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# Oscilloscope II PHYS-1008

Winter 2012

REMINDER IMPORTANT!
When you record a number in your book, dont forget the units. If its a measurement dont forget the error.

Error on your instruments Analog = Half of the smallest division Digital = +/- 2 the last stable digit

Significant Figures
(p. 24 in PHYS-1007 lab manual)

Results should have the same number of decimal places as the error. Calculations: 2 significant figures for the error. Final result: 1 significant figure for the error.

The Oscilloscope
Measure the potential difference (i.e. Voltage) across a component as a function of time.
Potential difference (units)
Trigger value

Falling (- slope)

Rising (+ slope)

Time (units)

Function generator
Frequency Display & Control Frequency Range Type of signal

Rg= 50
to oscilloscope

## Output casings = common ground

V(t)

Oscilloscope

Time scale Trigger (sweep time / div) Level (V), slope (+/-) Intensity / Focus

## Rg= 50 CS= 21pF

V(t)

Channel A and B

RS= 1M

Experiment Outline
Output Resistance of the Function Generator Measuring the Capacitance of the Coaxial Cable The Diode and a DC Power Supply (Converting AC to DC)

YOU WILL ONLY BE EXPECTED TO DO THE LAST TWO EXPERIMENTS OF THE LAB.

## Coaxial Cable + BNC connector

External Insulator Ground Conductive Mesh Shield from E-M noise Insulator Internal Conductor Carry the signal

## 2 Measuring the Capacitance of the Coaxial Cable

Assemble Circuit: connect BNC connector + Resistor combination into the Function Generator. Make note of colour code of the resistor. BNC-Alligator coaxial cable: clip one end to resistor, clip other lead to ground casing, attach BNC to oscilloscope. Set the frequency on the generator to 800Hz and SQUARE wave. Set oscilloscope trigger to negative slope. Adjust TIME/DIV control until one complete decay curve fills screen. Choose a grid line for an arbitrary V=0 and to = 0. Measure Vo at to. Proceed to measure V for four more points of t. Use the large divisions in t to make things easier. Plot ln(V) ln(t) vs. t and get RC from slope and thus Cc.

## 2 Measuring the Capacitance of the Coaxial Cable

Assemble Circuit: connect BNC connector + Resistor combination into the Function Generator. Make note of colour code of the resistor. BNC-Alligator coaxial cable: clip one end to resistor, clip other lead to ground casing, attach BNC to oscilloscope. Set the frequency on the generator to 800Hz and SQUARE wave. Set oscilloscope trigger to negative slope. Adjust TIME/DIV control until one complete decay curve fills screen. Choose a grid line for an arbitrary V=0 and to = 0. Measure Vo at to. Proceed to measure V for four more points of t. Use the large divisions in t to make things easier. Plot ln(V) ln(t) vs. t and get RC from slope and thus Cc.

V(to) = Vo

V=0 t=0

AC/DC
AC from Power station, along electrical lines and substations to your home... ... From the wall to your devices AC adaptor which converts it to DC.

The Diode
(solid state switch)
V t

50 F

10 k

The Diode
(solid state switch)
V t

50 F

10 k

The Diode
(solid state switch)
V t

X
50 F 10 k

## 3 The Diode and a DC Power Supply

TO CHANNEL B Assemble the circuit as shown Set Function Generator to 60Hz, SINE wave. Set Oscilloscope to + slope, MODE switch to DUAL, and SOURCE switch to INT. Disconnect the capacitor. Turn ON oscilloscope but leave FG turned OFF: you should see 2 horizontal lines. TO CHANNEL A

## 3 Effect of the Diode

Turn on Function Generator and increase output voltage until you have a SINE wave with 8V peak-to-peak. CH. A SINE WAVE CH. B RECTIFIED SINE WAVE Draw wave forms. Superimpose both waves. In your discussion, comment on the relationship between both waves. Why doesnt the rectified wave reach zero?

## 3 Effect of the Diode + Capacitor

Connect the Capacitor. Switch Channel B to ground, GND. Line up horizontal line near bottom of screen. Switch to DC and measure VDC. Draw waveforms. Switch Channel B to AC. Increase Volts/Div on Channel B to magnify the ripple. Measure the amplitude of the ripple and calculate the Quality of the DC supply. In your Discussion comment on the quality of the signal and the importance of the Capacitor in use with everyday appliances (e.g. your laptop).

## You can leave when you have:

1) Taken four measurements of V(t). 2) Preliminary graph of ln(V) ln(Vo) vs t. 3) Calculated RC and Cc. 4) AC/DC drawings. 5) Measured VDC and Ripple Amplitude, Vripple. 6) Calculated DC Quality, Q. Dont forget to record the uncertainty of your measurements and units!