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Michelle Tolentino 2F-Pharmacy PHYANA LAB Terminologies and Body Plan: Directional Terms-describe parts of the body relative

ive to each other. Body Parts and regions Planes-imaginary lines use to locate sections of the body and observe body structure. Body Cavities Serous Membranes-cover the cavities.

DIRECTIONAL TERMS: Right Inferior Anterior Dorsal Proximal Lateral Superficial Epsilateral Cephalic Left Superior Posterior Ventral Distal Medial Deep Contralateral Caudal

a.) Arm-shoulders to elbow b.) Forearm-elbow to wrist LOWER LIMB: a.) Thigh- hip to knee b.) Leg-knee to ankle Central Region of the Body: a.)Head b.)Neck c.)Trunk Thorax(chest) Abdomen(bet. Thorax and pelvis) Pelvis(end of trunk associated in hips) ANTERIOR: Cephalic: Frontal(forehead) Orbital(eyes) Nasal(nose) Oral(mouth) Otic(ears) Buccal(cheek) Mental(chin) Cervical(neck) Clavicular(collar bone)

1. The head is superior to the neck. 2. The sternum is anterior to the vertebral column. 3. The thumb is lateral to the fingers. 4. The right lung and right kidney are ipsilateral. 5. The skin is superficial to the bones. 6. The scapula is posterior to the clavicle. 7. The wrist is inferior to the radius. 8. The ears are lateral to the nose. 9. Muscles are deep to the skin. 10. The right arm and the left arm contralateral. Supine-when lying face upward. Pronation-when lying face downward. Body Parts and Regions: UPPER LIMB:

Trunk: Thoracic -Pectoral(chest) -Sternal(breastbone) -Mammary(breast) Abdominal(abdomen) Umbilical(navel) Pelvic(pelvis) Inguinal(groin) Pubic(genital) Upper Limb: Axilliary(arm pit) Brachial(arm) Antecubital(front of elbow) Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal(wrist) Palmar(palm) Digital(fingers)

Lower Limb: Coxal(hip) Femoral(thigh) Patellar(kneecap) Crural(leg) Pedal: Talus(ankle) Dorsum(top of foot) Digital(toes) Posterior: Cranial(skull) Occipital(base of skull) Nuchal(back of neck) Scapular(Shoulder blade) Acromial(point of shoulder) Upper Limb: Olecranon(point of elbow) Dorsum(back of hand) Lower Limb: Popliteal(hollow behind knee) TRUNK: Vertebral(spinal column) Lumbar(loin) Sacral(between hip) Gluteal(buttock) Perineal(perineum) PLANES: 1.) Sagittal: runs vertically through the body and separates from right and left. Midsagittal: divides body into equal halves. Parasagittal-not to the center.Anything that is parallel. 2.)Frontal(Coronal):runs vertically from right to left and divides body into anterior and posterior parts. 3.)Transverse(Horizontal)-runs parallel to the surface of the ground and divides the body into superior and inferior parts.

4.)Oblique-for cutting specific organ.cut made across the long axis other than right angle. 5.)Longitudinal-a cut through long axis of organ. 6.)Cross/transverse-right angle to the long axis. BODY CAVITIES: 1.)Dorsal Cavity Cranial Spinal Column 2.)Ventral Cavity Thoracic: Mediastinum(center-portions of esophagus and trachea,divides thoracic cavity.) Abdominopelvic-inferior to the diaphragm.(abdominal and pelvic cavity) Serous Membranes: Pleural(lungs) Pericardial(heart) Peritoneal(organs of abdominopelvic) Visceral Serous Membrane -visceral pericardium -visceral pleura -visceral peritoneum Parietal Set: -parietal pericardium -parietal pleura -parietal peritoneum Retroperitoneal:do not have mesenteries.

*Mesenteries-consist of two layers of peritoneum fused together,anchors organ to the body wall,provides pathway to nerve and blood vessel to reach organs.