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Polytechnic University of the Philippines COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE and FINE ARTS Department of Architecture Sta.

Mesa, Manila

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN ITALY ( Written Report )

Submitted by:

Avila, Antonio Jr. Basco Jr., Mario A. Belarmino, Sherwin Calleja, Martin Owen Egaa, Von Leunice Erni, Ned Angelo J.

Estadilla, Jerome Cristopher H. Reyes, Juan Carlo Soriano, John Kevin M. Tayao, John Mark Vizarra, Mark Kevin

GROUP 1

Submitted to: Archt. Jocelyn Lutap

10 September, 2012

Architectural Character: The obvious distinguishing features of Classical Roman architecture were adopted by Renaissance architects. However, the forms and purposes of buildings had changed over time, as had the structure of cities. Among the earliest buildings of the reborn Classicism were churches of a type that the Romans had never constructed. Neither were there models for the type of large city dwellings required by wealthy merchants of the 15th century. Conversely, there was no call for enormous sporting fixtures and public bath houses such as the Romans had built. The ancient orders were analysed and reconstructed to serve new purposes.

Plan The plans of Renaissance buildings have a square, symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually based on a module. Within a church the module is often the width of an aisle. The need to integrate the design of the plan with the faade was introduced as an issue in the work of Filippo Brunelleschi, but he was never able to carry this aspect of his work into fruition. The first building to demonstrate this was St. Andrea in Mantua by Alberti. The development of the plan in secular architecture was to take place in the 16th century and culminated with the work of Palladio.
Figure 1. Raphael's unused plan for St. Peter's Basilica http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File :SaintPierreRaphael.JPG

Faade Faades are symmetrical around their vertical axis. Church faades are generally surmounted by a pediment and organized by a system of pilasters, arches and entablatures. The columns and windows show a progression towards the center. One of the first true Renaissance faades was the Cathedral of Pienza (1459 62), which has been attributed to the Florentine architect Bernardo Gambarelli (known as Rossellino) with Alberti perhaps having some responsibility in its design as well. Domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice. There is a regular repetition of openings on each floor, and the centrally placed door is marked by a feature such as a balcony, or rusticated surround. An early and much copied prototype was the faade for the Palazzo Rucellai (1446 and 1451) in Florence with its three registers of pilasters

Figure 2. Sant'Agostino, Rome, Giacomo di Pietrasanta, 1483 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sant_ago stino.JPG

Columns and Pilasters The Roman orders of columns are used:- Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite. The orders can either be structural, supporting an arcade or architrave, or purely decorative, set against a wall in the form of pilasters. During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters, and as an integrated system. One of the first buildings to use pilasters as an integrated system was in the Old Sacristy (14211440) by Brunelleschi.

Arches Arches are semi-circular or (in the Mannerist style) segmental. Arches are often used in arcades, supported on piers or columns with capitals. There may be a section of entablature between the capital and the springing of the arch. Alberti was one of the first to use the arch on a monumental scale at the St. Andrea in Mantua.

Figure 3. Classical Orders, engraving from theEncyclopdie vol. 18. 18th century http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Classi cal_orders_from_the_Encyclopedie.png

Vaults Vaults do not have ribs. They are semi-circular or segmental and on a square plan, unlike the Gothic vault which is frequently rectangular. The barrel vault is returned to architectural vocabulary as at the St. Andrea in Mantua.

Domes The dome is used frequently, both as a very large structural feature that is visible from the exterior, and also as a means of roofing smaller spaces where they are only visible internally. Domes had been used only rarely in the Middle Ages, but after the success of the dome in Brunelleschis design for the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore and its use in Bramantes plan for St. Peter's Basilica (1506) in Rome, the dome became an indispensable element in church architecture and later even for secular architecture, such as Palladio's Villa Rotonda.

Ceilings Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They are not left Figure 4. The Dome of St Peter's open as in Medieval architecture. They are frequently painted Basilica, Rome. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:StPet or decorated.
ersDomePD.jpg

Doors Doors usually have square lintels. They may be set within an arch or surmounted by a triangular or segmental pediment. Openings that do not have doors are usually arched and frequently have a large or decorative keystone.

Windows Windows may be paired and set within a semi-circular arch. They may have square lintels and triangular or segmental pediments, which are often used alternately. Emblematic in this respect is the Palazzo Farnese in Rome, begun in 1517. In the Mannerist period the Palladian arch was employed, using a motif of a high semi-circular topped opening flanked with two lower square-topped openings. Windows are used to bring light into the building and in domestic architecture, to give views. Figure 5. Palazzo Farnese Stained glass, although sometimes present, is not a feature.

Walls External walls are generally of highly finished ashlar masonry, laid in straight courses. The corners of buildings are often emphasised by rusticated quoins. Basements and ground floors were often rusticated, as modeled on the Palazzo Medici Riccardi (14441460) in Florence. Internal walls are smoothly plastered and surfaced with white-chalk paint. For more formal spaces, internal surfaces are decorated with frescoes.

Details Courses, mouldings and all decorative details are carved with Figure 6. Palazzo Medici Riccardi great precision. Studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance theory. The different orders each required different sets of details. Some architects were stricter in their use of classical details than others, but there was also a good deal of innovation in solving problems, especially at corners. Moldings stand out around doors and windows rather than being recessed, as in Gothic Architecture. Sculptured figures may be set in niches or placed on plinths. They are not integral to the building as in Medieval architecture.

Comparative Analysis: A. Plans. Florence. Symmetry and compactness of plan, adapted to town rather than country buildings. Staircases enclosed by walls were roofed by sloping barrel vaults. Church naves were planned to support coffered vaults, domes on pendentives, or timber ceilings. Rome.More varied planning on a grand scale. Staircases circular and elliptical with columnar supports are usual, as in the Barberini, Corsini, and Braschi palaces, the Scala Regia, and at Caprarola. The old Roman type of dome over a circular space and the dome on pendentives over a square space were both used in churches. Venice.Where site permitted, a broken, complex, and picturesque disposition was adopted, as in S. Maria della Salute, but in palaces a straight front to the canals was the rule. Staircases off a central court surrounded with arcades were characteristic. Church naves were planned, as in Florence, for vaults, domes, or flat ceilings. B. Walls. Florence.Walls recall those of Egypt in severity and are frequently astylar, but varied surface treatment gives character to each storey, which is also defined by string courses, and the building is crowned by a deep cornice. Rome. Walls are frequently screened with pilasters, both single and coupled, on each storey, or even carried through two storeys to give grandness of scale. Venice.Walls are characterised by multiplicity of parts produced by columns to each storey and dividing horizontal entablatures, which, to avoid too pronounced a division, are sometimes broken back round the columns. C. Openings. Florence. Arcades have arches resting directly on columns, with or without a piece of entablature. Doorways are small and severe yet imposing. The doorways at Genoa have triangular and segmental pediments, while another treatment has a subsidiary architrave. Windows are of three types : (a) " Arcade " type with central column and round arches, as in the Palazzi Riccardi, Strozzi, and Quaratesi.

(b) " Architrave " type with cornice, as in the Palazzo Gondi, or with consoles, as in the Palazzi Pitti. (c) " Order " type with columns and entablature, as in the Palazzo Pandolfini. Rome.Arcades have arches supported on piers faced with columns or pilasters, as in S. Maria della Pace and the Palazzo Farnese, based on the Colosseum facade. Doorways are flanked by columns, consoles, or rusticated blocks. Windows have semicircular arches enclosed in mouldings forming a square frame with spandrels, or are flanked by columns, or have architraves and side consoles. Venice.Arcades have round arches resting on columns, or on piers faced with columns. Doorways are flanked by columns and pilasters supporting cornice and semicircular or triangular pediment or are enclosed in rusticated blocks, while sometimes, as at Verona, they have architraves and side consoles. Windows are large with semi-Gothic tracery or are flanked by columns, sometimes supporting round arches with carved spandrels. D. Roofs. Florence.Flat tiled roofs are sometimes visible above cornices. Domes were favourite features in churches. Raking vaults to staircases and waggon or cross-vaults are general, both frescoed and coffered. Rome.Roofs are rarely visible and often hidden by balustrades. Domes on high drums and crowned with lanterns are usual in churches. Vaults were either coffered in stucco or painted, after the style of the newly excavated Baths of Titus. Venice.Roofs with balustrades are frequent . Vaulted ceilings of halls, staircases, and churches were elaborately moulded in plaster and frescoed, while timber ceilings are a feature in palaces. Domes in churches are grouped with towers. In Milan and other north Italian cities the low internal cupola was often covered by a lofty structure in diminishing stages, as at the Certosa, Pavia, and S. Maria della Grazie, Milan. E. Columns. Florence. The Orders, not at first in general use for facades, frequently supported the arches, both in " cortile " and church arcades. Rome.--The Orders, either single or coupled, were at first superimposed, but later one great Order frequently included the whole height of the building. They regulated not only the height of balustrades, but the spacing and size of windows.

Venice. Projecting columns in successive tiers with entablatures, often broken back to the wall, were used, while buildings by Sansovino and Palladio show a more correct and formal treatment. F. Mouldings. Florence.The few and simple mouldings of string courses were slight in projection so as to throw into relief the crowning cornice, designed on Classic models, as are also the pedimented door-heads at Genoa. Mouldings of ornamental featuresconsoles, capitals, corbels, niches, and bracketsexhibit great refinement of line, while coffered ceilings were of great elaboration as at Genoa. Rome. Classic mouldings from ancient Roman buildings naturally served as models which were closely followed, although new combinations were introduced by Michelangelo and his disciples. The mouldings of balconies, doorways, and tombs are all Classical in treatment. Venice. Mouldings were influenced by local Byzantine and Gothic art, and were extremely refined- and original. Mouldings of pedestals, doorways, entablatures, and capitals are frequently carved with intricate ornament. G. Ornament. Florence. Florentine ornament is well illustrated in the sculptured frieze, coffered ceilings, pilaster, pilaster capitals, capitals, chimney-piece, consoles or corbels, niche, tabernacle, holy-water stoup, singing-gallery, lavabos, altar-piece, pulpit, balustrade, angle lantern and link holder, and reliquary, many of which were delicately carved with pagan motifs of infant genii, fruit, flowers, and masks, while heraldic shields contrast with plain wall surfaces. The traditional school of fresco painting by Cimabue and Giotto was influenced by the discovery of ancient Roman paintings. The coloured bas-reliefs. of Luca della Robbia and his school are specially characteristic of Florentine art at this period. Rome. Sculpture was refined in treatment and naturally followed Classical precedent. Roman ornament generally can be studied from the capital, fountains, the Triclinium, singing-gallery, monuments, candelabra, and fonts, and the Baroque treatment is seen in the Fontana di Trevi, and the altar in the Gesu Church. The unearthing of the Baths of Titus, with their frescoes, gave an impetus to the traditional art of painting in tempera on plastic surfaces, which was carried out on a large scale by Raphael, Giulio Romano, and Michelangelo, until it reached its zenith in the Sistine Chapel, Rome. Venice.Sculpture is both beautiful and exuberant and even competes with the actual architectural features. The Colleoni Monument, Venice (A.D. 1481), is one of the most

famous in the world, with a lofty pedestal embellished with columns, surmounted by the bronze equestrian statue by Verrocchio. The Logetta, Venice (A.D. 1540), is obviously founded on the model of the Arch of Titus, Rome, extended to three arches. The niches contain statues of heathen gods, and the high attic has fine sculptured panels and is crowned by a pleasing balustrade. The bronze gates are rich in Renaissance metalwork. Sculpture was much influenced by the various preceding styles and by a Venetian love of display, as seen in the statue niche, balcony, monuments, chimney-piece, carved panel, balustrade, altar, candelabrum, flagstaff standard, capital, and carved ornament. The colour-loving Venetians clothed their walls internally with large pictures of subjects both sacred and profane, especially of the triumphs of their city ; or else sheathed them in brilliant panels of many-coloured marbles from the shores of the Adriatic.

THREE MAIN REGIONS: (FLORENCE, ROME, VENICE)


FLORENCE. The Renaissance of the 15th century in Italy had its birth in Florence, where under unique conditions and influences, a type of palace building was evolved, to which huge blocks of rusticated masonry gives an unusually massive and rugged appearance. Rustication- a method of forming stonework with roughened surfaces and recessed joints, principally employed in Renaissance buildings. In classical architecture,rustication is an architectural feature that contrasts in texture with the smoothly finished, squared Figure 7. Rustication block masonry surfaces called ashlar. Rusticated masonry is usually squared-off but left with a more or less rough outer surface and wide joints that emphasize the edges of each block. Rustication is often used to give visual weight to the ground floor in contrast to smooth ashlar above.

The typical palace was built round as internal court. Similar to mediaeval cloister, surrounded by arcades. Supporting the walls of upper storeys. There is a general absence of pilasters as decorative features.
Figure 8. Palazzo Medici Courtyard

In the facades, which are therefore called astylar:

while sparing use of detail, together with concentration on pronounced features produces boldness and simplicity of style. The imposing appearance of these massive features fronting on narrow streets mis emphasized by boldly projecting roof cornices, which crown the walls are proportioned to the height of the buildings. Figure 9. Palazzo Medici Riccardi Astylar- a treatment of faade without columns . The columnar arcade is a favourite feature not only in courtyards but also in streets in the founding hospital. Early Renaissance churches are conspicuous for refinement, in strong contrast to rugged, fortress like character of the palaces. The architectural character owes much its interest to the contributions of sculptors and painters, with their colored glazed- reliefs in terra cotta, baptistery doors, bas reliefs, carving and statues. Florentine craftsmanship shows highly developed artistic perception and technical skills . not only the ornament does depend on the personality of the artist, but architectural design also became the product of the individual architect rather than following the traditional lines of craftsmen. Capital and Brackets. In architecture the capital forms the topmost member of a column (or pilaster). It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface. A niche in classical architecture is an exedra or an apse Figure 10. Capital that has been reduced in size, retaining the half-dome heading usual for an apse. Cortile, internal court surrounded by an arcade, characteristic of the Italian palace, or palazzo, during the Renaissance and its aftermath. TABERNACLE- recess or receptacle, usually above an altar- to contain the characteristic host.
Figure 11. Niche (left), Tabernacle (right)

Frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. A holy water font or stoup is a vessel containing holy water generally placed near the entrance of a church. It is used in Catholic Church and some Anglican churches to Figure 12. Frieze make the Sign of the Cross using the holy water upon entrance of the church. Holy water is blessed by a priest, and Catholics believe it to be a reminder of the baptismal promises. A lavabo is a device used to provide water for the washing of hands. It consists normally of a ewer or container of some kind to pour water, and a bowl to catch the water as it falls off the hands. In ecclesiastical usage it refers to both the basin in which the priest washes his hands and the ritual that surrounds this action in the Mass. In secular usage, it refers to a sink for washing hands; the room in which it is kept is the lavatory.
Figure 13. Font/Stoup (left), Lavabo (right)

Pulpit is a speakers' stand in a church. In many Christian churches, there are two speakers' stands at the front of the church. Typically, the one on the left is called the pulpit. Since the Gospel lesson is often read from the pulpit, the pulpit side of the church is sometimes called the gospel side. Cantoria- in the Renaissance term, it is used to denote a singers gallery often elaborately carved in a major church

Florence contains many examples of Early Renaissance architecture, but fewer of high Renaissance and Proto-Baroque and almost none of the Baroque period.

Figure 14. Pulpit

In the 2nd quarter of 16th century, Michelangelo led the proto baroque breakaway from the formalism of design with his new sacristy of St. Lorenzo.

About this time, Florentine garden art was approaching its zenith. The Early Renaissance villas in the neighboring beautifully-diversified, undulating countryside has retained something or medieval character: progressively, they developed towards the intimate charm of formally

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related garden compartments of different types, centred on a summer dwelling or casino, growing more natural as they merged at the fringed with surrounding landscapes.

Figure 15. Boboli Garden, Florence

Examples Of Renaissance Architecture In Florence:

Filippo Brunelleschi was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for his studies of linear perspective and engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral, but his accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering and even ship design. His principal surviving works are to be found in Florence, Italy.

Figure 16. Filippo Brunelleschi

The Dome of Florence Cathedral which was entrusted to Brunelleschi as the result of a competition, is a miracle of design which triumphantly blended a Renaissance dome with a Gothic building and set the crown on that masterpiece of Mediaeval Florence. The dome covers an octagonal apartment, 138 ft. 6 ins, in diameter, and is raised on a drum, with circular windows to light the interior. This unique dome, which is pointed in form, consists of inner and outer shells constructed on the Gothic principle, with eight main and sixteen intermediate ribs supporting panels. It is said that it was erected without centering, which at any rate may
Figure 17. Dome of Florence Cathedral

have been used only to a limited extent.

Palazzo Medici Riccardi The Palazzo Riccardi, Florence (A.D. 1430), is Michelozzo's best-known building, and here Lorenzo the Magnificent kept his brilliant Court. The palace was sold (A.D. 1659) to the Riccardi family. The plan has a cortile or peristyle as in Pompeian houses, around which are ranged the

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various rooms with the grand stair to the " piano nobile." The exterior, in three storeys, is an admirable example of the effective use of graduated rustication. The ground storey has heavily rusticated masonry with semicircular arches enclosing windows of the pediment type ; the intermediate storey has drafted stone walling with traceried windows ; and the upper storey, in plain ashlar masonry, has similar windows, and the whole facade is crowned by a bold cornice projecting over 8 ft. The Palazzo Medici, also called the Palazzo Medici Figure 18. Walls of Palazzo Medicci Ricardi Riccardi after the later family that acquired and expanded it, is a Renaissance palace located in Florence, Italy.

Palazzo Strozzi The Palazzo Strozzi, Florence (A.D. 1489) begun by da Majano, was completed by Cronaca. The chief features are a large central cortile with arcades on the three storeys, off which are the stairs and surrounding rooms. The facade has one unbroken surfacean early example of the astylar treatment. The rusticated walls have moulded string courses emphasising the storeys and producing an effect of horizontality, which is further accentuated by the grand crowning cornice which projects over 7 ft. and is about one-tenth the height of the building. The windows angle-lantern, and link are attractive features of this famous facade.

Figure 19. Pallazzo Strozzi

Palazzo Pitti The Palazzo Pitti, Florence (A.D. 1435) erected for Luca Pitti, a friend of Cosimo de' Medici, is the largest palace in Italy except the Vatican. It has a fine symmetrical plan, and is a grand and stately composition with a great central cortile and smaller lateral cortili added in A.D. 1640, but not until A.D. Figure 20. Plan of Palazzo Strozzi 1763 were the projecting wings added facing the Piazza. The facade, with three-storeyed centre 119 ft. high, is 66o ft. in length. It is of astylar treatment, bearing in its rugged simplicity a curious resemblance to the bold Claudian Aqueduct, with its massive blocks of masonry and arches of the ground storey The cortile seen from the famous Boboli Gardens, is unique in its

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columnar treatment of Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian half-columns. The palace is now the king's residence and partly occupied by the famous picture gallery. The palace was bought by the Medici family in 1549 and became the chief residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It grew as a great treasure house as later generations amassed paintings, plates, jewelry and luxurious possessions. In the late 18th century, the palazzo was used as a power base by Napoleon, and later served for a brief period as the principal royal palace of the newly united Figure 21. Palazzo Pitti (exterior) Italy. The palace and its contents were donated to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1919, and its doors were opened to the public as one of Florence's largest art galleries. Today, it houses several minor collections in addition to those of the Medici family, and is fully open to the public.

B. High Renaissance and Proto Baroque Palazzo Doria Tursi The Palazzo Doria Tursi-or Nicholas Grimaldi Palace is a building in Via Garibaldi at number 9 in the historic center of Genoa, added on 13 July 2006 in the list of the 42 enrolled in Rolli palaces of Genoa which became a Heritage of UNESCO. The building is now the seat of the municipality of Genoa. The palace was built from 1565 by Giovanni Domenico and Ponzello to Nicholas Grimaldi, appealed to the "Monarch" for the number of possible titles that could boast, and which are compounded by the numerous claims that he had against Philip II, of which was the principal banker. It is the most imposing building of the street, one built on three parcels of land, with two large gardens framing the central body. The spacious balconies overlooking the street were added in 1597, when the palace became the property of Giovanni Andrea Doria who acquired it for the younger son Charles, Duke of Tursi, to whom we owe its present name. Since 1848 is the town hall of Genoa. The facade is characterized by the alternation of materials Figure 23. Palazzo Doria Tursi (interior)

Figure 22. Palazzo Doria Tursi (exterior)

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of different colors: pink stone of Finale, the gray-black slate, the white of the precious marble from Carrara. The main facade consists of two superimposed orders. The floor above the large windows skirting alternates from the original design with rustic pilasters projecting replaced, upstairs, by Doric pilasters. Mascheroni by grimaces animalistic surmount the windows on both levels, contributing to the plastic rendering of the facade. The majestic marble portal is crowned with the coat of arms of the city of Genoa. Particularly innovative is the new and ingenious architectural solution that with the sequence of interior spaces - foyer, staircase, rectangular courtyard elevated above the porch and staircase with two flights - creates a wonderful play of light and perspective. The building is the culmination of residential splendor of the Genoese aristocracy. The building is connected to the adjacent Palazzo Bianco and houses the last room of the museum gallery, or the Genoese painting of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Penitent Magdalene by Canova, violins Niccol Paganini and Camillo Sivori and numismatic collections and that of ceramics from the city of Genoa.

C.Baroque I. Porta Pila Porta Pila was erected in 1648. In 1898 due to the opening of the new Via XX Settembre in danger of being demolished, but a clergy uncompromising claims that ancient port, with the statue of Our Lady, remained where it had been erected by the avi, guardian of the city. Following lengthy discussions and tumultuous demonstrations, common sense prevailed: it was decided that the transfer and buttressing the door to the ramparts of Monte Sano.The Porta Pila was originally designed to be part of the fortification of Porta Maurizio, but instead was transported by the order of Padri del Comune sometime between 1647 and 1649. During demolition of the Fronti Bassi the door was demolished as well, but it was saved and moved in 1899 to the Montesano Bastion, although this site no longer exists due to the expansion of Figure 24. Porta Pila the Brignole train station. It was moved to its current place in 1940.

II. Palazzo Carignano Palazzo Carignano (Carignan Palas in Piedmontese) is a historic building which is one of the finest examples of Baroque architecture. It consists of two different buildings and is located in the center of Turin. Together with the Royal Palace and the Senate is one of the most important buildings of the city.

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Now houses the National Museum of the Italian Risorgimento. Nearby are the National University Library and the Teatro Carignano. From April 2006, the Museum of the Risorgimento has been closed for a period of about three years for a challenging restoration and redevelopment and reopened March 18, 2011, on the occasion of the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the Unification of Italy . This Palace is mainly related to the history of Italian Risorgimento.
Figure 25. Palazzo Carignano

The building overlooks the square and the side facade of the Palace of the Academy of Sciences and the imposing rear of the church of San Filippo Blacks creates a unique architectural extraordinary value. In the second half of the seventeenth century (1679-1684) Emanuele Filiberto (known as the Mute) of the cadet branch of Savoy-Carignano commissioned the famous Theatine father, architect and mathematician Guarino Guarini (builder of the famous Chapel of the Holy Shroud) a palace for his family . Guarini designed a beautiful building that is one of the most important works of the Piedmontese Baroque, with a U-shaped plan and a unique architectural structure: an elliptical tower is slightly behind the facade and two wings unfold to form a square courtyard surrounded completely by body of the building. In the monumental faade the ellipse is distinguishable because it makes room sinuously, making a magnificent effect, since the facade alternates concave with convex parts, in a configuration perhaps due to projects by Gian Lorenzo Bernini for the Louvre palace and the castle of Vaux-le-Vicomte. From the courtyard instead of the elliptical body stands out from the wings, surpassing them in height. The building model is also sought at the Oratorio dei Filippini Borromini, also recalled the use of exposed brick. The bricks perfectly sharpened and grouted with mortar powder cooked, become as plastic and moldable The decorations on the facade of the main floor, also in brick, are references to adventures and enterprises of Carignano, including victory in Canada performed alongside the French in 1667 against the native Iroquois, with the regiment Carignan-Salires. The large decorative frieze on the faade main bearing the inscription QVI NACQVE VITTORIO EMANVELE II was added in 1884 by Carlo Ceppi, respecting the Baroque style in brick. The interiors are beautifully decorated with frescoes and stucco. Some frescoes are by Stefano Legnani said Legnanino. Agostino Silva was the author of the stucco still visible in the room with an alcove on the first floor of the south side of the courtyard. Since 1692 the hall, the staircase and the hall are decorated with stucco and 29 busts of ancient sculptor Pietro Somazzi. In the course of the extension work carried out at Giuseppe Bollati by Gaetano Ferri between 1864 and 1871 was built the back side, in an eclectic style, with white stone and pink stucco

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embellished with magnificent columns and pilasters, porch on the ground floor and topped raised by a balustrade on the top in the center. It was the interior facade of the building at the time when it was the residence of Savoy. Overlooking the garden, which is now Piazza Carlo Alberto, the building was connected by walls Directly opposite the stable structure, now home to the National Library.

St. Peters Basilica

The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican, known in Italian as Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano, but more popularly known as the St. Peters Basilica is a Renaissance church located in the Vatican City. The basilica is famous as pilgrimage site and liturgical functions. The most renowned and most important work of architecture from Renaissance period. Belongs to Late Renaissance period and one of the largest churches in the world. It is regarded as one of the Figure 26. St. Peters Basilica (aerial view) holiest Catholic sites although it is not the cathedral of the Bishop of Rome and neither the mother church of the Roman Catholic Church. It is also hailed as the greatest of all churches in Christendom. Built on a site which has a church since the 4th century A.D., and the construction of a new church over the old Constantinian basilica began on 18 April 1506 and was completed on 18 November 1626. History The site was the burial place of St. Peter, one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. According to the records of the Biblical book the Acts of the Apostles, after the crucifixion of Jesus in the second quarter of the 1st century A.D., one of his twelve disciples, Simon, known as Peter, a fisherman from Galilee, took the leadership among Jesus followers and a great importance of the founding of the Christian Church. According to tradition, after ministry of about thirty years, Peter travelled to Rome and during the reign of Roman Emperor Nero in the year 64 A.D., he met his martyrdom. His execution was one of the many martyrdoms of Christians after the Great Fire of Rome. According to Origen, a theologian of early Christian interest in Alexandria, Peter was crucified head downwards, by his own request because he considered himself unworthy to die in the same manner as Jesus. He was crucified near an Egyptian obelisk in the Circus of Nero. The obelisk is now standing at the St. Peters Square and revered as a witness to Peters death.

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According to tradition, Peters body was buried just outside the Circus, on the Mons Vaticanus across the Via Cornelia, a road which ran east to west along the north wall of the Circus on land now covered by the southern portions of the Basilica and the Square, from the Circus, less than 150 meters from his place of death. His grave was initially marked by a red rock, symbolic of his name, but for non-Christians its meaningless. Years later a shrine was built on the site and almost 300 years later, Old St. Peters Basilica was constructed. The Old St. Peters Basilica was a 4th century church begun by Emperor Constantine between 309 and 333 A.D. It was of typical basilical Latin Cross form with an apsidal end at the chancel, a wide nave and two aisles on either side. The name Old St. Peters Basilica has been used since the construction of the current basilica for its predecessor to distinguish the two.
Figure 27. The Old St. Peters Basilica

Architecture of the St. Peters Basilica The plan of rebuilding the basilica which started in 1506, lasted for 120 years and directed by many popes, produced the present day basilica. During the period, three plans from three different architects were chosen to be used. These are the works of three famous architects of the period in the person of Donato Bramante, Rapahel Sanzio , and Michelangelo Buonarroti. I. Plans

Bramantes plan was a Greek cross in shape with a dome inspired by the circular Roman temple, Pantheon. The design was selected from a competition held by Pope Julius with the scheme as the grandest building in Christendom. The difference between Bramantes dome and Pantheons is that the Pantheons dome is supported by continuous wall and the new basilicas dome was to be supported only by four large piers, a feature maintained in the ultimate design. The dome was to be surmounted by a lantern on a small dome, otherwise very similar to the lantern of Florence Cathedral. In this plan also the foundation stone of the building has Figure 28. Bramante's Plan been laid. On 1513, Pope Julius died and Bramante was replaced by Guiliano da Sangallo, Fra Giocondo, and Raphael. Raphael did the works because Sangallo and Fra Giocondo died in 1515, and Bramante died the previous year. The main change in the plan of Raphael is the five bayed nave, with a row of complex apsidal chapels off the aisles on both side. The chancel and transepts plan made the squareness of the exterior walls more definite by having the size of the towers reduced, an ambulatory encircles each semi-circular apses.

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Raphael died in 1520 at the age of 37 and succeeded by Baldassare Peruzzi. Peruzzi maintained Raphaels proposed changes to the internal arrangement of three apses, but reverted to Greek Cross plan and other features of Bramante. The plan did not go ahead because of some difficulties with church and state. Peruzzi died in 1536 without his plan being realized. Antonio da Sangallo the Younger also submitted a plan with the features of Peruzzi, Raphael, and Bramantes combined and extends the building into a short nave with a wide faade and portico of dynamic projection. His dome proposal was more elaborate on structure and Figure 29. Raphael's Plan decoration than that of Bramante and it also includes ribs on the exterior. Sangallo also proposed that the dome should be surmounted by a lantern which he redesigned to a larger and more elaborate form. Michelangelo succeeded Sangallo the Younger as Capomaestro, the superintendent or Chief Architect of the building program, on January 1, 1547 during the reign of Pope Paul III. He is the principal designer of the large part of the building as what it is today. Michelangelo was forced to do the job by Pope Paul III which is frustrated at the death of the one he choose to do the work, Guilio Romano, and the refusal of Jacopo Sansovino to leave Venice. For this Michelangelo wrote I undertake this only for the love of God and honor of the Apostle.
Figure 30. Michaelangelo's Plan

Michelangelo Era

Michelangelo took over the building site at which four piers were rising behind the remaining nave of the old basilica. He inherited also the numerous schemes designed and redesigned by some of the greatest architectural and engineering minds of the period. There were certain elements found in these schemes. They all proposed for a dome equaled to the one engineered by Brunelleschi century earlier which dominated the skyline of Renaissance Florence, and they all called also for a symmetrical plan of either Greek Cross form or a Latin Cross. Michelangelo did not simply dismiss the ideas of the previous architects even though the work progressed only for a little 40 years. He drew on them in developing a grand vision. He also recognized the quality of Bramantes original design and reverted to the Greek Cross plan. As it is today, St. Peters has been extended with a nave by Carlo Maderno. It is the chancel end with the huge centrally placed dome by Michelangelo. Because it is located at the Vatican State and the nave projection screens the dome from sight when youre approaching from the square, Michelangelos work is best appreciated from distance.

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II.

Dome

The dome rises to a total height of 136.57 meters from the floor of the basilica to the top of the external cross. It holds the title as the tallest dome in the world. The internal diameter of the dome is 41.47 meters. The architects of the St. Peters looked for solutions on how to go about building what was conceived as the greatest dome of Christendom to the domes of the Pantheon and Florence Cathedral. Bramante and Sangallo Era, 1506 and 1513
Figure 31. The Dome of St. Peters Basilica

Bramantes plan for the dome of St. Peters follows that of Pantheon very closely, and like the Pantheon it was designed to be constructed in tufa concrete. The profile is very similar with the exception of the lantern surmounting it, except that in this case the supporting wall becomes a drum above ground level on four massive piers. The solid wall which is used at the Pantheon is lightened at the St. Peters by Bramante, piercing it with windows and encircling it with a peristyle. Sangallos plan (1513), of a large wooden model still exists, looks to both these predecessors. Realizing the value of the coffering at the Pantheon and the outer stone ribs the Florence Cathedral. He extended and strengthened Bramantes peristyle into series of arched and ordered openings around the base, with such arcade set back in a tier above the first. The delicate form of Florence-based lantern became a massive structure, surrounded by a projecting base, a peristyle and surmounted by a spire of conic form because of Sangallo. Michelangelo and Giacomo della Porta Era, 1547 and 1585 In 1547, Michelangelo redesigned the dome, accounting all that had gone before. His dome is constructed of two shells of brick, like the one in Florence, the outer shell having 16 stone ribs, twice the number at Florence but still far fewer than in Sangallos design. The dome is raised from piers on a drum, like the designs of Bramante and Sangallo. Bramantes encircling peristyle of and Sangallos arcade are reduced to 16 pairs of Corinthian columns, 15 meters high, connected by an arch. Visually appear to buttress each of the ribs, but structurally quite redundant. The reason is the dome is ovoid in shape rising steeply as the dome of the Florence Cathedral, therefore exerting less outward thrust than a hemispherical dome, like that of the Pantheon, which is countered by the downward thrust of heavy masonry which extends above the circling wall. In 1564, Michelangelo died, leaving the domes drum complete and Bramantes piers bulkier than originally designed, each 18 meters across. The work continued under Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola with Giorgio Vasari, a watchdog appointed by Poe Pius V to make sure that Michelangelos plans were carried out exactly. Littke happened in this period despites Vignolas knowledge of michelangelos intentions. Pope Sixtus appointed Giacomo della Porta in 1585, to be assisted by Domenico Fontana.

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Completion of the Dome In 1590, Pope Sixtus Vs last year of reign, della Porta and Fontana brought the dome to completion. Gregory XIV, successor of Sixtus V, saw Fontana complete the lantern and to the honor of Sixtus V placed an inscription around its inner opening. The next pope, Clement VIII, had the cross put into place, an event which took all day, and was accompanied by the ringing bells of all the citys churches. Two lead caskets are set in the arms of the cross, one containing a fragment of the True cross and a relic of St. Andrew and the other, medallions of the Holy Lamb. In the mid-18th century, cracks appeared in the dome, so four iron chains were installed between the two shells to bind it, like the rings of that keep a barrel from bursting. At various times, as many as ten chains are installed, the earliest possibly planned by Michelangelo himself as a precaution, like what did Brunelleschi did at the Florence Cathedral. Around the interior of the dome is written, in letters 2 meters high: TV ES PETRVS ET SVPER HANC PETRAM AEDIFICABO ECCLESIAM MEAM. TIBI DABO CLAVES REGNI CAELORVM, a verse from The Scriptures that translates to "...you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church. ... I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven..." Matthew 16:18-19 And beneath the lantern an inscription reads: S. PETRI GLORIAE SIXTVS PP. V. A. M. D. XC. PONTIF. V. (To the glory of St Peter; Sixtus V, pope, in the year 1590 and the fifth year of his pontificate.)
Figure 32. Scriptures on the dome

III.

Faade

The stunning 114.69 meters wide by 45.55 meters high faade of travertine stone was a work of Swiss-Italian architect of the Renaissance period, Carlo Maderno. The faade is surrounded by giant orders of Corinthian columns and a central pediment rises in front of a attic surmounted by thirteen statues, Jesus Christ with talleleven Apostles, with the exception of Peter whose statue is at the left of the stairs, and John the Baptist. Below a huge cornice on a 1 meter tall frieze an inscription reads: IN HONOREM PRINCIPIS APOST
Figure 33. Facade of St. Peter's Basilica

PAVLVS V BVRGHESIVS ROMANVS PONT MAX MDCXII PONT VII (Paul V Borghese, Supreme Roman Pontiff, in the year 1612, the seventh of his pontificate, erected in honor of the Prince of Apostles).

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IV.

Narthex and Portals

Behind the faade of St. Peters stretches a long narthex, an area often found in Italian Romanesque churches. This the part of design in which Maderno is most satisfied. Its long barrel vault is decorated with ornate stucco and gilt, and illuminated by small windows between pendentives, and the ornate marble floor is beamed with light reflected from the piazza. At each end is a theatrical space framed by ionic columns and a statue is set within each, an equestrian figure of Charlemagne by Cornacchini in the south and Emperor Constantine by Bernini in the north. Five portals lead into the basilica, three are framed by huge salvaged antique columns. The central portal has bronze door by Antonio Averulino in 1455 for the old basilica and enlarged to fit the new space.

Figure 34. Narthex

V.

Nave

The nave was also a work of Maderno, in which to the single bay of Michelangelos Greek cross plan he added further three bays. He made dimensions slightly different to that of Michelangelo, thus defining where the two architectural works meet. The axis of the nave was also tilted by Maderno. Because an Egyptian obelisk had been erected in the piazza but had not been quite aligned with Michelangelos building, Madereno compensated, in order to at least align it with the Figure 35. Nave St. Peter's Basilica Basilicas faade. Four cherubs flutter against the first piers of the nave, carrying between them two Holy Water basins. The cherubs appear o quite a normal cherubic size until approached. It then became apparent that each is over 2 meters high and real children cannot reach the basins unless they scramble up the marble draperies. Each aisles have two smaller chapels and a larger rectangular chapel, the Chapel of the Sacrament and the Choir Chapel. These are decorated with marble, stucco, gilt, sculpture and mosaic. The last work of Maderno at St. Peters was to design a crypt-like space or Confessio under the dome. This is the place where the Cardinals and other privileged persons could descend in order to get nearer to the burial place of thr apostle. The marble steps aree remnants of the old basilica and around the

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balustrade are 95 bronze lamps. Confessio refers to the Confession of Faith by St. Peter which lead to his martyrdom. St. Peters tomb is behind the Niche of Pallium.

St. Peters Square Known as Piazza San Pietro in Italian, is a piazza located directly in front of St. Peters Basilica in the Vatican City. Under the direction of Pope Alexander VII, Gian Lorenzo Bernini redesigned the open space outside the basilica from 1656 to 1667. With a goal of redesigning the square to be an appropriate forecourt, designed to accommodate the greatest number of people that could see the Pope give his blessing either from the middle of the faade or from the window in the Vatican Palace. Figure 36. St. Peter's Square After working on the interior of St. Peters for decades, Bernini gave order to the space with his own colonnades, using Tuscan form of Doric, not to compete with the palace-like faade by Carlo Maderno. An Egyptian obelisk marked the center of the elliptical piazza and two fountains stood at perfect symmetry at both sides of the square at the two geometric focal points. At the base of the obelisk is an elliptical block of stone with carved relief of five billowing gust of wind known as the West Ponente. The four column deep colossal Tuscan colonnades frame the trapezoidal entrance and the massive elliptical piazza. The colonnade consists of 284 Tuscan columns swept outward I 4 concentric arcs of diminishing size.

Sta. Susana, Rome, Italy Formally known as the Church of Saint Susana at the Baths of Diocletian, known in Italian as Chiesa di Santa Susanna alle Terme di Diocleziano, is a Roman Catholic church in Quirinal Hill, Rome, Italy. As far back as 280 A.D. there has been a Titular church associated at this site. The current church was rebuilt from 1585 to 1603 for a monastery of Cristercian nuns founded in 1587 which still exists. The church serves as the national parish of Rome from the United States since that was established at the church in 1921 by the Paulist Fathers, which is founded in the United States. History
Figure 37. Church of Sta. Susana

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At about 280, an early Christian house of worship was established on this site, which was in a house, like many of the earliest Christian meeting places. According to the 6th-century acta of Susanna, the domus belonged to two brothers named Caius and Gabinus, prominent Christians. Caius has been identified both with Pope Saint Caius and with Caius the presbyter, who was a prefect and who is a source of information on early Christianity. Gabinus or Gabinius is the name given to the father of the semi-legendary Saint Susanna. Her earliest documented attestations identify her as the patron of the church, not as a martyr and previously the church was identified in the earliest, fourth-century documents by its title "of Gaius" by the Baths of Diocletian or as "ad duas domos" ("near the two houses"). It is mentioned in connection with a Roman synod of 499. It is one of the oldest titles in the city of Rome, built on remains of three Roman villas still visible beneath the monastery, was situated outside the wall of the Baths built by Diocletian and Servian Wall, the first wall built to defend the city. As tradition says, the church was built on Susannas house, where the saint was martyred. . In the 4th century it was marked with the designation ad duas domos (at the two houses). This first three-aisled basilica was almost certainly built under the pontificate of Pope Leo III (795-816). Architectural History At the end of the 7th century Pope Sergius I restored the church, but Pope Leo III, the fourth pope whi had benn a pastor of this church, rebuilt it from the ground in 796, he added the great apse and conserved the relics of the saints in the crypt. A faade, remained to be constructed. The present present church of Santa Susanna on its ancient foundations was the first independent commission in Rome for Carlo Maderno, who had trained as an assistant to his uncle Domenico Fontana, the chief architect of Pope Sixtus V. Maderno completed the faade in 1603, a highly influential early Baroque design. The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, crowding centrally, and the protrusion and increased central decoration add further complexity to the structure. The entrance and roof are surrounded by triangular pediments. The windows are replaced by niches. There is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, still maintaining rigor. Interior . . The church consists of a single nave, with a circular apse forming two side-chapels. Six scenes of Susannas life from the Book of Daniel is represented in the fresc oes of the central nave by Baldassare Croce. The frescoes on the curved side of the apse shows Saint Susanna being threatened by Maximian, but defended by the angel of God. To the right Susanna can be seen refusing to worship the idol Jupiter. Nebbia's frescoes of the dome of the apse depict Saint Susanna flanked on either side by angels with musical instruments. Behind the high altar, the painting depicting the beheading of Saint Susanna is by Tommaso Laureti.

Chapel of our Lady of Graces The chapel of our Lady of Graces has on its walls two recent frescoes of Saint Benedict and Saint Bernard.

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Chapel of Saint Lawrence Domenico Fontana constructed the second side-chapel to the left dedicated to Saint Lawrence, commissioned by Camilla Peretti, sister of Pope Sixtus V. The paintings are by the Milanese artist Giovanni Battista Pozzo (15631591). The altar painting by Cesare Nebbia depicts the martyrdom of St. Lawrence. In this chapel are venerated Saint Genesius of Rome, patron of actors, in the act of receiving baptism, and the bishop Pope Saint Eleuterus. Presbytery Two frescoes decorated the presbytery. To the left, Baldassare Croce depicts the martyrdom of Saint Gabinius, while to the right, Paris Nogari shows the martyrdom of Saint Felicitas of Rome and her seven sons. Ceiling

The valuable ceiling of the nave and of the presbytery is made in polychromed gilt wood, carved to the design of Carlo Maderno.

St. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane Also known as the Church of Saint Charles at the Four Fountains, Chiesa di San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Italian, is a Roman Catholic church in Rome, Italy. Designed by Francesco Borromini, an architect from Ticino. It is also Borrominis first independent commission. The church is an iconic masterpiesce of Baroque architecture, built as part of a complex of monastic buildings in Quirinal Hill for the Spanish Trinitarians, an order dedicated to the freeing of Christian slaves. In 1634, under the patronage of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, who has a palace across the road, Borromini received the commission. However, the financial backing did not last and subsequently the project suffered financial difficulties. It is one of the three churches in Rome dedicated to San Carlo, others are San Carlo ai Catinari and San Carlo al Corso. History
Figure 38. St. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane

The monastic buildings and the cloister were completed first after which construction of the church took place during the period 1638-1641. In 1646 it was dedicated to Saint Charles Borromeo. Although the idea for serpentine faade must have been proposed early on, probably in the mid 1630s, it was only constructed towards the end of Borrominis life and the upper part was not completed until after his death. The site of the church and monastery was at the south-west end corner of the Quattro Fontane which refers to the four corner fountains set on the oblique at the intersection of Strada Pia and Strada Felice. Later along the Strada Pia, SantAndrea al Quirinale, an oval church of Bernini is built.

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Exterior The faade of San Carlo is of concave-convex form and undulates in a non-classical way. Tall Corinthian columns stand on plinths and bear the main entablatures. It defines the main framework of the two-storey building and the tripartite bay division. Between the columns, smaller columns with their entablatures weave behind the main columns and in turn they frame niches, windows, a variety of sculptures as well as the main door, the central oval aedicule of the upper order and the oval framed medallion borne aloft by angels. Above the main entrance, cherubim herms frame the central figure of Saint Charles Borromeo by Antonio Raggi. And statues of St. John of Matha and St. Felix of Valois, founders of the Trinitarian Order, are at either side. Interior The interior of the church is both extraordinary and complex. The three principal parts can be identified vertically as the lower order at ground level, the transition zone of the pendentives and the oval coffered dome with its oval lantern. The main altar is on the same longitudinal axis as the door and two altars on the cross axis, in the lower part of the church. Sixteen columns, in a group of four, carry a broad and continuous entablature. The arrangement seems to refer cross plan but all altars are visible as the two central columns in each arrangement of four are placed on the oblique with respect to the axial ordering of the space. This creates an undulating movement effect which is enhanced by the variation in treatment of the bays between the columns with niches, mouldings, and doors. The pendentives are part of the transition area where the undulating almost cross-like form of the lower order is reconciled with the oval opening to the dome. The arches which spring from the diagonally placed columns of the lower Figure 39. Plan of St. Carlo alle Quattro wall order to frame the altars and entrance, rise to meet the Fontane oval entablature and so define the space of the pendentives in which roundels are set. The oval entablature to the dome has a 'crown' of foliage and frames a view of deep set interlocking coffering of octagons, crosses and hexagons which diminish in size the higher they rise. Light floods in from windows in the lower dome that are hidden by the oval opening and from windows in the side of the lantern. In a hierarchical structuring of light, the illuminated lantern with its symbol of the Holy Trinity is the most brightly lit, the coffering of the dome is thrown into sharp and deep relief and light gradually filters downwards to the darker lower body of the church. Crypt The crypt follows the size and form of the church and has a low pierced vault. Chapels open off this space, with an octagonal chapel on the south-east side where Borromini intended to be buried.

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Cloister Next to the church is the cloister, which is a two-storey arrangement. The space is longer along the entrance axis than it is wide, but the rectangular ordering is interrupted by cutting the corners so it could also be understood as an elongated octagon. Further complexity is introduced by the variation in the spacing of the twelve columns carrying alternating round and flat headed openings, the curvature of the corners, and the inventive balustrade. Geometrical themes are reinforced by the central octagonal wellhead on an oval base and the octagonal capitals of the upper columns.

Fontana di Trevi The Trevi Fountain in Trevi district in Rome, Italy is the largest Baroque fountain in the city, standing 26 meters high and 20 meters wide. It is also one of the most famous fountain in the world. History The fountain at the junction of three roads marks the terminal point of the "modern" Acqua Vergine, the revived Aqua Virgo, one of the ancient aqueducts that supplied water to ancient Rome. In 19 BC, supposedly with the help of a virgin, Roman technicians located a source of pure water 13 km from the city. The eventual indirect route of the aqueduct made its length some 22 km. This Aqua Virgo led the water into the Baths of Figure 40. Fontana di Trevi Agrippa. It served Rome for more than four hundred years. When the Goth besiegers in 537-38 broke the aqueducts, the coup de grce for the urban life of late classical Rome came. Medieval Romans were reduced to drawing water from polluted wells and the Tiber River, which was also used as a sewer. In 15th century the Roman custom of building a handsome fountain at the end of an aqueduct was revived with the Renaissance. In 1453, Pope Nicholas V finished mending the Acqua Vergine aqueduct and built a simple basin, designed by the humanist architect Leon Battista Alberti, to herald the water's arrival. Design and Construction In 1629, Gian Lorenzo Bernini was asked by Pope Urban VIII to sketch possible renovations but the project was abandoned when the pope died. Though Bernini's project was never constructed, there are many Bernini touches in the fountain as it exists today.

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During the Baroque era, competitions to design buildings, fountains, and even the Spanish Steps had become the rage. Pope Clement XII organized a contest in 1730 in which Nicola Salvi initially lost to Florentine architect Alessandro Galilei, but due to the outcry in Rome that a Florentine won, Salvi was awarded the commission. The work began in 1732 and completed in 1762 when Figure 41. Fountains Pietro Braccis Oceanus (God of all Water) was set in the central niche.

Palazzo Ducale, Urbino The Ducal Palace (Italian: Palazzo Ducale) is a Renaissance building in the Italian city of Urbino in the Marche. One of the most important monuments in Italy, it is listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site. History The construction of the Ducal Palace was begun for Duke Federico III da Montefeltro around the midfifteenth century by the Florentine Maso di Bartolomeo. The new construction included the pre-existing Palace of the Jole. Luciano Laurana, an architect from Dalmatia who had been influenced by Brunelleschi's cloisters in Florence, designed the faade, the famous courtyard and the great entrance staircase. Laurana's light and noble arcaded courtyard at Urbino rivals that of the Palazzo della Cancelleria in Rome as the finest of the Renaissance. Overcoming the exigencies of the Figure 42. Arcaded Courtyard cliff-like site, which made an irregular massing of architecture necessary, from the 1460s onwards Laurana created what contemporaries considered the ideal princely dwelling. Many of the refined Early Renaissance carved details are so similar to features in paintings by Piero della Francesca that scholars have debated his possible input in the execution of Laurana's plan. After Laurana's departure from Urbino in 1472, works were continued by Francesco di Giorgio Martini, who was mainly responsible for the faade decoration. The portals and the window sculptures were executed by the Milanese Ambrogio Barocci, who was also the decorator of the interior rooms. In high, plainly stuccoed rooms the richly sculptured doorways, chimneys and friezes created by Barocci, Domenico Rosselli, and their workshops stand out. After the death of Duke Federico (1482), the construction was left partially unfinished. The second floor was added in the first half of the following century by Girolamo Genga.

Figure 43. Palazzo Ducale

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The Ducal Palace is famous as the setting of the conversations which Baldassare Castiglione represents as having taken place in the Hall of Vigils in 1507 in his Book of the Courtier. The palace continued in use as a government building into the 20th century, housing municipal archives and offices, and public collections of antique inscriptions and sculpture (the Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, see below). Restorations completed in 1985 have reopened the extensive subterranean network to visitors.

Palazzo della Cancelleria The Palazzo della Cancelleria (Italian for "Palace of the Chancellery", meaning the Papal Chancellery) is a Renaissance palace in Rome, Italy, situated between the present Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and the Campo de' Fiori, in the rione of Parione. It was built between 14891513 by an unknown architect as a palace for Cardinal Raffaele Riario, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, and is regarded as the earliest
Figure 44. Palazzo della Cancelleria

Renaissance palace in Rome. The palazzo houses the Papal Chancellery, and is an exclave of the Vatican, not subject to Italian sovereignty. It is designated as a World Heritage Site as part of a group of buildings, the Properties of the Holy See. The Cancelleria was built for Cardinal Raffaele Riario who held the post of Cardinal Camerlengo to his powerful uncle, Pope Sixtus IV. The rumor was that the funds came in a single night's winnings at gaming. The building has traditionally been attributed to Bramante and Andrea Bregno. Current opinion of the architect's identity is divided, with Francesco di Giorgio Martini and Baccio Pontelli suggested as having been involved in the early stages of design. In 1517, the newly-completed palazzo was seized by the first Medici Pope, Leo X, who had not forgotten the complacency of Pope Sixtus at the time of the murderous Pazzi conspiracy intended to replace the Medici in Florence with a Della Rovere regime. From 1753 the vicechancellor was the Jacobite pretender to the throne of Great Britain, Henry Stuart, Cardinal Duke of York, the Jacobite "Henry IX of Great Britain". During the Roman Republic of 1849, the parliament briefly sat here. Palazzo della Cancelleria: the 18th-century engraving by Giuseppe Vasi exaggerates the depth of the Piazza della Cancelleria in front of the Palace. Palazzo della Cancelleria was the first palazzo in Rome to be built from the ground up in the new Renaissance style. Its long faade engulfs the small Basilica Church of San Lorenzo in Damaso, the Cardinal's titular church, that sits to its right, with the palatial front continuing straight across: the entrance to the church is on the right side of the facade. The 5th-century

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church (its interior has been rebuilt) sits, like the church of Saint Clement[disambiguation needed] among others, upon a Roman mithraeum (pagan sanctuary); excavations beneath the cortile in 1988 1991 revealed the 4th- and 5th-century foundations of the grand basilica of San Lorenzo in Damaso, founded by pope Damasus I, and one of the most important early Christian churches in Rome. A cemetery in use from the 8th century until shortly before the palazzo's construction was also identified. The faade with its rhythm of flat doubled pilasters between the arch-headed windows is Florentine in conception, comparable to Leone Battista Alberti's Palazzo Rucellai. The overall pattern of drafted masonry, cut with smooth surfaces and grooves around the edges, is Ancient Roman in origin. The grand doorway was added in the 16th century by Domenico Fontana on the orders of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. The building's bone-colored travertine was scavenged from the nearby Roman ruins of the Theatre of Pompey, for the Eternal City was a field of ruins, built for a city of over a million people that now housed some thirty thousand. The forty-four Egyptian granite columns of the inner courtyard are from the porticoes of the theatres upper covered seating, however they were originally taken from the theatre to build the old Basilica of S. Lorenzo. [3] Brunelleschi's cloisters of Santa Croce in Florence, which may have also inspired the courtyard of Luciano Laurana's Palazzo Ducale of Urbino (circa 1468) has been suggested as a possible source of inspiration. It is more likely that the form of the courtyard is derived from that of the Ducal Palace in Urbino, since the individuals involved in the early planning of the palazzo had come from Urbino.

The Tempietto The Tempietto in Andrea Palladio's Quattro Libri (woodcut, 1570). The so-called Tempietto (Italian: "small temple") is a small commemorative tomb (martyrium) built by Donato Bramante, possibly as early as 1502, in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio. Also commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella, the Tempietto is considered a masterpiece of High Renaissance Italian architecture. After spending his first years in Milan, Bramante moved to Rome, where he was recognized by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, the soon-to-be Pope Julius II. One of Bramante's earliest commissions, the "Tempietto" is one of the most harmonious Figure 45. The Tempietto buildings of the Renaissance. It is meant to mark the traditional (section) exact spot of St. Peter's martyrdom. Given all the transformations of Renaissance and Baroque Rome that were to follow, it is hard now to sense the impact this building had at the beginning of the 16th century. It is almost a piece of sculpture, for it has little architectonic use. The building

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greatly reflected Brunelleschi's style. Perfectly proportioned, it is composed of slender Tuscan columns, a Doric entablature modeled after the ancient Theater of Marcellus, and a dome. According to an engraving in Sebastiano Serlio's Book III, Bramante planned to set it in within a colonnaded courtyard, but this plan was never executed. Palazzo Grimani di Santa Luca, Venice Palace in Venice on the canal Rio di San Luca, at the confluence of the latter in the Grand Canal. It was built in the Renaissance; the modern species belongs to the 1556-1575 year. It was originally built for the Doge Antonio Grimani.After his death, in the years 1532-1569 consistently reconstructed the heirs of Duke, first Vittore Grimani , the general procurator of the city, then Giovanni Grimani , Cardinal and Patriarch of Aquileia . Presumably, Figure 46. Palazzo Grimani the succession order to perform the last Michele Sanmikeli . Finally, the palace was completed in 1575 by Giovanni Rusconi .Door portal decorated by Alessandro Vittoria . The palace consists of three parts and a small rear patio. The facade of the palace is decorated with colored marble. Zest interior - Hall of Psyche, decorated with frescoes by Francesco Mentsokki Camilo Mantovano and Francesco Salviati .Also in the design of the palace attended by Taddeo Tsukkaro and Giovanni da Udine. In the present building is located in the Venetian Court of Appeals.

Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza The Basilica Palladian is a public building facing onto the Piazza dei Signori. Its name is linked to Andrea Palladio, who redesigned it, adding the famous loggias with serliana openings in white marble to the existing Gothic building. The building on which Palladio worked was the Palazzo della Ragione, built in Gothic style in the mid-fifteenth century to a design by Domenico da Venezia. The upper floor is entirely taken up by an Figure 47. Basilica Palladiana enormous hall with no intermediate supports, where the Council of the Four Hundred met. The copper-lined, inverted ships-hull roof was inspired by that of the Palazzo della Ragione in

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Padua. The Gothic facade was originally clad with diamonds of red and straw yellow Verona marble, which are still visible behind Palladios addition. A loggia surrounding the building was commissioned after its completion, but continually delayed due to various structural difficulties and the nature of the ground beneath. At the beginning of the sixteenth century the double order of porticoes and loggias, though not complete, collapsed. The Council called on many leading architects of the time to resolve the difficult problem of its reconstruction. They included Jacopo Sansovino, Sebastiano Serlio and Giulio Romano. The project was awarded to Andrea Palladio (1508-80) in 1549, following a competition, and he worked on it for the rest of his life. It was completed posthumously in 1614. The reconstructed building was called a basilica by Palladio himself, who had been inspired by the model of the Roman basilica for civic use.The building has three independent exhibition spaces that are used to host architecture and art exhibitions of international renown; it is currently closed to the public for restoration.

Sta. Maria Della Salute, Venice The Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute, referred to by most locals as simply Salute, sits on a narrow strip of land between the Grand Canal and the St. Mark's Basin. The church was proposed in 1630 by the Venetian Senate in response to a particularly terrible wave of the plague, which had already killed about a third of the city's population. The Senate promised to build the church in honor of Mary if she would free the city from the plague. After the epidemic had subsided, the Senate kept its promise and construction of the church soon started. The Salute is octagonal in shape and sits on a platform of 100,000 wooden piles. It is constructed of Istrian stone and a marble-dust-covered brick known as marmorino. Though classic in design, it contains some Byzantine elements. Figure 48. Sta Maria Della Salute Potential designers competed for the right to create this magnificent new basilica and, ultimately, Baldassare Longhena was chosen. Longhena designed a massive structure with large domes and volutes. He would never see his masterpiece completed; Longhena died five years before the church opened in 1687.

Palazzo Rezzonico In 1649, Filippo Bon decided to replace two old houses of his family with a new large palace, designed by Baldassarre Longhena. While the influence of Jacopo Sansovino and his Palazzo Corner della Ca'Granda on the Venetian palace architecture and

Figure 49. Palazzo Rezzonico

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especially on the Rezzonico palace is unmistakable, Longhena's plastic design of the upper floors goes a step further. The Venetian tripartite floor plan still dominates much of the building, but is not invisible on the faade any more, as all nine window axis with their independent balconies are of equal dimensions and design. Above a bossed ground floor with a portico rise two upper floors with the ionic respectively corinthian order, a mezzanine floor and a massive cornice. Several incisions by Vincenzo Maria Coronelli and Visentini (after a painting by Canaletto) show the front of the Ca'Rezzonico unfinished, while the rear part was already completed. After Bon's bankruptcy, the Rezzonico brothers Quintiliano, Abbondio, and Giovanni Battista, who had acquired the Venetian nobility in 1687, bought the unfinished palace in 1751. In 1756, the building was finished. Two years later, Giambattista Rezzonico was elected as Pope Clement XIII. The Rezzonico S. Barnaba also had the Villa Rezzonico Borella in Bassano Del Grappa. While the forepart of the palace has a tripartite plan and a staircase for the second floor, the part behind the courtyard consists of a huge ballroom, taking up the height of two floors and the width of the entire building. The largest representative staircase of a Venetian private palace gives access to this hall

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