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# LAWAK KAMPUS HIGH SCHOOL

: : :

## ADITAS SAN F5 960929-10-5150 MR NOODLE VANNESS, BEPOP AND SI KOSONG

TEACHER : FRIENDS :

## INDEX NUMBER IN LIFE

In Part 1, Im required to describe in brief about price index, weightage and composite index through the internet. Then I stated four ways of weightage representations.

In Part 2(a), I am required to find and calculate the average monthly expenditure of my family for the year 2013 to the nearest(RM) by asking my parents. The total average monthly expenditure is calculated. I am required to find the percentage of monthly expenses by using formula:

## Average monthly expenditure Total average monthly expenditure

x 100%

In Part 2(b), I am required to compare my familys average monthly expenditure for the year 2013 and the selected base year. Then, the composite index for my familys expenditure (average monthly) in year 2013 based on the selected year is calculated by using formula:

## Lastly, I make a conclusion about my familys expenditure based on information gathered.

In Part 3, I find all the informations on the price of television if payments is by cash and by installment for two different brands in three different shops. Then, im required to choose a brand and a size of television that I want to buy based on the informations collected and give reasons for my decisions. After that, I determine the shop that deserves to win the award for the fair price by considering the value of the mean and value of standard deviation in the decision making. In Part 4, I am required to show my familys modified average monthly expenditure in order to buy a television. Then, I show the planning of my expenditure if my salary was RM2500 by monthly. Lastly, I am required to reflect on what I have learnt while conducting the project.

CONTENT

## Title Acknowledgement Objectives Introduction

Page

(i) Price index (ii) Weightage (a) Part 1 (b) (a) (b) Part 2 (c) (iii) Composite index Weightage representations Familys monthly expenditure for year 2013 (i)(ii) Calculating price index (i)(ii) Composite index for the average monthly expenditure in the year 2013 based on year 2012 Conclusion Survey on prices of televisions Television that I want to buy Fair Price Shop Award

## (a) Part 4 (b)

Modified monthly expenditure to buy new television My own monthly expenditure planning Conclusion Reflection Reference Appendix

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The

project

is

## the effort this

of

many would

parties have

including been

mine. Without

them,

project

never

finished. First of all, I would like to thank my parents for their support and also my family members who made sure that I didnt ease. Next, I would like to express my utmost gratitude to my dear additional mathematics teacher, Mr Noodle for providing the guidelines work. and His explanation guidance about the and process of is this much project co-operation get distracted I doing this project. this Thanks project to with their understanding was able to finish

appreciated. Not to forget, to all my friends who were with me during the process of this project especially to Bepop, Vanness and Si Kosong.I would also like to thank my sister, Adidas San for helping me to start my project. Her encouragement and guidance has proven to be most helpful. Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to those who have helped me directly and indirectly, during the course of this project. Thank you all, once again yeah.

OBJECTIVES

## The aims of carrying out this project work are:

To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems. To improve thinking skills. To promote effective mathematical communication. To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases students interest and confidence. To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely. To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning. To develop positive attitude towards mathematics.

INTRODUCTION

The Household Expenditure Survey (HES) was the first conducted in the year 1957/58. Beginning 1993/94 it was

carried out an interval of live years and the current survey was undertaken in 2009/2010. The survey is covered private households in urban and rural areas. The main objective of HES was to collect information on the level and pattern of consumption expenditure by households on a comprehensive range goods and services to be included in the basket of the Consumer Price Index (CPI). It was also used to represent the expenditure pattern of households in Malaysia. However, over the years, demand for data from the survey has increased and it is now used for several purposes. HES has becomes an invaluable source of information for government and private sectors, researchers and university students. This survey is conducted by using index. Index numbers are meant to study the change in the effects of such factors which cannot be measured directly. According to Bowley, Index numbers are used to measure the changes in some quantity which we cannot observe directly. For example, changes in business activity in a country are not capable of direct measurement but it is possible to study relative changes in business activity by studying the variations in the values of some such factors which affect business activity, and which are capable of direct measurement. Index numbers are commonly used statistical device for measuring the combined fluctuations in a group related variables. Index numbers may be classified in terms of the variables that they are intended to measure. In business, different groups of variables in the measurement of which index number techniques are commonly used are price, quantity, value and business activity. Thus, we have index of wholesale prices, index of consumer prices, index of industrial output, index of value of exports and index of business activity, etc

## Picture 2: Books of index numbers

PART 1
(a) Describe in brief : i. Price index

A price index (plural: price indices or price indexes) is a normalized average (typically a weighted average) of prices for a given class of goods or services in a given region, during a given interval of time. It is a statistic designed to help to compare how these prices, taken as a whole, differ between time periods or geographical locations. Price indexes have several potential uses. For particularly broad indices, the index can be said to measure the economy's price level or a cost of living. More narrow price indices can help producers with business plans and pricing. Sometimes, they can be useful in helping to guide investment.Some notable price indices include consumer price index,producer price index and GDP deflator. ii. Weightage

Weightage is common word used in Asia. The meaning for weightage is a weighting factor assigned to compensate for a perceived advantage or weight factor or ratio; weight. Weightage known as the value or quantity assigned to each item in a situation involving several items based on its item. It also can be defined as the value or importance of something when compared with another thing. An example for its usage is: The admission holds 80% weightage while the interview holds 20% weightage of the admission process. In a nutshell, weightage can also be said as stake.

iii.

Composite index

Composite index is a grouping of equities, indexes and other factors combined in standardized way, providing a useful statistical measure of overall market or sector performance over time. A composite index may also be used in the natural or social sciences to summarize complex or multidimensional data or redundant measures. Usually, a composite index has a large number of factors which are averaged together to form a product representative of an overall market or sector. For example, the Nasdaq Composite index is a market capitalization-weighted grouping of approximately 5,000 stocks listed on the Nasdaq market. These indexes are useful tools for measuring and tracking price level changes to an entire stock market or sector. Therefore, they provide a useful benchmark against which to measure an investor's portfolio. The goal of a well diversified portfolio is usually to outperform the main composite indexes.

## 2. By using bar chart

3. By using a table

## 4. By using a line graph

PART 2
We often hear complaints from the public about inflation.It cause an increase in the household expenditure in a family. The household expenditure for every family is different. a) My familys monthly expenditure for the year 2013. Item Food Accommodation Transportation Clothing Education Recreation Utilities Medication Miscellaneous TOTAL Average Monthly Expenditure for the year 2013 (RM) 1200 800 500 200 1000 100 600 600 300 5300 Table 1 Percentage of monthly expenses (%) 23 15 9 4 19 2 11 11 6 100

If we want to compare the cost of living from one year to another, we have to calculate the price index that involves some of the items mentioned above. In order to calculate the price index of all the items above, we have to consider the average monthly expenses of any previous year as the base year.

(b) (i) In this case, I am going to select 2012 as the base year. By selecting year 2012 as the base year, we can see the increment of price index from year 2012 to 2013. (ii)

Item

Food Accommodation Transportation Clothing Education Recreation Utilities Medication Miscellaneous TOTAL

Average monthly expenses for the year 2012 as the base year (RM) 1300 800 700 300 1100 100 600 600 300 5800 Table 2

Average monthly expenses for the year 2013 (RM) 1200 800 500 200 1000 100 600 600 300 5300

(c) (i) Item Food Accommodation Transportation Clothing Education Recreation Utilities Medication Miscellaneous TOTAL Price indices for the year 2013 based on the year 2012 92.31 100 71.43 66.67 90.91 100 100 100 100 821.32 Table 3 Weightage 11 12 9 8 10 12 12 12 12 100

(ii) The composite index for my familys average monthly expenditure in the year 2013 based on the selected base year is :

= 11(92.31)+12(100)+9(71.43)+8(66.67)+10(90.91)+12(100)+12(1 00)+12(100)+12(100) 100 = 1015.41+1200+642.87+533.36+909.1+1200+1200+1200+1200 100 = 9100.74 100 = 91.01 (d) Conclusion From my observation, I can conclude that although the price of goods increases, it does not affect my familys average monthly expenses to decrease in this year based on last year. My familys total average monthly expenses in 2012 was more higher than year 2013.This is because my older sister get married on year 2012.This marriage lead to decreases in my familys monthly expenditure in year 2013. My family used up most money on food and education as food is important in our life. We often buy nutritious food which is quite expensive. Plus, my parents have seven children and still studying in school and college that increases the uses of money in education. Instead, my family used up least money on recreation. My family does not doing much recreation due to busy of works and studies.

PART 3
Your family is planning to buy a new television. (a) I have conducted a survey on the price of the television for two different brands from three different shops.I would like to make comparison between the two modes of payment,namely,cash payment and payment by installment. Table 4(a) shows the prices of television by cash payment in three different shops whereas Table 4(b) shows the prices of televisions by installment. Price (RM) Brand Size of Television (inches) Shop A Shop B Shop C Mean Price (RM) Standard Deviation (RM)

24 Sharp 32 40 24 Toshiba 32 40

## 669 760 1499 569 739 1249

758 848 1499 678 828 1286 Table 4(a) Price (RM)

Brand

## Standard Deviation (RM) 83.69 69.30 54.26 31.21 25.31 23.48

Sharp

32 40 24

Toshiba

32 40

(b) ) Based on my findings from part (a) above, I have decided to buy television TOSHIBA with size 32 from Shop A by using the cash payment method. From the data above, we can see that the price of the television that I have chosen which is RM739 is below the mean price. This shows that the price is cheaper than the average price for that kind of television. Comparing to the television SHARP, we can observe that the price is more expensive even the size of the television is same. Whether in size 24 , 32 or 42, the price is too higher compared to the TOSHIBAs television. My choice gives me advantage and chance to save some money. Apart from that, the price is affordable accordance to my family average household expenditure. Other than that, the standard deviation for that television brand, TOSHIBA 32 inches is RM 61.55 which means the average data value is not extreme as SHARPs television. A high standard deviation value means that the average data value is extreme which will result in insensibility for the consumers

to buy. This is because not all family has higher income.The television TOSHIBA 32 inches has reasonable price as the standard deviation is not too high. (c) Fair Price Shop Award The Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs wishes to present the Fair Price Shop Award for the shops above. I am one of the panels for this award. Based on my findings, the shop that deserves this award is Shop A. By considering the value of the mean and the value of standard deviation, here are my justifications. Shop A offers prices of television for both brands which are below the mean price which the average market price even still has one or two price that over the mean. But this is not the problem in fact it is better compared to the others shop. This shows that Shop A is able to offer lower prices for the consumers compared to other shops. Hence, this will benefit the consumers especially for those who come from a low income family. The data of standard deviation for prices of television in Shop A is acceptable and sensible as the standard deviation values are not too high. This shows that the data does not have extreme values by both means of payment.

PART 4
(a) My family has a fixed monthly income. In order to buy the television by installment, my family needs to make some adjustments on the various types of expenditure. This is the average monthly expenditure that I had modified in a table. Item Fixed Average Monthly expenditure (RM) Average Monthly Expenditure for the Year 2013 (to the nearest RM) 1100 800 450 150 900 50 600 550 300

## 1200 800 500 200 1000 100 600 600 300

Savings TOTAL

5300

400 5300

(b) Assuming that I have just started working with a monthly salary of RM2500, I intend to save 10% of my salary every month.Besides, I also plan to contribute some of my salary to my parents every month. Item Food Accommodation Transportation Clothing Education Recreation Utilities Medication Miscellaneous Savings Contribution to parents TOTAL Average Monthly Expenditure for the year 2013 (RM) 350 300 200 100 400 50 300 150 100 250 300 2500 Percentage of monthly expenses (%) 14 12 8 4 16 2 12 6 4 10 12 100

## Percentage of monthly expenses

Food Accommodation Transportation Clothing Education Recreation Utilities Medication Miscellaneous Savings Contribution to parents

## Percentage of monthly expenses

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Percentage of monthly expenses

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the objectives of this project have been approved. As for me, one of the objectives of this project is to realize that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence developed positive attitude towards mathematics is approve. It is because in this chapter index number I learn how a good planner in my life is. Its help me how plan my expenditure for my future. As you know, to be a good person in life, we must know how to plan our expenditure and so, we can live in good way.

In part 2, it shows my family expenditure that has not known. So now I know that my family expenditure a bit big but still can adjust how to plan it. Furthermore, in part 3 in

this project it tells me how to buy good products that are cheap and quality. Its also teaching us how to choose a shop that sells true and quality products. By comparing three shops, we can know in what shop sold the best price than people to by some product. In part 4, we can also plan a more wise expenditure on various items in the future so that we will not waste our money too much especially on miscellaneous and make the most important items such as food, loan and bills as our priority.

Hopefully my experiences and knowledge that I got by completing this project will be useful for me in the future.

REFLECTION
I have spent countless hours doing this project. I realized that this subject is a compulsory to me. Without it, I cant fulfill my big dreams and wishes.

Additional Mathematics, Are you as easy as a click, Do you become easier as we speak, You are the one I seek, you are the one I need. Since I ever heard of you, I become afraid of you but when I know you, you attract me out of the blue. with you, although it hard to be right, I try my best not to be out of sight, with Teacher Husna to show the light, and practices at night now I shall see the light. And it is so bright :)

REFERENCES

BOOKS

Module Teaching & Learning Additional Mathematics Form 4, A.Rahim, Azlina, Hadibah, Nizal.

2012,

## 2007, Lan Foo Huat, Yong Kien Cheng.

APPENDIX
(INCLUDING YOUR PROJECT WORK TASK FROM MINISTRY, GUIDELINES FOR STUDENT EDITION AND RUBRIC FOR ADDMATH PROJECT WORK)

P/S: Pemarkahan folio bergantung kepada guru masing-masing. Kalau Mr Noodle, beliau tidak memerlukan FURTHUR EXPLORATION sebab ia termasuk dalam Part 4 dalam penggunaan table. TASK SPECIFICATION dalam PARAGRAPH, BUKAN dalam POINT. PERCENT(%) merupakan salah satu contoh WEIGHTAGE,