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OWA200002 WCDMA RAN Fundamental


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Upon completion of this module, you will be able to: Know the development of 3G Outline the advantage of CDMA technology Outline the fundamentals of UTRAN Outline the key technologies of UTRAN

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Section 1 3G Overview Section 2 CDMA Fundamental Section 3 WCDMA Key Technologies Section 4 Performance Enhancement Methods

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Different Service, Different Technology


1G 1980s Analog
AMPS

2G 1990s Digital
GSM GSM
Technologies drive

3G IMT-2000

TACS NMT Others

CDMA CDMA IS-95 IS-95 TDMA TDMA IS-136 IS-136 PDC PDC

UMTS UMTS WCDMA WCDMA


Demands drive

CDMA CDMA 2000 2000 TDTDSCDMA SCDMA

3G provides compositive services for both operators and subscribers


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Different Service, Different Technology


1G 1980s Analog
AMPS

2G 1990s Digital
GSM GSM
Technologies drive

3G IMT-2000

TACS NMT Others

CDMA CDMA IS-95 IS-95 TDMA TDMA IS-136 IS-136 PDC PDC

UMTS UMTS WCDMA WCDMA


Demands drive

CDMA CDMA 2000 2000 TDTDSCDMA SCDMA

3G provides compositive services for both operators and subscribers


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3G Evolution
Proposal of 3G IMT-2000: the general name of third generation mobile communication system The third generation mobile communication was first proposed in 1985and was renamed as IMT-2000 in the year of 1996 Commercialization: around the year of 2000 Work band : around 2000MHz The highest service rate :up to 2000Kbps

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3G Objectives
3G is developed to achieve: Universal frequency band for standard and seamless global coverage High spectral efficiency High quality of service with complete security and reliability Easy and smoothly transition from 2G to 3G, compatible with 2G Provide multimedia services, with the rates: Vehicle environment: 144kbps Walking environment: 384kbps Indoor environment: 2Mbps

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3G Spectrum Allocation
1850 1900 1950 2000
2010 MHz

2050

2100

2150

2200

2250

ITU
1885 MHz

IMT 2000
GSM 1800 DECT
1805 MHz
cellular(1)

MSS 2025 MHz

IMT 2000
2110 MHz

MSS

2170 MHz

Europe

UMTS
cellular(2)

MSS 1980 MHz


2025MHz

UMTS

MSS

1880 MHz
cellular(2) CDMA
1865

China

GSM 1800

FDD TDD WLL WLL


1920 1945

CDMA

FDD WLL
1960 1980

1885

1895

1918

2170 MHz

Japan
1865 1870

C PHS

IMT A 2000
1945 1965 1970 1975 1930

MSS

IMT A 2000

MSS

1885 1890 1895

1910

1990 MHz

2165 MHz Broadcast auxiliary Reserve MSS

USA

PCS
A D B EF C A D B EF C

MSS

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

2150

2200

2250

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Bands WCDMA used


Main bands 1920 ~ 1980MHz / 2110 ~ 2170MHz Supplementary bands: different country maybe different 1850 ~ 1910 MHz / 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz (USA) 1710 ~ 1785MHz / 1805 ~ 1880MHz (Japan) 890 ~ 915MHz / 935 ~ 960MHz (Australia) Frequency channel numbercentral frequency5, for main band: UL frequency channel number 96129888 DL frequency channel number : 1056210838
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Section 1 3G Overview Section 2 CDMA Fundamental Section 3 WCDMA Key Technologies Section 4 Performance Enhancement Methods

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Multiple Access Technology


FDMA TDMA

power
y nc

power

tim e

e qu e r f

CDMA

tim e

cy en u q fre

power

time

freque

ncy

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Characteristics of CDMA System


High Spectral Efficiency Frequency multiplex coefficient is 1. soft capacity Quality Coverage Interference Self-interference system A UE transmission power is interference for another UE.

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Correlation
Correlation is a measure of similarity of between any two arbitrary signals. EXAMPLE:
+1 0 -1 +1 0 -1 +1 0 -1 +1 0 -1

-1 1 -1 1 (a) -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 correlation Identical signals -1 1 -1 1 (b) 11 11 -1 1 -1 1 Zero correlation Orthogonal signals

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Spreading
UE1: UE1: UE2: UE2: c1: c1: c2: c2: UE1 c1 UE1 c1 UE2 c2 UE2 c2 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

UE1 c1 c2 2 2 UE1 c1 UE2 UE2 c2 0 0 2 0 0 2

0 2 2 0 2 0 0 2

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Dispreading
UE1 c1 c2: UE1 c1 UE2 UE2 c2: 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 2

UE1 UE1Dispreading Dispreadingby byc1: c1: Dispreading Dispreadingresult: result: Integral Integraljudgment: judgment:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 2

4 1) 4 1) 4(means (means 1) 4(means (means 1)

UE2 UE2Dispreading Dispreadingby byc2: c2: Dispreading Dispreadingresult: result: Integral Integraljudgment: judgment:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 2

4 1) 4 1) 4(means (means 1) 4(means (means 1)

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Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading


P(f) Spreading code P(f)

f Narrowband signal

f Broadband signal P(f) f

Noise

Recovered signal P(f)

Signal Combination

Noise+Broadband signal P(f)

Spreading code

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Section 1 3G Overview Section 2 CDMA Fundamental Section 3 WCDMA Key Technologies Section 4 Performance Enhancement Methods

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Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Source coding Channel coding Spreading

Modulation

Transmission

Radio Radio channel channel

Source decoding

Channel decoding

Despreading

Demodulation

Reception

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Processing Procedure of WCDMA System

Source coding

Channel coding & Interleaving interleaving

spreading

Scrambling

Modulation Transmitting

Radio channel
Deinterleaving Despreading deinterleaving &channel decoding

Source decoding

Descrambling

Demodulation

Receiving

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Terms
Bit, Symbol, Chip Bit : data after source coding Symbol: data after channel coding and interleaving Chip: data after spreading

Process Gain: 10log (cps/bps); for different service, the Gain is different Process Gain is smaller, UE need more power for this service Process Gain is smaller, the coverage of the service is smaller

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WCDMA Source Coding


AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) voice coding Multi-rate: 8 kinds of coding rates Benefit multi-mode terminal design Adaptation: when cell load increases, the system will decrease speech rate of part of subscribers automatically so as to support more subscribers.

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WCDMA Channel Coding


Purpose: Enhance the correlation among symbols so as to recover the signal when interference occurs.

Types Speech service: Convolution code1/21/3 Data service: Turbo code

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WCDMA Interleaving
Interleaving is used for continuous bit error correction
1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 8 ... ... ... ... 452 452 453 453 454 454

First interleaving

B0 1 9

B1 2 10 . .

B2 3 11 . .

B3 4 12 . .

B4 5 13 . .

B5 6 14 . .

B6 7 15 . .

B7 8 16 . .

....
Second interleaving

. .

. . . . . . . . 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456

....

{A4,B0} {A4,B0} {A5,B1} {A5,B1} {A6,B2} {A6,B2} {A7,B3} {A7,B3} {B4,C0} {B4,C0} {B5,C1} {B5,C1} {B6,C2} {B6,C2} HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Page 23

{B7,C3} {B7,C3}

WCDMA Spreading Code: OVSFWalsh


OVSF: Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor, generated by Walsh matrix

Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1) Cch,2,0 = (1,1) Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) Cch,1,0 = (1) Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) Cch,2,1 = (1,-1) Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)
SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4
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Purpose of OVSF
For uplink, OVSF is used to separate different services of one connection For downlink, OVSF is used to separate different connections

Typical service AMR Modem28.8k 12.2kAMR & 64k packet data 12.2kAMR & 144k packet data 12.2kAMR & 384k packet data

Data rate

Downlink SF 128 64 32 16 8

Uplink SF 64 32 16 8 4

12.2+3.4 28.8+3.4 12.2+64+3.4 12.2+144+3.4 12.2+384+3.4

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Why we need scrambling code


Distinguishing cells or users Downlink Scrambling code is used for distinguishing cells OVSF code is used for distinguishing users Uplink Scrambling code is used for distinguishing users OVSF code is used for distinguishing channels of one user

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WCDMA Scrambling Code: Gold Sequence


Gold sequence is made by two m sequence.

Advantage: No need to use GPS as the system clock, NodeB can work in asynchronous mode, and it is also convenient for indoor coverage Disadvantage: the interference between code is larger than m sequence

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WCDMA Modulation
Different modulation methods corresponding to different transmitting abilities in air interface R99/R4: adopt QPSK DL max data rate is 2.7Mbps HSDPA: adopt 16QAM DL max data rate is 14.4Mbps

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Multi-path Environment
Transmitted signal

Received signal Time


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Fading
Received Power(dBm) -20 Fast fading Slow fading -40

-60

10

20

30

Distance(m)

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Introduction to Diversity Technique


Diversity technique is used to obtain uncorrelated signals for combining Reduce the effects of fading Improve the reliability of communication Increase the coverage and capacity

Diversity methods Time diversity Frequency diversity Space diversity

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Principle of RAKE Receiver


Correlator 1 Correlator 2 Receive set Correlator 3 Searcher correlator s(t) s(t) Calculate the time delay and signal strength Combiner The combined signal

RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive performance of the system
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Structure of RAKE Receiver


Input signal Correlator I Q Phase Rotator Delay Equalizer I I

Code Generators

Channel Estimator Path 1 Path 2 Path 3

Combiner

Matched Filter

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WCDMA Fast Power Control Control Fast Fading


Without power control

With power control

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Section 1 3G Overview Section 2 CDMA Fundamental Section 3 WCDMA Key Technologies Section 4 Performance Enhancement Methods

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HSDPA Key Techniques - Overview

AMC (Adaptive modulation and code )

HARQHybrid ARQ

Fast Scheduling

SF16, 2ms and CDM/TDM HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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3 New Physical Channels

HSDPA Key Techniques - AMC


AMC (Adaptive Modulation & Coding) based on Channel Quality Feedback Adjust data rate to compensate channel conditions Good channel condition Higher rate Bad channel condition Lower rate
Low data rate High data rate

Adjust the coding rate to compensate channel conditions Good channel condition 3/4 Bad channel condition 1/3 Adjust the modulation scheme to compensate channel conditions Good channel condition 16QAM Bad channel condition QPSK Channel Quality Feedback (CQI) UE measures the channel quality (SNR) reports (every 2ms or more cycle) to Node-B Node-B choose modulation and block size, data rate primarily based on CQI

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HSDPA Key Techniques - HARQ


Conventional ARQ Received Transmitted blocks are decoded Checked for CRC errors on decoded blocks If errors discard the error bolcks Request the trasmitter for retransmission Hybrid ARQ Received Transmitted blocks are decoded Checked for CRC errors on decoded blocks If errors Store the erroneous block without discarding Request the trasmitter for retransmission Combine the received re-trasmission with previously received trasnmisison

HARQ with Soft Combining Packet 1 Packet 1 NodeB Transmitter

Packet2

UE Receiver

Packet1?

Packet 1 + Packet1?

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HSDPA Key Techniques - Fast scheduling

Scheduling determines which user shall be transmitted.

Scheduler may be based on CDM, TDM Channel condition Amount of data waiting in the queue (delay) Fairness (satisfied users) Cell throughput, etc

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HSDPA Key Techniques CDM and TDM


SF=1 SF=2 SF=4 SF=8 SF=16

Channelization codes allocated for HS-DSCH transmission 8 codes (example)

Rel 5 (HS-DSCH)
2 ms

sub-frames (2560 chips)

Earlier releases
10 ms 20 ms 40 ms 80 ms

TTI

Shared channelization codes


User #1 User #2 User #3 User #4

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HSDPA Key Techniques 16QAM


HSDPA Modulation

QPKS 16QAM

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Smart Antenna

Omni antenna

Directional antenna

Smart antenna

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Smart Antenna
Reduce interference Increase coverage and capacity

interference

Wanted signal

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Summary
Spreading/Dispreading principle UTRAN Voice Coding UTRAN Channel Coding UTRAN Spreading Code UTRAN Scramble Code UTRAN Modulation UTRAN Transmission/Receiving

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Thank You
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