Você está na página 1de 5

IMPARFAIT/ PASS SIMPLE/ PASS COMPOS/ PLUS-QUE-PARFAIT

A. Imperfect -- Indicative (l'imparfait) 1. Formation:


The endings: ais, ais, ait; ions, iez, aient are added to the imperfect stem which is found by dropping the ons ending from the first-person plural of the present indicative (see A.1. b, c., d. donn-, finiss-, rend-). This formula will work for all verbs but tre, whose stem is irregular (t). Verbs of the first conjugation, er verbs, that would have 'g' or 'c' as the final letter of the imperfect stem require the inclusion of an 'e' (for 'g') and a cedilla (for 'c') before the imperfect endings are added for all imperfect conjugated forms except the first and second persons plural. This measure maintains the softness of the consonant before 'a' and 'o'. Examples: mangeais, mangeais, mangeait; mangions, mangiez, mangeaient; commenais, commenais, commenait; commencions, commenciez, commenaient.

2. Use:
a. To describe an action habitually repeated in the past. Example: Il mangeait toujours dans le mme restaurant. b. For general description. Example: Leur maison tait trs belle. c. To provide a context by which or within which another past action is situated. Example: Je lisais quand elle est entre. d. For indirect discours. Example: Paul a dit qu'il n'aimait pas les Allemands. There is no single English tense that corresponds by itself to the French imperfect. Normally, some form of a past tense or a "used to ..." or "would ..." construction will suffice

to translate an imperfect verb. Here is how each of the examples could be translated: a.' He used to eat always in the same restaurant. / He would always eat in the same restaurant. b.' Their home was very beautiful. c.' I was reading when she came in. d.' Paul said he did not like the Germans.

B. Pass Simple -- Indicative 1. Formation:


a. Drop the er of the infinitive of er verbs to obtain the stem: donn- . b. To the stem of er verbs, the following endings are added: ai, as, a; mes, tes, rent -- thus obtaining: donnai, donnas, donna; donnmes, donntes, donnrent. c. Drop the ir and re of the infinitive of most ir and re verbs to obtain the stem: fin- , rendd. To the stem of most ir and re verbs, the following endings are added: is, is, it; mes, tes, irent -- thus obtaing: finis, finis, finit; finmes, fintes, finirent ; rendis, rendis, rendit; rendmes, rendtes, rendirent. e. For the many verbs, the formation derives from the past participle (see H. 1. c. ). Examples: dormir, dormi > dormis, dormis, dormit, dormmes, dormtes, dormirent ; sourire, souri > souris, souris, sourit; sourmes, sourtes, sourirent.

2. Use:

To relate unique events that have been completed, are viewed as "over and done with" in the past. (In this regard, it expresses past events that have been completed in parallel fashion to the pass compos. See H. 1.) The pass simple is a literary preterite, and may seldom be encountered outside formal writing. In conversational French, the pass compos is almost always preferred. Example: Il crivit ds son retour. ~ Il a crit ds son retour. The pass simple may distinguish itself from the pass compos, in that the event given in the pass simple is seen to have less significance for the present moment, according to some grammarians. Example: Csar envahit la Gaule ~ Csar a envahi la Gaule.

C. Pass Compos -- Indicative 1. Formation:


a. For most verbs in French, use the present tense indicative of avoir (ai, as, a; avons, avez, ont) plus the past participle of the main verb. b. Certain verbs (a minority), usually but not always intransitive verbs of motion or change in state of being, require that the present tense of tre (suis, es, est; sommes, tes, sont) be used instead of avoir (always with: aller, arriver, entrer, devenir, partir, rester, rentrer, retourner, venir, tomber, mourir, and all reflexive/pronominal verbs -sometimes with: passer, monter, descendre, sortir -depending on whether the verb is used transitively or intransitively, i.e., takes a direct object or not). In addition, the past participle must agree in gender and number with its subject. c. The past participles of regular verbs can be obtained by adding to the same verb stem that is used for the formation of the present tense (see A.1.a.) the following set of endings: for er verbs, i for ir verbs, u for re verbs -- thus giving, for example: donn, fini, rendu.

2. Use:
To relate unique events that have been completed, are viewed as "over and done with" in the past. It corresponds to the English present perfect or simple past. Tu as cout ce disque? could be rendered into English as: You listened to this record? or Have you listened to this record? or -- for that manner -- even Did you listen to this record? in the emphatic past. Examples: Csar a envahi la Gaule. Jean a parl avec son prof. La voiture s'est arrte devant le muse. It may also be used for repetitive actions in the past, but only if the time period during which the repeated actions occurred is explicitly indicated. Example: Il est venu me voir tous les jeudis. D. Pluperfect -- Indicative (le plus-que-parfait) 1. Formation: a. For most verbs in French, use the imperfect tense of avoir (avais, avais, avait; avions, aviez, avaient) plus the past participle of the verb that is being used in the pluperfect. b. Certain verbs (a minority), usually but not always intransitive verbs of motion or change in state of being, require that the imperfect tense of tre (tais, tais, tait; tions, tiez, taient) be used instead of avoir. c. There is only one past participle for all compound tenses in French. Concerning the form it takes for regular verbs. 2. Use: Just as the pass compos relates unique events that have been completed, are viewed as "over and done with" in the past, so, too, does the pluperfect. It corresponds to the English pluperfect. With French and English, the pluperfect indicates that an action takes place in a remote past, or, at least, that an action takes place before another past action

or state. Tu avais cout ce disque avant de le condamner ? could be rendered into English as: Had you listened to this record before condemning it? Example: Ils avaient dj fini leurs devoirs, quand le professeur est entr dans la salle.