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# EE 4210 Power System Protection

## Study of Numerical Over Current Relay

INSTRUCTED BY: Mr. Lathika NAME INDEX NO. GROUP DATE OF EXP DATE OF SUB :H.M.J.N. Herath : 070170G : 04 : /12/2010 : 18/02/2011

Phase A B C

## Drop off Value 930 mA 980 mA 950 mA

Time characteristics for t > Curve Description DT SI30XDT I30XDT VI30XDT EI20XDT STI30XDT LTI30XDT Rated Operating Time (s) 0.02-0.04 9.52-10.53 14.3-15.81 12.82-14.18 24.66-28.67 1.68-1.87 114-126 Observed Time 999.4ms 10.12s 15.1s 13.83s 28.35s 1.872s 128s

Current(A)

## Operating time (S) TMS=1

Operating time(S) EMS=.5 5.709 2.569 1.919 1.629 1.471 1.352 1.289 1.212 1.156 1.131

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

10.38 5.04 3.840 3.258 2.979 2.736 2.570 2.429 2.33 2.27

12

10

Time (S)

## TMS 1 2 TMS 0.5

0 0 5 10 15 20 25

currrent (A)

DISCUSSION The major objective of relay is to detect abnormal conditions of power system and produce a signal to recover this abnormal condition. For this function relay should properly produce signal to isolate only faulty area. This process is known as discriminative. Reason is we should supply power to customer with minimumdisturbance. So to achieve this discriminative process grading between the relays is important. There are mainly two types of over current relays. They are, 1. Definite time relay: This type of relay is operated after a definite time period regardless of the magnitude of the current. 2. Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT): Here the operating time is inversely proportional to the current

Discuss about the three stages Over Current Characteristics of the KCGG Relay There are three over current stages can be found in the KCCG relay. Settings of each stage are completely independent of each other. Stage 1 provides any of seven inverse time or definite time or definite time characteristics and an adjustable reset timer for the detection of intermittent faults while Stage 2 & 3 provide definite time setting for instantaneous operation. Three stages of this over current characteristic of KCCG relay give us to special option to change the over current characteristics according to our requirement. What are the advantages of having various Time/Current characteristics?

Advantage of having various Time/Current characteristics is, providing the facility to coordinate and grad with other protection systems in an easy way. And also it facilitates to coordinate any numerical relay with much kind of protection systems easily.

Discuss the operation of IDMT Relay coordination system IDMT is the short term of Inverse Definite Minimum Time. There are mainly two types of over current relays used in power system. They are mentioned previously. The IDMT Inverse definite minimum time relay is one such type of relay where the delay time of the relay is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the fault current. For example If the fault current is

of the magnitude of 8KA the delay taken by the relay to trip the circuit breaker may be 3 sec likewise if a fault current of 16KA persists in the System the IDMT delay time will automatically reduce to 1.5 sec and so on. It is used in applications of overcurrent relays and earth fault relays. Between these two IDMT is widely used. Reason is it is most secure one. IDMT has four types of characteristic depending on the application. a) Standard Inverse (Normal Inverse) This is the widely used one and it is used when fault levels of near and far end of the system does not vary considerably. b) Very Inverse This is used when there is considerable fault level reduction with the distance c) Extremely Inverse Here operating time is proportional to the square of the current and therefore most suitable for grading with fuses and feeders which are subjected peak currents when switching. d) Long Time This is used for protection of neutral earthing resistors and fault protection for transformer

IDMT relay work according to the induction principle. It consists of Al or cu disc. It is rotated between electromagnet and damping magnet. The fluxes induce eddy currents in the disc and they interact and produce rotational torque. According to the plug setting no of turns is change in exciting coil. The winding of the coil is provided with seven taps, which are brought to the front panel and the required tap is selected by a push-in plug. The time multiplier setting of the relay adjusts the backstop of the rotating disc. The time of operation is proportional to the distance through which the disc must rotate in order to operate the contact The torque of this relay is proportional to I2 below saturation. If the core is made to saturate at very early stages such that with increase of I, K decreases so that the time of operation remains the same over the working range. If the core is made to saturate at a later stage, the characteristic obtained is known as IDMT. The time-current characteristic is inverse, over some range and then after saturation assumes the definite time form. In order to ensure selectivity, it is essential that the time of operation of the relays should be dependent on the severity of the fault in such a way that more severe the fault, the less is the time to operate, this being called the inverse-time characteristic.

## Advantages of numeric Over-current relays compared with theElectro-mechanical over-current relays

Power consumption of numerical over current relay is very low compare with electro mechanical over current relay. Because mechanical over current relay need considerable power to start the rotation of the disc to operate. But for numerical relay very low power is required.

Relay operation time is less compare with mechanical over current relay: Considerable time will be consumed for the disc to start the movement.

Accuracy is high: due to some factors such as dust, friction is cause to low accuracy in mechanical over current relay. So may be cause low response to the fault current.

More flexibility: when use mechanical over current relay we can use only IDMT characteristics. But if we use numerical over current relay we can use any characteristics (also new ones can be defined). So flexibility is very high.