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Urbanisation Urbanisation is the process when there is the movement of an increasing proportion of the worlds population to live in urban areas. Urbanisation in MEDC occurred in the nineteenth and the twentieth century. It happened when Agriculture Revolution and Industrial Revolution bought people in to the city. Over 80% of people live in the city in the UK. Urbanisation In LEDC occurred later in the 20th century when people started to move into the town, as they needed Jobs, rural push factors and urban pull factors. People flooded into city and low death rates and high birth rates in cities in LEDCs. 30% live in urban areas in LEDCs Some people now in MEDCs are moving back into the countryside as they want bigger houses, gardens and want peace. CounterUrbanisation. People now in the LEDCs are moving into the city, as they want Jobs. Causes of Urbanisation in LEDCs Push Factors Poor Farming conditions Lack of employment opportunities Natural disasters e.g. droughts Lack of access to water Lack of Food Lack of Building materials Lack of technologies High Crime Rate No electricity and sewage system Overpopulation (high birth rates) Lack of investment from government Lack of Land Lack of services (shops and hospitals) Pull Factors Jobs Education Access to clean water More shops and Hospitals More entertainments Better Housings BRIGHT LIGHT SYNDROME- drawing people into the city. Better Hospitals and Doctors Communication and Power Safer

Characteristics of an Urban Area

CBD-Offices, shops, widest variety of Goods, high land values (build up), main place of work, most accessible location, few people live here, historical core. Busiest area. Inner City-next to Historical core, old high density terraced houses, old, abandoned factories and warehouses, areas of derelict, build next to factories. Redevelopment such as high-rise flats. Ethnics groups live

here so theyre important services e.g. place of worship. Traditionally small houses were built here near to factories to house workers. Suburbs-grown outwards, residential, along sides of roads, Cul-de-sacs housing, modern, larger and more expensive housing on edge, flats, semi detached, detached, have gardens and garages. It is less crowded and more pleasant, with less pollution and traffic. Rural-Urban fringe- big shopping centres, less population, houses are build bigger as land is cheaper with big gardens, golf courses, sewage farms, airports, motorway, less public transport

The different between the Robinson Model (LEDC) and Burgess Model (MEDC) is: LEDCs are more irregular MEDCs have a larger high class residential LEDCs have a small high class residential LEDCs have no middle class suburbs MEDCs have no shanty towns Robinsons model suggests LEDC cities do not have a large industrial area they have Industrial sectors

Rapid Urbanisation in LEDCS


Problem Real Fire Hazard, Found on Hills so they are prone to flood. Toilet shared between 30 people. Sewage runs down the street. Which pollutes the water, which leads to cholera and typhoid. Shanties are building of whatever they find. Lack of teachers for too many children Families have less money for health, as it is expensive and too far away. People suffer from Malnutrition, as there is limited food. Lack of Clean typhoid and diarrhoea

Solution Self Help Scheme -Seek legal tenure=making legal houses. Government gives material. Site and Services Political will Investments Charities





Work is street traders, mechanics, and Regulationsdomestic servants, sell food, clothes. minimum wage, People cant find proper Jobs and earn less conditions a certain money standard Few get Jobs in Factories but cant afford to Development travel. Noise, air Pollution. Cooking food creates Regulation-Increase air pollution (smoke) waste deposit Cheap building materials e.g. tree branches, metal (in summer get hot). Lack of space Increase waste Vermin

Housing In the UK there are housing shortages in urban areas because the urban population is growing quickly and another reason people need houses is increasing divorce rates. More people live alone and older people live along due to sons moving out after marriage. 1/3 of single person households are aged over 65. The ways the shortage are being tackled: 1. Urban renewal schemes- These are government strategies used mostly in the 1990s. They encouraged investment in housing, services and employment in derelict inner city areas. Converting a Brownfield site into houses.

2. New Town- Brand new towns have been built to house the overspill populations from existing towns and cities where there was a shortage of houses. E.g. Milton Keynes was built in the 1970s. 3. Relocation incentives- These are used to encourage people living in large council houses to move out of urban areas. This frees up houses in urban areas for other people. E.g. working families. 3 million extra houses are being build by 2020 and they wanted 60% on Brownfield sites. Brownfield sites are often in the inner city but gardens also count as Brownfield sites. There is pressure to build on Greenfield sites on the outskirts. The councils are protecting the Green belt land. Advantages Brownfield Sites Easier and quicker to get planning permission. Services like electricity, gas, water, and sewerage already in place. Roads and other transport links already in place. Closer to the city centre to work or for shops, entertainment. Greenfield Sites Site has not been build on before so it is quicker and easier to prepare. Land is cheaper on the outskirts. Surrounding area may be attractive making it easier to sell larger and more expensive houses, which make more profit for the developer. Countryside is lost to houses and roads. Wildlife is threatened.


Land may be expensive to buy or rent if it is near the city centre. Site may be polluted and expensive to clean up. Site may not be very large, perhaps only big enough for a few houses. Surrounding area may not be attractive making it difficult for builders to sell houses.

Inner City There has been inner city decline as factories have closed down and the land is become has become derelict and jobs have been lost due to closure of factories. People then leave the inner city to go somewhere else for jobs so no services needed so schools and shops close. More jobs lost so more people leave the areas. The only people who still live in inner cities are mainly the elderly or low-income groups. So little money is put in the area so it becomes even more run down and more crime and vandalism takes place. The quality of life gets worse.

Inner City Hulme Case Study In the mid 1900s, Hulme had textile factories of cotton and it had terraced housing for their workers. After the war, factories closed due to cheap labour in foreign countries and the inner city suffered Decline.
Improved In Hulme and redevelopment strategies and the problems faced:

Hulme is an area in Manchester that was redeveloped as part of a slum clearance program in the 1960's and a number of high-rise flats were built. 98% of the 5500 dwellings were owned by the council. Over half of the dwellings were part of a deck access system, with many of the poor design features of prefabricated construction. The area had a low level of families with children, and a disproportionate number of single person households. There was also some evidence that the local authority had used the area to 'dump' some of its more unfortunate residents. The high-rise flats didnt improve anything as there was high crime rate (Vandalism), they didnt meet the needs of the population, damp, expensive to heat, noise pollution and felt unsafe in flats (specially in stairwells). Lack of investments 3/5 people out of work
City Challenge

The City Challenge initiative was designed to address some of the weaknesses of the earlier regeneration schemes. The participating organisations were better organised and much more involved. This particularly applied to the residents of the area and the local authority. Many earlier initiatives had focused on improving buildings, whereas city challenge gave equal importance to buildings, people and values. Cooperation between local authorities and private and public groups, some of which were voluntary, was prioritised. All areas that use the City Challenge scheme have suffered from high long term and youth unemployment, a low skills base, poor level of educational attainment, environmental deterioration, increasing areas of derelict land and growing commercial property vacancy. Public sector housing was deteriorating in nearly all the City Challenge areas due to a combination of poor initial design and inadequate maintenance. People that are found in this housing have either poorer health than the average individual, high levels of personal crime or fear of crime, a high proportion of single parent families and households dependant on social security.
Hulme and city Challenge

The city challenge was a mixture private and public investment. In 1991 Hulme was given 37.5 million by the government. The city council worked along side property development (Bellway homes) and with AMEC firm to regenerate the inner city area. The project also involved local residents and communities leaders and it was important the local peoples views were included. 400 million of private and public sector money has been spent on improving the image of Moss side and Hulme. In 1992, under the Hulme City Challenge Partnership, plans were drawn up to build 3000 new homes, with new shopping areas, roads and community facilities. A more traditional pattern of housing development was designed, with streets, squares, two storey houses and low-rise flats. By 1995. 50ha of land had been reclaimed; the majority of the former deck access flats had been demolished. 600 new homes for rents had been built, and more than 400 homes had been improved and refurbished. The main shopping area had been totally refurbished, including the addition of an ASDA supermarket build in 1997. This provides 400 jobs for the locals. A new community centre, including crche facilities and other social provision, the Zion centre, was also constructed. They constructed over 2000 new homes for sale and for rent- rent is good for poor people as they can pay every month. Another positive point is that crime in the area has greatly reduced and there is more of a social mix of people living in the area. The appearance of Hulme has altered radically. A new park has been build to communities together. A flagship youth centre built to stop youths from vandalism and crimes. This has also helped to change the bad reputation that Hulme gained in the 1970's and 1980s; however, this has been a very long process. Brierly Fields, a green area, has been partly developed for a series of office blocks, and partly retained as urban parkland. This office development has attracted big companies such as Michelin, Laing O'Rourke and the University of Manchester data centre Provides jobs. One significant part of Hulme that still exists is Moss Side Sports Centre. Upgraded for the 2002 Commonwealth games, the centre has a gym and other sporting facilities. Hulme's proximity to the city has made it a popular place to live for a new generation of city dwellers. Students of the University of Manchester also live in many of the student focused residential developments in the area. A symbol of the regeneration is the Hulme arch.
New redevelopment successful and future for Hulme

The redevelopment of Hulme is successful as criminal activities have been reduced and there is more police present and there were an increase number of convictions. The prices have gone up and the average of a house now is 11,700. There is an increase buy to let properties has encouraged young professionals to move into the area. There are now a number of trendy wine bars, delis and organic food store. Traffic Problems Traffic Congestion Air, land and noise pollution Lack of space Health Problems e.g. Asthma Accidents cause injuries and deaths Congestion reduces traffic flow Stress can lead to road rage incidents Buildings damaged or discoloured Wasting time of motorists Late to Work Waste more fuel which increases air pollution. Rise in fuel cost Wear and tear of vehiclesidling in traffic Blocked road might interfere with emergences

Solutions London Congestion charges-reduces traffic, reduces pollution, more use of public transport (8% increase), profits are spend on London transport. Introduced 17th February 2003. Free for electric cars or minibuses. 70,000 Fewer cars enter original congestion zones. Manchester metro link-Light rail, 5 lines, economic friendly, carries 20 million passengers in a year, wide variety of routes around Manchester, easy accessible for disabled wheelchairs, guarantee a tram for 12 minutes, comfortable and can cope with rush hours, cheaper and get to places quicker. The one disadvantage is the tickets are quite expensive. One way traffic Cycle lanes build to reduce cars on roads Underground or multi-storey car parks.

New roads to take traffic out of the CBD. E.g. ring roads M6 Toll to educe traffic on motorways

Revitalising the CBD Problems Crime Internetgrowth of internet shopping Suburbanisation /counter urbanisationpeople use shops Out-of-town shopping centres e.g. meadow Hall and whiterose centre Parking costs Traffic (at peak 5-6) Creates Dead Heart empty place in city centre (7-9)

Solutions Traffic-park and ride, London Congestion charges, day rider tickets, More focus on public transport, one way traffic (ring road), Manchester trams, bikes, London metro and reduction in car charges e.g. Merion centre 1 for 3 hours. Out-of-town shopping- To conquer this in Leeds they have done free parking, all under one roof, new indoor shopping centre e.g. trinity, In millennium square activities such as ice ring, German market, music performances, corn exchange and Ferris wheel. Also they put big matches on big screens to attract people in CBD. Alive after Five-Introduced in 2003 to encourage more shopping and leisure activities. It is used in Leeds on Thursday as Business are opened till late so people can shop for longer so it reduces traffic. Crime Rate- Crime rate are reduced as more CCTV cameras are put up and more police patrolling the street of Leeds. Regeneration Clarence Dock Fashion Leeds -has shifted to Sunday to a Thursday so it attracts more people on the weekdays. Less Traffic -if workers stay in after 5pm Ethnic Segregation Ethnic segregation is when people of different ethnicities dont mix and the reason for this are: 1. People prefer to live close to others with the same background and religion, and who speak the same language. 2. People live near to services that are important to their culture e.g. place of worship. This means people of the same ethnic background tend to live in the same area.

3. People from the same ethnic background are often restricted in where they can live in the same way e.g. lack of money, so they all end up in the same place.
Oldham Riots 2001

The riots occurred due to a series of attacks on Asians and whites. The strategy aimed at supporting multicultarism is the Cantle Report. Communities were not integrating at all An oath of National Allegiance to Britain from immigrants might help future race relations (not happened yet). At least 25% of places in single-faith schools, by they state or private, should be given to children of alternative backgrounds. Police should extend community policing initiatives and break drug networks in some no-go areas. Making sure everyone can access information about different services, e.g., by printing leaflets in a variety of languages. Improving communications between all parts of the community, e.g., by involving the leaders of different ethnic communities when making wrong decisions. Providing interpreters at places like hospitals and police stations. Making sure there are suitable services for the different cultures e.g. in some cultures its unacceptable to be seen by a doctor of the opposite sex so alternatives should be provided. Squatter Settlements
Characteristics of Squatter settlements

Accommodation -The shanties are made of cardboard, wood, iron, plastic and sacking. Anything they find. -Few basic amenities running water, gas, electricity, toilet and main sewage. -They dont have access to clean water, proper sewers or electricity. -The sewers in shanties are open sewers and unhygienic washing facilities. -Houses build wherever this is space and no planning permission. Most houses are illegal. -No refuse collection -High crime rate -Little security- government might force people to move

Education-Children often get little education or not at all as they cant afford to pay. -Children from ages 6-7 have to try to earn money to support family. Transport-Dirt roads and tracks. Open drains/sewers -Few people own cars -Shops and work is often a long way off. Employment-Only few jobs in shanties -Jobs in factories are often a long way off & low wages for unskilled work. -Working in informal sector- e.g. repairing goods, processing/selling food, recycling materials. Poor working conditions. Food & Clothes-Short supply. -Problems with malnutrition, unbalanced diets and poor food hygiene. -People often earn enough only to buy food sufficient only for that day. Health-Lack of clean water and proper sanitations = diseases spread easily (typhoid and dysentery). -Only few nurses, doctors and hospitals. -LOW life expectancy -People cant afford to buy medicine. -High infant mortality
Squatter Settlements Kibera Case Study- Problems

Info Kibera is the largest slum in the whole of Africa and is situated on the outskirts of Nairobi, Kenya. Squatter settlements are generally found in LEDCs, as the rate of rural-urban migration is too great for any certain city or town to deal with so as a result a slum is formed. Slums will build up

after many years and almost certainly have horrific levels of general human rights. 60% of Nairobi lives in Slums and 30% of those live in Kibera. Housing 60% of Nairobi lives in Slums and 30% of those live in Kibera. Kiberas People Between 800,000 and 1 million people live in the shanty town in an area of only 255 hectares, meaning that population density is so high that people have only 1m of space each. Living in one-room houses made of mud, with tin roofs with about 1m of space per person. Lack of ownership of their property Homes are made of mud, plastered over boards, wood or corrugated iron sheeting. There will be huge levels of overcrowding and also each person in many slums will only have around 1-2m squared to live/eat/sleep in. Infrastructure is poor as there is generally no lease for the land and no permit to build on it; this means no running water, no toilets or showers and also no electricity. Living Conditions The paths between the houses are irregular, narrow and often have a ditch running down the middle that has sewage in it. Rubbish litters the area, as it is not collected. The area smells of the charcoal used to provide fuel and of human waste. A standpipe may supply water for up to 40 families: private operators run hosepipes into the area and charge double the going rate for water. Over 100,000 children are believed to be orphans due to the high incidence of HIV/Aids. It lacks sewers and has poor levels of sanitation and disease is one of the main killers due to awful levels of dirt and filth. The flying toilet idea is also against the basic needs of humans, you excrete into a carrier bag and chuck it out of your window to leave it to decompose. 1 fifth of people in Kibera do not have a toilet, shower, running water or electricity and even more only have 1 of those things. It is believed 20% of all 2.2 million Kenyans living with HIV AIDS live in Kibera, that just under half the inhabitants of Kibera HIV positive. Rampant disease, from malaria to cholera to HIV There is no organized rubbish collection system and therefore in the

open drain systems of some toilets it blocks it. Healthcare and education are extremely poor as there is not enough money being put in by charities to fund them as an effect of this death rate is very high, especially just after or during birth and a huge proportion of any slum will be illiterate. Crime and Jobs Crime is rife and vigilante groups offer protection at a price. The police are reluctant to enter the slum. However, there is a community spirit: homes are kept clean and the residents welcome visitors. As a part of crime carjacking is the biggest problem because those people that manage to get a job in Nairobi have to travel there so they will steal a car to do that. Law enforcement is also close to nothing around Kibera, which means that people can almost do as they please. Widespread unemployment and low wage-earning rates (< $1 a day for the majority) Jobs are scarce and poorly paid; they will also be very unreliable and have no steady pay. As a result of government support in general slums are likely to stay like this for many years to come.
Slide Show

Common Diseases In kibera are typhoid, malaria, and HIV/AIDS. In Kibera there are no government medical clinics or facilities. Kibera is an area of 1.5 miles and it houses over 1 million people. These people are packed tightly as you could imagine. The people live in houses that are about 12ft times 12ft. They are built from mud and metal. Manu pregnant women seek help from the neighbors when it is time for delivery. Many babies die due to lack of Proper Medical attention. At any one time, 50% of all 16-25 year old, women in Kibera are pregnant. Many of the orphaned or abandoned children often become addicted to drugs. Some young girls turn to prostitution for drugs or drug money. Garbage and raw sewage are found everywhere in Kibera. Children play in and found the huge mounds of garbage and the river that is filled with raw sewage.
Squatter Settlements Kibera Case Study-Solutions

British Charity, has been responsible for low cost roofing tiles made from sand and clay and adding lime and natural fiber to soil to create blocks used for building that are cheaper than concrete. These allow self-help schemes to progress. The United Nations Human Settlement Programmed (UN Habitat) has provided affordable electricity to some parts of the slum at 300 Kenyan shillings per shack. Improving sanitation is more difficult and progress is slow. Charities such as the Red Cross are supporting the improvements. Gap year students are encouraged to go to Kibera to oversee the spending and to help coordinate efforts. A 15 year project that began in 2003 plans to re-house thousands of residents of Kibera. In the 1 st year of this project, run by the government and UN Habitat, 700 families were re-housed in new blocks of flats with running water, toilets, showers and electricity. Residents have been involved in plans and funding of 650 million Kenyan shillings had been set-aside for the first year. Funding is now provided by charities and cheap World Bank loans. The United Nations have developed PeePoo, which will not only get rid of their excrement well, but it may also fertilize some of the ground. Another scheme that they are working on is trying to give each residence or shack running water and electricity by charging very little, 300 Kenyan shillings, this will allow some people to cook food better also and have hot showers. Also they have devised a plan to put in 2 huge water pipes through Kibera, tapping off to the different villages and for 20 liters of water you will have to pay 3 Kenyan shillings. Rubbish collection is also aimed to have a scheduled pick up soon to clear the roads and paths, however sanitation and sewers are much more difficult to deal with and therefore these have not had any plans for the near future. Medical facilities and schools are now trying to be financed by charities and therefore hopeful death rate will decrease and birth death rate also decrease. New homes, more stable and reliable homes are planned to be built with real infrastructure and people could move in when they are completed. This rehousing project would to be completed 2018 and has already rehoused 770 families into better quality of life situations.

The Kibera self-help youth group is running several projects such as - Cleaning the streets of waste and recycling

- A car wash - A youth theatre - A sports club - Small businesses The government is trying to move people out of the favela and into newly built high-rise blocks of flats. They are doing this so that the people can live a better and more healthy life and also so that the country looks better because a big group of homes put up by the people themselves, piled on top of each other doesn't look very good. This is a very costly and slow process however, but it is getting done.

How do residents try and improve these settlements over time?

- Low cost of roofing tiles have been developed - There is going to affordable electricity - There are 2 water pipes - Medical facilities - Many people are being rehoused to high raised flats
How do Governments try and improve these settlements over time?

- People are being rehoused to high raised flats - Basic facilities such as toilets are being added - Electricity is becoming more and more available and for a very low price so people can afford it - The Governments are also supporting activities and clubs for the kids to take part in to stop them becoming involved with the drugs and gangs. - They also have police ready to into the places at the first sign of any trouble to try and reduce the violence as much as possible. Environmental problems and Solution in LEDCS Air Pollution Traffic emissions, Mostly CO2 which causes severe air pollution Factories emit pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. This often causes a haze of pollutants in the air above the city. Power stations burning fossil fuels adding CO2 to the atmosphere. Waste Domestic rubbish is often uncollected especially in squatter settlements. It is unsightly, smells and can causes health problems.

Huge landfills sites develop on the edge of the city for the collected waste. Electronic waste (e-waste) is a big problem, as it needs specialist disposal methods. Sometimes e-waste from other parts of the world is taken to cities in poorer countries for disposal. E-waste may be broken up by people who try to recycle valuable parts such as gold and platinum. Unfortunately, they may also expose themselves to high level of toxic chemicals such as cadmium and lead. Water Pollution Rivers used as open drains may carry untreated sewage. Industrial waste is dumped in rivers. Chemicals may be disposed of in rivers. This toxic waste can be dangerous.
Managing environmental problems

The governments in many poor countries are struggling to provide basic services for their growing population, and tackling environmental problems may be seen as less important. Water pollution could be tackled by cities investing in improved water supply and sanitation systems but this expensive. Reducing air pollution needs legislation to stop factories emitting high levels of polluting gases. Even where the laws exist, there are often not enough people employed to enforce them. Waste disposal is one of the biggest problems. Poor people may earn their living by sorting through the rubbish on landfills sites and selling, recycling what they can. Recycling is important and people, often children, can earn a living by recycling goods. E.g. they collect and sort glass, paper, and plastic and sell it to companies that reuse it. Sustainable Cities Sustainable development is using a resource today but at the same time protecting that resource for tomorrow (Future generations). To make an city sustainable: Involve local people in decision making Make sure people live closer to their work so they can walk or cycle. Build zero-carbon homes and offices. Provide more open space and greenery to improve quality of life.

Reduce waste by reusing products such as bottles and plastic containers and recycling glass, paper and textiles. Use Brownfield sites for new development so derelict land is reused instead of building on Greenfield sites. Improve public transport so people so not use cars as much Use renewable energy sources such as wind, water or solar power. Use local food supplies instead of transporting food around the New homes are energy efficient There is access to affordable housing Community links are strong and communities work together to deal with issues such as crime and security Cultural and social amenities are accessible to all Inward investment is made to the CBD
Sustainable case study-Curitiba

Curitiba is a capital city of the Parana state in Brazil in southern Brazil. Nearly two million people live there. The development happened as Curitiba faced problems such as mass unemployment, transport congestion, lack of basic services and uncontrolled growth of squatter settlements as it had a rapid growing population. It influenced the developers in 1960 when Jamie Lerner approached the mayor and suggested the city need a development plan. What are the main characteristics/features of Curitiba, which make it sustainable? Two-way lane devoted exclusively to express buses About 1,100 buses make 12,500 trips per day, serving 1.3 million passengers. It has an outside ring Road and then other roads join. The buses have one price so people from the squatter settlement can come into the CBD for jobs for the same price and is cheap and you only need one ticket to use the bus as many times as you want so it is sustainable. Creates and retains parks and green space beside the rivers. This acts as a floodplain. When the Iguazu River floods, some areas created are used as boating lakes.

The green spaces being dedicated to different ethnic and immigrant groups. Urban growth is restricted to corridors of growth - along key transport routes. Tall buildings are allowed only along bus routes. A bus rapid transit system operates. This is cheaper to run than a tube system. Some employers subsidise their employees who use it. 80% of travellers use it. The bus rapid transit system uses triple section bendy buses. It carries two million passengers a day. The bus fare is the same wherever you go. No one lives more than 400 metres from a bus stop. This system has decreased car traffic by 30%. 75% of commuters use public transport. 30% less fuel consumption and 25% less congestion. A green exchange programme. The urban poor bring their waste to neighbourhood centres. They can exchange their waste for bus tickets and food. This has many advantages, for example the urban poor areas are kept clean, despite waste trucks not being able to reach them easily. Since 1989 419 tonnes has been recycled. COHAB, the public housing programme, is providing 50,000 homes for the urban poor. 200km of bike paths in the city It has reduced 25% of cars used and it is sustainable as it has one of the lowest levels of air pollution in Brazil. To allow for more passengers, they have introduced bi-articulated buses with three compartments, each bus holding up to 270 people. Passengers buy their ticket in advance and enter through one end of the bus while passengers exiting leave from the other end. This allows for faster loading and unloading so the bus idles for less time creating less air pollution. The system represents a time saving of up to an hour a day for passengers and reduces operation costs by 18%.

Green place increased from 0.5m2 per person in 1970 to 52m2 per person in 1990. It has over 1000 parks and natural areas. These parks and natural areas have been created on land, which is prone to flood so, no damage is done when it floods. 1.5 million trees planted along the citys street Builders are given tax break if their projects include green space. 70% of rubbish is recycled. Paper recycling saves the equivalent of 1200 trees per day. What have been the success and failures in Curitiba? The success of Curitiba is the reduction in cars means that there are less pollution and use fossil fuels. This means the environment wont be damaged so much for people in the future. Another way it is successful as the area is greener and more open land also is more conserving the natural environment. It is also an success in a sustainable city as the high level of recycling means that fewer resources are used and less waste has to go to the landfill this means more resources available for the future. 99% of people say they are happy with their town. 1.5 million trees are planted in flood zones. The buses are affordable and passengers only need one ticket to make a journey regardless how many times they change buses.