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# CBB 4323 : Plant Utility Systems

## Fuels burn with oxygen,

CH4 + 2O2
C3H8 + 5O2 C10H22 + 31/2O2 In general, CmHn + (4m+ n) O2 4

CO2 +
3CO2 +

2H2O
4H2O

10CO2 + 11H2O

mCO2 +

n H2O 2

## Lecture 3 Combustion Chemistry

If air is used, assume air is dry with composition: 21 mol% O2 79 mol% N2 Ratio of N2 to O2 in air: 3.764 moles N2: 1 mole O2

## Theoretical air for some types of fuel

Anthracite Coal Coke Fuel Oil Natural Gas LPG Biomass
(oxygenated hydrocarbon CmHnOp)

7.83 1b / 10,000 Btu 7.73 1b / 10,000 Btu 7.58 1b / 10,000 Btu 7.37 1b / 10,000 Btu 7.25 1b / 10,000 Btu 6.60 1b / 10,000 Btu

## Lecture 3 Combustion Chemistry

Example : One mole propane is burned in air. What is the mass of air required for the complete combustion of propane? Stoichiometry:

C3H8 + 5 O2

3CO2 +

4H2O

32 g Mass O2 = 5 mol* = 160 g mol 28 g Mass N2 = 3.764*5 mol* = 527 g mol Therefore mass of air (O2 and N2) = 0.69 kg
N.B.
Alternately, the calculation is straightforward if molecular weight of air is known.

## Lecture 3 Combustion Chemistry

Air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) The standard measure of the amount of air used in a combustion process. mair AFR = mfuel Thus, for the combustion of propane in air C3H8 + 5 O2 3CO2 + 4H2O

## Lecture 3 Combustion Chemistry

Combustion System CmHn (fuel) Air O2 N2 Excess air products: CO2, H2O, N2, O2 Incomplete (partial) combustion products: CmHn, C, CO, CO2, H2O, N2
Combustion System

CO2 H2O N2

## Lecture 3 Combustion Chemistry

Example : Octane is burned in 1.4 excess air. Calculate the molar amount of air fed into the combustion system. Mass balance: C8H18 + (25/2) O2 8CO2 + 9H2O

## Lecture 3 Combustion Chemistry

Example: A fuel mixture 60 mol% ethane, and 40 mol% propane is burned in stoichiometric air. Calculate the mass flow rate of air required if the fuel mass is 12 kg/h. Basis 1 kmol/h fuel, 0.6 kmol/h ethane = 0.6x30 = 18 kg/h 0.4 kmol/h propane = 0.4x44 = 17.6 kg/h Mass balance: 0.6C2H6 + 2.1O2 1.2CO2 + 1.8H2O 35.6 kg/h

0.4C3H8

2O2

1.2CO2 +

1.6H2O

Stoichiometric air required : 35.6 kg/h fuel requires 4.1 kmol O2 ; 12 kg/h fuel requires 1.38 kmol O2 = 6.58 kmol/h air = ??? kg/h air

## Lecture 3 Combustion Chemistry

Example : Butane burns in incomplete combustion which produces CO in addition to CO2 and H2O. Write a balanced chemical equation if the combustion is 80% complete. Basis 1 kmol/h fuel, Mass balance: 0.8 C4H10 0.2 C4H10 C4H10 + + + 5.2O2 0.9O2 0.8CO + 3.2CO2 + 0.8CO + 4H2O H2O + 5H2O

6.1O2

3.2CO2

Example : Ethyl mercaptan, C2H6S, is intentionally added into domestic LPG bottle to alert consumers of gas leakage. Write the stoichiometry for the complete combustion of ethyl mercaptan in air. Basis 1 kmol/h fuel, Mass balance: C2H6 S + + 7/2O2 O2 9/2O2 2CO2 + SO2 2CO2 + SO2 + 3H2O 3H2O

C2H6S +

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

A furnace system

T
TFT

Tstack
To Tdew DH Qlost Qprocess

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

For adiabatic condition, DHc = 0 Then, use Hesss Law to calculate Theoretical Flame Temperature (TFT) Enthalpy is a state property Change of enthalpy is independent of path

HC
T0

TFT

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Theoretical Flame Tempeature From Hesss Law, DHc = H1 + HoC + H3 = 0 Standards Heats of Combustion (HoC) are available from literatures HoC

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Cp (T) can be assumed a linear function between T and To. An average value then can be used such that, T0 H1 = Cp

dT
Tin

= [Cp]xDT Cp

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Example : Methane at 25oC is burned in stoichiometric amount of air, also at 25oC. Calculate the theoretical flame temperature. Basis 1 kmol/h fuel, CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Example (contd.): T0 H1 = Cp

dT

= 0

## (Guess TFT = 2000oC)

H3 = [(1x54.85) + (2x43.67) + (7.52x33.47)] x

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Example (contd.): Energy Balance DHc = 0; -802,310 + 393.88x(TFT 298) = 0 TFT = 2335 K = 2062oC

Answer is within +/- 5% deviation from Guess TFT. Therefore TFT is acceptable.

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Example : Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is used as fuel to generate steam in a boiler. The composition of LPG is 30 mol% propane and 70 mol% butane. The air fed is 20% excess. The combustion is complete and the system is adiabatic. Calculate the standard heat of combustion for one kmole LPG. Then calculate the theoretical flame temperature if air is fed at 100oC while the fuel is at 25oC.

Tables for the standard heat of combustion and the mean molal heat capacities are given.

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

For one kmol LPG, the fuel contains 0.3 mole C3H8 and 0.7 mole C4H10. The individual DHoC are -2,220,000 kJ/kmol and 2877000 kJ/kmol, respectively. Then, DHoC,LPG = (0.3)(2,220,000) + (0.7)(2877000) = 2,679,900 kJ/kmol

4H2O

C4H10

+ 6.5O2

4CO2 +

5H2O

1.2H2O

0.7C4H10

4.55O2

2.8CO2 +

3.5H2O

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Chemical equation with 20% excess air: 0.3C3H8 + 1.8O2 + (3.76)1.8N2 0.9CO2 + 1.2H2O + 0.3O2 + (3.76)1.8N2 0.7C4H10 + 5.46O2 + (3.76)5.46N2 2.8CO2 + 3.5H2O + 0.91O2 + (3.76)1.8N2

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Chemical equation with 20% excess air: Inlet Fuel (25oC): C3H8 0.3 kmol C4H10 0.7 kmol Inlet Air (100oC): O2 7.26 kmol N2 27.3 kmol Combustion Process Combustion Products (TFT): CO2 3.7 kmol H2O 4.7 kmol O2 1.21 kmol N2 27.3 kmol

dT

To

25oC
+ CpLPG

dT
Tin = T0

T0

zero

Tin = 100oC

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Example (contd.):

## H2 = (1 kmol LPG) HoC,LPG = 2,679,900 kJ

TFT dT (Guess TFT = 1500oC)

H3= Cp

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Example (contd.): Energy Balance DHc = 0; = ( 99,044) + ( 2,679,900) + (1322.85x(TFT 298)) TFT = 2398.7 K = 2126oC = 0

Answer deviates by more than 5% from Guess TFT. Therefore TFT not acceptable.

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Example (contd.):

Iteration

## (Guess TFT = 2100oC)

H3 = [(3.7x55.14) + (4.7x44.05) + (1.21x35.42) + (27.3x33.61)] x (TFT-298) = 1371.5x(TFT 298) Energy Balance ( 99,044) + ( 2,679,900) + (2460.5x(TFT 298)) TFT = 2324.2 K = 2026oC Answer is within +/- 5% deviation from Guess TFT. Therefore TFT is acceptable. = 0

## Lecture 4 Theoretical Flame Temperature

Example (contd.): Energy Balance DHc = 0; = ( 99,044) + ( 2,679,900) + (1364.6x(TFT 298)) TFT = 2334.4 K = 2061oC = 0

Answer is within +/- 5% deviation from Guess TFT. Therefore TFT is acceptable.