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EEK 471 LAB 3

Universiti Sains Malaysia Electrical Engineering Department Advanced Power Electronic Laboratory EEK471

The Three-Phase Rectifier


OBJECTIVE To become familiar with three-phase three-pulse and three-phase six pulse diode rectifiers To observe the waveforms and compare the characteristics of these rectifiers

INTRODUCTION Three-phase, three-pulse rectifier The three-phase rectifier circuit offers several advantages over a single-phase rectifier. Using Figure 1, we will analyze the operation of such a circuit in order to fully understand these advantages. You will notice in Figure 1 that the circuit consists simply of three diodes (one for each of the three phases), the three-phase source, and the load. The waveforms of the three line voltages and the load voltage are as shown in Figure 2. The output voltage EO is that of point X, measured with respect to the neutral line N.

Figure 1: A three-phase, three pulse rectifier circuit The voltage at X contains pulsations or ripple as shown in Figure 2. Notice however that the amount of ripple is less than the ripple obtained with a single-phase rectifier. Also the on time of each diode is 120, compared to 180 for single-phase circuits. These two differences allow using smaller and less powerful semiconductor devices.

EEK 471 LAB 3

Figure 2: Inputs and output voltages

In summary, a diode turns ON only when a forward voltage is applied. It remains ON until the current stop flowing. The characteristic curve shows the current flows through the diode versus the voltage across it. The curve shows that virtually no current flows when the diode is reversed biased, but that the current increases very rapidly when it is forward biased. Three-phase, six-pulse rectifier Figure 3 shows a three-phase, six-pulse rectifier, also called a three-phase bridge rectifier which uses diodes as the rectifying device.

Figure 3: A three-phase, six-pulse rectifier using diodes.

EEK 471 LAB 3

The rectified output voltage EO is equal to EXN + ENY or EXN - EYN. Note that reversal of the subscripts makes ENY = - EYN. N is the neutral line of the three phase source. This circuit can be considered to be composed of two three-pulse rectifiers. EXN is the output voltage of the threepulse rectifier formed by D1, D2 and D3. EYN is of opposite polarity and is the output voltage of the three-pulse rectifier formed by D4, D5 and D6. The flow of current through R1 is from X towards N. Current flows through R2 from N towards Y. Since the average current flowing to or from N is zero. The N terminal of the three-phase source is not necessary for operation. It is shown here only to simplify the explanation of circuit operation. Figure 4 shows the output voltage waveform.

Figure 4: Voltage waveform of the three-phase six-pulse rectifier As shown in Figure 4, the maximum value of the output voltage is equal to the peak line to line voltage. Both the three-phase three-pulse and the three-phase six-pulse rectifiers can be used to supply power to an active load, as in a battery charger. They provide no means for electronically controlling the current.

EQUIPMENTS EMS 8821 Enclosure Power Supply EMS 8840-0A PE Power Supply EMS 8842-1A Power Diodes EMS 8412-05 Lab-Volt DC Voltmeter/Ammeter EMS 8311 Variable Resistance EMS 8325 - 15 Smoothing Inductor EMS 9056-15 and EMS 9056-05 Voltage/Current Isolator Textronic Oscilloscope Connection Leads

EEK 471 LAB 3

WARNINGS The voltages and currents that are used during this lab are larger and rated at 415VAC Line-toLine, 240VAC Line-to-Neutral and 700VDC with current as high as 20 amps (or higher if circuits are improperly connected). Please take the proper precautions and use your head before touching any circuitry. NEVER change any circuit connections while the power supply is turned on. Ask the demonstrator to check your connections before turning on the switches. And follow the rating of voltmeters and ammeters given to prevent equipments from damaged. Experiment: Part I Three-phase three-pulse rectifier 1. Make sure that the main power switch of the Power Supply is set to the O (OFF) position. Set the voltage control knob to 0 %. Make sure that the toggle switches on the Resistive and Inductive Load are all set to the O (open) position. 2. In this part, you will set up a three-phase three-pulse rectifier, observe the waveforms and measure the output parameters. Set up the circuit of Figure 1a using the resistive load Z1(a). Note that the incoming supply is three-phase four-wire system with neutral connection.

Figure 1a: Three-phase, three-pulse rectifier circuit.

Line To Line Voltage (V) 0 415 (<=30%)

I1 dc (A) 1.5

Table 1a: Parameters setting i1 (A) E1 dc (V) e1, e2 (V) 5 400 600

Z1(a) R=600

Z1(b) R=600 L=0.8 H

3. Set the main power switch to 1 (ON) and then set the voltage control knob to 30(%) only. This is to limit the DC output voltage at load. Sketch the voltage and current waveforms in Figure 1b. Record the ripple frequency (frequency of the rectified waveform). Ripple frequency = ________ Hz

EEK 471 LAB 3

Figure 1b: Voltage and current waveforms for three-phase three-pulse rectifier. 4. Record the output voltage, current and power of the rectifier circuit in the first row of Table 1b, Enter the conduction angle of the diode. To determine the diode conduction angle, connect the Current lsolator in series with diode D1. Before changing any connections, set the voltage control knob on the Power Supply to 0 %, then set the main power switch to 0 (OFF).

Load Z1 (a) Resistive (b) Inductive

E1 dc (V)

Table 1b: Results I1 dc (A) PO = E1 X I1 (watt)

Conduction Angle ()

5. Set the voltage control knob to the 0 % position then set the main power switch to the O position. 6. Change the load in the circuit to the inductive load Z 1(b) as in Figure 1c. Repeat the procedure steps necessary to complete Table 1b and Figure 1b. Explain the effect of an inductive load on the voltage and current waveforms and on the conduction angle.

EEK 471 LAB 3

Figure 1c: Z1(b) connection. 7. Set the voltage control knob to the 0 position then set the main power switch to the 0 position. 8. Compare the following characteristics of a three-phase three-pulse rectifier to those of a single-phase bridge rectifier in terms of diode conduction angle, ripple frequency and average output voltage and power. 9. Compare the output voltage of the circuit to the theoretical value. Theoretical value, E1 = ____________ V dc Measured value, E1 = ____________ V dc Experiment: Part II Three-phase six-pulse rectifier

1. Make sure that the main power switch of the Power Supply is set to the O (OFF) position. Set the voltage control knob to 0 %. Make sure that the toggle switches on the Resistive and Inductive Load are all set to the O (open) position. 2. In this part, you will set up a three-phase six-pulse rectifier circuit. Set up the circuit of Figure 2a using the resistive load Z 1(a). Set S1 of power diodes to 1 (ON) to form the sixpulse rectifier circuit, thus reduces additional cables. Refer a circuit on the left of S1 to get an idea the way it is built. 3. Note that the incoming supply is three-phase three-wire system without neutral connection. In obtaining the reference waveform e1, the voltage isolator e1 should be connected to 4-N position.

Figure 2a: Three-phase six-pulse rectifier circuit

EEK 471 LAB 3

Line To Line Voltage (V) 0 415 (<=30%)

Line Voltage (V) 0 - 240

Table 2a: Parameters setting I1 dc (A) i1 (A) E1 dc (V) 1.5 5 400

e1, e2 (V) 600

Z1(a) R=600

Z1(b) R=600 L=0.8 H

4. Then set the main power switch of the Power Supply is set to 1 (ON) position. Set the voltage control knob to 30(%) only. This is to limit the DC output voltage at load. Sketch the voltage and current waveforms in Figure 2b. Record the ripple frequency (frequency of the rectified waveform). Ripple frequency = ________ Hz

Figure 2b: Voltage and current waveforms for three-phase six-pulse rectifier. 5. Record the output voltage, current and power of the rectifier circuit in the first row of Table 2b, Enter the conduction angle of the diode. To determine the diode conduction angle, connect the Current Isolator in series with diode D1. Before changing any connections, set the voltage control knob on the Power Supply to 0 %, then set the main power switch to O (OFF).

EEK 471 LAB 3

Load Z1 (b) Resistive (b) Inductive

E1 dc (V)

Table 2b: Results I1 dc (A) PO = E1 X I1 (watt)

Conduction Angle ()

6. Change the load in the circuit to the inductive load Z 1(b) as in Figure 1c. Repeat the procedure steps necessary to complete Table 2b and Figure 2b. Explain the effect of an inductive load on the voltage and current waveforms and on the conduction angle. 7. Set the voltage control knob to the 0 % position then set the main power switch to the O (OFF) position. Return S1 of power diodes to O (OFF) position. 8. Compare the following characteristics of a three-phase six-pulse rectifier to those of a three-phase three-pulse rectifier in terms of diode conduction angle, ripple frequency and average output voltage and power. 9. Compare the output voltage of the circuit to the theoretical value. Theoretical value, E1 = ____________ V dc Measured value, E1 = ____________ V dc

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What is the diode conduction angle in a three-phase three-pulse rectifier and in a threephase, six-pulse rectifier? 2. What is the average output voltage of a three-phase three-pulse rectifier operating on a line to line voltage of 220 V? 3. What is the average output voltage of a three-phase six-pulse rectifier operating on a line to line voltage of 240 V? 4 What are the advantages of a three-phase rectifier over a single-phase rectifier?

5. What are the advantages of a three-phase six-pulse rectifier over a three phase threepulse rectifier?