one single turbine being 700 m/s. The
height of the dam reaches 196 m. The weighted efficiency of such a large turbine is 93.8 %. The
generator efficiency of the salientpole machines is 98.6 %. The rotor diameter is 16 m and the ro
tating mass is 2650 t. There are 66 poles in the 50 Hz type generators, and the rated output is 823.6
MVA (90.9 min
1
); the power factor is 0.85. The corresponding technical data of 60 Hz type genera
tors are: 78 poles, 737 MVA (92.3 min
1
) 0.95. The output voltage of the machines is 18 kV.
The powers of diesel generators range from a few megawatts to a few dozen megawatts. The ma
chines manufactured by ABB are salientpole machines with 4 ... 8 ... 12 poles (the maximum speed
of a large machine being for instance 750 min
1
, 8 poles, 50 Hz).
Synchronous machines may be either directonline machines or converterfed ones. Slowspeed
machines are often salientpole constructions; however, Siemens manufactures nonsalient pole ma
chines for instance for rolling mill drives. The applications vary from wood grinders to pumps and
blowers. Highspeed machines are typically nonsalient pole machines; for example natural gas is
pumped from Norway into the European markets by highspeed LCIfed ca. 40 MW, 4000 min
1
nonsalient pole synchronous machines. The largest power electronicsfed synchronous motor drive
is probably the 101 MW LCI drive for a wind tunnel installation of NASA, supplied by ABB.
Considering the motor characteristics, the damper winding is of central importance. Directonline
operation is impossible without a damper winding: a torque disturbance would make an undamped
machine to oscillate like a spring in the grid. However, in many vector controlled converter drives a
damper winding is not required, since the state of the machine can be controlled adequately also
without damping. Nevertheless, the machines ability to respond to fast torque steps is improved by
a damper winding.
If the damper winding has to be dimensioned to have a very high resistivity due to the directonline
starting, the machines properties in synchronous operation may be impaired correspondingly.
Therefore, a synchronous motor is often started up with an auxiliary drive.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.4
As shown in Figure 7.1, there is a wide selection of synchronous machines; however, the same fun
damental theory holds for them all, and therefore, only the most versatile example of synchronous
machines, that is, the salient pole machine, is addressed in this material. The equations presented
for salient pole synchronous machines hold for other machine types as well. When analyzing differ
ent machine types, appropriate terms can be omitted from the equations to achieve the machine
specific results. In the case of a permanent magnet synchronous machine, the field current of the
rotor can, if desired, be expressed as a virtual field current source.
7.1 Synchronous Machines Models
Nowadays, a twoaxis model is employed for the synchronous machine; this model can be derived
by applying space vector theory. First, we start with the frames of reference required for the analy
sis of the model, Figure 7.2. In the figure, the windings are illustrated as concentrated, in other
words, the real winding has been replaced by a barshaped equivalent winding depicted on the
magnetic axis of the real winding. The magnetic axes of the stator phase windings a, b, and c are
fixed to the respective phase windings. The stator reference frame is fixed in the direction of the
phase winding a and in the direction perpendicular to the phase winding. The axes of this twophase
stator reference frame are denoted x and y. The rotor reference frame is fixed aligned with the
magnetic pole of the rotor, and in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic pole. The axes of this
twophase stator reference frame are denoted d and q. The rotation angle between the rotor and sta
tor reference frame is equal to the rotor electric angle u
r
.
q
d
x
y
a
c
b
u
r
Figure 7.2 Frames of reference related to a synchronous machine: a, b, and c indicate the directions of the magnetic
axes of the phase windings of a threephase stator. The xy reference frame is a twophase reference frame, the axes of
which are fixed in the direction of the stator phase winding a and perpendicular to it. The dq reference frame is a two
phase reference frame fixed on the rotor, the axes being in the direction of the magnetic pole and perpendicular to it.
The angle between the xy and dq frames of reference is equal to the rotor position angle u
r
.
The core idea of the current vector is that the winding current is determined as a vector parallel to
the magnetization axis of the winding. Figure 7.3 depicts the positive directions of the magnetiza
tion axes and the current vectors of different windings. In a threephase machine, there are angles of
120 electric degrees between the magnetic axes. The current vector is constructed by geometrically
summing up the phasors of different phases, as shown in the previous chapter. The selected positive
current and voltage directions are valid for motor operation.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.5
aphase
bphase
cphase
120
120
positive and negative direction
of the magnetic axis of the
winding
120
i
sb
i
sa
u
sb
u
sa u
sc
i
sc
Figure 7.3 The directions of the magnetic axes of different phase windings of an AC machine, when the windings are
illustrated as concentrated, as well as the directions of the current vectors of different phase windings determined on the
basis of these aforementioned directions. i
sa
, i
sb
, and i
sc
are the stator currents and u
sa
, u
sb
, and u
sc
are the stator voltages.
In a threephase machine, there are angles of 120 electric degrees between the magnetic axes of different phases.
Now we are ready the introduce also the flux linkage reference frame fixed to the air gap flux link
age vector; Figure 7.4. The axes of the reference frame are the flux linkage axis and the torque
axis T.
q
d
u
m
r
T
x
y
o
m
u
m
Figure 7.4 The dq reference frame fixed to the rotor, the T reference frame fixed to the air gap flux linkage, and the
xy reference frame fixed to the stator. The angle between the dq and T reference frames is the pole angle o
m
of the air
gap flux linkage. The angle between the dq and ab reference frames is the rotor position angle u
r
. The angle u
m
between
the T and xy reference frames is the position angle of the air gap flux linkage vector in the xy reference frame.
In the case of a synchronous machine, it is extremely important to operate in a reference frame
fixed to the rotor. This is illustrated by Figure 7.5, which shows the behaviour of the measured
magnetizing inductance depending on the rotor position. If we stick to a fixed stator reference
frame, the magnetizing inductance will vary, which in turn complicates the determination of the
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.6
equations considerably. The term dL
m
/dt has to be taken into account in the voltage equation of the
stator.
L
m
L
md
L
mq
rotor position with respect to stator
d q
Figure 7.5 The behaviour of the magnetizing inductance as a function of the rotor position. If the inductance is meas
ured at the direct axis, a direct magnetizing inductance L
md
is obtained, and respectively at the quadrature axis, the
quadrature magnetizing inductance L
mq
.
We avoid the modelling of the inductance variation as a function of rotor position when we change
over to the rotor reference frame. Equation (7.1) is represented in a stationary reference frame fixed
to the stator. When computing the operation of the synchronous machine, it is advisable to select a
reference frame in which the equations can be expressed as simplified as possible. When transform
ing a vector initially represented in the stator reference frame into the dq reference frame that ro
tates fixed to the rotor, or into the T flux linkage reference frame fixed to the air gap flux linkage
vector, the vector has in both cases to be turned by the position angle of the rotating reference
frame. Figure 7.6 depicts the varying vector components when performing coordinate transforma
tion. The reference frames employed here are the rectangular xy reference frame fixed to the stator,
shortly the stator reference frame, and the rectangular dq reference frame fixed to the rotor, that is,
the rotor reference frame.
q
d
x
y
u
r
i
s
i
sy
i
sx
i
sd
i
sq
o
1
o
2
Figure 7.6 The components of the current vector in different reference frames. The xy reference frame is a stationary
reference frame fixed to the stator, i.e., the stator reference frame. The dq reference frame, i.e., the rotor reference
frame is fixed to the rotor; the daxis of the reference frame is aligned with the magnetic pole of the rotor. i
s
is the stator
current vector, i
sx
and i
sy
are its components in the stator reference frame, and i
sd
and i
sq
are the components in the rotor
reference frame. u
r
is the rotor position angle, o
1
are o
2
the angles of the stator current vector in the stator and rotor
reference frames.
The voltage equation of the stator of the machine in its own frame of reference is recapitulated here
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.7
u i
s
s
s s
s s
s
d
d
= + R
t
. (7.1)
The stator current vector
i
s
s j
e
1
= i
o
, (7.2)
where i is the magnitude of the vector, that is, its length, and
1
is its angle in the stator reference
frame. Since the rotor of a synchronous machine is both magnetically and electrically asymmetric,
it is advisable to represent the equations in the rotor reference frame. First, the stator current is
transferred to the rotor reference frame
( )
i
s
r j j
e e
2 1 r
= =
i i
o o u
. (7.3)
Here o
2
is the vector angle in the rotor reference frame and u
r
is the rotor position angle in the stator
reference frame. The superscript r refers to the rotor reference frame.
i i
s
r
s
s j
e
r
=
u
, (7.4)
i i
s
s
s
r j
e
r
=
u
. (7.5)
To transform Eq. (7.1) into the rotor reference frame, we have thus to make the substitutions
i i u u
s
s
s
r j
s
s
s
r j
= e , = e
r r
u u
and
s
s
s
r j
e
r
=
u
. Consequently, we obtain
u i
s
r j
s s
r j s
r j
e e
d( e
d
r r
r
u u
u
= + R
t
)
, (7.6)
r r r r
j r
s
r
j
r
s
j r
s s
j r
s
e
d
d
j e
d
d
e e
u u u u
u
t t
R + + = i u . (7.7)
Finally, both sides are divided by the term e
ju
r
, which yields
u i
s
r
s s
r s
r
r
s
r
d
d
j
d
d
= + + R
t t
u
. (7.8)
Now we may conclude that the first derivative term is the voltage generated by the change in the
magnitude of the flux linkage, in other words, the induction voltage, and the latter is the rotating
voltage caused by rotation.
The vector model according to Eq. (7.8) is a complex singleaxis model, and therefore it is not ca
pable of easily taking into account the magnetic asymmetry of the salientpole machine. Therefore,
it is advisable to divide the quantities into two components on the magnetic axes of the machine;
this model is known as the twoaxis model. The model is represented in the rotor reference frame,
since the inductance parameters of the flux linkage equations are there not dependent on the rotor
position angle. The same result is obtained also by investigating the structure of the machine. Fig
ures 7.77.9 illustrate different cases, in which all the windings are concentrated. In other words, an
equivalent winding is depicted on the magnetic axis, the effect of which is the same as the effect of
the real winding, since the magnetic axes of the windings are now clearly detectable.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.8
Initially, there is an ordinary threephase winding in the stator, Figure 7.7. The direction of the
magnetic pole of the rotor, or the direct direction, is called the daxis. The direction perpendicular
to the daxis is known as the quadrature direction, or the qaxis. The field winding magnetizes the
magnetic circuit in the direction of the daxis. The damper winding is illustrated by the two short
circuited equivalent windings, one of which magnetizes the machine together with the field winding
in the ddirection, and the other in the qdirection. The equivalent damper windings are denoted D
and Qdamper windings. The angle u
r
between the daxis of the rotor and the direction of the a
phase winding is the rotor angle with respect to the stator.
Figure 7.7 Representation of the synchronous ma
chine, in which the threephase stator winding is
illustrated by three concentrated phase windings. In
the rotor, there is a field winding and two equivalent
damper windings. i
sa
, i
sb
, and i
sc
are the stator cur
rents, and u
sa
, u
sb
, and u
sc
are the stator voltages. i
D
and i
Q
are the damper winding currents. i
F
and u
F
are
the field current and voltage. u
r
is the rotor position
angle. The abc axes and the xy reference frames are
fixed to the stator, and the dq reference frame is
fixed to the rotor.
i
Q
i
D u
r
q
d
x
y
i
sb
a
c
b
u
sb
u
sa
u
sc
i
sa
i
sc
i
F
u
F
The rotating magnetic field generated by the threephase stator winding can also be created by a
twophase winding, in which the magnetic axes of the windings are perpendicular to each other, as
shown in Figure 7.8. The windings of the threephase winding and the coordinate axes in the direc
tions of their magnetic axes are denoted a, b, and c. In the twophase case, the symbols x and y are
employed.
Figure 7.8 The representation of the synchronous
machine, in which the threephase winding of the
stator is replaced by a twophase stationary winding.
In the rotor, there are a field winding and two
equivalent damper windings. i
sx
are i
sy
the stator cur
rents and u
sx
and u
sy
are the stator voltages. i
D
and i
Q
are the damper winding currents. i
F
and u
F
are the
field current and voltage. u
r
is the rotor position an
gle.
q
d
x
y
u
sx
u
sy
i
sx
i
sy
u
F
u
r
i
Q
i
D
When the rotor rotates, the magnetic connection between the stator and rotor windings changes,
which means in practice that the inductance coefficients in the flux linkage equations depend on the
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.9
rotor angle u
r
. To eliminate this dependence on the rotor angle, the twophase winding fixed to the
stator is replaced by an fictitious winding rotating with the rotor, as shown in Figure 7.9. The d
direction of this winding is congruent with the daxis of the rotor, and the direction of the qwinding
is perpendicular to this direction, that is, aligned with the qaxis. There is another advantage with
the dq reference frame rotating along with the rotor: as the rotor rotates at the same speed with the
magnetic field in the steady state, the vectors remain stationary in the dq reference frame, whereas
in the xy reference frame, the vectors rotate at the synchronous speed.
i
F
i
Q
u
F
i
D
u
r
e
i
sd
u
sd
q
d
x
y
u
sq
i
sq
Figure 7.9 Representation of the synchronous machine, in which the threephase winding has been replaced by a two
phase rotating winding. In the rotor, there are a field winding and two equivalent damper windings. i
sd
and i
sq
are the
stator currents and u
sd
and u
sq
are the stator voltages. i
D
and i
Q
are the damper winding currents. i
F
and u
F
are the field
current and voltage. u
r
is the rotor position angle.
The following symbols are employed for the resistances and inductances represented in the rotor
reference frame and referred to the stator:
 L
d
direct synchronous inductance
 L
q
quadrature synchronous inductance
 L
md
direct magnetizing inductance
 L
mq
quadrature magnetizing inductance
 L
so
stator leakage inductance
 L
F
total inductance of the field winding
 L
Fo
leakage inductance of the field winding
 L
dF
mutual inductance between the stator equivalent
winding on the daxis and the field winding (in practice L
md
)
 L
dD
mutual inductance between the stator equivalent
winding on the daxis and the direct equivalent damper winding
 L
qQ
mutual inductance between the stator equivalent
winding on the qaxis and the quadrature equivalent
damper winding (in practice L
mq
)
 L
D
total inductance of the direct damper winding
 L
Do
leakage inductance of the direct damper winding
 L
Q
total inductance of the quadrature damper winding
 L
Qo
leakage inductance of the quadrature damper winding
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.10
 R
s
stator resistance
 R
F
resistance of the field winding
 R
D
resistance of the direct damper winding
 R
Q
resistance of the quadrature damper winding
Sometimes, the somewhat artificial Canay inductance is employed; this inductance may obtain even
negative values. It has thus to be interpreted as a corrective factor in the model, which can in many
cases be omitted altogether.
 L
ko
mutual leakage inductance between the field winding and
the direct damper winding, i.e., the Canay inductance
Next, the same situation is approached by using the vector model. We obtained previously for the
voltage equation of the synchronous machine in the rotor reference frame
u i
s
r
s s
r s
r
r
s
r
d
d
j
d
d
= + + R
t t
u
. (7.9)
The current, voltage, and flux linkage vectors are decomposed into their real and imaginary parts on
the d and qaxes of the rotor reference frame. We obtain
u
s
r
d q s
r
d q s
r
d q
j j j = + = + = + u u i i i ; ; ; (7.10)
The equations for the real and imaginary parts of the voltage equation
u R i
t
d s d
d
q
d
d
= +
e , (7.11)
u R i
t
q s q
q
d
d
d
= + +
e . (7.12)
The voltage equations of the rotor circuits referred to the stator become
u R i
t
F F F
F
d
d
= +
, (7.13)
0 = + R i
t
D D
D
d
d
, (7.14)
0 = + R i
t
Q Q
Q
d
d
. (7.15)
The inductances of the synchronous machine model are determined in the rotor reference frame:
L
d
= L
md
+ L
so
, (7.16)
L
q
= L
mq
+ L
so
, (7.17)
L
F
= L
md
+ L
Fo
+ L
ko
, (7.18)
L
D
= L
md
+ L
ko
+ L
Do
, (7.19)
L
Q
= L
mq
+ L
Qo
. (7.20)
In the literature, the following equations are given for stator flux linkages and other flux linkages;
the equations are written by using the inductances and currents referred to the stator.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.11
d d d dF F dD D
= + + L i L i L i , (7.21)
q q q qQ Q
= + L i L i , (7.22)
F dF d F F FD D
= + + L i L i L i , (7.23)
D dD d FD F D D
= + + L i L i L i , (7.24)
Q qQ q Q Q
= + L i L i . (7.25)
In the traditional twoaxis model, it is assumed that the stator circuit (i.e., the armature circuit), the
damper windings, and the field winding are magnetically interconnected only through the magnetiz
ing inductances L
md
and L
mq
. However, the measurements have shown that in the transients, the al
ternating component of the field current may be triple to the calculated value. Therefore, the pa
rameter L
ko
known as the Canay inductance is added to the model, since the traditional twoaxis
model describes only the armature circuit correctly. The Canay inductance takes into account the
deviation of the magnetic connection of the damper winding and the field winding from the direct
magnetizing inductance. Thus we obtain for the different mutual inductances:
L
dD
= L
dF
= L
md
, (7.26)
L
FD
= L
md
+ L
ko
, (7.27)
L
qQ
= L
mq
. (7.28)
Based on the above assumptions, the equations of the flux linkages can be expressed in the rotor
reference frame in the following form:
The stator flux linkage:
d md d F D s d
= + + + L i i i L i ( )
o
, (7.29)
q mq q Q s q
= + + L i i L i ( )
o
. (7.30)
The field winding flux linkage:
F md d F F md k D
= + + + L i L i L L i ( )
o
. (7.31)
Damper flux linkages:
D md d md k F D D
= + + + L i L L i L i ( )
o
. (7.32)
Q mq q Q Q
= + L i L i . (7.33)
7.2 Equivalent Circuits and Machine Parameters of a Synchronous Machine
The equivalent circuits of Figures 7.107.11 can be represented for a synchronous machine in the
rotor reference frame, since there the inductance coefficients of the flux linkage equations no longer
depend on the rotor position, and thus, the coefficients are constants. The equivalent circuits are
given separately for the d and qdirections, since the salient pole machine is magnetically asym
metric. Although the nonsalient pole machine is in principle magnetically symmetric, it also in
volves asymmetry to such degree that it is advisable to employ the twoaxis model. Furthermore,
the field winding is usually a singlephase construction, which also justifies the application of the
twoaxis model. Only a slipring asynchronous machine, which can also be used as a synchronous
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.12
machine by supplying direct current to the rotor, is in principle magnetically completely symmetric,
and thus does not necessarily require a twoaxis model fixed to the rotor.
u
d
i
d
R
s
e
q
d
L
s
o
L
md
u
F
i
F
i
D
R
D
R
F
i
d
+i
D
+i
F
L
D
o
L
F
o
md
L
k
o
Figure 7.10 The equivalent circuit of the synchronous machine in the ddirection. i
d
and u
d
are the direct components of
the stator current and voltage.
q
and
q
are the direct and quadrature components of the stator flux linkage. i
D
is the
current of the direct damper winding. i
F
is the field current. R
s
is the stator resistance, R
D
is the resistance of the direct
damper winding and R
F
is the resistance of the field winding. L
so
is the leakage inductance of the stator, L
md
is the direct
magnetizing inductance, L
ko
is the Canay inductance, L
Do
is the leakage inductance of the direct damper winding and
L
Fo
is the leakage inductance of the field winding. u
F
is the voltage of the field winding.
u
q
i
q
R
s
e
d
q
L
s
o
L
mq
i
Q
R
Q
i
q
+i
Q
L
Q
o
mq
Figure 7.11 The equivalent circuit of the synchronous machine in the qdirection. i
q
and u
q
are the quadrature compo
nents of the stator current and voltage.
q
and
q
are the direct and quadrature components of the stator flux linkage. i
Q
is the quadrature current of the damper winding. R
s
is the stator resistance, R
Q
is the resistance of the quadrature damper
winding. L
so
is the leakage inductance of the stator, L
mq
is the quadrature magnetizing inductance, L
Qo
is the leakage
inductance of the quadrature damper winding.
Usually the parameters of the synchronous machine are obtained from the manufacturer as well as
by measurements carried out by the user of the machine. The parameters given for the machine are
not very applicable to the construction of the equivalent circuits, since the parameters defined by
traditional methods represent different magnetic states of the machine. For instance, the direct syn
chronous inductance is determined in noload operation; the transient and subtransient inductances,
on the other hand, are defined by shortcircuit tests, whereas the quadrature synchronous inductance
and the quadrature transient inductances are determined by various methods in different loading
situations. As a result, the parameters determined for the machine are not simultaneously valid, but
they all represent different magnetic states of the machine. In their design software, the manufactur
ers apply experimentally defined coefficients of their own. The frequency converter technology
provides some solutions for determining the machine parameters. The parameters can be updated
online, or they can be determined in the initial identification run of the drive.
Let us next consider the traditional parameters and time constants of synchronous machines as well
as their determination. The machine parameters of Figure 7.12 are based on the results of three
phase shortcircuit tests. It is usually assumed that the mutual inductances between the windings on
the direct axis of the machine are equal, and of the magnitude of the direct magnetizing inductance
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.13
L
dF
= L
dD
= L
FD
= L
md
. The figure clearly illustrates the parameters traditionally given by the manu
facturer:
 The direct synchronous inductance is the sum of the stator leakage inductance and the direct
magnetizing inductance
L L L
d md s
= +
o
(7.34)
 Correspondingly, we may write for the quadrature synchronous inductance
L L L
q mq s
= +
o
(7.35)
 The direct transient inductance is the sum of the stator leakage inductance and the parallel con
nection of the direct magnetizing inductance and the field winding leakage inductance
L L
L L
L L
d s
md F
md F
'
= +
+
o
o
o
(7.36)
 The direct subtransient inductance L
d
''
is the sum of the stator leakage inductance and the parallel
connection of the direct magnetizing inductance, the damper winding leakage inductance and the
field winding leakage inductance
L L
L
L L
L L
L
L L
L L
d s
md
D F
D F
md
D F
D F
' '
= +
+
+
+
o
o o
o o
o o
o o
(7.37)
 There is no field winding on the quadrature axis, and therefore the quadrature subtransient induc
tance is there
o
o
o
+
+ =
Q mq
Q mq
s
' '
q
L L
L L
L L (7.38)
In the figure, we can also find the equivalent circuits for the time constants t
d0
' '
, t
d
''
, t
d0
'
, t
d
'
, t
q0
''
,
andt
q
''
. The time constants are known as
 t
d0
''
direct subtransient time constant, the stator winding open
 t
d
''
direct subtransient time constant
 t
d0
'
direct transient time constant, the stator winding open
 t
d
'
direct transient time constant
 t
q0
''
quadrature subtransient time constant, the stator winding open
 t
q
''
quadrature subtransient time constant.
Now we can easily first determine the machine parameters in the commissioning of the machine.
The subtransient inductance of the quadrature axis is determined by the equivalent circuit
L L
L
L
q
' '
q
mq
Q
=
2
, (7.39)
where
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.14
L L L
Q mq Q
= +
o
. (7.40)
The magnetizing inductance L
mq
of the quadrature axis is notably larger than the leakage inductance
of the quadrature damper winding L
Qo
. Without a serious error being made, we may state that L
Q
~
L
mq
. Thus, the subtransient inductance becomes
L L
L
L
L L L L
q q
mq
Q
s mq mq s
' '
= ~ + =
2
o o
. (7.41)
L
d
L
so
L
md
L
q
L
mq
L'
d
L
so
L
md
L
Fo
L''
d
L
so
L
md
L
Fo
L
Do
L''
q
L
so
L
mq
L
Qo
L
so
L
md
L
Fo
R
F
t'
d0
L
so
L
md
L
Fo
t''
d0
R
D
L
Do
L
so
L
mq
t''
q0
R
Q
L
Qo
L
so
L
md
L
Fo
t''
d
R
D
L
Do
L
so
L
mq
t''
q
R
Q
L
Qo
L
so
L
md
L
Fo
R
F
t'
d
L
so
Figure 7.12 The traditional machine parameters of a synchronous machine and the respective equivalent circuits.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.15
The obtained subtransient estimate can be used to estimate the stator leakage inductance
L k L
s ls q o o
=
' '
, (7.42)
where the coefficient k
lso
varies typically between 0.40.6. The exact measuring of the stator leak
age inductance is carried out without the rotor, and therefore such a measurement is not possible at
the actual operating location of the electrical drive; therefore, an estimate has to suffice. The other
parameters required for the current model are obtained by employing the equivalent circuits of Fig.
7.12. Thus, we obtain
L k L
s ls q o o
=
' '
, (7.43)
L L L
md d s
=
o
,
L L L
mq q s
=
o
,
L
L L L L
L L
F
d md s md
d d
o
o
=
'
'
, (7.44)
L
L
L L
L
Q
mq
q q
mq o
=
2
' '
,
L
L L L L L L
L L L L L L L L L L
D
d md F s md F
s F s md md F d F d md
o
o o o
o o o o o
=
+ +
''
'' ''
.
When all the parameters according to the twoaxis model are known, the resistances R
D
and R
Q
of
the damper windings can be calculated
R
L
L L
L L
L
L
D
D
md F
md F
d
d
d
=
+
+

\

.

o
o
o
t
''
''
'
, (7.45)
R
L
L L
L L
Q
Q
mq s
mq s
q
=
+
+

\

.

 o
o
o
t
' '
In order to compute the damper currents of the direct and quadrature axes, the following four terms
are required
k
mod
D
D S
d1
=
+
t
t t
, k
L
L L
mod
md
md D
d2
=
+
o
, (7.46)
k
mod
Q
Q S
q1
=
+
t
t t
, k
L
L L
mod
mq
mq Q
q2
=
+
o
.
The current model can be determined by employing Eqs. (7.44)(7.46). The successful accom
plishment of this task depends on the accuracy of the traditional motor parameters. Next, we discuss
briefly how these parameters can be found.
The laboratory measurement technology for synchronous machines is defined in the standards IEC
344 Methods for determining synchronous machine quantities from tests and IEEE Std 1151983
Test procedures for synchronous machines. The measurements comprise a DC resistance meas
urement, a noload test, a steadystate shortcircuit measurement, a slip test, a shortcircuit test of
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.16
the field winding, a sudden threephase shortcircuit measurement, and the measurement of V
curves. Table 4.1 lists the technical measurement data of a test motor obtained by these measure
ments at the Laboratory of Electrical Drives at LUT.
Table 4.1: The machine parameters of a test motor determined by standard measurement procedures. The test machine:
14.5 kVA, 400V/21A, 50Hz/1500 rpm.
Parameter value Notes
relative stator resistance r
s
0.048
relative field winding resistance r
F
0.0083
*
*
in the stator voltage level
reduction factor k
ri
4
relative direct synchronous inductance l
d
1.19
relative quadrature synchronous inductance l
q
0.56
relative direct transient inductance l
d
0.33
relative direct subtransient inductance l
d
0.105
relative quadrature subtransient inductance l
q
* * cannot be measured
time constant of the field winding t
do
0.236 s
transient time constant of the direct axis t
d
0.054 s
subtransient time constant of the direct axis t
d
0.024 s
subtransient time constant of the quadrature axis t
q
* * cannot be measured
The data from the supplier, probably based on a calculation program, are respectively:
Table 4.2 Motor parameters given by the supplier: 14.5 kVA, 400V/21A, 50Hz/1500 rpm.
Parameter Value Notes
relative stator resistance r
s
0.048
relative field winding resistance r
F
0.00793
*
*
in the stator voltage level
reduction factor k
ri
4.63
relative direct synchronous inductance l
d
1.196
relative quadrature synchronous inductance l
q
0.475
relative direct transient inductance l
d
0.129
relative direct subtransient inductance l
d
0.09
relative quadrature subtransient inductance l
q
0.109
time constant of the field winding t
do
t
do
0.284 s
transient time constant of the direct axis t
d
0.031 s
subtransient time constant of the direct axis t
d
0.006 s
subtransient time constant of the quadrature axis t
q
0.008 s
7.3 Measurement of Motor Parameters by an Electrical Drive (DTC Drive)
The DC resistance of the stator, the direct synchronous inductance at no load at different voltage
steps, and the subtransient inductance both in the direct and quadrature directions can be measured
by a frequency converter. A modern frequency converter has a good measuring and computing ca
pacity. Therefore, various measurements can be carried out automatically in the commissioning of
the machine.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.17
If the drive can be loaded in the commissioning, and it can be run similarly as in the case of DTC,
i.e., by utilizing both the current model and the model based on the voltage integral in the torque
estimation, the parameters of the current model can be updated both on the direct and quadrature
axes. The torque obtained by the current model and the voltage model has to be equal, and there
fore, the inductance parameters have to be selected such that this condition is met.
The measurement of the transient inductance is straightforward; in the test, the motor is supplied by
short voltage pulses from the frequency converter,
D
d t << t . By switching on the voltage vectors of
different directions, it is possible to get quite a good picture of the transient inductance of the ma
chine in different directions. When supplying the machine in the direction of the direct axis of the
machine, the directaxis subtransient inductance can be calculated
L
u t
i i i
d
'' sd
sd
sd
sd
sd
sd
d
d
d
d
= = ~
A
A
. (7.47)
Correspondingly, when supplying the machine with a voltage pulse in the direction of the quadra
ture axis of the machine, d
Q
t << t we obtain the quadrature subtransient inductance
L
u t
i i i
q
''
sq
sq
sq
sq
sq
sq
d
d
d
d
= = ~
A
A
. (7.48)
In the laboratory, the machine can be measured also in the intermediate positions; Figure 7.13 illus
trates the subtransient inductance of a synchronous machine as a function of the rotor angle
0.1
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
rotor angle/
o
l ''
direct position
quadrature position
Figure 7.13 The measurement result of the relative subtransient inductance as a function of rotor angle. The angle is
given in electrical degrees.
Note that in this case, the subtransient inductance is larger in the quadrature direction than in the
direct direction. Evidently, the activity preventing the penetration of the flux of the damper winding
to the rotor is not as efficient on the qaxis as it is on the daxis. Therefore, a short voltage pulse
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.18
generates a larger flux linkage when the rotor is in the quadrature position than when it is in the di
rect position.
The directaxis synchronous inductance of the motor can also be measured when the motor is oper
ating at no load. The measurement is based on the flux linkage, obtained by integrating from the
voltages and comparing to the measured currents. In the inductance measurement, the motor has to
run at a relatively high speed in order to be able to reduce the uncertainty of the measurement. The
measurement cannot be carried out before all the transients have settled down, in order for the
damper winding currents to have been completely damped out. The measurement of the synchro
nous inductance can be performed by varying the field current of the stator and rotor. The first
value for the synchronous inductance can be obtained by completely omitting the direct current of
the rotor,
s s 0 s
u L i
s
~ ~ e e . The noload current i
s0
is in that case chiefly inductive field current.
As the rotor current is increased, the stator current reduces being finally completely resistive. The
low current is required to overcome mechanical frictions.
The measurement of the quadratureaxis magnetizing inductance is not possible in noload opera
tion. Therefore, to be able to measure the quadrature axis, the machine has to be loaded. The mag
netizing inductance and the stator leakage inductance can be calculated by applying the information
on the stator flux linkage in the rotor reference frame.
( )
( )
( )
L
i L
i i i
L
i L
i i
L
i
L
i
i
i i
md
sd d s
d F D
mq
sq q s
q Q
s
sd
d
md
,
D
Q
F D
=
+ +
=
+
=
~
~
= ~
o
o
o
0
0
0 0
.
(7.49)
Figure 7.14 illustrates the measured noload saturation curves in the ddirection.
0
0.3
0.6
0.9
1.2
1.5
0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2
i
md
[pu]
[pu]
L
md
Figure 7.14 The measured noload saturation curves for the directaxis magnetizing inductance and the stator leakage
inductance.
The inductance measurements of the loaded machine were carried out by setting the sum current of
the daxis i
md
= i
d
+ i
f
+ i
D
at the desired value and by varying the torque, which in turn had an im
pact on the sum field current of the qaxis i
mq
= i
q
+ i
Q
. The measurement was repeated at the flux
linkage range
ref
= 0.31.3 pu, the torque varying between t
ref
= 02.5 pu. At each measured point,
the measuring result was computed in the control program of the inverter. As a result, we obtained
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.19
the direct ( ) ( )
( )
L i t i t
md md mq
f , = and quadrature magnetizing inductance ( ) ( )
( )
L i t i t
mq md mq
f = , as a
function of i
md
and i
mq
. The stator leakage inductance was assumed constant. The measured induc
tance surfaces are illustrated in Fig. 7.15. The figure shows that the current of the quadrature axis
has an effect on the magnetizing inductance of the quadrature axis and vice versa. The effect of the
socalled crosssaturation is thus clearly visible.
0.00
0.47
0.94
1.42
1.90
1.55
1.19
0.92
0.71
0.53
0.35
0.18
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
L
md
[pu]
i md
[pu]
i
mq
[pu]
a)
0.00
0.48
0.71
0.95
1.19
1.43
1.67
1.90
1.55
1.19
0.92
0.71
0.53
0.35
0.00
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
Lmq
[pu]
i
md
[pu]
i
mq
[pu]
b)
Figure 7.15 a) The magnetizing inductance surface of the daxis and b) the magnetizing inductance surface of the q
axis as a function of the sum field currents.
Figure 7.16 illustrates the same inductance surfaces as twodimensional curves.
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00
i
mq
= 1.5 pu
i
mq
= 0 pu
L
md
[pu]
i
md
[pu]
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6
L
mq
[pu]
.
i
mq
[pu]
i
md
= 2.0 pu
i
md
= 0.5 pu
Figure 7.16 a) The magnetizing inductance of the daxis and b) the magnetizing inductance of the qaxis as a function
of the field currents.
Table 4.3 presents a comparison of the results obtained by different methods. The DTC measure
ment data have been gathered at the nominal operation point. The transient values in particular are
notably different in different methods.
Table 4.3 Comparison of the different measurement methods. Machine: 14.5 kVA, 400V/21A, 50Hz/1500 rpm. *not
measured
x
noload value,
+
measuring point not determined.
Parameter Manufacturer Standard measure
ment
DTC meas.
pu
relative stator resistance r
s
0.048 0.048 0.051
relative field winding resistance r
F
0.00793 0.0083 
*
reduction factor k
ri
4.63 4 3.96
relative direct synchronous inductance l
d
1.196
x
1.19
x
1.066
relative quadrature synchronous inductance l
q
0.475
+
0.56
x
0.439
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.20
relative direct transient inductance l
d
0.129 0.33 *
relative direct subtransient inductance l
d
0.109 * 0.194
time constant of the field winding t
do
t
do
0.284 s 0.236 s *
transient time constant of the direct axis t
d
0.031 s 0.054 s *
subtransient time constant of the direct axis t
d
0.006 s 0.024 s *
subtransient time constant of the quadrature axis t
q
0.008 s * *
7.4 Finite Element Method (FEM) for Determining the Inductances of a Synchronous Ma
chine
By means of magnetic calculation, the above inductance surfaces can be determined already in the
machine design. Next, the results of FEM calculation are investigated. Magnetic calculation is a
useful tool in the determination of the saturation behaviour of the direct and quadrature magnetizing
inductance. The definition of the inductances at a certain loading point is also possible. However, at
the present, magnetic calculation is still a rather laborious method, and therefore not even the larg
est suppliers calculate all their machines by the FEM, but simpler methods are applied to the ma
chine calculation.
Figure 7.17 illustrates the crosssection of a small test motor. In the machine, there is a threephase
winding, the stator slot number Q
s
= 24, the number of slots per pole and per phase q
s
= 2, the
length of the stator stack l = 140 mm, the inner diameter of the stator D
o
= 196 mm, and the number
of turns in the stator winding per slot N'
s
= 56. The field winding is a fourpole construction. The
number of turns per pole is N
rp
= 220. The directaxis magnetizing inductance ( ) L i
i i md F
f
d q
=
= =0
is
calculated by using different values of the rotor current. In the calculation, also a completely quad
rature magnetizing can easily be carried out, and thus it is possible to determine
( )
L i
i i mq q
f
F d
=
= =0
.
At the loading points, the values are obtained as ( ) ( )
q f d mq q f d md
, , and , , i i i f L i i i f L = =
daxis
qaxis
+a
+b
+c
+a
a
a +a
+a
a
a
b
b
b
b
+b
+b
+b c
c
c
c
+c
+c
+c
Figure 7.17. The crosssection of the analyzed synchronous machine and its windings.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.21
In the FEM calculation, in the twodimensional case in particular, the vector potential A is utilized;
in this case, it is obtained from the equations B = V A and V A = 0. Figure 7.18 illustrates the
machine running at no load and loaded at the nominal operating point.
d/x
q/y
+a
+a
b
c
a
a +a
a
b
c
+b
+b
+c
+c
+c
+c
b
b
s
i
f
+a
s
q/y
d/x
i
s
i
f
+a
a
a a
a
b
b
c
c
+b
+b
+c
+c b
b
+c
+c
m
Figure 7.18 The flux diagram of the machine at no load and at the nominal point. Calculation by MAGNET' software
The finite element method yields for instance the air gap flux density, which is naturally distorted
due to the slot openings and the armature reaction. To calculate the magnetizing inductances, it is
necessary to perform the Fourier analysis for the curve, since the space vector theory is based on the
assumption of a sinusoidal curve form. Figure 7.19 depicts the air gap flux density distribution and
its fundamental harmonic at no load.
1.20
0.90
0.60
0.30
0.00
0.30
0.60
0.90
1.20
0
90
180
periphery angle
Bo [T]
daxis qaxis daxis qaxis
360 270
Figure 7.19 Air gap flux density and its fundamental harmonic at nominal noload operation, calculated by the FEM.
To calculate the inductances,
B
1o
and the phase angle are searched from the result of the Fourier
analysis. The air gap flux is now obtained from the equation
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.22
'
2
' d d cos
p 1
'
0
2
p
1 m
p
p
L B L x
x
B
L
t
t
u
o
t
t
o
} }
t
=


.

\

t =
3
2
, (7.50)
where the effective machine length is defined as L= l +2o. o is the air gap in the middle of the pole
shoe,
p
D
2
p
t
= t is the pole pitch of the machine, D is the stator boring and p is the number of pole
pairs. The air gap flux linkage of the phase A is now
' t
o mA p f1
=
2
1
t
B L N , (7.51)
f1
is the winding factor of the fundamental harmonic and N is the number of turns of the stator
phase in series. The flux linkages of the phases B and C are calculated accordingly, and thus we can
determine the stator flux linkage vector of the machine
( ) ( ) ( )
j
mA
3
4
j
mC
3
2
j
mB mA m
3
2
e e t e t t =
(
(
+ + = . (7.52)
The flux linkage is divided into direct and quadrature components
md m
mq m
=
=
cos
sin
(7.53)
finally, inductances are calculated
L
i i i
i
L
i i
i
md
FEM
md
d F D
D
mq
FEM
mq
q Q
Q
=
+ +
=
=
+
=

\

.



\

.



0
0
(7.54)
Figure 7.20 illustrates the comparison of the measured and calculated results.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.23
a)
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
i
md
[A]
calculated
measured
L
md
[mH]
b)
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
L
mq
[mH]
i
mq
[A]
Figure 7.20 a) The measured and calculated directaxis inductance, when there is magnetization only on the direct axis.
b) Calculated quadrature inductance.
From our point of view, the most interesting issue are the results of the FEM analysis for a machine
running under load. Figure 7.21a depicts the behaviour of the directaxis inductance at the nominal
stator flux linkage at different loads, and the item b illustrates the behaviour of the quadrature in
ductance. Again, the results deviate somewhat from the measured ones.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.24
Measured
FEM
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
L
md
[mH]
i
mq
[A]
i
md
= 19 A
a)
Measured
FEM
i
md
=19 A
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
L
mq
[mH]
i
mq
[A]
25
20
15
10
5
0
b)
Figure 7.21 a) The measured and calculated behaviour of the directaxis inductance and b) the behaviour of the quadra
tureaxis inductance when the torque varies between 0250 %.
The above presentation shows clearly how difficult it is to obtain exact results from the machine.
However, there is a good congruence between the results measured by the DTC inverter and the re
sults calculated by the FEM method; we may thus conclude that a modern frequency converter is
capable of performing the measurements required for the machine.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.25
7.5 The Relationship between the Stator Excitation and the Rotor Excitation of a Syn
chronous Machine
7.5.1 NonSalient Pole Machine
Let us first consider a nonsalient pole synchronous machine. The polyphase winding, depending
on the number of turns N
1
of the phase, the winding factor
1
of the fundamental harmonic, the
number of pole pairs p, and the phase number m, produces a peak value of the total magnetomotive
force (
O
s
is the amplitude of the fundamental)
s
1 1
s
2
4
2 i
p
N
m
O = . (7.55)
For a threephase machine, the above is rewritten as
s s 1s s
s 1s
s
s 1s
s
2 6
2
2
4
3
2
4
3
2 I N I
p
N
i
p
N
O = = = . (7.56)
In a synchronous machine, there is a singlephase rotor, into which direct current is supplied. The
peak value of the total mmf is now
rfDC r 1r r
2 I N O = . (7.57)
If we want to express the stator current with the direct current of the rotor, the magnetomotive
forces are written to be equal
rfDC
s 1s
r 1r
s 1s
rfDC r 1r
s
2 3
2
4
2 6
I
N
N
N
I N
I
= = . (7.58)
The relationship between the fundamental of the stator current and the magnetizing DC current is
thus
s 1s
r 1r
ri
rfDC
s
3
2
N
N
k
I
I
= = . (7.59)
Here we must note that the magnetomotive forces given by the equations, if written as equal, do not
really give an equal flux density in the air gap, since the leakage fluxes of the windings are not
equal, and thus inequal parts of the magnetomotive forces of the stator and rotor are exerted to the
air gap.
The same result is obtained by assuming a situation illustrated in Figure 7.22, where one stator
phase is currentless. Thus, at a sinusoidal supply, in the other two phases there flows a current
2
2
3
s
I i = . (7.60)
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.26
The sum current of the instantaneous currents of the phases that corresponds to the common magne
tomotive force may thus be written as
i I I
yht s
o
s
= = 2
3
2
2 30
3
2
2 cos . (7.61)
Figure 7.22 Currents of a symmetric threephase system,
when one phase current is zero.
The mmf of a "singlephase" stator at that moment is thus
2
4 3
2
2
O
s s 1s s
=
t
I N , (7.62)
and the mmf of the rotor is the same as previously, and thus the relationship of the currents is real
ized as previously.
7.5.2 SalientPole Machine
Next, the three different air gaps of a salientpole internalpole machine are investigated. The air
gaps seen by the rotor pole excitation are usually shaped by the pole shoes so that as sinusoidal flux
density distribution as possible is obtained by the rotor magnetization on the direct axis.
The pole field has to be shaped so that the length of the density line of the field graph is inversely
proportional to the cosine of the electrical angle, when the frame of reference is fixed in the middle
of the pole shoe. The pole shoes shaped this way generate a sinusoidally distributed magnetic flux
density in the air gap. The stator winding is constructed so that also its magnetomotive force is si
nusoidally distributed when proceeding along the stator surface. Also this mmf distributed in the air
gap creates a flux in the air gap. Since the air gap is shaped so that the flux generated by the pole
excitation is sinusoidal, it is clear that the flux generated by the stator is not sinusoidal. The three
phase winding of the stator creates a magnetomotive force of its own, and correspondingly, an own
flux density component to the air gap. In a normally running machine, the flux density in the air gap
is composed of the flux components generated by all the windings of the machine. Next we investi
gate how the stator magnetizes a shaped air gap.
Assume that the part
' O
d
of the amplitude of the mmf of the stator is exerted to the centre line d of
the pole. Along the pole pitch, the magnetic voltage varies thus as follows
( ) u O u O cos
'
d
'
d
= . (7.63)
The permeance dA of the passage from this point to the rotor surface is
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.27
'
0
0 0
cos
2
d
d
d
o
u u
o
A
p
DL
n
A
= = . (7.64)
The magnetic density at the point u is thus
( ) u O
o
u
u
2 '
d '
0
0
d
cos
d
d
= =
A
B . (7.65)
The proportion of the flux density created by the mmf of the stator current to the air gap is thus pro
portional to the square of the cosine. However, this density function is often replaced by its funda
mental harmonic, that is, by a cosine function with an equal flux. The condition for keeping the
magnitude of the flux equal is
} }
+
=
/2
/2
/2
/2
d
2 '
d
'
0
0
d cos
d cos
u u u u O
o
B . (7.68)
The amplitude of the cosine function is thus
'
d '
d
0 '
d
0
0
d
' 4
O
o
O
o
=
t
= B . (7.69)
In the latter form of Eq. (4.59), the air gap o
d
'
is an fictitious air gap, which the magnetomotive
force of the stator meets. Its theoretical value is
o o ' ' /
d
= 4
0
t . (7.70)
Figure 7.23a illustrates this situation. Equation (7.70) describes the air gap experienced by the stator
in the case of a salientpole machine, when the air gap is shaped to produce a sinusoidal distribution
by the rotor magnetizing. In reality, the distance at the pole edge from the stator to the rotor cannot
obtain an infinite value, and therefore the theoretical value of Eq. (7.70) is not realized exactly as
such. The most exact value for this air gap can be determined by the FEM method, however, it is
possible to reach quite accurate results also by manual calculation.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.28
t
p
B
d1
B
d
u
s
t
p
u
s
B
q1
B
q
Figure 7.23 a). The cos
2
shaped density wave B
d
created to an air gap shaped by the pole shoe; the density wave is gen
erated by a cosinusoidal mmf u
s1
occurring at the direct axis of the stator; the figure illustrates also the corresponding
equivalent cosinusoidal fundamental harmonic
d 1
B .
Figure 7.23b illustrates the definition of the quadrature air gap. The axis of the magnetic voltage of
the stator is imagined at the quadrature axis of the machine. The flux density curve on the quadra
ture axis is sketched and the flux u
q
is calculated. The density amplitude corresponding this flux is
written as
q
q
0
q
q
'
'
O
o
u
= =
DL
p
B . (7.71)
o'
q
is the fictitious quadrature air gap. All the magnetomotive forces acting upon the air gap are set
equal:
'
' O O O
F d q
= = , in which case the equivalent air gaps behave like the inverses of the density
amplitudes
q d 0
q d
'
1
:
'
1
:
'
1
o o o
o
= B B B . (7.72)
The direct and quadrature equivalent air gap is calculated from this proportion. Note that the direct
and quadrature magnetizing inductances of the stator are inversely proportional to the above air
gaps. As a result, the quadrature synchronous inductance of the traditional salientpole machine is
usually notably lower than the direct synchronous inductance.
The mmf of the rotor creates thus a sinusoidal flux density distribution on the stator surface, the
peak value of which converges with the smallest air gap o
0
. The slotting of the stator reduces the air
gap by an amount of the Carters coefficient.
o o
0 0
'
= k
C
. (7.73)
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.29
Observed from the stator, the direct air gap appears as regards to the fundamental harmonic theo
retically according to Eq. (7.70). The length of the air gap has thus become 4/tfold.
Since the field winding is located only on the direct axis, the current ratio of the stator and rotor ex
citation is required in this direction only. The current ratio is determined by defining the fundamen
tal harmonics of the flux densities caused by the stator and rotor currents to be equal. Here it is as
sumed that there are no leakage fluxes and the reluctance of iron is zero, and thus the entire mmf is
exerted to the air gaps. The amplitude of the mmf of the stator is now written as
O
s 1s s s
=
3
2
p
N I
t
. (7.74)
The fictitious flux density can be calculated accordingly
B
p
N I
N I
p
1s
1s s s
1s s s
= =
'
'
3
2
4
3 2
4
0
0
0
0
t
t
o
o
. (7.75)
The mmf of the rotor is of the shape of a square wave, and its height is
rFDC
r
r
2
1
I
p
N
= O . (7.76)
Since the air gap is shaped to produce a sinusoidal density distribution, the peak value of the ficti
tious flux density becomes now
0
0
rFDC
r
1r
2
1
o
'
=
I
p
N
B . (7.77)
By comparing Eqs. (7.75) and (7.77) we obtain the current ratio
s 1s
r
rFDC
s
ri
2
2 3
N
N
I
I
k
= = . (7.78)
This is equal to the result we obtained previously. The ratio is thus the same both for a salientpole
and nonsalient pole machine, assuming that the pole shoe of the rotor of the salientpole machine is
shaped to produce a sinusoidal distribution. If this is not the case, the current ratio has to be recon
sidered, and we have to employ the partly empirical form factors given in literature. Equation (7.78)
is not quite exact either, since it is based on the assumption that the air gap met by the stator mmf in
the quadrature direction is infinite; the error is yet not significant, since the direct mmf is small
when approaching the quadrature axis and eventually reduces to zero.
If it is possible to run the permanent shortcircuit test by the machine, the current ratio can easily be
determined with the shortcircuit test. As we know, in the short circuit, the mmf of the stator current
should cancel the mmf of the rotor current, and thus the shortcircuit test directly produces the cur
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.30
rent ratio. A certain magnetizing direct current of the rotor has a corresponding shortcircuit current
of the steady state of the stator.
7.5.3 Referring Factor
When referring the resistances from the singlephase rotor winding to the threephase stator wind
ing or vice versa, the singlephase rotor DC can be considered to form a current vector of an ficti
tious threephase rotor. The rotor is imagined to be replaced by a nonsalient pole sheet rotor with a
threephase winding. The threephase current flowing in the winding generates an equal flux den
sity in the air gap as the rotating pole wheel magnetized by direct current.
According to the energy principle, an equal power loss has to be generated both in the real rotor and
in the space vector equivalent circuit. When operating with threephase quantities, the rotor power
is determined as
P R I
r r3v r3v
= 3
2
. (7.79)
This power has to be equal to the power calculated with real rotor quantities
P I R
F FDC FDC
=
2
. (7.80)
We obtain thus
R
I
I
R
r3v
FDC
r3v
FDC
=
2
2
3
. (7.81)
When we substitute the effective value I
r3v
of the rotor phase current by the respective stator current
I
s
, we obtain
R
I
I
R
k
R
r3v
FDC
s
FDC
ri
FDC
'
= =
2
2 2
3
1
3
. (7.82)
The same result is obtained also by the following procedure: we replace the singlephase rotor
winding by a threephase winding with an equal number of turns. The magnetomotive forces of the
singlephase and the fictitious threephase rotor are written equal per pole pair, and thus we obtain
O O
r3v FDC
rp
r3v
rp
FDC
= =
3
2
4
2
2
4
2
1 1
t t
N
I
N
I . (7.83)
N
rp
is the number of turns in the rotor pole pair. This yields for the fictitious threephase current of
the rotor
I I
r3v FDC
=
2
3
. (7.84)
According to the energy principle, there has to occur an equal power loss both in the real rotor and
in the fictitious threephase circuit. When operating with threephase quantities, the rotor power is
determined as
P R I R I R I
r r3v r3v r3v FDC r3v FDC
= =

\

.
 = 3 3
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
. (7.85)
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.31
This power has to be equal to the power calculated with the real rotor quantities, and thus we obtain
the resistance of the fictitious threephase rotor
R R
r3v FDC
=
3
2
. (7.86)
Since the number of phases is equal both in the fictitious rotor and in the stator, the resistance is
now referred to the stator by employing the current ratio determined by the turns and winding fac
tors
R R
N
N
R k
r3v
FDC
1s s
1r r
FDC ri
'
=

\

.
 =
3
2
1
3
2
2
. (7.87)
7.5.4 Referring (to the Stator) When Applying Space Vectors
When operating with the fictitious threephase quantities in the rotor, we obtained for the effective
value of the threephase current of the rotor
I I
r3v FDC
=
2
3
. (7.88)
When operating with sinusoidal quantities, the peak value of this current is now
i I
r3v FDC
=
2
3
. (7.89)
When we apply the above to construct the space vector of the rotor current, we obtain the result
shown in Figure 7.24 for the length of the rotor current vector, for instance in a situation where the
current of the phase A is at its positive maximum, and the currents of the phases b and c are a half
of their negative maximum values.
a
a
2
1
3
I
FDC
1
3
I
FDC
2
3
I
FDC
I I
r FDC
=
2
3
Figure 7.24 The formation of the space vector of the current of an fictitious threephase rotor, when the current of the
phase A is at its positive maximum.
Now, the magnitude of the space vector is thus (2/3)I
FDC
. By writing the magnetomotive forces of
the space vectors of the stator and rotor equal, we obtain
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.32
2
3
I N N
FDC rp r s1 sp
= i
'
. (7.90)
This yields the ratio of the magnitudes of the current vectors
i
r
FDC
rp
sp
riav
'
I
N
N
k = =
2
3
1
. (7.91)
The result deviates from the DC reduction by an amount of 2 . In this system, the phase resistance
of the rotor is R R
r3v FDC
=
3
2
. When we now calculate the powers by applying space vectors and the
effective value of the direct current and when we write them equal, we obtain
P
N
N
I R I R
k I R I R
= =

\

.


=
= =
3
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2 2 2
ui
* '
'
rp
1s sp
FDC r FDC rfDC
riav FDC r FDC FDC
. (7.92)
The above yields for the reduction when operating with space vectors
R
k
R
r
riav
FDC
'
=
2
3
1
2
. (7.93)
7.6 Vector Diagram of a Synchronous Machine
Often when analysing the operation of a machine, a vector diagram is employed; the vector diagram
is nearly identical with the effective value phasor diagram, however, unlike the phasor diagram, it is
rotating. Figure 7.25 illustrates the vector diagram of a synchronous machine in the rotor oriented
dq reference frame. The machine operates as a motor and rotates counterclockwise.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.33
jeL
mq
i
Q
q
d
i
s
m
i
D
+ ji
Q
o
m

je L
mq
i
q
je L
md
i
D
je L
md
i
d
jeL
md
i
F
= e
mF
o
s
s
L
s
o
i
s
L
md
i
d
+ jL
mq
i
q
L
md
i
F
i
F
L
md
i
D
L
mq
i
Q
je
s
= e
s
je
m
= e
m
R
s
i
s
u
s
je L
s
o
i
s
e
s
e
Figure 7.25 The vector diagram of a synchronous machine in a general case in the rotor reference frame. e is the elec
tric angular speed. o
s
is the pole angle of the stator flux linkage, o
m
is the pole angle of the air gap flux linkage,  is the
angle between the stator flux linkage and the stator current, and is the angle between the stator current and stator
voltage. i
s
is the stator current vector and u
s
is the stator voltage vector.
s
is the vector of the stator flux linkage and
m
is the vector of air gap flux linkage. e
s
is the back electromagnetic force induced by the stator flux linkage. The figure
also illustrates a small damper winding current i
D
+ j i
Q
. The entire vector diagram rotates counterclockwise at an elec
tric angular speed e.
The flux linkage
s
of the machine is produced as an effect of the stator voltage vector u'
s
from
which the resistive voltage loss is eliminated, and the flux linkage is thus 90 behind the vector. The
perpendicularity is realized in a steady state; however, in a dynamic state, in which there occur for
instance damper winding currents, the condition of perpendicularity is not met. The air gap flux
linkage
m
differs from the stator flux linkage by the amount of the leakage flux linkage
so
= L
so
i
s
.
In the machine, there occurs an fictitious flux linkage L
md
i
F
created by the field winding; this flux
linkage is modified towards the air gap flux linkage by the armature reactions in the direct (L
md
i
d
),
and quadrature directions (L
mq
i
q
). Each flux linkage also the leakage flux linkage causes an in
duction of its own. Considering a motor control, the inductions e
s
= je
s
and e
m
= je
m
are of
central importance. The induction e
s
induced by the stator flux linkage is the induced voltage
which, added to the supply voltage, determines the current of the machine ( ) i u e
s s s s
= / R . The
induction created by the field winding jeL
md
i
F
is fictitious, since a flux linkage of such a high
value as represented by L
md
i
F
cannot usually be generated to a machine due to the saturation of iron.
The inductions caused by the armature and damping reactions je L
md
i
d
and je L
mq
i
q
as well as
je L
md
i
D
and je L
mq
i
Q
modify this fictitious flux linkage into the real air gap flux linkage. The
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.34
induction caused by the air gap flux linkage becomes observable if the stator of the machine sud
denly becomes currentless. Particularly in the field weakening, it is possible that the magnitude of
the air gap flux linkage is notably larger than the magnitude of the stator flux linkage. If the control
of such a machine is terminated for some reason, the situation becomes extremely dangerous, since
the terminal voltage of the machine attempts to rise excessively first to a value corresponding to
the air gap flux linkage, and finally to a maximum value allowed by the iron of the machine, this
value corresponding to the field current. Figure 7.26 recapitulates the vector diagram of the syn
chronous machine without damper currents.
q
d
i
s
m
o
m

je L
mq
i
q
je L
md
i
d
jeL
md
i
F
= e
mF
o
s
s
L
s
o
i
s
L
mq
i
q
L
md
i
F
i
F
je
s
= e
s
je
m
= e
m
R
s
i
s
u
s
je L
s
o
i
s
e
s
= u'
s
e
L
md
i
d
i
d
i
q
Figure 7.26 vector diagram of the synchronous machine when the damper currents have zero values.
For practical control purposes, the vector diagram can be simplified by omitting several inductions,
Figure 7.27
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.35
q
d
i
s
m
o
m
o
s
s
L
s
o
i
s
i
F
R
s
i
s
u
s u'
s
e
Figure 7.27 Simplified vector diagram of a synchronous machine. The machine runs at the power factor cos = 1.
Figure 7.28 depicts the currents of a synchronous machine in different reference frames, and also
shows that the current of the field winding i
F
takes part in the torque production. In the air gap flux
torque reference frame T, the field current has namely a component i
FT
clearly decelerating the
machine.
x
y
e
r
i
m
m
,
u
r
d
T
q
e
f
i
F
i
FT
i
s
i
sT
i
F
i
sd
i
sq
u
m
o
m
i
sy
i
sx
i
s
Figure 7.28 Stator current in different reference frames. The reference frames are the stator reference frame xy, the ro
tor reference frame dq, and the air gap fluxtorque reference frame T.
When applying the twoaxis model, the different coordinate transformation equations have to pre
sented in a component form. These component forms are next given by using stator current as the
quantity to be investigated; however, the equations hold also for stator voltages and stator flux link
ages. When transferring from threephase quantities to twophase ones, the following equations are
applied to:
( ) i i i i
sx sa sb sc
= +
(
2
3
1
2
, (7.94)
  i i i
sy sb sc
=
1
3
, (7.95)
We may write for the zero current
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.36
  i i i i
s sa sb sc 0
1
3
= + + . (7.96)
The transformation formulas into opposite direction are
i i i
sa sx s0
= + , (7.97)
i i i i
sb sx sy s0
= + +
1
2
3
2
, (7.98)
i i i i
sc sx sx s0
= +
1
2
3
2
. (7.99)
When changing over from the stator reference frame to the rotor reference frame, also the angle be
tween the reference frame, that is, the rotor position angle u
r
has to be known, as stated previously.
Since the zero component is not included in the current vector, it has to be taken individually into
account.
i i i
d sx r sy r
= cos sin u u + , (7.100)
i i i
q sx r sy r
= sin cos u u + , (7.101)
i i
s0 s0
= . (7.102)
The equations into opposite direction are written as
i i i
sx d r q r
= cos sin u u , (7.103)
i i i
sy d r q r
= sin cos u u + , (7.104)
i i
s0 s0
= . (7.105)
When transferring directly from the phase quantities to the rotor reference frame, the following
equations are applied to:
i i i i
d sa r sb r sc r
= +

\

.
 +

\

.

(
2
3
cos cos cos u u u
2t
3
4t
3
(7.106)
i i i i
q sa r sb r sc r
= +

\

.
 +

\

.

(
2
3
sin sin sin u u u
2t
3
4t
3
(7.107)
  i i i i
s sa sb sc 0
1
3
= + + (7.108)
When transferring to the opposite direction, the equations are
i i i i
sa d r q r s0
= cos sin u u + (7.109)
i i i i
sb d r q r s0
=

\

.


\

.
 + cos sin u u
2t
3
2t
3
(7.110)
i i i i
sc d r q r s0
=

\

.


\

.
 + cos sin u u
t
3
4t
3
4
(7.111)
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.37
7.7 Torque Production of a Synchronous Machine
The synchronous machine operates according to the crossfield principle. The air gap flux linkage
in particular is significant for torque production; previously, we have seen that the current compo
nent perpendicular to the air gap flux linkage produces torque. As shown in the previous chapter,
the equation for the electric torque T
e
can be given in various forms; let us briefly recapitulate these
different expressions of torque again. The general equation for the torque of any rotatingfield ma
chine can be given as a vector representation
k i i T 
.

\

= =  sin
2
3
2
3
s s s s e
p p , (7.112)
where
 p number of pole pairs

s
stator flux linkage vector
 i
s
stator current vector
  angle between vectors
 k unit vector aligned with the shaft of the machine
When we analyze the vector diagrams of a synchronous machine, we may state that there is no con
tradiction between the above representation and the role of the aforementioned air gap flux linkage.
The torque equation can also be expressed in the scalar form
( )  + = sin
2
3
s m e
i p T . (7.113)
According to these equations, the magnitude of torque depends on the magnitudes of the vectors
and the angle between them. The sign of the torque expressed in scalar form depends on the angle
between the vectors. Thus, in the case of synchronous machines, changing over from motor opera
tion to generator operation or vice versa is accomplished by only changing the sign of the angle be
tween the vectors.
When Eq. (7.112) is represented by its components in the rotor reference frame, it can be written in
the scalar form:
( )
d q q d e
2
3
i i p T = . (7.114)
Further, when we substitute the components of the stator flux linkage to the equation by applying
the inductances and currents, we obtain
( ) ( )  
d Q mq q D F md q d q d e
2
3
i i L i i i L i i L L p T + + = . (7.115)
Finally, we decompose the middle term and rewrite the equation in the form
( )  
d Q mq q D md q F md q d q d e
2
3
i i L i i L i i L i i L L p T + + = (7.116)
The equation shows that the torque comprises the following parts:
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.38
 the reluctance torque (L
d
L
q
)i
d
i
q
resulting from the magnetic asymmetry; occurs only in salient
pole machines
 a component related to the field current and the quadrature stator current; this is the actual torque
of the machine
 two terms describing the torque components of the damper winding currents; these components
occur only in transients
7.8 Simulation of an Electrically Excited SalientPole Machine by Constant Parameters
In the context of a synchronous machine, per unit values are often employed. Using per unit values
brings certain benefits; the relative scale of a parameter can be seen directly from the per unit value.
For instance, if the relative synchronous inductance is l
d
= 2, the value is high. Correspondingly, if
l
d
= 0.5, the value is low. Hence, it is possible to compare machines, the rated values of which devi
ate from each other. The role of per unit values diminishes when we change over to the application
of floatingpoint processors. The fixedpoint signal processors require proportioning of all calcula
tions in the range of 0 ... 1. In that case, the application of per unit values alone does not suffice, but
the figures have to be scaled considerably lower to ensure that for instance the result of a sum or a
product will never exceed one.
Per unit values are obtained by dividing each quantity by its basic value. The basic values are usu
ally determined as follows:
the peak value of the rated stator phase current
i
n
the peak value of the rated stator phase voltage u
n
the rated flux linkage, which also corresponds to the rated angular speed
/ e
n n n
= u
the rated impedance Z u i
n n n
= /
The time in which the angle of one radian in electric degrees is travelled at the rated frequency
t
n n
rad = 1 / e . The relative time t is thus measured as an anglet e =
n
t
the apparent power corresponding to the rated current and voltage S i u
n n n
=
3
2
the apparent torque corresponding to the rated power and rated frequencyT i u
n
n
n n
=
3
2e
The rotor quantities are referred to the stator voltage level before the per unit values are con
structed. For example, the stator voltage equation is expressed in the rotor reference frame as
u i
s
r
s s
r s
r
s
r
d
d
j = + + R
t
e , (7.117)
the above is divided by the basic value of the voltage and it is grouped appropriately, and thus we
obtain
( )
u i
s
r
n
s n
n
s s
r
n
s
r
n
n
n n
n s
r
n
d
d
j
u
Ri
u
R
i
t
u u
= + +
e
e e
e
e
. (7.118)
The equation clearly shows the per unit values
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.39
u
u
s, pu
r s
r
n
=
u
, (7.119)
i
i
s, pu
r s
r
n
=
i
, (7.120)
r
Ri
u
s
s n
n
=
, (7.121)
s, pu
r n s
r
n
=
e
u
, (7.122)
e
e
e
pu
n n
pu
= = =
n
f
n (7.123)
t e =
n
t . (7.124)
The voltage equation given in per unit values becomes thus
u i
s, pu
r
s s, pu
r
s, pu
r
pu s, pu
r
d
d
j = + + r
t
e . (7.125)
The form is equal with the original equation, however, the relative time may cause some problems.
If normal time is used in the per unit value equations, the equation will be rewritten as
u i
s, pu
r
s s, pu
r
n
s, pu
r
pu s, pu
r
d
d
j = + + r
t
1
e
e
. (7.126)
The per unit values of inductances are equal to the per unit values of reactances. We obtain for in
stance
l
L
L
L
u
i
i
u
X x
m
m
b
m
n
n n
n
n
m m
= = = =
e
. (7.127)
The stator flux linkage equation
s s s m r
= + L L i i (7.128)
is divided by the basic value of the flux linkage
e
b
n
n
=
u
, (7.129)
which yields
e e e
n s
n
n n s
n
s
n
n n m
n
r
n
u
i L
u i
i L
u i
= +
i i
. (7.130)
Thus, the flux linkage equation given in per unit values becomes
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.40
s,pu s s,pu m r,pu
= + l l i i . (7.131)
The motion equation of an electrical machine is written as
3
2
2
2
p
J
p t
T
s s m
d
d
= + i
u
. (7.132)
When the motion equation is divided by the basic value of torque, we obtain
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
2 p
u i
p
J
p t
u i
p
T
u i
p
s s
n n
n
n n
n
m
n n
n
d
d
= +
i
/
/
/ e
u
e e
. (7.133)
This yields the per unit value equation
s, pu s, pu m, pu
d
d
= + i T T
J
2
2
u
t
. (7.134)
In the above equation, we have a mechanical time constant
T
p
J
u i
J
=

\

.
 e
e
n
n
n n
2
2
3
. (7.135)
The mechanical time constant is the ratio of the kinetic energy of a rotor rotating at synchronous
speed to the apparent power of the machine.
7.9 Current Equations of a Synchronous Machine
The relationship between the flux linkages and currents of a synchronous machine has to be inves
tigated in the rotor reference frame in order to avoid the division of the direct and quadrature quan
tities into their components.
The dependence between the flux linkages and currents is determined by an inductance matrix; we
omit the pu (per unit value) notations.
= L i , (7.136)
or
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
F
Q
D
q
d
F FD md
Q mq
FD D md
mq sq
md md sd
F
Q
D
sq
sd
0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0
0 0
i
i
i
i
i
l l l
l l
l l l
l l
l l l
, (7.137)
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.41
where
l l l
l l l
l l l l
l l l
l l l l
l l l
sd md s
sq mq s
D md D k
Q mq Q
F md F k
FD md k
= +
= +
= + +
= +
= + +
= +
o
o
o o
o
o o
o
(7.138)
Now the currents can be determined from the flux linkages by applying the inverse inductance ma
trix K L =
1
.
i
i
i
i
i
k k k
k k
k k k
k k
k k k
d
q
D
Q
F
sd dD dF
sq qQ
dD D FD
qQ Q
dF FD F
sd
sq
D
Q
F
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0
0 0
, (7.139)
where
k
l l l
k
l
k
l l l
k
l
k
l l l
sd
F D FD
sq
Q
D
F sd md
Q
sq
F
sd D md
=
= =
= =
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1
A A A A A
, , , ,
( ) ( ) k l l
l
k l l
l
k
l
k
l l l
dD FD F
md
dF FD D
md
qQ
mq
FD
md FD sd
= = =
=
A A A A
1 1 2
2
1
, , , (7.140)
the denominator components A
1
and A
2
are written as
A
A
1
2 2 2 2
2
2
2 = +
=
l l l l l l l l l l l
l l l
md FD md D md F sd D F FD sd
Q sq mq
(7.141)
7.10 Simulation of a Synchronous Machine in a DiscreteTime System
With the mathematical representation of a synchronous machine, it is possible to compile a simula
tion model, the inputs of which are the stator voltage u
s, pu
, the excitation voltage u
F,pu
, and the me
chanical angular speed n (for the integration of the rotor angle) of the synchronous machine; the
outputs are the stator current i
s, pu
, the field current i
F,pu
, the currents of the damper windings i
D,pu
and i
Q,pu
, and finally, the electric torque t
e
of the machine. The simulation presumes naturally a
knowledge of the inductances and resistances of the synchronous machine.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.42
The simulation progresses according to the flowchart below:
0 Appropriate initial values are initialized for the flux linkage and current parameters,
and the inductance matrix is calculated
1 The derivatives of the stator flux linkage
s, pu
(k) are calculated in the stator refer
ence frame in the x and y directions by applying the stator voltage u
s, pu
(k)
( )
( ) ( )  
s pu sx, pu sx, n
pu sx,
1  k k
d
k d
r i u
t
=e
( )
( ) ( )  
s pu sy, pu sy, n
pu sy,
1  k k
d
k d
r i u
t
=e
(7.142)
2 The derivatives of the flux linkages of the damper winding and the field winding
are calculated in the rotor reference frame
( ) ( ) ( )  
F pu F, pu F, n
pu F,
1  k k k
d
d
r i u
t
=e
( ) ( )
D pu D, n
pu D,
1  k k
d
d
r i
t
= e
( )
( )
Q pu Q, n
pu Q,
1  k
d
k d
r i
t
= e
(7.143)
3 New values are integrated for the flux linkages by applying the obtained derivatives
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) T
t
T
t
+ =
+ =
k
d
d
1  k k
k
d
d
1  k k
sy
sy sy
sx
sx sx
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) T
t
T
t
T
t
+ =
+ =
+ =
k
d
d
1  k k
k
d
d
1  k k
k
d
d
1  k k
F
F F
Q
Q Q
D
D D
(7.144)
4 New values are determined for the currents by applying the inverse inductance ma
trix
( ) ( ) k k + = K i (7.145)
5 The electric torque is calculated for the machine
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) k k k k k
re
s
im
s
im
s
re
s e
i i t = (7.146)
6 The cycle is repeated from item 1
7.11 Implementation of the Vector Control of a Synchronous Machine
Figure 7.29 illustrates the basic signal processing diagram of a synchronous machine. The control
lers in the diagram are usually PI controllers. First, the currents and the rotor position of the motor
are measured; next, a twophase rotororiented representation is adopted. Then, the current compo
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.43
nents producing flux linkage and torque are calculated by applying the motor model. The speed
controller produces a torque reference, which in turn yields the respective current reference. The
voltage limiter is an essential element when considering the fieldweakening control. The elimina
tion of crosseffects takes place in a circuit designed for the purpose. The angular speeds in the fig
ure are electric angular speeds.
UDC
UDC
pulse encoder
or
absolute encoder
i1
i2
i3
iF
e
r
ix
ix
ix
iy
iy
iy
te te
im
im
im
iy ref te ref
im ref
ix ref
us0
x
y ref
ux ref
uyref
ux ref
uy ref
Excitation
control
uFref
PWM
modulator
S A
S B
S C
S1,S2,S3,
3 2
ux
uy
ix
iy
iF
u
r
motor model
curr.
contr.
current
contr.
torque
contr.
speed
contr.
flux
link.
contr
volt.
limiter
removal of.
cross eff.
e
r
e
r,ref
e
r
e
r
u
r
r
e
j
r
ref
Figure 7.29 The current vector control for a synchronous machine in a flux oriented system.
First, we investigate separately the determination of the reference values for the field current com
ponents and for the current components producing electric torque. These current references are cal
culated in the flux linkagetorque reference frame. The axes of this reference frame are known as
the flux linkage and torque axes; these axes were introduced in Figure 7.4. Thus, the current refer
ences are from now on designated as the flux linkagealigned current reference and the torque axis
aligned current reference.
The torque reference is obtained from the output of the speed controller; the input of the controller
comprises the difference of the speed reference and the actual value. The speed controller is a PI
controller. The speed reference is obtained form the system controlling the process. Since the elec
tric torque is proportional to the magnitudes of the stator current and the stator flux linkage, the cur
rent reference aligned with the torque axis is obtained when the torque reference is divided by the
flux linkage reference.
The flux linkage axisoriented current reference is obtained from the output of the flux linkage con
troller. The flux linkage controller is also a PI controller. The input consists of the difference of the
field current reference and the actual value. The flux linkage reference depends on the actual value
of the rotation speed. The flux linkage is kept at the rated value when operating below the rated
speed. At speeds above the rated speed, the flux linkage is reduced inversely proportional to the
speed; the latter speed range is known as the field weakening range.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.44
When the frequency rises above the rated frequency of the machine, the terminal voltage of the ma
chine is limited to the rated value by utilizing the field weakening range. Let us first consider the
equation for the rotating voltage in the stator reference frame:
e
s s
j = e . (7.147)
It suffices to investigate only the magnitudes:
e
s s
= e . (7.148)
For a synchronous machine, the following is known about the mechanical angular speed:
O = = 2tn n
f
p
, , (7.149)
O mechanical angular speed
n rotation speed [1/s]
f frequency
p number of pole pairs in the machine.
Bearing in mind that the magnitude of the stator voltage u
s
 differs from the magnitude of the rotat
ing voltage e
s
 only for the amount of the resistive voltage losses, we may write after the substitu
tions:
u
s s
~
2t
p
f . (7.150)
If we consider the case from the point of view of the flux linkage, and take only the proportional
relationships into account, we obtain
,
s
 ~
u
s
f
. (7.151)
Here we see that the flux linkage remains constant, if the ratio of the terminal voltage and the fre
quency is kept constant. We can also see that the voltage remains constant, if the flux linkage is re
duced inversely proportional to the frequency. Figure 7.30 illustrates the stator flux linkage and the
voltage as a function of frequency. If the flux linkage of the machine were not allowed to diminish,
it would be necessary to increase the stator voltage proportional to the frequency also in future (the
dashed extension of the upward line in Figure 7.30).
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.45
s
f,
e
,
O
f
N
,
e
N
,
O
N
field weakening range constant flux range
u
s
u
s
s
s
u
s
0 1 2 3
1
0
Figure 7.30 The constant flux linkage range and the field weakening range of a synchronous machine. On the horizon
tal axis, there are the frequency f and the electric angular frequency e or the mechanical angular frequency O. f
N
, e
N
,
and O
N
are their rated values. On the vertical axis, there are the stator voltage u
s
and the stator flux linkage
s
. U
N
and
N
are their rated values. In the constant flux range, the voltage and frequency are allowed to increase in equal propor
tion, and thus the magnitude of the stator flux linkage is kept constant. Above the nominal operating point, the flux
linkage is reduced inversely proportional to the speed and frequency, and thus the voltage can be kept constant.
However, the stator voltage cannot be increased as described above, since the voltage rectified from
the line voltage cannot be raised above this limit in a reasonable way. On the other hand, the deter
mination of the field weakening point is an essential part of electrical machine design, since it is
usually advisable to dimension the motor in such a way that at high speeds, the field weakening is
applied. Otherwise, the motor should be dimensioned unfavourably large to reach the desired torque
at low rotation speeds. Selecting a correct field weakening point is essential in dimensioning the
machine to suit the purposes.
The actual values of the stator and air gap flux linkage are determined by applying the flux linkage
equations of the machine; therefore, measurement data of the phase currents, the field current, the
rotor position angle and the calculated damper winding currents are required. The phase currents
are transformed into currents in the rotor reference frame; for the transformation, information on the
rotor position angle is required.
sd md s d md d D F s d
= + = + + + L i L i i i L i
o o
( ) , (7.152)
sq mq s q mq q Q s q
= + = + + L i L i i L i
o o
( ) . (7.153)
The obtained directaxis and quadrature axis components are employed in calculating the magni
tude of the flux linkage and the pole angle.
s sd
2
sq
2
= + , (7.154)
m md
2
mq
2
= + , (7.155)
o
s
sq
sd
= arctan , (7.156)
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.46
o
m
mq
md
= arctan (7.157)
This calculation method for the flux linkages is commonly known as the current model. Since it is
impossible to measure the damper winding currents, they have to be eliminated, and appropriate
time constant representations are employed instead. Let us consider this elimination task in the rotor
reference frame; first, the direct and quadrature flux linkage components are written as
( )
md md md md F d D
= + = + + i L L i i i , (7.158)
( )
mq mq mq mq q Q
= = + i L L i i , (7.159)
and the voltage equation of the directaxis damper winding of the rotor
( ) u R i
t
R i
t
i L
D D D
D
D D md D D
d
d
d
d
= = + = + + 0
o
. (7.160)
Next, the time constants describing the rotor damping are adopted
t
rD
mD D
D
=
+ L L
R
o
, (7.161)
t
rD
D
D
o
o
=
L
R
. (7.162)
The equation for the flux linkage is substituted to the voltage equation
( ) ( ) 0 = + + + + R i
t
L i i i i L
D D md F d D D D
d
d
o
, (7.163)
the expression is developed somewhat further
( ) 0 = + + + +

\

.
 i
t
L
R
i i i i
L
R
D
md
D
F d D D
D
D
d
d
o
, (7.164)
( ) 0 = + + +
+ 
\

.
 i
t
L
R
i i i
L L
R
D
md
D
F d D
D md
D
d
d
o
. (7.165)
Now we obtain
( ) 1+
+
(
= +
d
d
d
d
D md
D
D
md
D
F d
t
L L
R
i
t
L
R
i i
o
, (7.166)
( ) ( ) 1+
(
= + + + t t t
rD D rD F d rD F d
d
d
d
d
d
d t
i
t
i i
t
i i
o
, (7.167)
( ) ( ) i
t
i i i
t
i i
D rD F d D rD F d
d
d
d
d
+ + + = + t t
o
. (7.168)
Both sides of the equation are multiplied by the magnetizing inductance, and the equation for the air
gap flux linkage is added to both sides
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.47
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t t
rD md F d D md F d D md F d rD md F d
d
d
d
d t
L i i i L i i i L i i
t
L i i + + + + + = + + +
o
. (7.169)
Now, the flux linkage equation can be rewritten as
( ) ( ) t t
rD md md md F d rD md F d
d
d
d
d t
L i i
t
L i i + = + + +
o
, (7.169)
the air gap flux linkage can be solved from the above equation
( )
t
t
md md F d
rD
rD
d
d
d
d
= +
+
+
L i i
t
t
1
1
o
. (7.170)
Correspondingly, it is possible to determine a representation for the quadratureaxis air gap flux
linkage components that is dependent on the quadratureaxis time constants of the damper winding
t
t
mq mq q
rQ
rQ
d
d
d
d
=
+
+
L i
t
t
1
1
o
. (7.171)
If the information on the damper winding currents is required, these currents can be solved by di
viding the flux linkage terms by the respective magnetizing inductances.
( ) i i i
L
i i
t
t
D F d
md
md
F d
rD
rD
d
d
d
d
+ + = = +
+
+
t
t
1
1
o
, (7.172)
( ) i i i
t
t
D F d
rD
rD
d
d
d
d
= +
+
+

\

.



1
1
1
t
t
o
, (7.173)
and
i i
L
i
t
t
Q q
mq
mq
q
rQ
rQ
d
d
d
d
+ = =
+
+
t
t
1
1
o
. (7.174)
i i
t
t
Q q
rQ
rQ
d
d
d
d
=
+
+

\

.



1
1
1
t
t
o
. (7.175)
The time constants for the leakage components are so short when compared with the damping time
constants in the denominators that these components can be neglected in certain cases. The damper
winding currents are in then calculated of the other currents of the dq plane in the current model,
since the damper winding currents cannot be measured. The equations are transformed to the
Laplace domain and the effect of Canay inductance is added
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.48
( ) i K i K i
s
D td d tf F
rD
= +
+

\

.

1
1
1
t
, (7.176)
i K i
s
Q tq q
rQ
=
+

\

.

1
1
1
t
. (7.177)
The block diagrams corresponding to the equations are presented in Figure 7.31.
i
i
i
i
i
K
F
d
q Q
D
tq
K
tF
K
td
Figure 7.31 Determining the damper winding currents from other currents in the dq plane. i
F
is the field current, i
d
and
i
q
are the stator current components in the rotor reference frame, and i
D
and i
Q
are the calculated damper winding cur
rents. The time constants of the filter blocks are t
rD
and t
rQ
. K
tF
, K
td
, and K
tq
are the constant factors of the figure.
The parameters required in determining the damper winding currents, i.e., the coefficients and time
constants of the filters, are obtained from
K
L
L L L
td
md
md k D
=
+ +
o o
, (7.178)
K
L L
L L L
tF
md k
md k D
=
+
+ +
o
o o
, (7.179)
K
L
L L
tq
mq
mq Q
=
+
o
, (7.180)
t
rD
md k D
D
=
+ + L L L
R
o o
, (7.181)
t
rQ
mq Q
Q
=
+ L L
R
o
. (7.182)
In the following example, a stator flux linkage oriented control is investigated. The current refer
ences that are aligned with the flux linkage axis and the perpendicular effective power axis as well
as the sine and cosine of the pole angle of the stator flux linkage are obtained by the method pre
sented in Fig. 7.32.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.49
abc
3
2
dq
i
Calcul.
of
stator
flux link.
with
curr.
model
sino
s
 
F
i
d
n
ref
sref
Flux controller
Function block for generating
flux linkage reference
coso
s
n
act
T
ref
i
Tref
i
ref
sact
i
q
i
sa
i
sb
i
sc
u
r
Figure 7.32 Calculation of the current references. i
Tref
is the current reference aligned with the effective power axis and
i
ref
is the current reference aligned with the stator flux linkage axis. o
s
is the pole angle of the stator flux linkage, 
s
 is
the magnitude and 
sref
 is the reference value. n
ref
is the speed reference and n is the actual value. i
F
is the actual value
of the field current, i
sa
, i
sb
, and i
sc
are the actual values of the stator phase currents. The block 32 performs the trans
formation from the phase currents into the currents in the rotor reference frame. i
d
and i
q
are the components of the ac
tual value of the stator current in the rotor reference frame. u
r
is the rotor position angle.
In addition to the current model, the stator flux linkage can be determined also by applying the volt
age model. In the voltage model, the flux linkage is integrated from the supply voltage. The model
is not applicable to zero speed or lowspeed operation, when the voltage is too low. Furthermore,
also the rotor angle has to be known in order to be able to transfer the flux linkage to the rotor ref
erence frame, where its magnitude and pole angle would be known.
The next phase in the vector control is the construction of the current references in the rotor refer
ence frame. Now, the pole angle of the stator flux linkage is required, since we change over from
the flux linkage reference frame to the rotor reference frame. The required equations are given be
low.
Tref s ref s dohje
sin cos i i i + = o o
(7.183)
Tref s ref s qohje
cos sin i i i + = o o
(7.184)
The above information is expressed in the block diagram of Figure 7.33.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.50
sino
s
coso
s
i
Tref
i
ref
i
qTref
i
dTref
i
dref
i
qref
i
dref
i
qref
Figure 7.33 Calculation of the current references of the rotor reference frame from the current references of the stator
flux linkage reference frame. i
Tref
is the quadratureaxis current reference and i
ref
is the current reference aligned with
the stator flux linkage axis. o
s
is the pole angle of the stator flux linkage, i
dyref
is the reference of the quadratureaxis
current and i
dref
is the reference of the directaxis current that magnetizes the machine in the direction of the stator flux
linkage. i
dref
is the directaxis current reference and i
qref
is the quadratureaxis current reference.
The next phase is the current control, Figure 7.34. An integral control is performed for the currents
of the rotor reference frame. Next, the feedforward from the rotating voltages is added to outputs of
these current signals. Since the rotating voltages of the machine are quite close to the terminal volt
ages, it is easier to adjust the output of the controller to the correct range, and the model has to cor
rect only the errors caused by the nonideality of the model and the nonlinearity of the cyclocon
verter bridges. Then, the obtained reference values are transformed into phase values. Since the in
tegration is carried out in the rotor reference frame, the signals to be integrated are DC signals and
we avoid for instance phase errors.
Before the proportional control (Pcontrol), the dq current references are transformed into phase
current references, since the Pcontrol is performed for phase currents unlike the Icontrol. Because
the Pcontrol is performed for phase quantities, it is easier to prevent the occurrence of the zero
component. The zero component is not detectable in the currents of the rotor reference frame, as it
was shown previously. The Pcontrollers yield the other components for the reference values. These
components are summed up for different phases, and thus, we obtain the reference values, which
are by nature chiefly voltage references for different phases. The references are modified further to
produce the ignition angle reference for the thyristor igniters.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.51
i
dq
2
3
abc
u
o
e
dref
i
qref
i
d
i
q
d
e
q
i
sa, ref
i
sa
i
sb, ref
i
sc, ref
i
sc
i
sb
u
sa, ref
u
sb, ref
u
sc, ref
sa
r
r
sb
sc
3
abc
dq
2
o
o
u
Figure 7.34 The current control of the stator. Part I in the dq plane, the feedforwards from the rotating voltages and the
P part for the phase quantities. i
dref
is the current reference aligned with the daxis and i
qref
is the current reference
aligned with the qaxis. u
r
is the rotor angle,
q
is the quadrature component of the stator flux linkage. e
q
is the di
rectaxis rotating voltage. e
d
is the quadratureaxis rotating voltage. e is the electric angular speed. i
dref
and i
qref
are
the current references in the rotor reference frame and i
sa,ref
, i
sb,ref
and i
sc,ref
are the references of the stator phase currents.
i
d
, i
q
, i
sa
, i
sb
, and i
sc
are the respective actual values of the currents. 2/3 blocks perform the transformation from the rotor
reference frame to the stator phase quantities. u
sa,ref
, u
sb,ref
and u
sc,ref
are the voltage references for different phases and
o
sa
, o
sb
, and o
sc
are the control angles for the bridges of different phases.
The field current is an essential quantity when considering the operation of the machine. In the tran
sient states, it has to compensate the negative effect of the directaxis stator current and also to
maintain the desired power factor of the stator. If the target is to keep the power factor of the stator
one, the field current reference can be calculated as follows:
md
dref d s sref
Fref
cos
L
i L
i
=
o
, (7.185)
where
 i
Fref
is the reference value of the field current
 
sref
 is the reference value of the stator flux linkage
 o
s
is the pole angle of the stator flux linkage
 L
d
is the directaxis synchronous inductance
 L
md
is the directaxis magnetizing inductance
Also a PI controller is applied in the control of the field current, and the controller yields chiefly the
voltage reference, from which the control angle reference is modified for the excitation bridge as
shown in Figure 7.35. The control of the field current has to be tuned correctly to avoid a control
that would oscillate in the transients. The problem with the reference value calculated above is that
the magnetizing inductance does not remain constant, and therefore it should be estimated before
the calculation process.
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.52
i
o
i
Calc. of the
reference for
field
current
o
u
F
dref
sref
Fref F
s
Field current controller
i
Fref
Figure 7.35 The field current controller. 
sref
 is the reference value of the magnitude of the stator flux linkage, i
dref
is
the reference value of the current i
d
, o
s
is the load angle and i
F
is the field current. u
Fref
is the voltage reference and o
F
is
the control angle for the excitation bridge.
In the above case, the vector control comprises only the current model and the respective coordinate
transformations of the currents, the flux controller, and the generation of the direct and quadrature
current reference. The rest belongs to the ordinary control system with the controllers. This example
of a vector control of a synchronous machine is based on a concrete cycloconverter drive manufac
tured by ABB. The control has thus been implemented as stator flux linkage oriented. We may now
ask whether it is necessary to implement the vector control always as flux linkage oriented, since, as
we know, the leakage flux linkage of the stator flux linkage does not produce torque. However, in
the voltage source drives also the cycloconverter is of this type it is necessary to ensure that the
voltage is sufficient, and therefore a control based on the stator flux linkage is a justified choice.
Figure 7.32 depicts the current reference i
Tref
, although we may well claim that this current alone
does not produce the torque, since it is not perpendicular to the air gap flux linkage. A control based
on the air gap flux linkage would best correspond to the control of a fully compensated DC ma
chine; however, the control is based on the stator flux linkage due to its voltage dependence. Figure
7.36 illustrates the difference between the controls based on the stator flux linkage and on the air
gap flux linkage.
q
d
i
s
m
o
m
o
s
s
L
so
i
s
i
F
u
s
e
cos = 1
q
d
i
s
m
o
m
o
s
s
L
so
i
s
i
F
u
s
e
cos < 1
i
d
i
d
Figure 7.36 Controls based on the stator flux linkage and on the air gap flux linkage.
The figure shows that when operating at a rated voltage and keeping the power factor and the mag
nitude of the stator current at the value one, a certain torque is obtained (e.g. rated torque). When
the stator current is kept perpendicular to the air gap flux linkage, and the voltage determines the
length of the stator flux linkage, the same current produces less power than in the previous case,
since the stator flux linkage has now decreased. The power has now decreased in accordance with
cos = 0.85. The same applies to the torque. Although the magnitude of the current remains the
same, the air gap flux linkage is now 15 % shorter, although the torque has decreased by 85 % of
the value of the lefthand illustration. Note also the respective reduction in the field current. Thus
Electrical Drives Juha Pyrhnen, LUT, Department of Electrical Engineering
7.53
we may state that when operating at a certain voltage, it is advisable to select a control based on the
stator flux linkage, and to apply the power factor cos = 1.
Figure 7.37 illustrates the schematic control diagram of the cycloconverter based on the stator flux
linkage.
abc
3
2
dq
i
Calc. of
stator
flux
linkage
with
current
model
 
u
F
i
sa
i
sb
i
sc
i
q
i
d
s
sin o
cos o
s
s
n
n
ref Tref
sref
i
Tref
i
ref
r
Flux controller
Speed PI controller
Functtion bloc for flux link. ref.
i
dTref
i
qTref
i
dref
i
qref
i
dq
2
3
abc
u
o
e
dref
i
qref
i
d
i
q d
e
q
i
sa, ref
i
sa
i
sb, ref
i
sc, ref
i
sc
i
sb
u
sa, ref
u
sb, ref
u
sc, ref
sa
r
r
sb
sc
3
abc
dq
2
o
o
u i
i
K
Q
D
tq
KtF
Ktd
i
o
i
Calc. of the
ref. for
field current
o
u
F
dref
sref
Foref F
s
Field current controller
i
Fref
o
s
u
sa
sb
sc
u
u
Current controllers
Figure 7.37 A schematic diagram of a stator flux linkage based cycloconverter drive.
A cycloconverter drive can also operate as a generator, and therefore we introduce the vector dia
gram of a synchronous machine also in generator operation. The representation follows the same
logic as in the case of motor operation.
q
d
i
s
= 0
m
,
s
, i
F
u
s
e
q
d
i
s
m
o
m
o
s
s
L
so
i
s
i
F
u
s e
cos = 1
i
d
Figure 7.38 Operation at noload and as a generator at a power factor cos = 1.
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