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ANSI ALO-7 83

0724150 0000537 3

C-99-lO
ANSI A10.9a-1989

American National Standard


for construction and demolition operations

concrete and masonry work Secretariat: National Safety Council

safety requirements 0 . 9- 1983) (supplement to ANSI A 1


Approved April 17, 1989

11.3.1 and 11.3.4 are revised to read as follows:


11.3.1 Masonry saws shall be guarded by a semicircular enclosure over the blade. The maximum angular exposure of the blade periphery shall not exceed 180 degrees. The guard design shall be such as to restrain the pieces of the abrasive wheel and furnish protection to the operator in the event that the wheel is broken in operation. 11.3.4 Operators of dry cutting masonry saws and other persons in the area shall be provided with approved dust respirators if exposed to threshold limit value of airborne contaminants as defined by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists [4].

An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope and provisions, An American National Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer, the consumer, and the general public. The existence of an American National Standard does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standard. American National Standards are subject to periodic review and users are cautioned to obtain the latest editions.
The American National Standards Institufe does not develop standards and will in no circumstances give an interpretation of any American National Standard, Moreover, no person shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American National Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. CAUTION NOTICE: This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. The procedures of the American National Standards Institute require that action be taken to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five y e a s from the date of approval. Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by caiiing or writing the American Nationai Standards Institute.
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Copyright O 1989 by -&;American

ANfi5C789/8

COPYRIGHT 2003; American National Standards Institute

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A N S I AL0.7 8 3 W 0 7 2 4 1 5 0 000054L

L m
ANSI0 A10.9-1982
Revision of ANSI A10.9-1970

American National Standard fr Construction and Demolition Operations Concrete and Masonry Work Safety Requirements

Secretariat

National Safety Council

Approved September 2, 1982

American National Standards institute, inc

e
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A N S I A30*7 83

= 0724350

0000542 3

m'

American National Standard

An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope and provisions. An American National Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer, the consumer, and the general public. The existence of an American National Standard does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standard. American National Standards are subject to periodic review and users are cautioned to obtain the latest editions.

The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in no circumstances give an interpretation of any American National Standard. Moreover, no person shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American National Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute.

Published by

American National Standards Institute 1430 Broadway, New York, New York 10018

Copyright O 1983 by American National Standards Institute, Inc Ali rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the .publisher.

Printed in the United States of America


A2M183/6

COPYRIGHT 2003; American National Standards Institute

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CAUTION NOTICE: This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. The procedures of the American National Standards Institute require that action be taken to reaffnm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of approval. Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by calling or writing the American National Standards Institute.

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Foreword

(This Foreword is not a part of American National Standard A10.9-1983.)

This standard is one of a series of safety standards that have been formulated by American National Standards Committee on Safety in Construction and Demolition Operations, Alo. One purpose of these standards is to serve as a guide to governmental authorities having jurisdiction over subjects within the scope of the A10 Committee. It is expected that the standards will find a major application in industry, servingas a guide to contractors, labor, and equipment manufacturers. For the convenience of the users, existing and proposed standards in the Al O series for safety requirements in construction and demolition operations are listed below: A10.3 A10.4 A10.5 A10.6 Al 0.7 A10.8 A10.9 A1O.10 A10.11 A10.12 A10.13 Alo. 14 A10.15 A10.16 A10.17 A10.18 A10.19 A10.20 A10.21 A10.22 A10.24 A10.25 A10.26 A10.27 A10.28 A10.29 A10.30 Powder Actuated Fastening Systems Personnel Hoists Material Hoists Demolition Transportation, Storage, Handling, and Use of Commercial Explosives and Agents in the Construction Industry Scaffolding Concrete and Masonry Work Temporary and Portable Space Heating Devices and Equipment Used in the Construction Industry Safety Nets Used during Construction, Repair, and Demolition Operations Excavation Steel Erection Safety Belts, Harnesses, Lanyards, Lifqlines, and Drop Lines for Construction and Industrial Use Dredging Tunnels, Shafts, and Caissons Asphalt Pavement Construction Temporary Floor and Wall Openings, Flat Roofs, Stairs, Railings, and Toeboards Pile Driving Ceramic Tile, Terrazzo, and Marble Work Fire Protection Rope-Guided and Nonguided Workmens Hoists Roofing Lighting and Wiring for Temporary Use Portland Cement Concrete Paving Asphalt Mixing Plants for Construction Projects Suspended Work Platforms for Cranes and Derricks Abrasive Blasting Drilled Caissons

If these standards are adopted for governmental use, the references to other national codes or standards in the individual volumes may be changed to refer to the corresponding regulations of the governmental authorities. The A10 Committee solicits comments on and criticisms of the standards requirements. The standards will be revised from time to time to provide for new developments. Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. They should be sent to the National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 6061 1. This standard was processed and approved for submittal to ANSI by American National Standards Committee on Safety in Construction and Demolition Operations, ALO. Committee ap-

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ANSI A L O - 7 A 3 W 0 7 2 4 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 4 7 m !'

prova1 of the standard does not necessarily imply that all committee members voted for its approval. At the time it approved this standard, the A10 committee had the following members: Jack Fees, Chairman Phil Schmidt, Secretary
Name of Representative .Daniel J. Mortensen Charles F. Sparreli American Concrete Institute. .(Representation Vacant) Samuel J. Henry (Alt) American Federation of Labor - Congress of Industrial Organizations . . . . . . . . .Paul Connelley A. Bennett Hill, Jr Joe M. Short .H. W. Eisenberg American Institute of Architects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Richard W. Stoneman American Institute of Steel Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Franklin Young American Insurance Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Road and Transportation Builders Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Raymond R. Crowe Associated Builders and Contractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John DiFiglio .Fred M.Livingston, JI Associated General Contractors of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction Industry Manufacturers Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .William E. Miller .(Representation Vacant) Edison Electric Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John P. Markey (Alt) Engineering Contractors Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tom Malloy .Roger N. Prescott Institute of Makers of Explosives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .George A. Miller Mason Contractors Association of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .William C. Abernathy Mechanical Contractors Association of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oscar F. Smith National Association of Dredging Contractors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National Association of Governmental Labor Officials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wm. R. Paulk National Association of Home Builders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Harold E. Van Werden .H. S: Lew National Bureau of Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John Barker National Constructors Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charles J. Hart National Electrical Contractors Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Robert McAdam National Roofing Contractors Association. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National Safety Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .James R. Milor .Frank A. Randall, Jr Portland Cement Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Richard C. Mocny Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. Department of the Army' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Edward R. Gloyd U.S. Department of Labor-OSHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Allan (Ike) Martin Organization Represented Alliance of American Insurers.

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COPYRIGHT 2003; American National Standards Institute

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Individual Members Bernie M. Enfield Walter B. Garyotis Charles F. Peck, JI A. J. Scardino, Jr Ingo Zeise

Subcommittee A10.9, which developed this standard, had the following members: Robert D. McCall, Chairman
John J. Hauck Daniel P. Jenny R. C . Mocny Charles F. Peck, JI Joseph Short Kenneth F.Weber

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Contents

SECTION

PAGE

1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Interpretation., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Scaffolding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Personal Protective Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.8 FormworkDrawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Definitions.

7 7

7 7 7 7 7 7 7
7

................................................... 3: Reinforcing Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Rigging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Guying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 WireMeshRolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Prohibited Uses of Reinforcing Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- CementHandling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Bulk Cement Transfer Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Storage Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9

5 . Concrete Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 5.2 Plant and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Employee Protection during Cutting and Sandblasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 5.4 ConcretePlacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.5 Patchirig, Finishing, and Curing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.6 Winter Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6 . Vertical Shoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 6.2 Loads and Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Field Practices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.4 Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.5 Tubular Welded Frame Shoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.6 Tube and Coupler Tower Shoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 13 6.7 Single Post Shores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7. Formwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7.2 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7.3 Formwork Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 7.4 Placing and.Remova1of Forms . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7.5 Vertical Slip Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7.6 Flying Deck Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 15 7.7 Horizontal Shoring Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. Prestressed Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.2 Pretensioning and Posttensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.3 Tendons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;.16 8.4 Fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.5 Jacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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ANSI A I O - 7 8 3

0724350 0000546 O

SECTION

PAGE

9 . Precast Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Handling and Erection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Temporary Support and Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Falling Hazard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. Lift-Slab Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Designing and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Jacking Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Uniform Lifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Falling Hazard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6 Load Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. Masonry Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Handling and Storage of Masonry Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Masonry Saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Masons Scaffolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5 Shoring and Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16 16 16 16 17 17
17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 20

12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 References to American NationaI Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Other References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Sources for Further Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
~

Appendix Survey of Job Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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ANSI ALO.3 83

072qL50 00005q7 2

American National Standard for Construction and DemoliionOperations Concrete and Masonry Work Safety Requirements

1. General
1.1 Scope. This standard establishes safety requirements pertaining to concrete construction and masonry work in construction. The requirements contained in this standard cover all on-site concrete construction and masonry work, including design, erection, operation, and maintenance of aggregate processing plants, concrete mixing plants, and conveyances. It also contains safety requirements pertinent to the specialty concrete operations of prestressing by pretensioning or posttensioning, liftdab construction, tilt-up construction, and slip forms.
1.2 Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to establish reasonable and practical safety requirements and practices for concrete construction and masonry work.

1.7 Personal Protective Equipment. Personal protective equipment as required by the operation and/or material shall be used by the employee.
1.8 Formwork Drawing. Structural concrete, not on grade, and vertical walls except for single-story residential basement walls shall require formwork drawings prepared by a qualified designer, a COPY of which shall be avaitable at the job site.

2. Definitions
approved. Sanctioned, endorsed, accredited, certified, or accepted by a duly constituted and recognized authority. approving and/or governing authority. Any administrative body or governmental division or subdivision that has jurisdiction over the subject matter in this standard. constructor. The person or contractor responsible for the concrete construction and/or masonry work being carried out. engineerlarchitect. A duly licensed or registered professional engineer or architect. engineer/architect of record. The engineerlarchitect whose seal and/or signature and license or registration number appears on the plans. engineers or architects specifications. Specifications or requirements promulgated by a registered engineer or architect, or by a similarly recognized or licensed authority, and made part of the contract documents. equivalent. An alternate design, feature, device, material, or protective action that provides an equal or greater degree of safety. factor of safety (safety factor). A factor equal to the uItimate stress or yield sfress, whichever is applicable, divided by the allowable stress, or the actual working stress when in use.
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1.3 Exceptions. The approving authority may grant exception from the literal requirements of this standard or permit the use of other devices or methods which provide safety features equal to or exceeding this standard.

1.4 Interpretation. In cases where additional explanation or interpretation of this standard is required, such requests should be referred to Standards Committee Al O, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 6061 1.

1.5 Application. This standard, which represents the copensus of a cross section of the industry, should
form the basis for construction safety regulations established by federal, state, and municipal agencies, as well as for safety standards adopted by insurance companies and trade associations, However, while it is intended as a guide in the promulgation of regulatory safety codes, it is not intended to supersede applicable federal, state, or municipal laws, rules, and regulations.
1.6 Scaffolding. Scaffolding used in concrete construction and masonry work shall be designed and constructed in accordance with American National Sfandard Safety Requirements for Scaffolding, ANSI A10.8-1977.

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A N S A 3 0 - 7 83 W 0724350 0000548 Y
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

flying deck forms. A formwork system for floor slabs that is moved in large sections by mechanical equipment (crane, forklift, etc.). formwork. The total system of support for freshly placed or partially cured concrete, including the mold or sheathing that contacts the concrete as well as all supporting members, hardware, and bracing. horizontal shoring beams. Adjustable beams or trusses used as load carrying members in shoring systems. proper authority. Any authorized representative of an administrative body or governmental division or subdivision that has jurisdiction over the subject matter in this standard. qualified designer, A person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, has demonstrated ability in design in the subject under consideration covered by this standard. qualified person. A person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has demonstrated ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter of this standard. reshoring. The vertical supporting members that are used to support partially cured concrete after the removal of the formwork. shoring. The vertical supporting members in a formwork system. shaii. Denotes a mandatory requirement. should. Denotes a recommendation. standard. An established measure, type, model, or example that has been accepted and recognized in the construction industry. structural concrete. Concrete used to carry structural load or to form an integral part of a structure.
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yards, Lifelines, and Drop Lines for Construction and Industrial Use, ANSI A10.14-1975, or use equivalent protection. 3.1.3 Reinforcing mats used as a walkway shall be provided with planking to afford footing. 3.1.4 Employees shall not be permitted to work above vertically protruding reinforcing steel unless it has been protected to eliminate hazard of impalement. This shall be accomplished by covering the protruding ends of the steel with timber or other equivalent methods. 3.1.5 Housekeeping shall be maintained at all times to reduce tripping and falling hazards.

3.2 Rigging. Bundles of reinforcing steel moved by crane or cableway shall be tied together to prevent slipping. Steel bundles over 20 feet in length shall be handled by spaced two-part slings or chokers. 3.3 Guying. Reinforcing steel for walls, piers, columns, and similar vertical structures shall be guyed and supported to prevent collapse. 3.4 Wire Mesh Rolls. Wire mesh rolls shall be secured at each end to prevent recoiling action. Unrolled wire mesh shall be secured on each side of a proposed cut before cutting the mesh. 3.5 Prohibited Uses of Reinforcing Steel 3.5.1 Reinforcing steel shall not be used as guy attachments at deadmen anchorage points. 3.5.2 Reinforcing steel shall not be used as hooks or stirrups for scaffolding, nor shall it be used as a load bearing member of any lifting device.

4. Cement Handling
4.1 Genaral. This section outlines safety requirements applicable to handling and storage of portland cement and masonry cement at the construction site. 4.1.1 A supply of clean water, or waterless soap, and eyewash solution adequate to flush the eyes should be provided. It is recommended that the workers be provided with protective creams or lotions to reduce dermatitis. Employees exposed to a concentrated amount of cement dust shall wear approved eye protection. 4.1.2 Guardrails, midrails, and toeboards shall be installed on open sides and ends of platforms, runways, or walkways 6 feet or more above the ground or floor level. 4.2 Bulk Cement Transfer Facilities 4.2.1 Equipment depending upon gravity, screw conveyor, or pneumatic systems to convey cement

3. Reinforcing Steel
3.1 General. This section deals with the safe handling, installation, and use of reinforcing steel on the construction site. 3.1.1 Protective gloves should be worn when handling reinforcing steel. 3.1.2 Employees placing and tying reinforcing steel in walls, piers, columns, etc., working 6 feet or more above an adjacent working surface shall use safety belts conforming to American National Standard Requirements for Safety Belts, Harnesses, Lan8

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A N S I A 1 0 - 7 8 3 PI 0 7 2 4 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 7 b
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

shall be designed and constructed in accordance with American National Standard Safety Standards for Conveyors and Related Equipment, ANSI B20.11976. Provision shall be made to lock out the power source when employees do maintenance or repair work on cement pumps, screw conveyors, and other types of conveyors. 4.2.2 Exposed moving parts shall be guarded in accordance with American National Standard Safety Standard for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus, ANSI B15.1-1972, 4.2.3 A dust collection system should be provided to control atmospheric contamination by pulverized materials. Such a system would be concerned primarily with spillage at transfer points in the conveying systems,

Safety provisions relating to surface preparation are also included.

4.3 Storage Facilities 4.3.1 Bulk storage facilities shall have conical or tapered bottoms with mechanical or pneumatic means of starting the flow of hung up material. 4.3.2 When placement of an employee inside the storage tank cannot be avoided, he shall wear a shoulder harness and line that is continuously attended and observed from outside the storage bin or silo. Also, the ejection system shall be shut down and locked out. When hazardous dust conditions exist inside a tank, approved respirators shall be worn. 4.3.3 Access facilities for dollies, hand trucks, forklift trucks, etc., including ramps and aisles, shall be provided. 4.3.4 Sforage facilities for bagged portland cement, masonry cement, and lime shall be carefully selected. The maximum storage capacity shall be determined and clearly indicated only after thorough investigation of the strength of the structure and its foundation. 4.3.5 Bagged portland cement, masonry cement, and lime shall be stacked in piles, stepping back the layers and cross keying the bags at least every ten bags high. Bags shall be removed uniformly from the top of the piles to avoid tipping of the stack. 4.3.6 Pallets and empty bags shall be disposed of promptly to eliminate hazards of fire and tripping. Returnable pallets shall be stored in an orderly manner until ready for shipment.

5. Concrete Placement
5.1 General. This section contains safety requirements applicable to the mixing, conveying, placement, curing, and finishing of concrete. It deals with placement by conventional methods as well as specialty methods.

5.2 Plant and Equipment 5.2.1 Concrete mixers equipped with one yard or larger loading skips shall be equipped with a device to clear the skip of material. 5.2.2 Mixers of one yard capacity or greater shall be equipped with protective guardrails installed on each side of the skip. 5.2.3 Concrete batching plants, aggregate processing plants, hoppers, bins, conveyors, ramps, etc., shall be designed to withstand the intended loads with a minimum factor of safety of 1.5. 5.2.4 Conveyors shall be designed, installed, operated, and maintained in accordance with the provisions of ANSI B20.1-1976. 5.2.5 Pavers shall be equipped with an automatic audible warning device that operates when the paver is moved ahead or the bucket is run out. 5.2.6 Handles on bull floats, used where they may confact energized electrical conductors, shall be constructed of nonconductive material, or insulated with a nonconductive sheath whose electrical and mechanical characteristics provide the equivalent protection of a handle constructed of nonconductive material. 5.2.7 Powered and rotating-type concrete troweling machines that are manually guided shall be equipped with a control switch that wiil automatically shut off the power whenever the operator removes his hands from the equipment handles. 5.2.8 HandIes of buggies shall not extend beyond the wheels on either side of the buggy. Installation of knuckle guards on buggy handles is recommended. 5.2.9 Concrete pumping systems using pipe shall be provided with pipe supports designed for 100 percent overload. Where men are required to work from the pipe supports, the supports and scaffolding shall have a minimum factor of safety of 4.Any air hoses or pipes in such systems shall be provided with positive fail-safe joint connectors to prevent separation of sections when pressurized. When air pressure and a clean out plug are used to clean the transfer lines, a trap shall be installed at the end of the line to prevent the clean out plug from being shot into an area occupied by people. 5.2.10 Concrete buckets equipped with hydraulic or pneumatic operated gates shall have positive safety latches or similar safety devices installed to prevent premature or accidental dumping. Buckets shall be designed to prevent material from hanging up on the top and sides of the bucket. 5.2.11 Sections of tremies, elephant trunks, and similar concrete conveyances shall be secured with wire rope or equivalent in addition to the regular couplings or connections.
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A N S I AIO-7 8 3 W 0 7 2 9 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 2 M
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

5.2.12 Conductors, frequency changers, and other energized parts shall be installed and grounded in accordance with applicable provisions of American National Standard National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI C2-1981. 5.2.13 Walkways and scaffolding, provided along the access and at points of placement in walls, piers, columns, etc., shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ANSI Al 0.8-1977, and/or American National Standard for Floor and Wall Openings, Railings and Toeboards, ANSI A l 2.1-1973, 5.2.14 Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, flywheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, and moving parts of equipment shall be guarded if such parts are exposed to personal contact or otherwise constitute a hazard. Guarding shall conform to ANSI B15.1-1972. 5.2.15 Stationary electric-driven equipment, such as compressors, mixers, conveyors, screens, etc., shall be locked and tagged out prior to making repairs. 5.2.16 Fire protection, consisting of portable fire extinguishers, water standpipes, and fire hoses, shall be provided in stationary batching and screening plants. 5.3 Employee Protection during Cutting and Sandblasting 5.3.1 Employees wet cutting or wet sandblasting concrete shall wear approved head and face protective equipment, along with long-sleeve shirts, full-length trousers, and gloves, 5.3.2 Employees dry cutting or dry sandblasting concrete shall wear approved respiratory protective equipment, along with long-sleeve shirts, full-length trousers, and gloves. 5.3.3 Employees required to enter the immediate area where wet or dry sandblasting operations exist shall wear approved protective head and face equipment and protective clothing. 5.4 Concrete Placement 5.4.1 Concrete buckets, positioned by a derrick, crane, or cableway, shall be suspended from approved shackles or safety-type hooks. The load shall not exceed the rated lifting capacity of the cableway, derrick, or crane at the designated boom radius. 5.4.2 When the point of placement is not readily visible to the derrick, crane, or cableway operator, a signalman using a uniform signal system shall be positioned in clear view of the operator and the point of placement. Where this is not possible, telephone or radio communication shall be used. 5.4.3 Riding of concrete buckets shall be prohibited. People shall be kept out from under concrete buckets suspended from derricks, cranes, or cableways. 5.4.4 In handling concrete buckets by derricks or
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cranes, care should be taken to keep the loaded bucket under the boom point in order to minimize side loading on the boom., 5.4.5 Concrete trucks and other mobile equipment shall be equipped with automatic audible backup alarms, or backing operations shall be controlled by a signalman. 5.4.6 When discharging on a slope, the wheels of ready-mix trucks shall be blocked and the brakes set to prevent movement, unless the driver remains in the cab and controls vehicle movement. 5.4.7 Employees should wear full-length trousers, long-sleeve shirts, rubber boots, and gloves and avoid prolonged contact between skin surfaces and moist concrete, to reduce the.possibility of concrete burns. It is recommended that the workers be provided with protective creams or lotions to reduce dermatitis. Employees exposed to concrete splatter shall wear approved eye protection. Washing facilities, or waterless soap, and eyewash solution adequate to flush the eyes should be provided. 5.4.8 A stable footing shall be provided for employees applying a cement, sand, and water mixture through a pneumatic hose. 5.4.9 Nozzlemen applying a cement, sand, and water mixture through a pneumatic hose shall wear approved head and face protective equipment.

5.5 Patching, Finishing, and Curing 5.5.1 When patching, finishing, or curing work must be done at elevations beyond the reach of workmen, access to such work shall be provided by ladders, scaffolds, boatswains chairs, or other approved methods. 5.5.2 Employees shall be required to wear approved safety glasses or face shields when chipping, wire brushing, or using power impact or rotary tools in patching and finishing concrete. 5.6 Winter Protection 5.6.1 Fire protection consisting of water hoses, fire extinguishers, or both, shall be provided for all operational heating equipment being used for concrete curing. 5.6.2 Any temporary winter protection enclosures shall be provided with adequate light and ventilation for the safety of personnel in these areas. 5.6.3 Temporary heating equipment, including storage containers, valves, piping, and fittings, shall be installed, tested, operated, and maintained in accordance with the provisions of American National Standard Safety Requirements for Temporary and Portable Space Heating Devices and Equipment Used in the Construction Industry, ANSI A1O.lO-1981.

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ANSI AL0.7 83

0 7 2 4 3 5 0 0000551 4

AMERICANNATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

6. Vertical Shoring
6.1 General. The requirements in this section apply to all vertical shoring and reshoring. All vertical shoring and reshoring shall comply with American National Standard Recommended Practice for Concrete Formwork, ANSIIACI 347-1978, except where a more specific standard is contained herein. 6.1.1 The specifications and shoring and reshoring drawings shall be prepared or approved by a qualified designer. 6.1.2 The shoring and reshoring drawing and/or specifications shall include details of unusual conditions such as heavy beams, sloping areas, ramps, and .cantilevered slabs, as well as plan and elevation views, minimum values of concrete strength for formwork removal, and maximum allowable loads for which the formwork system is designed. 6.1.3 A copy of the shoring and reshoring drawing and/or specifications shall be available at the job site at all times. 6.2 Loads and Design 6.2.1 Total vertical design load shall consist of dead load plus allowance for live load. The weight of the formwork together with the weight of freshly placed concrete is the dead load. The minimum allowance for formwork dead load shall not be less than 10 pounds per square foot. Live load includes the weight of personnel, equipment, runways, mounding of concrete, and impact of concrete and equipment, and shall be computed in pounds per square foot of horizontal projection. It is recognized that not all live loads are imposed simultaneously with the total dead load; therefore, only that portion of the live load that is present need be considered. Additional allowance for live load shall be added for special conditions that may occur when pIacing concrete. If motorized carts are used, the live load shall be increased an additional 25 pounds per square foot. Under no conditions shall the total vertical design Ioad be less than 100 pounds per square foot, and when motorized carts are used, not less than 125 pounds per square foot. 6.2.2 Shoring shall be designed in accordance with 7.2.3 of this standard. 6.2.3 Allowable loads on componenh shall be based on a factor of safety consistent with the type of shoring used and as set forth under 6.5,6.6,6.7, and 7.7. Safety of the concrete structure shall be determined in accordance with American National Standard Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, ANSIIACI 318-77 (and the 1980 supplement to ANSI/

AC1 3 18-77) with a load factor no less than 1.3 being used on the construction loads. 6.2.4 Unit stresses for use in the design of shoring, allowable loads on accessories, and factors of safety shall be as set forth in ANSIIACI 347-1978. When fabricated shoring units are used, manufacturers and/ or suppliers recommendations for allowable loads shall be followed providing the recommended allowable loads are supported by test results. 6.2.5 The specifications to be used for form lumber and timber shall be shown on all shoring and reshoring drawings and/or specifications. 6.2.6 The sills for shoring and reshoring shall be capable of supporting the maximum intended load. 6.2.7 When shoring or reshoring from soil, a qualified designer shall determine the type and size of mudsills, spread footings, or pile footings that must be used to support the loads to be placed on them. Precautions shall be taken so that weather and job conditions do not change the load carrying capacity of the soil below the design minimum. Mudsills on frozen ground should never be used to support the load. 6.2.8 If temporary storage of reinforcing steel, material, or equipment on top of formwork becomes necessary, the shoring shall be redesigned and strengthened to meet the intended loads.

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6.3 Field Practices 6.3.1 Shoring and reshoring equipment shall be inspected by a qualified person prior to erection to determine that it is asspecified and shown in the drawings and/or specifications. 6.3.2 Equipment found to be damaged shall not be used for shoring unless repaired to design specifications under the supervision of a qualified person. 6.3.3 Erected shoring equipment shall be inspected by a qualified person prior to, during, and immediately after the placement of concrete. 6.3.4 Deviation in the shoring plan and/or specifications because of field conditions shall meet the approval of a qualified designer before concrete is placed. 6.3.5 .Erected shoring shall be checked by a qualified person to ensure that details of the drawings and/ or specifications have been met. 6.3.6 Upon inspection, if shoring or reshoring equipment is found to be damaged or weakened, the system shall be reinforced to fully compensate for the damaged or weakened members. 6.3.7 When formwork is installed at an angle, or sloping, or when the surface shored from is sloping, the shoring shall be designed for such condition(s). 6.4 Removal 6.4.1 Shoring or reshoring equipment shall not be removed until the specified required test indicates that
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ANSI AL0.9 83 B 07241150 0 0 0 0 5 5 2 b


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

the specified concrete strength has been reached as approved by a qualified person. (See 7.4.7.) 6.4.2 Removal of shoring and reshoring equipment shall be planned as shown on the shoring and reshoring drawings and/or specifications so that the equipment that is stdl in place is not overloaded. 6.4.3 Slabs or beams that are to be reshored shall be allowed to take their dead load deflection before installation of reshoring equipment is made. 6.4.4 While the reshoring is underway, no placement of fresh concrete or storage of reinforcing steel on slab forming above shall be permitted; and no construction loads shall be permitted on the partially cured concrete unless accounted for in the shoring and reshoring design. 6.4.5 The unfactored design load of the supporting slab shall not be exceeded when reshoring. A load factor no less than 1.3 shall be used to determine safe loads to be carried by a supporting slab during reshoring. 6.4.6 The reshoring shall be checked by a qualified person to determine that it is properly placed as specified in the formwork drawings and/or specifications.

6.5.7 Devices for attaching the external lateral stability bracing shall be securely fastened to the legs of the shoring frames. 6.5.8 Baseplates, shore heads, extension devices, or adjustment screws shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form material, and shall be snug against the legs of the frames. 6.5.9 Eccentric loads on shore heads and similar members shall be prohibited unless designed for such loading. 6.5.10 Adjustment screws shall not be adjusted beyond their recommended safe thread extension nor adjusted to raise formwork after the initial set of the concrete. 6.6. Tube and Coupler Tower Shoring 6.6.1 Tube and coupler towers used for shoring shall have allowable loads based on tests conducted according to the Recommended Procedures for Compression Testing of Scaffolds and Shores, Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Institute, 1967 [ i ] , 6.6.2 Shoring design and/or specifications shall be based on working loads which were obtained using the test procedures referred to in 6.6.1, with a factor of safety of at least 2.5. 6.6.3 Tube and coupler components shall be inspected by a qualified person before being used. 6.6.4 Tubes of shoring structures shall not be used if heavily rusted, bent, dented, or having other defects. 6.6.5 Couplers (clamps) shall not be used if deformed, broken, or have defective or missing threads on bolts, or other defects. . 6.6.6 The material used for the couplers (clamps) shall be of a structural type such as drop-forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum. Gray cast 'iron shall not be used. 6.6.7 When checking the erected shoring towers with the shoring design drawings and/or specifications, the spacing between posts shall not exceed that specified, and all interlocking of tubular members and tightness of couplers shall be checked. The screws shall be engaged to the manufacturer's specification. 6.6.8 Baseplates, shore heads, extension devices, or adjustment screws shall be in firm contact with the footing sill, and the form material, and shall be snug against the posts. 6.6.9 Eccentric loads on shore heads and similar members shall be prohibited unless they are designed for such loading, 6.6.10 Adjustment screws shall not be adjusted beyond their recommended safe thread extension nor adjusted to raise formwork after the initial set of the concrete,

6.5 Tubular Welded Frame Shoring 6.5.1 Metal tubular frames used for shoring shall have allowable loads based on tests conducted according to the Recommended Procedures for Compression Testing of Scaffolds and Shores, Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Institute, 1967 [i] 6.5.2 Shoring design and/or specifications shall be based on working loads that were obtained using the test procedures referred to in 6.5.1, with a factor of safety of at least 2.5. 6.5.3 All metal tubular frame shoring equipment shall be inspected by a qualified person before erection. 6.5.4 Metal tubular frame shoring equipment and accessories shall not be used if heavily rusted, bent, dented, or if they have broken weldments or other defects. Repairs shall be made under the supervision of a qualified person. 6.5.5 Locking devices on frames and braces shall be in good working order, coupling pins shall align the frame or panel legs, pivoted cross braces shall have their center pivot, and all components shall be in a condition similar to that of original manufacture. 6.5.6 When checking the erected shoring frames with the shoring drawings and/or specifications, the spacing between towers and cross brace spacing shall not exceed that shown by the drawings and/or specifications, and all locking devices shall be in the closed position.

'Numbers in brackets refer to the references listed in 12.2.


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ANSI A L O - 9 83 m 0724350 0000553 8 m


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

6.7 Single Post Shores 6.7.1 When checking erected single post shores with the shoring design drawings and/or specifications, the spacing between shores shall not exceed that specified. All clamps, screws, pins, and all other components shall be in the closed or engaged position. 6.7.2 Devices that atach to the external lateral stability bracing shall be securely fastened to the single post shores. 6.7.3 Baseplates or shore heads of single post shores shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form material. 6.7.4 Eccentric loads on shore heads shall be prohibited unless designed for such loading. 6.7.5 Adjustment of single post shores to raise formwork may be made during placement of concrete. However, adjustment shall not be made after the initial set of the concrete. 6.7.6 For fabricated metal single post shores, the following shall apply: (1) Single post shores shall have working load ratings based on tests conducted according to the standard test procedures for fabricated single post shores in Recommended Procedures for Compression Testing of Scaffolds and Shores, Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Institute, 1967 [i]. (2) Design of the shoring shall be prepared by a qualified designer using working loads which were obtained using the test procedures referred to in 6.7.6(1), with a factor of safety of at least 3. (3) Fabricated single post shores shall be inspected by a qualified person before being used. (4) Fabricated single post shores shall not be used if heavily rusted, bent, dented, or having broken weldments or other defects. Repairs shall be made under the supervison of a qualified person. If they contain timber, they shall not be used if they: (a) Have splits in excess of recognized lumber grading rules (b) Are cut (c) Have sections removed (d) Are roten (e) Are otherwise structurally damaged (5) Clamps, screws, pins, thread, and other components shall be in a condition equal to that of the original manufacture. 6.7.7 For adjustable timber single post shores, the following shall apply: (1) Adjustable timber single post shores shall have working load ratings based on tests conducted according to the standard test procedures for fabricated single post shores in Recommended Procedures for Compression Testing of Scaffolds and Shores, Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Institute, 1967 [I].

(2) The shoring design drawings and/or specifications shall be prepared by a qualified designer using the allowable load obtained b y using the test procedure referred to in 6.7,7(1), wih a factor of safety of at least 3.

7 . Formwork
7.1 General. This section deals with the design, fabrication, handling, placing and removal of formwork. All formwork shall comply with ANSIIACI 347-1978, except where a more specific standard is contained herein. 7.1.1 Formwork shall be designed, fabricated, erected, supported, braced and maintained so that it will support all vertical and lateral loads (see 7.3.3) that may be applied until such loads can be supported by the structure. 7.1.2 Formwork shall be inspected by a qualified person prior to, during, and immediately after placement of the concrete. 7.1.3 Stripped lumber and materials intended for reuse shall have all nails removed or bent under and all wire removed. All lumber and material shall be removed from the work area or properly stockpiled. 7.1.4 Lumber, concrete, form hardware, and other materials shall not be permitted to accumulate on walers, scaffolds, walkways and formdecks. 7.1.5 Fire protection shall be provided in accordance with American National Standard for Safeguarding Building Construction and Demolition Operations, ANSI/NFPA 241-1980 in areas where wood forms or other combustible materials are used. 7.2 Loads . 7.2.1 Total vertical design load shall consist of dead load plus allowance for live load, The weight of the formwork, together with the weight of freshly placed concrete is the dead load. The minimum allowance for formwork dead load shall not be less than 10 pounds per square foot. Live load includes the weight of personnel, equipment, runways, mounding of concrete, and impact of concrete and equipment, and shall be computed in pounds per square foot of horizontal projection. It is recognized that not all live loads are imposed simultaneously with the total dead load; therefore, only that portion of the live load that is present need be considered. Additional allowance for live load shall be added for special conditions which may occur when placing concrete. If motorized carts are used, the live load shall be increased by an additional 25 pounds per square foot. Under no conditions shall the total vertical design load be less than 100 pounds per square foot, and when
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A N S I A 1 0 * 7 83
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

0724350 0000554

motorized carts are used, not less than 125 pounds per square foot. 7.2.2 Pressures exerted by concrete on vertical forms shall be determined as set forth in ANSI/ACI 347-1978. If retarders, superplasticizers, flyash, or other admixtures are used in the concrete mix, special provisions shall be made for the increased pressures. 7.2.3 Braces, shores and vertical forms shall be designed to resist all foreseeable lateral loads such as wind, cable tensions, inclined supports, impact of placement, and starting and stopping of equipment. The assumed value of load caused by wind, impact of concrete and equipment, acting in any direction at each floor line, shall not be less than 100 pounds per linear foot of floor edge nor less than 2 percent of the total dead load on the floor. The height of wall forms shall be taken into consideration when determining the wind load for the formwork design. Formwork should be designed to meet minimum wind load requirements of the local building code. The minimum wind design load should be 15 pounds per square foot, unless the local code specifically permits less. Bracing for wall forms shall be designed for a lateral load of at least 100 pounds per linear foot of wall, applied at the top of the wall. 7.2.4 Formwork shall be designed for all special conditions of construction, such as unsymmetrical placement of concrete, impact of machine delivered concrete, uplift, and concentrated loads. 7.2.5 Imposition of any construction loads on the formwork shali not be permitted unless such loading has been included in the design of the formwork and shown on the design drawings and/or specifications.

7.3 Formwork Design 7.3.1 In the design of any form, regardless of size, provisions shali be made not only for the known concrete pressures and weights, but also for additional form pressures which may result, such as impact during concrete placement, low temperatures, or other factors that would retard the set and increase the pressures, vibrations of the form or the concrete during placing, uneven stressing, or impact from placing equipment. 7.3.2 All formwork, designed in accordance with this standard, shall be designed by or under the supervision of a qualified designer. 7.3.3 Unit stresses for use in the design of formwork, allowable loads on accessories, and factors of safety shali be as set forth in ANSI/ACI 347-1978. When fabricated formwork units are used, manufacturers recommendations for ailowable loads shall be followed providing the recommended allowable loads are supported by test results.
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7.4 Placing and Removal of Forms 7.4.1 When forms are placed or removed by crane, cableway, A-frame, or similar equipment, the rigging and lifting attachments shali meet the safety requirements of American National Standard Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI B30.9-1971. 7.4.2 Taglines shali be used when moving panels or other large sections of forms by crane or hoist when the load can contact the boom, jib, or any stationary object. 7.4.3 All hoisting equipment shall be used in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and the safe working load as determined by the manufacturer shali not be exceeded. Field or shop fabricated hoisting equipment shall be designed in accordance with American National Standards in the B30 series. The design shall be made or approved by a qualified designer. 7.4.4 When the forming and stripping operations of formwork cannot be done from the floor, ground, or other solid construction, ladders, scaffolds, or other approved means of access shall be used. 7.4.5 Forms being raised or removed in sections shall not be released until braced or secured. Personnel shall be piohibited from riding forms being moved or suspended from hoisting devices, except slip forms designed for that purpose. 7.4.6 Employees or others at lower levels shali be protected from falling materials by approved warning signs, barricades, or overhead protection along walkways. 7.4.7 No construction loads shall be supported on, nor any formwork or shoring system be removed from, any part of the structure except where that portion of the structure, in combination with the remaining forming and shoring system, has sufficient strength to support its weight and total loads involved. The strength of the partially cured concrete and/or reshoring necessary to carry the proposed construction loads shall be specified by an engineerlarchitect if not contained in the job drawings and/or specifications. 7.4.8 For determination of adequate strength for formwork and shoring removal, the type and number of tests to determine the strength of the concrete shall be specified by the designer of the forinwork system, and shall be indicated on the formwork drawings, if not contained in the job drawings and/or the job specifications. The test of the concrete shaii be performed by a qualified person. If a test indicates a strength lower than the required strength, then the concrete shall be subject to further investigation by a qualified person. 7.4.9 Copies of formwork drawings required in this standard shall be available at the job site and followed by the constructor. Records of the cast-n-place test results shali be made available to proper authorities.

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ANSI AIO-9 83

0724250 0000555 2

AMERXCAN NATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

7.5 Vertical Slip Forms 7.5.1 Slip forms shall be designed and drawings made by or under the supervision of a qualified designer, in accordance with ANSI/ACI 347-1978. The drawings, showing the jack layout, formwork, work decks, scaffolding, and total allowable load on slip form platforms shall be available a t the job site. 7.5.2 The steel rods or pipe on which the jacks climb or by which the forms are lifted shall be designed for that purpose. 7.5.3 Jacks and vertical supports shall be positioned in such a manner that the loads do not exceed the rated capacity of the jacks. 7.5.4 The jacks or other lifting devices shall be provided with mechanical dogs or other automatic holding devices to prevent slippage during failure of the power supply or the lifting mechanism. 7.5.5 Lifting shall proceed steadily and uniformly and shall not exceed the predetermined safe rate of lift. 7.5.6 Lateral and diagonal bracing of the forms shall be provided to prevent excessive distortion of the structure during the slipping operation. 7.5.7 While the slide is in operation, the form structure shall be maintained in line and plumb. 7.5.8 Field operations shall be under the supervision of a qualified person who shall be present on the deck during slipping. . 7.5;9 All vertical slip forms shall be provided with scaffolding or work platforms completely encircling the area of placement. 7.5.10 Employees placing reinforcing steel ahead of the concrete placement shall wear safety belts and lanyards tied off to safety lines or otherwise fastened when working above the scaffold level. 7.6 Flying Deck Forms 7.6.1 All flying deck forms shali be designed according to 7.2 and 7.3 of this standard. 7.6.2 The constructor shal verify that equipment capabilities are not exceeded during concrete placement or during the flying operation. 7.6.3 Field assembly of the equipment shall be in accordance with the manufacturers andlor suppliers recommended procedures. A copy of these procedures shall be available at the job site. 7.6.4 Any movement of the deck forms must be in strict accordance with the manufacturers and/or suppliers procedures. A copy of these procedures shall be available at the job site. 7.6.5 Field operations shall be under the supervision of a qualified person. 7.6.6 A qualified person shall inspect the formwork prior to concrete placement to ensure that all components are properly placed and adjusted.

7.6.7 A qualified person shall inspect the formwork ptor to any movement to ensure that all c o m ponents are properly placed and adjusted. 7.6.8 A safety line shall be attached to each form during the roll out operation, Movement of the forms shall be such that allowable impact loads are not exceeded. 7.6.9 N a one, other than the rigger, shall be permitted on top of the deck form after roll out operation has been completed. Rigging of the deck form shall be completed prior to the line from the crane taking on any load. The rigger shall wear a safety belt attached by a lanyard to a substantial part of the structure during the entire rigging operation. 7.6.10 A tag line shall be attached to the form during the flying operation. 7.6.11 No one shall be permitted on the form during any movement, either horizontal or vertical. Nothing shall be allowed on top of the forms during any movement of the forms, other than integral parts of the deck forms that have been securely fastened to the deck prior to the movement (bulkheads, bean sides, etc). Cribbing jacks, heaters, and weatherproofing (tenting) may be attached to the forms and moved with the decks in compliance with the flying form manufacturers recommended procedures. 7.6.12 Catwalks and handrails shall conform to Section 6 of ANSI A10.8-1977. 7.6.13 Slings and rigging attachments shall be in compliance with the manufacturers and/or suppliers recommended procedures and shall meet the minimum requirements of ANSI B30.9-1971. 7.6.14 The formwork equipment must be installed, used and maintained in compliance with the manufacturers recommended procedures. 7.7 Horizontal Shoring Beams 7.7.1 Horizontal shoring beams shall have allowable loads based on results of tests conducted according to the standard test procedure established by the Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Institute in Recommended Proceduresfor Compression Testing of Scaffolds and Shores [i],or its equivalent. A minimum factor of safety of 2 shall be used in establishing allowable loads, 7.7.2 Erected horizontal shoring beams shall be inspected by a qualified person. 7.7.3 Supports for the horizontal shoring beams shall be designed to properly distribute the loads from the horizontal shoring beams to the supports during use. 7.7.4 When supporting horizontal shoring beams on steel hangers, bearing ends of the horizontal shoring beams shall be fully engaged on the hangers. The hangers shall be designed to conform to the bearing

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ANSI AL0.7 83 W 0 7 2 4 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 6 3
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

end, and to support the shoring loads imposed. Hanger manufacturers recommendations shall be followed, providing the recommended allowable loads are supported by test results. 7.7.5 Precautions shall be taken in the design and the installation of horizontal shoring beams for the following conditions: (1) Sloped or supported by sloping ledgers (stringers). (2) Ledger (stringer) height/width ratios exceed 2-1/2 to 1. Under no circumstance shall horizontal shoring beams bear on a single nominal 2 inch ledger (stringer). (3) Eccentric loading conditions exist. (4) Ledger (stringer) consists of multiple members, (i.e., double 2-inch X 6-inch board, 2-inch X 8-inch board, etc.). 7.7.6 Bearing ends of horizontal shoring beams shall be supported and locking devices, if required, properly engaged before placing any load on beams. 7.7.7 Horizontal shoring beams shall not be supported other than at the bearing prongs unless recommended otherwise by supplier, Do not nail beam bearing prongs to ledger. 7.7.8 Adjustable horizontal shoring beams shall not be used as part of a reshoring system.

be kept clean at all times. When tendons are to be cut for gripping or splicing, only shears or high-speed abrasive wheels should be used. When tendons are pulled through ducts or voids in the concrete, precautions shall be taken to prevent mechanical damage to tendons.

8.4 Fitting. In utilizing anchor fittings on tendons, the recommendations and instructions of the supplier concerning installation, maintenance, and replacement shall be followed. Tools, strand vises, or other devices shall be kept clean, lubricated, and in good repair to prevent failure. Worn or distorted chucks shall be discarded.
8.5 Jacking. Jacking equipment shall be inspected by a qualified person for indication of visible signs of defects or other signs of failure, immediately before jacking and during daily jacking operations. During jacking of any tendons, the anchors shall be kept turned up close to the anchorplate. No one shall be permitted to stand in h e or directly over the jacking equipment during tensioning operations. Signs, signals and barriers shall be provided to prevent people from being behind the jack and/or anchorplates during tensioning operations.

8. Prestressed Concrete
8.1 General. This section sets forth requirements that relate specifically to prestressed concrete, pretensioning operations and posttensioning on site. The requirements and recommendations in Sections 1 through 7 and Section 9 also apply to these operations. Field operations shall be under the supervision of a qualified person.
8.2 Pretensioning and Posttensioning. Any site operation providing precast, prestressed concrete members for the project should be set up and organized in accordance with the Manual for Quality Control for Plants and Production of Precast, Prestressed Concrete Product, Prestressed Concrete Institute, MNL-11677 [2] ,and to meet the safety requirements of the Safety and Loss Prevention Manual, Prestressed Concrete Institute, SLP-100-73 [3] . Safety provisions for posttensioning shall comply with Section IV-N in Safety and Loss Prevention Manual, Prestressed Concrete Institute, SLP-100-73 [3]. 8.3 Tendons. Tendons shall be stored and handled to prevent rusting or pitting, to avoid knicks or kinks, and to prevent damage from welding equipment or cutting torches operated near tendons. Tendons shall
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9. Precast Concrete
9.1 General. Applicable requirements and recommendations in Sections 3 through 7 apply to these operations. Handling and erection procedures shall be done under the supervision of a qualified person. 9.2 Storage. Precast members stored on the site shall be supported to prevent tipping. The base shall be level and stable to prevent differential settlement. Stacking of members shall be such that lifting attachments will be undamaged and accessible. 9.3 Handiing and Erection 9.3.1 Employees assigned to handling and erection operations shall be trained in proper methods of handling and erecting precast concrete products. 9.3.2 Precast members shall be handled in a position consistent with their shape and design as recommended on the shop and/or erection drawings. They shall be handled at the lifting points designated on the shop and/or erection drawings using only compatible lifting attachments. During the handling of prestressed concrete beams, it is imperative they be kept in the position designated on the shop and/or erection drawings. 9.3.3 Lifting hardware shall be designed to provide

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A N S I A L O * 7 83

0724150 0000557 5
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

sufficient strength to withstand the imposed loads with a factor of safety of at least 5. Embedded inserts used in precast concrete elements or precast, prestressed concrete shall have a minimum safety factor of 4 and shall be used in the manner described in manufacturers?bulletins. Lifting inserts used in tiit-up wall panels shall have a minimum factor of safety of 2, and should be used in the manner described in manufacturers? bulletins.

which will enable them to continue to support the load in any position should the jack malfunction or lose its lifting ability. 10.3.4 The maximum number of manually controlled jacks on one slab shall be limited to fourteen, and in no event should the number be too great to permit the operator to maintain the slab level within specified tolerances.

9.4 Temporary Support and Bracing. Precast concrete wall units, structural framing, or tilt-up wall panels shall be braced until permanent connections are completed. Temporary supports or bracing shall be designed by or under supervision of a qualified person in accordance with American National Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ANSI A58.1-1982, but not less than 15 pounds per square foot on projected surfaces. Permanent connections may be used in lieu of bracing provided they are designed to withstand all loads imposed during construction and attachments are made under the supervision of a qualified person. 9.5 Falling Hazard. No one shall be permitted under precast members being lifted or tilted into position. Barricades, warning signals and signs shall be provided to safeguard traffic and people in the immediate area of all handling and erection operations.

10.4 Uniform Lifting. Jacking operations shall be synchronized in such a manner as to ensiire even and uniform lifting of the slab. During lifting, all points of the slab support shall be kept within 1/2 inch of that needed to maintain the slab in a level position. If leveling is automatically controlled, a device shall be installed tha? will st.op the operation when the 1/2 inch tolerance is exceeded or when there is a malfunction in the jacking system. If leveling is maintained by manual controls, such controls shall be located in a central location and attended by a qualified person while lifting is in progress. 10.5 Falling Hazard. No one shall be permitted under the slab during jacking operations. 10.6 Load Transfer. Load transfer from jacks to building columns shall not be executed until the welds on the columns?shear plates are cooled to air temperature,

10. Lift-Slab Operations


10.1 General, The requirements and recommendations in this section apply specifically to lift-slab construction operations, The applicable requirements and recommendations in Sections 3 through 9 also apply to lift-slab operations. Field operations shall be done under the supervision of a qualified person. 10.2 Designing and Planning. Lift-slab operations shall be designed and planned by a qualified designer. Such plans and designs shall include detailed instructions and sketches indicating the prescribed method of erection. 10.3 Jacking Equipment 10.3.1 Jacking equipment shall not be loaded beyond its safe working capacity. The threaded rods and other members that transmit loads to the jacks shall have a minimum factor of safety of at least 2.5. Jacking equipment used in lift-slab operations shall meet the criteria in 10.3.2 through 10.3.4. 10.3.2 Jacks shall be so designed and installed so that they will not continue to lift when overloaded. 10.3.3 Jacks shali be installed with a safety device

1 1. Masonry Construction
11.1 General. This section covers safety requirements and recommendations relating ?o on-site masonry construction. Applicable requirements and recommendations of Sections 2 through 8 also pertain to masonry construction. Field operations shall be done under the supervision of a qualified person. 11.2 Handling and Storage of Masonry Materials 11.2.1 Masonry units shail be stored on a firm and reasonably level support. 11.2.2 Masonry materials placed on a scaffold shall not exceed the design capacity of the scaffold. 11.2.3 Loose bricks shall not be stacked more than 7 feet high. When a loose brick stack reaches a height of 4 feet, it shall be tapere&back 2 inches in every foot of height above the 4 foot level. When loose masonry blocks are stacked higher than 6 feet, the stack shall be tapered back one-half of the block height per tier above the 6 foot level. 11.2.4 In removing masonry units, stacks shall be kept level and the step back maintained. 11.2.5 Banded brick or block packages shall not be lifted by crane or lift truck forks inserted informed

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ANSI A30.7 83 W 0724350 0000558 7


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

voids in the package unless the voids are spanned with a suitable support and the package bands are tight. Masonry unit packages that are lifted by forks placed in voids in units on the bottom layer shall be neatly cubed and contain no visible broken units. Other packages shall be lifted with a pallet or other similar device.

12. References
12.1 References to American National Standards. When the following standards are superseded by a revison approved by the American National Standards Institute, Inc, the revision shall apply:
American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powder Actuated Fastening Systems, ANSI A10.31977 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Personnel Hoists, ANSI A10.4-1981 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Material Hoists, ANSI A10.5-1981 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Demolition, ANSI A10.6-1969 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Transportation, Storage, Handling, and Use of Commercial Explosives and Blasting Agents in the Construction Industry, ANSI A10.7-1970 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Scaffolding, ANSI A10.8-1977 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Temporary and Portable Space Heating Devices and Equipment Used in the Construction Industry, ANSI Alo. 10-1981 American National Standard Requirements for Safety Belts, Harnesses, Lanyards, Lifelines, and Drop Lines for Construction and Industrial Use, ANSI A10.141975 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Floor and Wall Openings, Railings, and Toeboards, ANSI A12.1-1973 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Portable Wood Ladders, ANSI A14.1-1982 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Portable Metal Ladders, ANSI A14.2-1982 American National Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ANSI AS8.11982 American National Standard Safety Standard for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus, ANSI BlS.1-1972 Ainerican National Standard Safety Standards for Conveyors and Related Equipment, ANSI B20.1-1976 American National Standard Safety Standard for Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Multiple Girder), ANSI B30.2.0-1976

11.3 Masonry Saws 11.3.1 Masonry saws shall be guarded by a semicircular enclosure over the blade and by a slotted horizontal hinged bar mounted underneath the enclosure to retain fragments of the blade in case it should shatter while in use. 11.3.2 A safety latch shall be installed on notch saws to prevent the motor and cutting head assembly from lifting out of the notches, 11.3.3 Blade speed shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturers specifications. 11.3.4 Dry cutting masonry saws shall be equipped with dust collectors. Operators of such saws and other persons in the area shall be provided with approved dust respirators if exposed to threshold limit value of airborne contaminants as defined by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists [4]. 11.3.5 The noncurrent carrying metal parts of saws and frames shall be grounded. 11.3.6 Saw operators shall wear approved safety goggles or face shields. 11.3.7 Masonry saws shall be inspected by a qualified person at regular intervals and shall be maintained in safe operating condition. 11.4 Masons Scaffolds 11.4.1 Masons scaffolds shall be designed, constructed, and maintained in accordance with ANSI A10.8-1977, with the exception that toeboards and screens need not be used where persons and equipment are excluded from the area under the scaffold by roping or barricading the entire area under the scaffold. 11.4.2 Masons scaffolds and other working surfaces shall be kept free of ice, scrap, debris, unneeded materials, and tools that create a hazard. 11.5 Shoring and Bracing. Masonry walls shall be shored and/or braced until the designed lateral strength is reached, or the top supporting members are in place to prevent collapse due to wind or other forces. The support or bracing shall be designed by or under the supervision of a qualified person to withstand a minimum of 15 pounds per square foot. Braces or shores shail be secured in position.
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ANSI AL0.7 8 3 W 072LlL50 0000557 7

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD A10.9-1983

American National Standard Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes, ANSI B3Q.5-1968 American National Standard Safety Standard for Derricks, ANSI B30.6-1977 American National Standard Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI B30.9-1971 American National Standard National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI C2-1981 American National Standard for Safety-Toe Footwear, ANSI 241-1981 American National Standard Safety in Welding and Cutting, ANSI 249.1-1973 American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, ANSI 287.1-1 979 American National Standard Practices for Respiratory Protection, ANSI 288.2-1980 American National Standard Requirements for Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers, ANSI 289.11981 American National Standard Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, ANSIIACI 3 18-1977 American National Standard Recommended Practice for Concrete Formwork, ANSI/ACI 347-1978 American National Standard National EIectrical Code, ANSI/NFPA 70-1981 American National Standard for Safeguarding Building Construction and Demolition Operations, ANSIINFPA 241-1980

[2] Manual for Quality Control for Plants and Production of Precast, Prestressed Concrete Product, MNL116-77. Chicago: Prestressed Concrete Institute, 1977.3
[3] Safety and Loss Prevention Manual, SLP-100-73 and Supplement Section IV. Chicago: Prestressed Concrete Institute, 1976.3

[4] Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants. Cincinnati: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1982.4
12.3 Sources for Further Information
[i] Formwork for Concrete, AC1 No, 4,4th ed. Detroit: American Cncrete Institute, 1979.'

[2] Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Workplace Environment. Cincinnati: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1978.'
[3] Wood Structural Design Data Book. Washington, D.C.: National Forest Products Association, 1978.6

[4] Recommended Safety Requirements for Shoring Concrete Formwork. Cleveland: Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Institute, 1979.'

IS] Recommended Steel Frame Shoring Erection Procedure. Cleveland: Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Instifute, 1978.'
[6] Single Post Shore Safety Rules. Cleveland: Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Institute, 1980.2 [7] Steel Frame Shoring Safety Rules. Cleveland: Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Institute, 1973.'

12.2 Other References

[i] Recommended Procedures for Compression Testing of Scaffolds and Shores. Cleveland: Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Institute, 1967.2

'Available from the Scaffolding, Shoring and Forming Institute, 1230 Keith Building, Cleveland, Ohio 44115.

Available from the Prestressed Concrete Institute, 20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, Ilinois 60606. AvaiIable from the American Conference-of Governmental Indusfrial Hygienists, P.O. Box 1937, Cincinnati, Ohio 45201. Available from the American Concrete Institute, P.O. Box 19150, Detroit, Michigan 48219. Available from the National Forest Products Associafion, 1619 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036.

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ANSI A L O - 7 8 3 W 0724350 O000560 5

Appendix

(This Appendix is not a part of American National Standard A10.9-1983, but is included for informational purposes oniy.)

Survey of Job Site

Construction and demolition workers are subject to certain hazards that cannot be eliminated by mechanical means and must be controlled by care, common sense, and intelligence. The A10 Committee realizes the importance of safety and strongly recommends that prior to commencing any operation, the employer make a survey of the conditions of the site to determine the hazards and the kind and number of safeguards that the employer will install. The survey should include, but not be limited to, the following: (1) Safe access and movement (a) Work areas (b) Walkways, runways, and passageways (c) Ladders, stairways, and elevators (d) Protection for floor and roof openings (e) Illumination (2) Vehicles (a) Roads: (1) Turn space (2) Parking area (3) Mud areas (b) Materials storage areas and dump areas (c) Signs and signals to route vehicles on the job (d) Maintenance and repairs of vehicles (3) Utilities and service (a) Location of temporary buildings (b) Location and identification of high-voltage lines (identify by signs; move, de-energize, or erect barrier ta prevent contact) (c) Location of sanitary facilities and drinking water

(4) Scheduling work for safety (a) Providing hard hats, life belts, goggles, work vests, and the like on the job (b) Establishing liaison among contractors to prevent congestion among trades (c) Providing temporary flooring, safety nets, and scaffolding where required (5) Work Procedures (a) Space (b) Equipment such as cranes, hoists, elevators and trucks (c) Rigging procedures ( 6 ) Tools and equipment (a) Repair, maintenance and care (b) Inspection (c) Supplies of tools for each job (7) Workers and foremen (a) Job assignment (b) Training and supervision (c) Number of workers (d) Plans for maintaining interest in safety: (1) Safety bulletins, record charts, and posters (2) Recognition for groups or individuals (3) Investigation and reporting on reportable accidents (4) Knowledge of safety orders (5) Safety meetings (6) Specific safety instructions for new employees (e) Establishment of provisions to take immediate action to correct unsafe conditions or acts (f) First aid and medical treatment of injuries

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ANSI A L O * 9 83

0724350 0000563 7 M

American National Standards on Safety Requirements for Construction and Demolition Operations
A l 0.3-1977 A10.4-1981 A10.5-1981 A10.6-1983 A 10.7-1970 Powder Actuated Fastening Systems Personnel Hoists Material Hoists Demolition Transportation, Storage, Handling, and Use of Commercial Explosives and Blasting Agents in the Construction Industry Scaffolding Concrete Construction and Masony Work Temporary and Portable Space Heating Devices and Equipment Used in the Construction Industry Safety Nets Used During Construction, Repair, and Demolition Operations Steel Erection Safety Belts, Harnesses, Lanyards, Lifelines, and Drop Lines for Construction and Industrial Use Dredging Tunnels, Shafts, and Caissons, Construction of Asphalt Pavement Construction Temporary Floor and Wall Openings, Flat Roofs, Stairs, Railings, and Toeboards for Construction Ceramic Tile, Terrazzo, and Marble Work Safeguarding Building Construction and Demolition Operations (ANSI/NFPA 241-1975) Rope-Guidedand Nonguided Workmen's Hoists Suspended Work Platforms for Cranes and Derricks

A I 0.-1977 A10.9-1983 A l O. 10-1981


A1O.ll-1979 A10.13-1978 A10.14-1975 A10.15-I 974 A l O. 16-1 981 A l 0.1 7-1975 A10.18-1977 A10.20-1977 A 10.2 1- 1975 A10.22-1977 A I 0.28-1983

American National Standards Institute, Inc 1430 Broadway New York, N.Y. 10018

February 1983

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