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# Highway

## Softening point of bitumen asphalt

Prepared by:
Haval Essa Meshko Supervised by: Mr. Bayar & Mr. Yusif 2010

Introduction:
Because the softening of a bituminous material does not take place at any definite temperature, but rather involves a gradual change in consistency with increasing temperature, any procedure that is adopted for determining the softening point must be of a somewhat arbitrary nature. The procedure in common use in highway materials laboratories is known as the "ring-and-ball method" and may be applied to semisolid and solid materials.

Practically, the temperature at which the softening bituminous material touch the bottom metal plate placed 25 mm below the rings holders is recorded as the softening point.

Purpose:
To obtain the point at which the bitumen becomes softening to use it to: Classify bitumen according to their susceptibility to heat. Classify bitumen according to their suitability to use in hot or cold regions. Check the uniformity of sources supplies. Indicate the tendency of bitumen to flow at elevated temperatures.

## Apparatus & Materials:

1. 3. Bituminous materials. Distilled water (with out air voids). 2. Heating sours ((Heater)). 4. Pyconometer (glass container). 5. Thermometer 6. Softening point apparatus. 7. Brass ring. 8. Centering guide. 9. Steel ball. 10. Steel shelf 11. Oil & filler (cement).

Procedure:
1. We will calibrate the change in temperature before making the test and must be 5 C/mm then increase of temperature. 2. Put the brass ring of (5/8) inch diameter and (1/4) inch in think in the steel shelf within a sample of bitumen material and filled in pycnometer within distilled water at know temperature. 3. Put the ball of steel on the center of the upper surface of the bitumen in to the ring by using the centering guide. 4. Put the pycnometer increase rate must be 5 C/mm and must be calibrating before making the test. 5. Record the temperature at which the bitumen will flow (1) inch under standard weight of ball. 6. Then we can find the softening point and degree of compaction we can also find susceptibility index & relative density.

Discussion:
The softening point is another important test of bitumen bind and is effecting by change in temperature. This test assures the engineer that the binder being test will have properties similar to this of another binder that has already served successfully. Carefully control of testing temperature and change in temperature must be 5 C/mm and must be calibrated before making the test until to get the resultant more accuracy. Many factor effect on softening point: 1. The water temperature must increase 5C/mm. 2. The water must be distilled without air voids or salts because air bubble may assemblages under the sample during heating.

Conclusion:
If the difference between the two samples in the same test exceeds 1 0C, the test must be repeated. As we looking for our sample we can see that it has a low viscosity. When we change the liquid in the bath there will be different in the results because every liquid has a different boiling point and that affected the softening point, so the lower boiling point need low temperature. Because the water has a boiling point @ 100 0 C; we can not use it as a liquid for testing material having high softening points. When we increasing the rate of heating, the softening point will be less than the standard (original). If there is sand in the sample the boiling point will be increase, then the softening point will be increase. When we use the same sample many times in this test (reheating and retesting) the results will have an error in the softening point because that will make the material less viscous and we will get error in the results.

Calculation:

Figure: