Você está na página 1de 6

NOTES IN BOTANY

Prepared by: N.R. Bautista

USES OF PLANTS

NOTES IN BOTANY Prepared by: N.R. Bautista USES OF PLANTS Plants Horticulture, Agronomy and Forestry. Generally
NOTES IN BOTANY Prepared by: N.R. Bautista USES OF PLANTS Plants Horticulture, Agronomy and Forestry. Generally

Plants

Horticulture, Agronomy and Forestry. Generally speaking, plants are cultivated in order to be used as (1) Food & spices; (2) Clothing & basketry; (3) Housing; (4) Medicines; (5) Fuel; (6) Medicines / Pharmaceuticals; (7) Ornamental Decoration;

of

are

either

used

in

the

field

and (8) Environmental Purposes.

Horticulture

main

includes:

means

or

division

“garden

branches

crops”.

of

Their

Horticulture

1. Olericulture- the production of vegetables

including storage, processing, and marketing. Vegetable crops are grown for their succulent and edible parts such as the roots, stems, leaves, young tops, flowers, fruits, or seeds for use in culinary preparations either fresh or preserved in the fresh state.

2. Pomology- the branch of horticulture which

deals with fruit crop production. Fruit crops are grown for their edible fruits which, as a rule, are consumed raw.

the

management of cut flowers, flowering plants,

plants including their use in

ornamental construct such as flower arrangement. A term that is used interchangeably with floriculture is ornamental

3. Floriculture-

cultivation and

and foliage

horticulture.

4. Plant Propagation/Nursery Crop Culture- the propagation and production of seedlings, young trees, shrubs and vines, as well as ground covers, turf, ornamental plants and other crops in nurseries for landscaping, interior plantscaping, or outplanting.

plants and other crops in nurseries for landscaping, interior plantscaping, or outplanting. Uses of Plants Page
plants and other crops in nurseries for landscaping, interior plantscaping, or outplanting. Uses of Plants Page
(Top Picture) Various cutflowers sold in a flowershop. (Bottom) Various Local tropical fruits in a
(Top Picture) Various cutflowers sold in a flowershop. (Bottom) Various Local tropical fruits in a

(Top Picture) Various cutflowers sold in a flowershop. (Bottom) Various Local tropical fruits in a fruit stand.

5. Landscape horticulture- the branch of horticulture which includes the design, construction and care of landscapes taking into consideration proper choice of plants and aesthetic effects for homes, businesses and public places.

The following crops are likewise generally included within the domain of the branches of horticulture:

perennial bush and tree nuts; and aromatic and medicinal foliage, seeds and roots .

Note:

1. Horticulture differs from agronomy in many ways but some crops can be classified as both horticultural and agronomic depending on use (e.g. sweet corn is horticultural, grain or forage corn is agronomic). In the tropics, however, the distinction between horticulture and agronomy is not clear.

2. Horticulture is intensive. It deals with high-value crops which are intensively cultivated with high

infusion of capital in terms of production inputs, labor and technology per land area.

3. Protected cultivation, as in glasshouses and plastic tunnels, and irrigation are common.

4. The following terms are used to refer to production units for horticultural crops: gardens, orchards,

groves, vineyards, greenhouses, nurseries, and sometimes plantations.

5. Horticulture supports environmental enhancement through a special branch of horticulture called

environmental or urban horticulture which includes home gardening, landscaping, arboriculture (growing of trees), and interior decorating with the use of plants. These activities have been applied in

horticultural therapy in which horticultural plants are used as therapeutic tools.

been applied in horticultural therapy in which horticultural plants are used as therapeutic tools. Uses of
been applied in horticultural therapy in which horticultural plants are used as therapeutic tools. Uses of

AGRONOMY

AGRONOMY Agronomy (or “field crops” is a branch of agriculture dealing with various physical and biological

Agronomy (or “field crops” is a branch of agriculture dealing with various physical and biological factors—including soil management, tillage, crop rotation, breeding, weed control, and climate—related to crop production. Agronomy commonly refers to field crops, e.g. wheat, rice, corn, sorghum, soybean, cotton, as well as pasture, sugar, and forage crops; while horticulture is concerned with fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants; silviculture, or forestry , with forest trees; and agroforestry, with mixtures of trees with other crops.

Divisions of Agronomy includes:

1. Cereals – wheat, rice, corn, sorghum, soybeans

2. Forage crops – grasses planted as feed for horses, goats, sheep, cattle. – e.g. paragrass;

3. Sugar crops – sugarcane, sugar beet, maple trees.

4. Fibercrops – cotton, ramie, abaca, cotton, pandan, buri, pineapple, kapok.

ramie, abaca, cotton, pandan, buri, pineapple, kapok. Corn is a major cereal crop for non-irrigated fields.

Corn is a major cereal crop for non-irrigated fields.

cotton, pandan, buri, pineapple, kapok. Corn is a major cereal crop for non-irrigated fields. Uses of
cotton, pandan, buri, pineapple, kapok. Corn is a major cereal crop for non-irrigated fields. Uses of
FORESTRY / SILVICULTURE 1. Production of Timber / Firewood 2. Use for Other purposes –

FORESTRY / SILVICULTURE

1. Production of Timber / Firewood

2. Use for Other purposes – cordage, packing material, basketry

3. Use as Food (Fruits, Nuts, Vegetables)

4. Medicinal Use

5. Protection of Natural Habitat (Environmental)

AGRONOMY – Field Crops (usually planted in wide open spaces, uses machines in planting, usually produced in industrial scale)

a. Cereal crops – rice, corn, sorghum, soya beans, wheat

b. Oil Crops – coconut, African oil palms

c. Fiber Crops – cotton, Pineapple, Buri, giant Pandan,

d. Forage Crops – grasses used as feeds for cattle, horses, goats – e.g. para grass.

e. Medicinal / Poison Crops

f. Fuel Crops – e.g. ipil-ipil, kakawate, acacia,

g. Sugar Crops – sugarcane, maple trees, sugarbeet.

h. Root crops – cassava, kamote, potato, sinkamas.

i. Green manure – leguminous crops used to be planted and to be plowed under.

leguminous crops used to be planted and to be plowed under. (Left) Coconut trees are major

(Left) Coconut trees are major oil crops which produced nuts for making cooking oil, coconut milk for food and young coconut water and meat for the beverage industry.

HORTICULTURE – Garden Crops (planted intensively, with high capital and inputs)

Plantation Crops - plants grown in large quantities intended for industrial purposes.

a. Oil Crops - crops grown for their oil content. e.g. Coconut, African oil palm, lumbang, castor.

b. Fiber Crops - grown for their fibers which is used for textiles, cordage, pulp, paper, twines, sacks, bags, mats, decorations, etc. e.g. abaca, buri, maguey, cabo negro, kapok, cotton.

twines, sacks, bags, mats, decorations, etc. e.g. abaca, buri, maguey, cabo negro, kapok, cotton. Uses of
twines, sacks, bags, mats, decorations, etc. e.g. abaca, buri, maguey, cabo negro, kapok, cotton. Uses of

Beverage crops - crops grown for brewing non-alchoholic drinks. e.g. coffee, cacao, tea, turmeric (yellow ginger), ginger, and avocado leaf.

c.

d. Spices, condiments and essences -- crops used to provide special flavors, scnets and colors to

food, perfume, soaps, and body dressings (sprays, splashes, and rubbing ointments) e.g. black

pepper, vanilla, citronella, canella (or cinnamon), turmeric, eucaliptus.

e. Latex and resins - crops grown for their sap (latex) e.g. rubber, chico, pili, rimas, papaya

f. Medicinal and poison crops - crops

with

curative, laxative

or pesticidal properties.

(Areca catachu L.) and ikmo (Piper betle L.), Lagundi

e.g.

Bunga

catachu L.) and ikmo (Piper betle L.), Lagundi e.g. Bunga Fruits in a local market .

Fruits in a local market . food items sold in markets

Ornamental Crops

Fruits like bananas, papayas, pineapples, melons and mangoes are major

a. Cutfoliage or Florist's greens - plants grown for its its foliage (as background in floral arrangements) e.g. Kamuning (Murraya paniculata) ferns, asparagus (Asparagus plumosus), Fortune plant (Draceana fragrance).

(Murraya paniculata) ferns, asparagus (Asparagus plumosus), Fortune plant (Draceana fragrance). Uses of Plants Page 5
(Murraya paniculata) ferns, asparagus (Asparagus plumosus), Fortune plant (Draceana fragrance). Uses of Plants Page 5

b. Cutflower or Florist's crops - plants grown for its flowers e.g. carnations, gladiolus, roses, daisies, lilies, chrysanthemums, anthuriums, sampaguita, orchids, heliconias, bird of paradise.

c. Flowering Pot Plants - plants grown display purposes.

d.

shade loving)

Foliage

plants - plants grown

in

in

containers

containers

for

for

their

beautiful

flowers,

usually

used

for

their attractive foliage (these plants are usually

e.Landscape plants - plants used for landscaping e.g. palms and trees (as canopy), border plants, accent plants (flowering center of attention); foundation plants; background/blinds; hedge/wall; barriers; creepers; foliage / foliar epiphytes; .

f. Turf grasses - usually plants belonging to the Grass family, used for lawns or greens. e.g. Manila grass, Bermuda grass, Carabao Grass & Blue grass.

g. Others – Bonsai (minature trees) ; Topiary – plants shaped into certain shapes; plant arts - dish gardens, zen waterfall gardens, lei, corsage,

FRUIT CROPS (POMOLOGY)

a. Tree Fruits – fruits borne on trees (e.g. manga, santol, sampaloc, apple, starapple, guava)

b. Small Fruit – fruit not borne on trees, but grows on vines, or small shrubs. – e.g. strawberry, grapes, watermelon, melon, dragon fruit.

c. Nut Fruits – fruits with hard shell. – e.g. walnut, cashew nut, Pili nut, Pistachos,

SIGNIFICANT APPLICATION OF BOTANY

Botany is a foundation and pure science. Its branches includes: Plant Anatomy, Plant Physiology, Genetics, Plant Pathology, Taxonomy or Systematics, PaleoBotany (Plant Evolution), Plant Geography; Crop Protection; Cytology, Histology, Plant Ecology, Ethnobotany, and others.

Its Disciplines includes: Plant breeding; Micropropagation (plant tissue culture); Nursery management; Seed Technology; Biochemistry; Post-Harvest Technologies; Farming systems;

Botany has tremendous applications in Agriculture (agronomy & horticulture); Forestry; Environmental Science; Biotechnology; Medicine; among others.

Science; Biotechnology; Medicine; among others. © 2013 – Norberto R. Bautista c/o The Biology Department,

© 2013 – Norberto R. Bautista c/o The Biology Department, College of Arts & Sciences, Rizal Technological University, Boni Avenue, Mandaluyong City, Philippines.

Arts & Sciences, Rizal Technological University, Boni Avenue, Mandaluyong City, Philippines. Uses of Plants Page 6
Arts & Sciences, Rizal Technological University, Boni Avenue, Mandaluyong City, Philippines. Uses of Plants Page 6