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Should Antarctica be

Lesson Objectives
• You will be aware that different groups of people
have different groups of people have different
opinions about the future of Antarctica
• You should be able to name specific groups with
differing opinions
• You may be able to explain why their opinions differ
Interest groups
• Fishermen • WWF supporter
• Miners • conservationist
• Researcher • Greenpeace
• Tourist • Eco-campaigner
• Waste disposal • Antarctic explorer
• Military spokesman
• There are plenty of fish in the ocean, enough
for everyone
• The world’s population is rising, krill may be
the answer to global food shortage
• No one owns these waters, they belong to
• Fishing has taken place for hundreds of years
• We depend upon fishing to make our livelihood
• We will agree to fishing quotas, like everyone
• There are huge reserves of coal, oil and
precious metals.
• They will serve the worlds needs
• As non-renewable resources run out we
need to find other sources

• Its greatest value might be the information it

can provide about our planet
• It’s the best location to monitor the Ozone
• The ice can be tested to show past levels of
global pollution

• People should be allowed to see the area, as

the world belongs to us.
• Environmentally friendly tourism provides
money for conservation projects
• Internationally agreed guidelines reduce the
effects that tourist have e.g. tourists have to
take their rubbish with them.

• As the world produces more nuclear

waste, Antarctica could provide
somewhere to store it.

• Because no one lives there it would be

an ideal place to test new weapons &
nuclear bombs
• Fishermen do not stick to quotas. 70,000 tonnes of
illegal catches are made each year.
• Cod can live for over 50 years and it takes 10 years
to start reproducing. If younger fish are caught the
numbers will fall.
• Over 140,000 seabirds are killed each year. Long lines
baited with up to 20,000 hooks are trailed of the
backs of boats. If the birds take the hooks in their
mouths, they are pulled under the water and drowned.

• Removing waste is very difficult and costly and so

people wouldn’t do it unless they were forced to.
• 48 research centers house over 4,000 people in the
summer are too many already.
• In the past, scientists just dumped their poisonous
and radioactive waste, pumped millions of liters of
raw sewage into the ocean and burnt their rubbish.

• The Southern Ocean is now a whale

• Although whaling was banned in 1986
numbers remained very low and whales
may become extinct

• Tourism in Antarctica is growing faster than
anywhere else in the world
• Over 11,200 visitors came ashore in 1998 alone
• Tour operators are out to make as big a profit as
possible, not to save the environment
• Their guidelines are not law
• Tourist flights disturb the nesting birds

• Mineral exploration has caused oil spells

• The environment has been scarred, soil has
been removed and dynamite has been used
• In 1989 a transport ship sank and leaked
170,000 gallons of oil.
• In small groups, discuss the points made on each card
relating to an interest group
• Can you think of another piece of information that
might influence their view on whether Antarctica
should be developed
• Decide if, overall, they would be infavour or against
development in Anatctica.
Yes, No, Some (specify what), It depends (specify
why) are all acceptable responses. You MUST be clear
about the reasons for your views.
• Write 150-200 word essay on your opinions about
whether Antarctica should be developed or not.

• HINT: Could be ‘It must not be developed because….

• or ‘some types of development should be allowed.
They might include….
• or Development is never acceptable because…..