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Alkane (1) Answer the following questions below

Answer the following questions

5. Write all equations for the free radical substitution of ethane by bromine. You should label the stages initiation, propagation and termination steps.


6. Crude oil is highly viscos and contained long chain of alkanes up to several thousand carbons. (a) Explain how the components of crude oil separated? (b) Define the meaning of cracking? (b) Give two usage of the cracking of alkanes? (c) Explain the meaning of reforming of alkanes

7. Free radicals are damaging to human. The main sources are sunlight, smoke and certain reactive chemicals. (a) What is a free radical? (b) Explain how sunlight produces free radicals in your skin?

8. The process of cracking of hydrocarbons in the petroleum industry involves the breaking of the weakest C-C bonds to form smaller molecules. (a) (i) Name the type of mechanism involving in thermal cracking (ii) Complete the following equation to show cracking in a molecules of C12H26 C12H26 _________ + 2C2H4 (b) (i) Name the type of mechanism involved in catalytic cracking (ii) Name the type of catalyst used in this process (iii) Give one advantage of catalytic cracking over thermal cracking. (c) Another way of cracking C12H26 would be that shown in Figure 2


(i) Give the systematic name for both compound X and Y (ii) Determine the type of stereoisomers present in compound Y. (iii) Draw the two stereoisomers in Y

9.Figure 3 shows a ball-and-stick model of an isomers of octane which present in petrol.

(a) (i) Draw the structural formula of this molecules (ii) What is the systematic name for this molecule? (iii) Give one advantages of the addition of this compound to petrol. (iv) Explain what octane number is. In your opinion, RON95 or ROM 98 petrol is better? Why

(b) (i) Write an equation to show the complete combustion of this compound (ii) What volume of oxygen, measure in dm3, would be needed to react completely with 1dm3 of octane

(c) The incomplete combustion process that occurs in the engine of a car produces carbon monoxide, which is a pollutant. (i) write an equation for the incomplete combustion of octane (ii) explain why carbon monoxide is describe as pollutant (iii) explain briefly how the present of a catalytic converter reduces carbon monoxide emissions into the atmosphere


(iv) Lead was used as petrol additives in the past. Suggest a reason why lead is not use as additive nowadays

(d) Malaysia petroleum is high demanded by many countries due to its low sulphur and nitrogen compound contained. Explain the benefits of it.

10. The heat of combustion of octane and 2-methylheptane are -5470kJ/mol ad 5466kJ/mol respectively. Explain the observation.

11. The combustion of octane is highly exothermic (-5470kJ/mol). However, the reaction does not occur at room temperature. (a) Draw an energy profile for the combustion of octane (b) Explain why the reaction does not occur at room temperature.

12. 10cm3 of an hydrocarbon W is mixed with 100cm 3 of oxygen (an excess) and the mixture sparked. After cooling, 85cm3 of gas remains. The volume is reduced to 65cm3 when the remaining gas is bubbled through concentrated sodium hydroxide. Determine the molecular formula of W.

13. 10cm3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon requires 50cm3 of oxygen for complete combustion to produce 30cm3 of oxygen. Calculate the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon.

14. Leaded petrol contains tetraethyl lead (IV) (a) Explain why petrol is added with tetraethyl lead (IV) compound (b)If air is assumed to contain 20% by volume of oxygen, calculate the volume of air (measured at room temperature) required for complete combustion of 1dm 3 of petrol. [ the density of petrol is assumed to be 0.703g/cm3] (c) How tetraethyl lead (IV) added to petrol will affect the environment (d) Suggest a branched isomer of C5H12 has the highest octane number.


**15. Suggest how you would carry out the following conversion (a) 1-chloropropane to 2-chloropropane (b) 2-phenylpropane to 2-chloro-2-phenylpropane

16. Propane reacts with chlorine to produce 2-chloropropane. (a) State the condition necessary for the reaction (b) Using balanced equations, describe the mechanism of the reaction (c) Explain why 2-chloropropane is formed instead of 1-chloropropane (d) Explain the formation of 2,3-dimetybutane as a side product in the above reaction.