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EEK 471 LAB 4

Universiti Sains Malaysia Electrical Engineering Department Advanced Power Electronic Laboratory EEK471

Familiarization with the Thyristor Firing Unit


OBJECTIVE To learn how to use the Thyristor Firing Unit.

INTRODUCTION The buck chopper The Thyristor Firing Unit is a module which detects when a sinusoidal voltage passes through zero and, following an adjustable delay, provides a firing pulse. This pulse is designed to trigger that is to cause a thyristor to conduct when the anode-cathode voltage polarity is positive. The delay is set by a voltage applied to the ANGLE CONTROL INPUT of the module. The Thyristor Firing Unit is built around a microcontroller which is infact a microcomputer in a single integrated circuit. Therefore it is fully digital and very accurate. Figure 1 shows a simple single-phase halfwave controlled rectifier built with a Thyristor Firing Unit and a Power Thyristors module (the operation of this module is dealt within section 3 of this manual). Notice that the DC SOURCE shown in Figure 1 is part of the Thyristor Firing Unit.

Figure 1: A single-phase half-wave controlled rectifier.

Figure 2 shows the waveforms related to the circuit shown in Figure 1. The time interval t represents the delay from the zero-crossing of the sinusoidal voltage waveform to the start of the pulse which triggers the thyristor. Usually, this delay is expressed as an angle and is called the

EEK 471 LAB 4

angle of retard, or firing angle, . It is defined as the angular intenval, expressed in degrees, by which the starting point of conduction is delayed in relation to the starting point of the same circuit if the thyristors were replaced by diodes. The delay variables and t are related by the equation: = (t / T) x 360 where T is the period of the sinusoidal supply voltage, expressed in the same units as t. When the Thyristor Firing Unit is used to control thyristors in a circuit powered by a source whose frequency is 50 Hz, T becomes 20ms.

Figure 2: Signal generated by a single-phase half-wave controlled rectifier. EQUIPMENTS EMS 8821 Enclosure Power Supply EMS 8840-0A PE Power Supply EMS 8841-2A Power Thyristor Module EMS 9030-30 Thyristor Firing Unit EMS 8412-05 Lab-Volt DC Voltmeter/Ammeter Textronic Oscilloscope Connection Leads

WARNINGS The voltages and currents that are used during this lab are larger and rated at 240VAC Line-toNeutral with current as high as 20 amps (or higher if circuits are improperly connected). Please take the proper precautions and use your head before touching any circuitry. NEVER change any circuit connections while the power supply is turned on. Ask the demonstrator to check your connections before turning on the switches. And follow the rating of voltmeters and ammeters given to prevent equipments from damaged.

EEK 471 LAB 4

Experiment: Part I Effect of the conversion functions on the relationship between the firing angle and the voltage at the ANGLE CONTROL INPUT 1. In this part, you will use the circuit shown in Figure 1a to observe the effect the conversion functions have on the relationship between the firing angle and the voltage at the ANGLE CONTROL INPUT. Connect the modules as shown in Figure 1a. Note that the DC SOURCE is part of the Thyristor Firing Unit.

Figure 1a: Circuit used to observe the effect of the conversion functions of the Thyristor Firing Unit. 2. Make the following settings on the Thyristor Firing Unit Setting 1 ANGLE CONTROL COMPLEMENT ANGLE CONTROL ARC COSINE DC SOURCE FIRING CONTROL MODE 0 0 Minimum 1~

3. Make sure that the main power switch of the Power Supply is set to the 0 (OFF) position. Set the main power switch to 1 (ON) position. On the Thyristor Firing Unit, vary the setting of the DC SOURCE control knob while observing the FIRING ANGLE display and the voltage at the ANGLE CONTROL INPUT on the oscilloscope screen. Describe what happens when the voltage at the ANGLE CONTROL INPUT varies. 4. On the Thyristor Firing Unit, vary the setting of the DC SOURCE control knob to successively obtain each of the voltages given in Table 1a. For each voltage, read the firing angle indicated on the Thyristor Firing Unit, and then note it in the appropriate row of the FIRING ANGLE column of Table 1a. Table 1a: Firing angle versus the voltage at the ANGLE CONTROL INPUT
ANGLE CONTROL INPUT VOLTAGE (V) FIRING ANGLE ()

-10

-8

-5

-2

+2

+5

+8

+10

EEK 471 LAB 4

5. Plot the relationship between the firing angle and the voltage at the ANGLE CONTROL
INPUT in Figure 1b.

Figure 1b: Relationship between the firing angle and the voltage at the ANGLE CONTROL INPUT when the COUPLEMENT and ARC COSINE ANGLE CONTROL push buttons are set to the O position. 6. Describe the relationship between the firing angle and the voltage at the ANGLE CONTROL INPUT when the COMPLEMENT and ARC COSINE ANGLE CONTROL push buttons are set to the O position. 7. Repeat steps 4, 5 and 6 of the procedure using different setting of the Thyristor Firing Unit as listed below. a) Setting 2 ANGLE CONTROL COMPLEMENT ANGLE CONTROL ARC COSINE DC SOURCE FIRING CONTROL MODE 1 0 Minimum 1~

b) Setting 3 ANGLE CONTROL COMPLEMENT ANGLE CONTROL ARC COSINE DC SOURCE FIRING CONTROL MODE 0 1 Minimum 1~

EEK 471 LAB 4

c) Setting 4 ANGLE CONTROL COMPLEMENT ANGLE CONTROL ARC COSINE DC SOURCE FIRING CONTROL MODE 1 1 Minimum 1~

8. Set the main power switch to the 0 position and turn OFF the power supply. Remove all leads, cables and probes.

Experiment: Part II Observation of the firing control signals in the single-phase (1~) and three-phase (3~) modes 1. In this part, you will use the circuit shown in Figure 2a to observe the synchronization signal and the firing control signals generated by the Thyristor Firing Unit in the single and three phase firing control modes. You will vary the firing angle to observe the effect it has on the phase relationship between the synchronization signal and the firing control signals. Connect the modules as shown in Figure 2a.

Figure 2a: Circuit for observing the firing control signals 2. Set e1 scale to 600V and make the following settings on the Thyristor Firing Unit ANGLE CONTROL COMPLEMENT ANGLE CONTROL ARC COSINE DC SOURCE FIRING CONTROL MODE 0 0 Minimum 1~

3. On the oscilloscope, set the input coupling of each channet to the ground position and then place the trace of each channel in the middle of the screen. Then set the input coupling of each channel to the DC position. 4. Make sure that the main power switch of the Power Supply is set to the 0 (OFF) position. Set the main power switch to 1 (ON) position. The oscilloscope should now display the synchronization signal applied to the Thyristor Firing Unit ( line to neutral sinusoidal voltage ) and firing control signal 1.

EEK 471 LAB 4

5. On the Thyristor Firing Unit, slowly vary the setting of the DC SOURCE control knob to vary the firing angle while observing firing control signal 1 on the oscilloscope screen. Describe how the phase relationship between the synchronization signal and firing control signal 1 varies as the firing angle is varied. 6. On the Thyristor Firing Unit, set the DC SOURCE control knob so that the firing angle display indicates 135. Measure the time between the positive slope zero crossing of the Synchronization signal and the rising edge of firing control signal 1. Convert this time into a firing angle using desired equation. Note the result in the space provided below. Firing angle (measured) = __________ Compare the measured firing angle with the firing angle indicated on the Thyristor Firing Unit. Are they nearly equal? You can repeat this step for various firing angles. 7. On the Thyristor Firing Unit, set the DC SOURCE control knob so that the firing angle display indicates 45. Sketch the waveforms of the synchronization signal and firing control signal 1 in Figure 2b. Using channel 2 of the oscilloscope, successively observe firing control signals 2, 4, and 5 on FIRING CONTROL INPUTS 2, 4, and 5 of the Power Thyristors module. Sketch the waveforms of these firing control signals in Figure 2b.

Figure 2b: Waveforms of the synchronizalion signal and the firing control signals in the single phase mode.

EEK 471 LAB 4

8. Make the following settings on the Thyristor Firing Unit FIRING CONTROL MODE 3~

Connect FIRING CONTROL INPUT 1 of the Power Thyristors module to channel 2 input of the oscilloscope. Sketch the waveforms of the synchronization signal and firing control signal 1 in Figure 2c. Using channel 2 of the oscilloscope, successively observe firing control signals 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 on FIRING CONTROL INPUTS 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the Power Thyristors module. Sketch the waveforms of these firing control signals in Figure 2c. From the firing control signals sketched in Figure2c, determine the order in which the thyristors are fired.

Figure 2c: Waveforms of the synchronization signal and the firing control signals in the three phase mode. 9. Set the main power switch to the 0 position and turn OFF the power supply. Remove all leads, cables and probes.

EEK 471 LAB 4

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What is the function of the Thyristor Firing Unit? 2. Enumerate the five sections of the Thyristor Firing Unit. 3. What is the range over which the firing angle can be set? 4. What is the function of the Synchronization Input? 5. Describe the options of the Thyristor Firing Unit.