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What happens during an earthquake?

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Rapid ground-motion:
How long? How much?

Structural (Building) response:


Strong vibrations Large stresses and strains Local failure Total failure = Collapse
Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Time history of ground motion parameters


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Time (s)
Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Great natural catastrophes 1950-1999


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Fatalities: 1.4 mio


1% 7%

Economic losses: US$ 960 bn


7%

35%

30%

47% 45% 28%

Earthquakes
Munich Re Group, 2000

Windstorms

Floods

Others

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Even the cleverest calculations and detailed design cannot compensate for errors and defects in the conceptual seismic design of the structural and non-structural elements!

Close collaboration between architect and civil engineer from the earliest planning stage!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


Wrong: Serial-design
1. Architect: Conceptual design of structure and non-structural elements 2. Engineer: Calculations Much better and more economical:
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1. Structure for gravity loads 2. Non-structural elements 3. Structure for seismic action

Parallell-design
The architect and engineer collaborate
Prof. Hugo Bachmann

General purpose structure and non-structural elements


ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Building owner Architect Civil Engineer

The architect and engineer collaborate from the outset!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Internationally harmonized standards:


ISO 3010 International Building Code (IBC) Uniform Building Code (UBC) Eurocode 8

National standards:
SIA 261 (Switzerland) IS 1893 (India) DIN 4149 (Germany) PS 92 (France) .

Follow the seismic provisions of the codes!


T. Wenk

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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The costs of earthquake resistance depends on: planning approach applied method

No significant additional costs thanks to modern methods!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Avoid soft-storey ground floors!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Avoid soft-storey upper floors!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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W, S S M W M

Avoid asymmetrical horizontal bracing!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Avoid bracing offset!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Discontinuities in stiffness and resistance cause problems!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Two slender reinforced concrete structural walls in each principal direction!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Reinforced concrete frame

Structural masonry wall

Avoid mixed systems of columns and structural masonry walls!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Avoid bracing of frames with masonry infills!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Masonry

Structural concrete wall

Masonry

Stiffen masonry buildings with reinforced concrete structural walls!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Reinforce structural masonry walls to resist horizontal actions!


Minimum reinforcement Edge reinforcement

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Governing size: Inter-storey displacement

Match structural and non-structural elements!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Rubber 1040 mm

In skeleton structures, separate non-structural masonry walls by joints!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Mpl
l
Enormous moment gradient

Mpl

shear failure!

Avoid short columns!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Avoid partially infilled frames!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Design diagonal steel bracing carefully!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Critical zones

Design steel structures to be ductile!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zrich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Separate adjacent buildings by joints!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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unfavourable

better

Favour compact plan configurations!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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unfavourable

better

Use the slabs to tie in the elements and distribute the forces!
Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Fragile structure

Ductile structure

Failure

Ductile structures through capacity design!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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strain hardening ratio total elongation at maximum tensile stress

Use ductile reinforcing steel with: Rm/Re 1.15 and Agt 6 %!

Stress [MPa]

Elongation [%]
Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Hysteretic Behaviour of Static-Cyclic Test Walls


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Actuator force (kN)

Horizontal top deflection (mm)

Actuator force (kN)

Horizontal top deflection (mm)


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zrich

Bending moment (kNm)

Bending moment (kNm)

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Use transverse reinforcement with 135 hooks and spaced at s 5d in structural walls and columns!
Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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No openings or recesses in plastic zones!


prohibited!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Dowel Mobile bearing In addition: secure against lateral buckling Fixed bearing

Secure connections in prefabricated buildings!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Protect foundations through capacity design! Overstrength


sectional forces

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Develop a site specific response spectrum!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Site specific response spectrum


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Spectral acceleration (m/s2)

Lutzelhof site EC 8, soil class B EC 8, soil class A EC 8, reduced for rock

Period (s)
Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Assess the potential for soil liquefaction!


Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Softening

Strengthening

Acceleration

Frequency Relative displacement

Softening may be more beneficial than strengthening!

Frequency
Prof. Hugo Bachmann ibk ETH Zurich

Bemessungsspektren Grosstank

Frequency shifted due to base isolation

Acceleration (m/S )

Increase in damping

Frequency (Hz)

Frequency shifted due to base isolation

Displacement (mm)

Increase in damping

Frequency (Hz) Site specific response spectrum Site specific response spectrum = 5% = 8% Spectrum for medium-stiff soil according to SIA 160 = 5%

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zrich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Anchor facade elements against horizontal forces!


insufficient better

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Horizontal seismic force

Anchor free standing parapets and walls!

Overturning moment

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Fasten suspended ceilings and light fittings!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich

Basic principles for the seismic design of buildings


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Fasten installations and equipment!

Prof. Hugo Bachmann

ibk ETH Zurich