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# 1. What is the purpose of traffic engineering?

Traffic engineering provides the basis for analysis and design of telecommunication network or model. Provide the ability of a telecommunication network to carry a given network at a particular loss probability. 2. Define calling rate and holding time. Calling rate: The average number of request for connection that are made per given time. Holding time Average duration of occupancy of a traffic path by a call 3. What is traffic pattern? Is the nature of the telephone traffic and it is distribution according to time normally in 24 hours. 4. Write short notes on (a) Erlangs Is the measure of traffic intensity for which, one Erlang represents one circuit occupied for one hour. (b) CCS This is used as a measure of the amount of traffic expressed in units of 100 seconds 5. Define GOS The grade of service refers to the proportion of unsuccessful calls relative to the total number of calls. GOS is defined as the ratio of lost traffic to offered traffic. 6. Explain the two types of congestion. Congestion. It is the condition in a switching center when a subscriber cannot obtain a connection to the wanted subscriber immediately. In a circuit switching system, there will be a period of congestion during which no new calls can be accepted. There are two ways of specifying congestion. 1. Time congestion.It is the probability that all servers are busy. It is also called the probability of blocking. 2. Call congestion.It is the proportion of calls arising that do not find a free server. Call congestion is a loss system and also known as the probability of loss while in a delay system it is referred to as the probability of waiting. 7. Comment on modelling of traffic. To analyze the statistical characteristics of a switching system, traffic flow and service time, it is necessary to have a mathematical model of the traffic offered to telecommunication systems. The model is a mathematical expression of physical quantity to represents the behaviour of the quantity under consideration. Also the model provides an analytical solutions to a teletraffic

problems.

8. What is Erlang loss system ? The Erlang loss system may be defined by the following specifications. 1. The arrival process of calls is assumed to be Poisson with a rate of calls per hour. 2. The holding times are assumed to be mutually independent and identically distributed random variables following an exponential distribution with 1/seconds. 3. Calls are served in the order of arrival.

Name three models of the loss system. 1. Lost calls cleared (LCC) 2. Lost calls returned (LCR) 3. Lost calls held (LCH) 9. Give the expression of Erlangs-B formula.

10. Compare LCR and LCH system. 11. Draw the queueing model of delay systems. 12. Give the expression of Erlangs-C formula. 13. Comment on combined loss and delay system. 14. Derive an expression for the state probability P(k) using B-D process. 15. Derive an expression to obtain the Erlangs formula for the first kind of loss system. 16. A group of 10 trunks is offered 5E of traffic, find (a) GOS (b) the probability that only one trunk is busy (c) the probability that only one trunk is free and (d) the probability that at least one trunk is free. 17. Derive an expression to obtain the Erlangs second formula of delay system.