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DRILLING

BASIC
TRAINING MANUAL
1

Union Oil of California, dba Unocal 2001 All rights reserved

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM

Special Problems

Drilling Basic Table Of Contents

SECTION Introduction Pressure Basics U-Tube Boyles Law / Inversion ECD Surge / Swab Pressure Kicks Cause & Detection Shut-In Drills Drillers Method Kill Weight Mud Other Well Control Methods

SLIDE 2-11 12-27 28-35 36-43 44-45 46-50 51-59 60-62 63-66 67-103 104-105 106-109

SECTION

SLIDE

Gauge Questions 110-139 Pressure Lag Time 140-169 Well Design / LOTs 170-207 Shallow Hazards 208-230 Equipment 231-250 Synthetic Fluids 251-269 Special Problems 270-283 Formulas 284-285 Contact Info 286 Appendix Glossary Homework Simulator Test Sheet Instructor Evaluation Sheet 3

DRILLING TRAINING GROUP


Rick Dolan - (281) 287-7215 - richard.dolan@unocal.com

Benny Mason - (281) 287-7545 - bmason@unocal.com

George Grundt - (281) 287-7254 - ggrundt@unocal.com


4

GOALS OF THE COURSE


To increase our understanding Of the U-Tube Of the Drillers Method Working together- Teamwork This is not designed as a Certification Course To develop (Modify) our approach Dynamic Plan (think) ahead Think smart - Learn smart / Think out of the box dont be a robot and blindly follow. To comply with regulations Unocals Government

TRAINING GROUNDRULES
Stay focused on the agenda Everyone is responsible to participate One conversation at a time All ideas get equal consideration Respect differences There may not be just one answer Be on time
6

IMPORTANT DETAILS
Manuals - they are yours Notes - write in the book or paper Problem solving - work as a team (by table) FOR THE MONEY- Game show - win prizes Homework - DO IT - you will pass the test Test - written/simulator Relax- The more we work together the more we all learn. Parking Lot - Ideas brought up that we are not ready for.
7

OTHER IMPORTANT DETAILS


Emergency Exits No Smoking Restrooms Mobile Phones/Beepers Daily Start - Exactly @ 8 AM Daily End - Approximately 4:30 PM
Lunch

Breaks
8

WHY WE ARE HERE


The oil industry spends millions of dollars every year on well control problems. Environmental problems that result from a well control event add to these costs. But well control problems can lead to a loss of something more valuable than money, HUMAN LIFE. Well control problems are not particular. They can occur in big and small companies, exploration, development or workovers, deep or shallow wells, and high pressure (12,000 psi) or low pressure (15 psi). The potential for well control problems and blowouts is ever present.
9

WHY WE ARE HERE


The consequences of failure are severe. Most of these problems were created by a failure to use BEST PRACTICES such as:

Communications/Teamwork Understanding Alertness Equipment Were here to try to eliminate well control problems all together by reminding you to use BEST PRACTICES, to work as a team, and get back to basics.
10

Communications
You are the chief airplane washer at the company hangar and you: Hook high pressure hose up to the soap suds machine. Turn the machine "on". Receive an important call and have to leave work to go home. As you depart for home, you yell to Don, your assistant, "Don,turn it off. Assistant Don thinks he hears, "Don't turn it off." He shrugs,and leaves the area right after you. Refer to attachment for the results.

11

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM

Special Problems

12

With all the emphasis that we place on mathematics and calculations, Well Control is still as simple as a playground teeter-totter. As we continue learning how to calculate BHP, Hydrostatic Pressure, Gradients, Volumes and Force - Keep in mind this simple picture.

Well Control

0psi

0psi

Hydrostatic = 5000 psi

Hydrostatic = 5000 psi

BHP = 5000 psi

13

Pressure
The total force felt downward is 3 lbs but is this a pressure?

1 lb

1 lb

1 lb

1 3 2 0

lb
14

Pressure
The force felt downward is still 3 lbs but it is felt over a total surface area of 1 square inch. Is this pressure?
1 lb 1 lb 1 lb
1 1

Force Area

3 lbs = 3 psi 1 sq. in.

1 3 2 0

lb
15

Pressure
In our industry, when we are measuring pressure it is usually pressure created with a fluid. We will describe most of these pressures in our Well Control class. For now lets talk about fluid at rest. Fluid at rest creates a pressure that we call Hydrostatic Pressure.

hydro (Fluid)

static (at rest)

1 1 1

PSIhydrostatic = Fluid Weightppg x 0.052 x Vertical Height of fluid

Weight of 0 lb Fluid

16

12 12

What is 0.052?
1 1

1 ft. = 0.052 gal. 12

12 X 12 = 144 in2

A one cubic foot container will hold 7.5 gallons of fluid. Because we are measuring our pressure in square inches, we section the base into square inches. If I now divide the 7.5 gallons by 144 square inches, we find that a column of fluid 1in X 1in X 1ft tall contains 0.052 gallons of fluid.
17

Gradient
If our fluid density is measured in ppg you can then multiply the fluid weight (ppg) by 0.052 to find the hydrostatic pressure (psi) exerted by one foot of this fluid. This is called the pressure gradient (G) of the fluid or the pressure change per foot (psi/ft).

Gradientpsi/ft = Fluid Weightppg x 0.052 x 1ft If we fill the 0.052 gallon container with 10 ppg fluid, what will be the pressure?
1

10ppg x 0.052gal/sq. in./ft = Pressureft 10 x 0.052 = .52 psift


1 ft. = 0.052 gal.

This means that for every foot of mud in the well, the pressure increases by .52 psi. So, Gradientpsi/ft x TVDft = Pressurehydrostatic
18

TVD vs MD
Because fluid density is a function of gravitational force and gravity is a vertical component, the bottomhole hydrostatic pressure is the sum of all the vertical components. The sketch of a slant hole helps us see why this is true. It shows that the mud column can be thought of as a stack of blocks, with the weight of each block pushing vertically downward on those underneath it. From this, we see that it is the vertical height (or depth) of a mud column, not its measured length, that must be used in pressure calculations.

10 11

19

Pressure Equations
Hydrostatic Pressure (psi) = MW (ppg) X 0.052 X Depth (ft) HP = PPG X 0.052 X TVD Hydrostatic Pressure (psi) = Gradient (psi/ft) X Depth (ft.) HP = G X TVD Gradient (psi/ft) = Fluid Weight (ppg) X 0.052 G = MW X 0.052 Equivalent Mud Weight (ppg) = Gradient (psi/ft) 0.052 EMW = G 0.052 or EMW = Press. (TVD x 0.052) Gradient (psi/ft.) = Pressure (psi) Depth (ft.) G = P TVD

Bottom Hole Pressure = Hydrostatic Pressure + Gauge


20

Equation Triangle
Pressurepsi = MWppg X 0.052 X TVDft

Pressurepsi

If you want to solve for MW or TVD, fill in the known information and the equation is written for you.

MWppg X 0.052

X TVDft
21

Equation Triangle
If you want to solve for MW or TVD, fill in the known information and the equation is written for you. 1) SIDPP is 500 psi. Hole TVD is 11,000 ft. How much MW increase is needed to kill the well?

.87 _______ppg Pressure 500 psipsi


MWppg = 0.052 x11000 ft
MWppg =

500 psi

500 572

MW TVDft ft ? ppg X 0.052 X 11000

On your calculator you would key in: 0.052 x 11000 = 572 500 572 = .87ppg
22

Equation Triangle
If you want to solve for MW or TVD, fill in the known information and the equation is written for you. 1) While pulling out of the hole, using 9.6 ppg fluid, you forgot to fill the hole. If your overbalance is 100 psi, how far can the fluid level drop before you are underbalance? _______ft 200

Pressure 100psi psi

FT =

100 psi 9.6ppg x 0.052


100 .5

FT =

? ft MW 9.6ppg 0.052 X TVD ppg X 0.052

On your calculator you would key in: 9.6 x 0.052 = .5 psi/ft 100 .5 = 200ft
23

FORMATION PRESSURES
8.4 ppg > Normal Pressured formations < 8.9 ppg Abnormal Pressured formations > 8.9 ppg 8.4 ppg > Subnormal Pressured formations
As the weight of the sponges increases, the fluid is squeezed out. If you make a hole in the bottom sponge nothing happens. If the bottom sponge is wrapped in plastic (sealed) then the fluid cannot escape and becomes pressurized by the weight of the sponges above. If you make a hole in the bottom sponge:

24

FORMATION PRESSURES Normal, Abnormal & Subnormal


8,000 4,500 8,000 = .56 psi/ft .56 0.052 = 10.8 ppg

4,500 10,000 = .45 psi/ft .45 0.052 = 8.7 ppg 10,000 Formation pressure of 4,500 psi at 8,000 would be considered Abnormal pressure!
P
form atio n

=4

500 psi
25

CHARGED SANDS

COMMUNICATION TO SURFACE CAN BE HARMFUL TO YOUR WELL BEING!

Poor cement practices can lead to communication outside the casing.

26

Up Structure Locations-Normally Pressured Fields


WELL A WELL B WELL C WELL D

3600 3900 4000 4100


E AL H S

NORMAL GRADIENT ALL ZONES


D C
S GA

GAS/ WATER CONTACT

ND SA

E AL H S

PD= PC= PB= 1860 psi G = 1860 / 3600ft = .517 psi/ft MW D = 9.9 ppg

PC = PB= 1860 psi G = 1860 / 3900ft = .477 psi/ft PB = 4000 x .465 psi/ft = 1860 psi PA = 4100 x .465 psi/ft = 1906 psi MW b = 8.9 ppg MW a = 8.9 ppg

MW C = 9.2 ppg

27

U- Tube
While drilling a well, we have a u-tube in effect.

The workstring and the annulus form our u-tube.

10,000 ft

The gauge should be Bottom Hole Pressure.

28

U- Tube
If I started filling the glass tube with a fluid that weighed 9.6 ppg where would the fluid go and what would the gauge read? 10 ft

9.6ppg x 0.052 x 10ft =

29

U- Tube
Two columns of fluid connected at the bottom that will balance each other in a static condition.

If I then put another few gallons of a 12 ppg fluid in the tube what would happen and what would the gauge read? 10 ft

= 9.6ppg x 0.052 x 10ft

30

U- Tube
Calculate Bottom Hole Pressure
AIR

Practice

1,500 ft of 13.6 ppg

10.2 ppg

4,000 ft of 10.2 ppg

6000 ft

6000 ft TVD
31

U- Tube
Calculate Bottom Hole Pressure

Practice

1,000 ft of 10 ppg

5,500 ft of 10 ppg

5,000 ft of 9.6 ppg

6000 ft

500 ft of 6 ppg 6000 ft TVD


32

U- Tube
Calculate how far the slug has dropped.

Practice

1,200 ft of 12 ppg

6,000 ft of 10.5 ppg

6000 ft

6000 ft TVD
33

If there is no balance between the two columns of fluid and the fluid cannot escape, pressure will be created.

U- Tube
Practice

= Gauge Press.

6,000 ft of 12.5 ppg

6,000 ft of 10 ppg fluid

6000 ft

BHP =

6000 ft TVD
34

Well Control

Remember: 0psi 780psi

Hydrostatic = 3900 psi

Hydrostatic = 3120 psi

BHP = 3900 psi

35

Uncontrolled Expansion
0 600-1200 LONG

500

40 LONG

1000

20 LONG

1500

13.5 LONG

MUD

2000

10 LONG

36

GAS EXPANSION
V2 = (P1 X V1) P2 P1 = 5000 psi V1 = 10 bbls
Hydrostatic = (9.6 X 0.052) X 10,000 = 5000 psi New Hydrostatic = (9.6 X 0.052) X 5000 = 2500 psi

? bbls Gas Top of gas at 5000 ft.

2500 psi P2 = Where? 20bbls bbls V2 = ?

10 bbls gas
New Hydrostatic (9.6 X 0.052) X 1000 = 500 psi New Hydrostatic = (9.6 X 0.052) X 100 = 50 psi

P 2 = 500 Where? psi ? bbls Gas 2 ? bbls bbls Top of gas V2 2 = 100 at 1000 ft.

? bbls Gas Top of gas P2 = 500 Where? psi at 100 ft. ? bbls V2 = 1000 bbls
37

Equation Triangle
P1 x V1 = P2 X V2
P1 is the pressure that the gas is under. P1 = BHP V1 is the size of kick V1 = Barrels P2 is the pressure of the gas at its new position in the well. P2 = Hydrostatic + Gauge Pressure V2 is the new size of the kick at its new position in the well. V2 = Barrels

P1 x V1

P2

V2

38

Equation Triangle
P1 x V1 = P2 X V2
P1 = 5000 psi V1 = 10 bbls P2 = 14.7 psi V2 = ?

5000 P1 x X V110

5000 X 10 14.7

= 3,401 bbls

On your calculator you would key in: 5000 x 10 = (50,000) 14.7 =

P2 14.7

? V 2
39

Volume At Surface
12.4 ppg WBM The well unloaded 30 bbls at Bottoms Up.

P1 = 14.7 psi V1 = 30 bbls P2 = 12.4 x 0.052 x 12,000 = 7,740 psi V2 = 0.057 bbl kick on Bottom

Can you detect a kick this size?


40

6 Open Hole to TD@12,000

PRESSURE INVERSION
250 250 Gauge Press. + 2500 Hydrostatic to shoe 2750 psi at casing shoe

Hydrostatic = (10000 143) X 0.052 X 9.6= 4930 psi

250 Gauge Press. + 4930 Hydrostatic 5180 psi Gas Press. 143 ft
41

PRESSURE INVERSION
2680 5180 psi at shoe - 2500 Hydrostatic to shoe 2680 Gauge Press.

Hydrostatic = 5000 X 0.052 X 9.6 = 2500 psi

5180 Gas Press. + 2430 Hydrostatic 7610 psi Bottom Hole

5180

143 ft Hydrostatic = (5000 143) X 0.052 X 9.6 = 2430 psi


42

PRESSURE INVERSION
5180 143 ft 5180 Gas Press. + 2430 Hydrostatic at shoe 7610 psi at shoe 5180

Hydrostatic = (10000 143) X 0.052 X 9.6 = 4921 psi 5180 Gas Press. + 4921 Hydrostatic 10,101 psi Bottom Hole
43

ECD
SPM = 100

2300

Hydrostatic = 10 X 10,000 X 0.052 = 5,200 psi Circulating BHP = 5,200 + 115 Friction loss = 5,315 psi in surface lines = 150 psi Annular Open ECD = 5,315 10,000 0.052 = 10.22 ppg

Mud Weight = 10 ppg 2150

Drillstring friction loss = 745 psi

Friction loss at bit = 1290 psi

Annular friction loss (AFL) = 115 psi

1405 TVD = 10,000 ft

115

44

ECD
Reverse Circulate

Hydrostatic = 10 X 10,000 X 0.052 = 5,200 psi Mud Weight = 10 ppg

2300 SPM = 100

Circulating BHP = 5,200 + 2,035 = 7,235 psi ECD = 7,235 10,000 0.052 = 13.91 ppg

Annular Closed Friction loss in surface lines = 150 psi 2150

Drillstring friction loss = 745 psi

Friction loss at bit = 1290 psi

Annular friction loss (AFL) = 115 psi

745 TVD = 10,000 ft

2035

45

Swab Pressure
In a static condition, Bottom hole pressure is equal to Hydrostatic Pressure. As the pipe is pulled out of the hole, friction creates a swab pressure that is felt upward.
10 ppg

Swab Pressure

BHP = 10,000 X 10 X 0.052 = 5,200 psi Formation Pressure = 5,100 psi


10,000 ft

46

Swab Pressure
If the swab pressure is greater than the overbalance, fluid in the formation can enter the well. In this example, the swab pressure created is 50 psi more than the overbalance. This would let formation fluid into the well.

10 ppg

Swab Pressure = 150 psi

BHP = (10,000 X 10 X 0.052) - 150 psi = 5,050 psi Formation Pressure = 5,100 psi
10,000 ft

47

Swab Pressure
When the pipe movement is stopped, the friction is lost, and the overbalance is returned.
10 ppg

Even though the overbalance is restored, the fluid that was swabbed in is still in the well. This influx would have little or no migration and no noticeable expansion. A flow check would not show any flow.

BUT THERE IS A KICK IN THE WELL!!

BHP = 10,000 X 10 X 0.052 = 5,200 psi Formation Pressure = 5,100 psi


10,000 ft

48

Factors that create swab pressure are: Clearance


10 ppg

Swab Pressure

Yield Point of mud Pulling Speed of Pipe Length of Drillstring

49

10,000 ft

Surge Pressure
Surge Pressure is a downward force create by lowering the drillstring and creating friction as the mud is displaced from the hole. This surge pressure increases BHP.
10 ppg

Factors that create surge pressure are: Clearance Yield Point of mud Running Speed of Pipe Length of Drillstring High surge pressure can cause the formations to fracture and lost circulation to occur.
Surge Pressure = 150 psi
50

10,000 ft

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM

Special Problems

51

TRENDS IN KICK DECTECTION, JUST LIKE DRILLING


What are the trends How do you recognize the trends Teamwork Think and react
52

Kicks
Cause
THE MAIN CONDITION THAT ALLOWS A KICK TO OCCUR: THE PRESSURE IN THE WELL BORE BECOMES LESS THAN THE PRESSURE IN THE FORMATION

53

Decreasing Occurrence 1. Failure to keep hole full of drilling fluid.


Measurement of fill-up volume when pulling drill string (and of displacement volume while running) TRIP TANK!

2. Drilling into zones of known pressure with mud weight too low. 3. Drilling into an unexpected abnormal formation pressure.

Good engineering/good well procedures and alert, questioning attitude by Foreman. ALERTNESS Careful engineering;proper well design;Understand the Geology; Use Pressure Hunting Techniques STUDY OFFSET WELLS!
54

Decreasing Occurrence 4. Lost Circulation (Fluid level, not rate of loss is critical in well control.) 5. Unloading mud by pulling balled drilling assembly. 6. Mud weight high enough to drill but not to trip.
Careful engineering; proper well design;Understand the Geology CASE OFF LOST CIRC. ASAP!

Measurement of fill-up volume when pulling drill string. TRIP TANK! Measurement of fill-up volume when pulling drill string. TRIP TANK!
55

GULF COAST STATISTICS FROM 1960 TO 1996


THERE WERE 1,206 KICKS REPORTED A BLOWOUT OCCURS FOR ABOUT EVERY 110 KICKS EXPLORATION DRILLING - 30% DEVELOPMENT DRILLING - 22% COMPLETIONS - 8% WORKOVERS - 24%
56

GULF COAST STATISTICS FROM 1960 TO 1996


DRILLING STATISTICS TRIPPING OUT - 37% DRILLING - 35% OUT OF THE HOLE - 4% TRIPPING IN - 3% CIRCULATING - 0.5%
57

DETECTION OF KICKS WHILE DRILLING


SIGN 1. Increase in Flow-line discharge 2. Increase in pit volume 3. Drilling break- Real time LWD response. HOW TO CHECK IT OUT Stop pumps & check for flow Stop pumps & check for flow Stop pumps & check for flow

Notes: Dont assume that a small flow is not a kick. Observe well long enough to be sure. Put well on Trip Tank to check small flows, when drilling top of hole at high ROP

CHECK FOR FLOW ON CONNECTIONS

58

Flow Checking
If the well continues to flow after the pumps are off, then: SHUT THE WELL IN There are several reasons which might cause the well to flow with the pumps turned off, the main three are: Unbalanced U-Tube Ballooning or Fracture Charging There is a kick in the well ! However, it is recommended to SHUT THE WELL IN until it is determined the flow is not caused by underbalance.
59

SHUT-IN PROCEDURE
KEEP PATHS ON CHOKE MANIFOLD CLOSED In general, the use of a float while drilling is recommended.

WHILE DRILLING
1. Pull up and position T.J. above rotary table. 2. Shut down pump. 3. Check for flow. 4. Close annular preventer (Hydril) AND Open HCR valve. 5. Toolpusher and Drilling Foreman on floor. 6. Read/record SIDPP and SICP. 7. Start moving pipe if reasonable. 8. Read/record gain in pit volume.

NOTES: 1. When well has been shut-in and readable pressures have been observed, do NOT open well to verify entry or check its rate. 2. Decide on max. CP for pipe Movement AHEAD OF TIME
60

SHUT-IN PROCEDURE
WHILE TRIPPING
1. Set slips with T.J. positioned above rotary table. 2. Install full-opening safety valve in open position. 3. Close safety valve. 4. Close annular preventer (Hydril) AND Open HCR valve. 5. Toolpusher and Drilling Foreman on floor. 6. Put on Top Drive and open safety valve. 7. Read/record gain in pit volume. 8. Start moving pipe if reasonable. 9. Read/record gain in pit volume.

NOTES: 1. When well has been shut-in and readable pressures have been observed, do NOT open well to verify entry or check its rate. 2. Decide on max. CP for pipe movement AHEAD OF TIME 3. Install inside BOP If needed in control procedure.
61

ROLES & RESPONSIBLITIES


Drilling Foreman - Manages and directs all activities at the rig site. Rig Crews - Execute the plan as directed by the Foreman, maintain and ensure all equipment working properly Drilling Engineer - Designs well, works with G&G on pore pressure and fracture gradient prediction. Also provides technical support to Drilling Foreman. Drilling Superintendent - Provides technical support and coordinates the activities by Foreman and Engineer.

62

DRILLS
DRILLS SHOULD BE CONDUCTED AT AN OPTIMUM TIME. Drills are not a competitive sporting event. A five-minute drill indicates that your crew is conducting these drills and hopefully improving. A 30-second drill indicates that you are not doing them properly. Keep kick detection in everyones mind. Gives you information that may be useful during a kill. Gives you practice with the actual equipment. Gives you confidence if you actually are in a well control situation.
63

Establishes Roles and Responsibilities of Crews.

KICK DRILL
Pit Drill/Flow Drill
Action Initiate Drill Lift flow sensor or Pit float to indicate kick Immediately record start time. Responsible Party Unocal Foreman/Rig Manager

Recognize Kick Driller/Logger Logger should notify Driller of indicator. Driller to stop drilling, pick up off bottom and stop pumps. Conduct flow check. Initiate Action Unocal Foreman/Rig Manager Notify drill crew that the well is flowing (Drill) Simulate Shut-in Move to BOP Panel. Driller/Crew

Time is stopped. Record this time in the Drilling Report.


64

TRIP DRILL
Pit Drill/Flow Drill
Action Initiate Drill Lift flow sensor or Pit float to indicate kick Immediately record start time. Responsible Party Unocal Foreman/Rig Manager

Recognize Kick Driller/Logger Logger should notify Driller of indicator. Driller to stop drilling, pick up off bottom and stop pumps. Conduct flow check. Initiate Action Unocal Foreman/Rig Manager Notify drill crew that the well is flowing (Drill) Simulate Shut-In Driller/Crew Position tool joint above rotary and set slips. Stab FOSV and close valve. Latch elevators or make-up top drive and remove slips. Move to BOP panel. Time is stopped. Record this time in the Drilling Report.
H2S drills are conducted the same as above, however upon notification that the drill is in progress the crew will don breathing apparatus before taking any further action.

65

CHOKE DRILL
1. Before drilling out each casing shoe. Trap a small amount of pressure against the choke. Practice proper start- up of the Drillers Method holding this pressure constant. 2. After moving to the Drillpipe Pressure gauge and allowing the pressures in the well to stabilize, make a definite change on the Casing gauge (50 -100 psi) by opening or closing the choke. 3. Record the time required to see this pressure change reflect on the Drillpipe gauge. This is PLT (Pressure Lag Time)
66

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM

Special Problems

67

300

500

DP 300

CP 500

CLOSE

OPEN

Well is shut in and pressures allowed to stabilize. Shut-in Drillpipe pressure + DP Hydrostatic = Bottom Hole Pressure. Kill the well using the Drillers Method.
BHP 5,500

TVD = 10,000 ft.

68

300

500

DP 300

CP 500

CLOSE

OPEN

Mud weight = 10ppg 10,000 X 10 X 0.052 = 5,200 psi BHP = 5,200 + 300 = 5,500 psi

TVD = 10,000 ft.

BHP 5,500

69

300

500

DP 300

CP 500

CLOSE

OPEN

From your last choke drill we know; KRP @40 spm = 1,000psi ICP = 1000 + 300 = 1,300 psi on DP

TVD = 10,000 ft.

BHP 5,500

70

1300

500

DP 1300

CP 500

CLOSE

OPEN

Casing Pressure is held constant as pumps are brought up to speed by opening the choke. If the Casing Pressure is held constant when starting, then BHP is held constant. Once pumps are up to speed, the Drillpipe Pressure should be held constant to keep BHP constant.
BHP 5,500

71

1300

550

DP 1300

CP 550

CLOSE

OPEN

As the bubble begins to expand it pushes mud out of the hole causing a loss of hydrostatic. To keep BHP constant, Drillpipe pressure must be kept constant.
BHP 5,500

72

1300

650

DP 1300

CP 650

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

73

1300

625

DP 1300

CP 625

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

74

1300

600

DP 1300

CP 600

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

75

1300

550

DP 1300

CP 550

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

76

1300

700

DP 1300

CP 700

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

77

1300

1000

DP 1300

CP 1000

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

78

1300 1750

DP 1300

CP 1750

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

79

1300

1000

DP 1300

CP 1000

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

80

1300

400

DP 1300

CP 400

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

81

1300

300

DP 1300

CP 350

CLOSE

OPEN

Once the influx is circulated out, casing pressure should be held constant while the pumps are brought down and the well shutin.

BHP 5,500

82

300

300

DP 300

CP 300

CLOSE

OPEN

Compare the Drillpipe and Casing pressure gauges and confirm that they are equal. If Casing pressure is greater than Drillpipe pressure then you may not have all the influx out of the well. Once you are confident that the annulus is clean line up the pumps on Kill Weight Fluid.
BHP 5,500

83

1300

300

DP 1300

CP 300

CLOSE

OPEN

Hold Casing pressure constant as you bring the pumps up to 40 spm. Continue to hold Casing pressure constant as you displace the drillstring. Drillpipe pressure should drop as hydrostatic in the drillpipe increases.

BHP 5,500

84

1250

300

DP 1250

CP 300

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

85

1200

300

DP 1200

CP 300

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

86

1150

300

DP 1150

CP 300

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

87

1100

300

DP 1100

CP 300

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

88

1060

300

DP 1060

CP 300

CLOSE

OPEN

Once the Drillpipe is full of Kill Weight Fluid the hydrostatic will remain constant. Continue circulating holding Drillpipe pressure constant at FCP. Casing pressure should drop as Kill Weight Fluid displaces the annulus.

BHP 5,500

89

1060

300

DP 1060

CP 300

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

90

1060

250

DP 1060

CP 250

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

91

1060

200

DP 1060

CP 200

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

92

1060

150

DP 1060

CP 150

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

93

1060

100

DP 1060

CP 100

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP 5,500

94

1110

50

DP 1110

CP 50

CLOSE

OPEN

BHP = HP + CP= 5,500 + 50 = 5,550psi

BHP 5,550

95

0 DP 0 CP 0

CLOSE

OPEN

After confirming that Kill Weight Fluid is back to surface, shut the well in. Drillpipe and Casing pressure should read 0 psi. Open the choke and check for flow. When opening the Annular beware of gas trapped under the element.

BHP 5,500

96

DRILLERS METHOD
FIRST STEP ( Remove Influx)
> Monitor shut-in well while preparing to start circulating using original weight fluid. Record Drillpipe & Casing pressures. > Hold Casing Pressure constant while bringing pump up to kill rate speed. THIS SPEED IS TO BE HELD CONSTANT. > Hold Casing Pressure constant a few more minutes until DP pressure stabilizes. > Read DP Pressure and hold this pressure constant until the kick is circulated out of the hole. > Hold Casing Pressure constant while bringing pump speed down. When pump speed is down to the point that the pump is barely running: -Shut pump off (first) -Finish closing choke > Read Pressures. If all influx is out of well the pressure should be almost the same.
97

DRILLERS METHOD
SECOND STEP (Change Fluid Weight)
> Calculate kill weight and increase fluid weight to that value. > Hold Casing Pressure constant while bringing pump up to kill rate speed. THIS SPEED IS TO BE HELD CONSTANT. > Hold Casing Pressure constant until drill string volume has been pumped. > Read DP Pressure and hold this pressure constant until fluid returns are at kill weight. > Shut down pump and shut in well. > Read pressures. Should be zero. > Check for flow through choke line. > Open preventers if well is dead.
98

BHP = HYD + GAUGE


800
1000
Choke Position Open Closed

If the kick was larger in size would DP and CP change? If the kick was salt water or gas would DP and CP change? If a gas bubble began to migrate, how would you control bottom hole press? If the hole size was smaller would it change DP and CP?

9.6 ppg

10,000 ft Formation Pressure= 6000 psi

99

BHP = HYD + GAUGE


1500
1100
Choke Position
Pumps are constant at 40 spm.

Open

Closed

As the bubble expands, what happens to hydrostatic pressure in the annulus?


9.6 ppg

What happens to hydrostatic in the DP? If the DP gauge is kept constant, what happens to BHP? If the CP gauge is kept constant, what happens to BHP?
10,000 ft Formation Pressure= 6000 psi

100

BHP = HYD + GAUGE


1300
800
Choke Position
Pump strokes are constant at 40 spm

Open

Closed

As KWF is being pumped, what is happening to the hydrostatic pressure in the DP?
9.6 ppg

If the annulus is clean, what is happening to the hydrostatic in the annulus? If CP is held constant what happens to BHP? If DP pressure is held constant what happens to BHP?

10,000 ft Formation Pressure= 6000 psi

101

700

780

BHP = HYD + GAUGE


Choke Position
Pump strokes are constant at 40 spm

Open

Closed

As KWF is pumped up the annulus, what is happening to the hydrostatic in the DP?
9.6 ppg

As KWF is pumped up the annulus, what is happening to the hydrostatic in the annulus? If you hold DP constant, what happens to BHP? If you hold CP constant, what happens to BHP?

10,000 ft Formation Pressure= 6000 psi

102

1600 1500

1000

Pressure Lag Time

A closing/opening adjustment on the choke would take 23 seconds to travel down the annulus and 23 seconds to travel up the drillpipe before reflecting on the drillpipe gauge with water base mud. With SBM/OBM, the compressibility of the oil will increase the lag time. On one documented well, with casing set at 14,000 it took 3-4 min. before the choke adjustments were reflected on the drillpipe gauge. To get an estimate of what the lag time can be, choke drills, prior to drilling out the casing shoe, are recommended.
103

TD @ 23,000 ft.

CALCULATION OF KILL WEIGHT


Given: DEPTH (TVD) ORIGINAL MUD WEIGHT SHUT-IN DP PRESSURE BHP = 8000 = 11 PPG = 700 PSI

= SIDPP + Hydrostatic = 700 + (11 X 0.052 X 8000) = 700 + 4576 = 5276 psi = BHP 0.052 TVD =5276 0.052 8000 = 12.68

KMW

12. 6 ppg or 12.7 ppg ?


104

USE OF SAFETY FACTOR IN CALCULATION OF KILL WEIGHT MUD


0 SICP

GIVEN: TD= 9000

9.625

9 5/8 casing shoe @ 3000 8 1/2 open hole

3,000 ft.

5 drill pipe 10 ppg original mud weight

Kill Mud Original Mud 9,000 ft.


KWM used (ppg) 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.5 12.1

Original SIDPP = 500 psi Shoe tested to Leak-off @ 14 ppg EMW Assume pump is shut off when drill pipe is filled with kill mud. 8.5
Safety Factor (ppg) 0 .1 .2 .4 1.0 SICP (psi) 515 550 610 700 980 EMW @ Shoe (ppg) 13.3 13.6 13.9 14.5 16.3 Over/under LOT (ppg) .7 under .4 under .1 under .5 over 2.3 over

105

CASING PRESSURE CURVES


WELL DEPTH = 8000 DRILL PIPE = 5, 19.5# KILL WT. = 10.6 ppg
1200

HOLE SIZE = 12-1/4 MUD WT. = 9.6 ppg

40 bbl KICK
20 bbl KICK

CASING PRESSURE, PSI

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400

10 bbl KICK

BEGIN 2nd. CIRCULATION

BBLS PUMPED

600

800

1000

1200
106

CASING PRESSURE CURVES


WELL DEPTH = 8000 HOLE SIZE = 12-1/4 DRILL PIPE = 5, 19.5#
1000 GAS AT SURFACE CASING PRESSURE, PSI 800 KILL WEIGHT MUD AT BIT 600 400 200 0
107

MUD WEIGHT = 9.6 ppg KILL WEIGHT = 10.6 ppg KICK VOLUME = 20 bbls

DRILLER'S METHOD

WAIT & WEIGHT METHOD WITH NO MIX TIME WITH 2000' MIGRATION

DEVIATED WELL PRESSURE DROP CURVES


60 HOLE WITH KICK-OFF AT 1/3 TMD
1300

DRILL PIPE PRESSURE

1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 0 1000 2000

Conventional Drill Pipe Schedule Am ou nt of Ov erb a la nc e Correct Drill Pipe Schedule

STROKES

108

OTHER WELL CONTROL METHODS


UNOCAL PREFERRED METHOD A. Drillers Method

OTHER ACCEPTABLE METHODS A. Wait & Weight Method B. Top Kill C. Bottom Kill D. Lubricate & Bleed E. Volumetric (does not kill the well) F. Bullhead These Methods Are NOT Preferred

109

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM

Special Problems

110

WELL INFORMATION
TVD = 10,000 ft. Shoe TVD = 7500 ft. Fluid Weight = 9.6 ppg. Circulating Rate = 50 spm. Influx is Gas. Water Base Mud Strokes To Bit = 1,570. Bottoms Up Strokes = 5,550. Strokes To Shoe = 1,390. Total Strokes = 7,120. M.A.S.P. @ 9.6 ppg = 1,100 psi

111

At initial shut-in, these are the stabilized pressures that you read.

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

500
0

3000

1000

800
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

Pit Gain
10 bbls.

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

0 0
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

112

Before you get started, what will the gauges and the pit volume be when you get finished with the first step of the Drillers Method?
A. The same B. 800 psi each 0 pit gain. C. DP -500/CP-800 0 pit gain. D. 500 psi each 10 bbl pit gain. E. 500 psi each 0 pit gain.
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

500
0

3000

1000

800
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

Pit Gain
10 bbls.

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

0 0
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

113

Before you get started, what mud weight should be used?


A. 9.6 PPG B. 10.6 PPG. C. 8.6 PPG. D. 9.0 PPG. E. 10.0 PPG.
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

500
0

3000

1000

800
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

Pit Gain
10 bbls.

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

0 0
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

114

The pumps are brought up to Kill Rate Speed and this is what you see. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Continue holding CP constant B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Begin monitoring DP gauge F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

800
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
10 bbls.

50 150
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

115

Youve been circulating for a few minutes and everything seems to be ok. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

800
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
11 bbls.

50 300
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

116

Casing pressure decreased slightly so you pinched the choke in and this is what you see. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1800
0

3000

1000

800
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
11 bbls.

50 500
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

117

Drillpipe pressure was a little to high so you corrected the problem and this is what you see. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

750
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
11 bbls.

45 750
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

118

You finally get things back to where you like and this is what you see. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

950
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
12 bbls.

50 950
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

119

The Casing pressure is getting close to your posted MASP. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

1000
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
12 bbls.

50 1200
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

120

Its decision time, earn your pay. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

1150
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
12 bbls.

50 1600
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

121

Its starting to get boring now. The driller has gone for a smoke and the AD is on the floor. Before you let him take over, you see this. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
0 0 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500

3000

1000

1250

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

Pit Gain
17 bbls.

54 3500
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

122

You hear gas passing through the choke. What will happen to the casing gauge and to the pit volume as the gas is circulated out? A. Pit volume goes down and casing gauge goes up. B. Pit volume goes up and casing gauge goes up. C. Pit volume goes down and casing gauge goes down. D. Nothing E. Pit volume goes down and casing gauge goes up. F. Pit volume goes up and casing gauge goes down.
CASING
2000

DRILLPIPE
2000

1000

1500
0

3000

1000

1250
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 4500
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

Pit Gain
27 bbls.

123

You hear gas passing through the choke and the Casing gauge begins too drop. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

200
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
27 bbls.

50 4500
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

124

You got behind the kick and played choke handle tennis but finally got the gas out and the well shut-in. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Open choke and flow check B. Line up on KW Mud C. Continue to circulate D. Call town E. Increase Kill Weight Mud F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

550
0

3000

1000

700
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
6 bbls.

0 5550
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

125

You elected to circulate longer and this is what you see. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

550
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
4 bbls.

50 6550
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

126

You have circulated longer. How do you determine it is time to shut it in? A. We have circulated more than a bottoms up. B. Pit volume gain is less. C. DP pressure is constant D. Chock is almost all the way open. E. CP is close to the initial shut in DP pressure.
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

500
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
4 bbls.

50 6600
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

127

You have circulated long enough and decided to shut the well in. How do shut down properly? A. Continue to hold DP constant B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Hold CP constant E. Increase stroke rate
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

500
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
4 bbls.

50 6600
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

128

You got the well shut-in. What is the calculated Kill Weight Mud that should be pumped? A. 9.6 PPG B. 10.6 PPG. C. 9.0 PPG. D. 10.0 PPG. E. 8.6 PPG. F. 11.0 PPG.
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

500
0

3000

1000

500
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
2 bbls.

0 9000
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

129

You bring the pumps back up to Kill Rate Speed, pumping Kill Weight Fluid. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

500
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
2 bbls.

50 50
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

130

Everything is going well. You are on the correct gauge and up to kill rate speed. What will the approximate Drillpipe pressure be when kill weight mud reaches the bit? A. 1500 psi B. 1400 psi C. 1600psi D. 1000 psi E. 1200 psi F. 1700 psi
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

500
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
2 bbls.

50 50
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

131

The Drillpipe pressure began to drop so you closed the choke slightly. Which of the following courses of action should you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1500
0

3000

1000

600
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
2 bbls.

50 200
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

132

The night cook said that you were wrong and made some adjustments. This is what you see. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1200
0

3000

1000

500
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
2 bbls.

50 250
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

133

Everything seems to be going well, or is it? Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1150
0

3000

1000

500
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
2 bbls.

50 1400
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

134

You know that the Drillpipe is full with KW Mud. If you shut down right now, what would your DP, CP and Pit Gain be? A. DP=0, CP=500, and Pit Gain same. B. DP=500, CP=500, and Pit Gain = 10 bbls. C. DP=1050, CP=500, and Pit Gain same. D. DP=500, CP=500, and Pit Gain same. E. DP=0, CP=0, and Pit Gain = 10 bbls. F. DP=0, CP=0, and Pit Gain same.
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1050
0

3000

1000

500
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
2 bbls.

50 1600
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

135

You know that the Drillpipe is full with KW Mud. What do you do now? Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Continue holding Casing pressure constant B. Shut-in C. Hold DP pressure constant D. Increase Mud weight E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
0 0 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

1050

3000

1000

500

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

Pit Gain
2 bbls.

50 1600
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

136

You made your choice and continued to circulate. This is what you see. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1050
0

3000

1000

450
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
2 bbls.

50 3500
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

137

Everything is going so well that you decide to speed things up. You have the driller bring the pumps up and you keep Drillpipe pressure constant. What happened to BHP? A. BHP decreased B. BHP increased C. BHP did not change
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1050
0

3000

1000

150
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
2 bbls.

80 4000
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

138

The Mud Engineer notified you that KW mud has been coming back for some time. You shut-in and observe the gauges. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Perform LOT at new MW B. Open annular C. Close rams D. Flow check at the choke
1000

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

0
0

3000

1000

0
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

Pit Gain
2 bbls.

0 8500
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

139

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM

Special Problems

140

Pressure Lag Time


Measured During Choke Drill at Casing Shoe Before Drilling Ahead

141

Pressure Lag Time

A change in choke size will create a change in Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP). Incorrect choke adjustments will lead to incorrect BHP which can allow further influx and/or broken u-tube.

142

Problem in Well Control

Historically Well Control schools taught with the approach that most wells were drilled using a water based mud. This led to using a rule of thumb that pressure changes traveled at 1 second per One Thousand feet of measured depth on each side of the U-Tube.

143

12,000 ft

144

0 sec

12,000 ft

145

0 sec

12,000 ft

12 sec

146

24 sec

0 sec

12,000 ft

12 sec

147

Problem in Well Control


Recent wells drilled in the GOM, with both surface and subsea stacks have seen Pressure Lag Times (PLT) of 18 sec/7,000 and 3-4 min./21,000. If the Rule of Thumb no longer applies then we need to start measuring the PLT.

148

Reasons for Measuring PLT

Mud Type Compressibility of Synthetic Fluid Well Geometry Deeper Wells Larger O.D.

>

More mud volume

149

Understanding PLT
In the Drillers Method of Well Control, BHP is held constant by manipulating the choke using the proper gauge at surface. Because the PLT from a choke manipulation to the Drillpipe Pressure Gauge is the longest, it becomes the most difficult to control.
150

Drills

As discussed on Day 1, proper drills are necessary for proper execution.

Choke Drills will establish the PLT on your well and allow each choke operator the practice necessary.

151

How do we measure PLT


1. Before drilling out each casing shoe. Trap a small amount of pressure against the choke. Practice proper start- up of the Drillers Method holding this pressure constant. 2. After moving to the Drillpipe Pressure gauge and allowing the pressures in the well to stabilize, make a definite change on the Casing gauge (50 -100 psi) by opening or closing the choke. 3. Record the time required to see this pressure change reflect on the Drillpipe gauge. This is PLT.

152

Step 1
DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

Trap some pressure in the well.

1000

300
0

3000

1000

300
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

0 0
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

153

Step 2
DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

1000
0

3000

1000

300
0

3000

Bring the pumps to Kill Rate Speed holding Casing Pressure Constant by opening the choke. After circulation has stabilized, continue pumping holding Drillpipe pressure at 1000 psi.

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 500
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

154

Step 3
DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

1000 1100
0

3000

1000

400
0

3000

Make a 100 psi choke adjustment and record the time it takes to reflect on the Drillpipe Gauge. It took 100 strokes for the Pressure change to reflect on the DP gauge. At 50 spm this would take 2 min. This is your PLT.

SPM

5/8 1/2 3/8 3/4 1/4 7/8 1/8

50 550 650
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

155

If you did not conduct a choke drill !


DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1st Step Drillers Method

1000

1000
0

3000

1000

300
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

You are at Kill Rate Speed and Drillpipe Pressure is correct.

50 500
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

156

The Drillpipe pressure has dropped and I said to keep it at 1000 psi!
CASING
2000

DRILLPIPE
2000

What do you do? A. Close choke slightly monitoring Drillpipe Pressure B. Close choke slightly monitoring Casing Pressure C. Do Nothing! Allow the well to balance. D. Scream Im Confused and tell me to do it myself.
157

1000

900
0

3000

1000

300
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 1000
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

900
0

3000

1000

300 2300
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

PLT Got You!

50 1150
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

158

TRY AGAIN !!

159

NOT HERE !!

160

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

900
0

3000

1000

400
0

3000

After closing the choke and watching CP rise by 100 psi you wait,

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

and wait and wait and wait..


161

50 1000
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

900
0

3000

1000

400
0

3000

But the DP gauge is still not at the 1000 psi mark. Do you wait some more do you pinch in the choke or is it time to shut the well in?

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 1025
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

162

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

900
0

3000

1000

400
0

Are you being patient or did you fall asleep?


3000

Surely you have done something by now. What kind of lag time did you have when you did the choke drill Oh! No choke drill..

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 1050
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

163

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

Okay, paints dry.


1000

900
0

3000

1000

400
0

3000

I feel sorry for the guys still waiting. Anybody here play golf? I wonder if Im underbalanced...

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 1075
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

164

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

900
0

3000

1000

400
0

3000

There is no way it should take this long Is that a watch or a sundial on your wrist.

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 1100
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

Do you have any idea how much this rig costs per minute!

165

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

Waiting for your relief is not considered a Well Control Method.. Tap the gauge.. Maybe it moved and you missed it. Its been more than ten minutes I think you blew it. Will it be like this on the simulator .
166

1000

900
0

3000

1000

400
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 1125
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

Congratulations on your patience. That was three minutes. Can you do this for real!
DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

1000
0

3000

1000

400 300
0

3000

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 1150
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

167

Development of Best Practice


With 95% of our wells using synthetic mud and the geometry of our wells, we are seeing a dramatic affect on our choke handling response during a Drillers Method Kill. To get a better understanding of the PLT, we recommend conducting choke drills before drilling out the shoe at each casing string. In order for us to assist you, we need the recorded information from these choke drills so that we may develop some Best Practices for handling PLT.

168

Questions or Comments?

169

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM

Special Problems

170

LEAK-OFF TESTING, WELL DESIGN and WELL CONTROL

171

Why do we talk about Leak-Off Testing (L.O.T.) and Well Design in a Well Control course, they are not related. That thinking is incorrect. The three are very similar or interrelated.

172

All three use the following:


The U-Tube Pressure Boyles Law (P1V1 = P2V2) Pore Pressure (formation pressure) Fracture Gradients (how strong is the formation)

173

HOW ARE L.O.T.S , WELL DESIGN AND WELL CONTROL RELATED


We start drilling using a well design with theoretical values for pore pressure and fracture gradients. The L.O.T. gives you the actual fracture gradient, which defines the Maximum Mud Weight that can be used to drill the next hole section.

174

WHY DO A L.O.T. OR F.I.T.


After each casing string is cemented in place, a L.O.T. or F.I.T. should be performed to verify that the casing, cement, and formations below the casing shoe can withstand the predicted wellbore pressures required to get to the next casing shoe. From a well control point of view it verifies what value our pop-off valve is set at.
175

WHAT IS A L.O.T.
A L.O.T. (Leak-Off Test) is performed by drilling below the shoe 10 to 50 of new formation. Close the annular and fracture the exposed formation with your mud. (Equivalent Mud Weight). We can now calculate the Frac Gradient and EMW

176

Total Pressure at the shoe = Hydrostatic + Surface Press. Fracture Pressure is the Total Pressure that causes the rock to break and split apart.

FRAC PRESS

Once the pressure is removed the overburden will force the rock to close and it regains its integrity until the Fracture Press is re-applied.
177

WHAT IS A F.I.T.
A F.I.T. (Formation Integrity Test) is performed by drilling below the shoe 10 to 50 of new formation. Close the annular and pressure up to a predetermined pressure with your mud. If the formation can withstand the applied pressure, the test is called good. We can now calculate the EMW (Equivalent Mud Weight). A F.I.T. is similar to pressure testing the cement lines or the BOP.

178

LOT VS. FIT


LOT Exploration Well Development well on a new platform. Development well in an old field that has not been drilled in lately.
179

FIT Development well with several other wells in the field. Cannot perform a LOT

LOT GUIDELINES
The adoption of a standard leak-off test procedure that specifies the following is recommended. 1. Drilling fluid in the wellbore that is of a type and in condition that will freely transmit pressure. 2. Constant injection rates of 1 to 2 barrels per minute. 3. Observation of a stabilized injection pressure for a minimum of 4 minutes. 4. Reading of the surface pressure to be used in the fracture gradient calculation on the casing gauge as per previous procedure. 5.Use of a casing gauge of appropriate range for which accuracy is maintained by scheduled calibrations. (It is recommended that a recording gauge with an accuracy of 180 +/- 2% or better be used).

LEAK OFF TEST


4000 3500 Drill Pipe Casing

P 3000 R E S 2500 S U 2000 R E 1500 P S I 1000 500


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 BBL PUMPED 10

2090 psi in 10 sec shut in

Pump Stopped

0 0 2 4 6

10

12

14

16

18

TIME (MIN)

181

LOT Data

DATA INPUT: Well Name (max 8 characters) Date: WELL Data: Rotary Table: Water Depth: Casing Size: Casing Shoe Depth: Casing Shoe Vertical Depth: LOT Data: M ud Weight: 10 sec. Casing Pressure: Pump Rate:

Trat A-06 19 Nov. 1998 106 ft above MSL 240 ft 7 inch 10441 ft MD 8232 ft TVD 11.3 ppg 2090 psi 1.0 BPM

182

VOLUME BBLS 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 After Stop Pumping 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0

PRESSURES (PSI) Drillpipe Casing 0.0 0.0 262.0 178.0 669.0 600.0 1011.0 942.0 1418.0 1341.0 1901.0 1804.0 2352.0 2239.0 2820.0 2719.0 3335.0 3198.0 2719.0 2513.0 2268.0 2276.0 2252.0 2252.0 2207.0 2050.0 1945.0 1929.0 1929.0 2159.0 2159.0 2127.0 2127.0 2094.0 2090.0 1929.0 1901.0 1889.0

TIME Minutes 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 14.2 (10 sec shut-in) 15.0 16.0 17.0

183

KICK TOLERANCE AND BOYLES LAW

184

Question: What is our kick tolerance with the shoe at 19,000 TVD and we want to drill to 25,500 TVD. Need to Know - Kick Tolerance has 2 components 1. VOLUME (BBLS) 2. INTENSITY (Pressure - Intensity is normally expressed in PPG (Relative to mud weight)
185

Determine kick tolerance by picking a number and then mathematically verifying that the number picked will work or not.

Mathematical verification is done using Boyles Law. Boyles Law: P1V1=P2V2 Assumptions 1) Kick is 100% gas. 2) Fluid is WBM - No gas goes into solution.
186

649

Fracture Pressure at shoe = 14,524 psi BHP = 18,829 psi - (13.6 ppg + .2 ppg + .4 ppg) = 14.2 ppg EMW MW = 13.8 ppg Hydrostatic to shoe = 13,634 psi

Gauge Pressure = 18,829 - 4,527 - 19 - 13,634 = 649 psi Pressure at the shoe = 649 + 13,364 = 14,013 psi I have not exceeded the Fracture Pressure so the well design would be valid. If the Fracture Pressure is exceeded- the casing point, kick size and/or intensity would have to be adjusted and the calculations checked again.

14,013

192 ft of gas = 32.4 bbl when 192 x 0.1 psi/ft = 19 brought to the shoe. psi hydrostatic
6,308 ft of 13.8 ppg = 4,527 psi

25 bbl kick at BHP of 18,829 psi

187

P1 = 25,500 X 0.052 X 14.2 PPG = 18,829 PSI V1 = Volume (size) of the kick (Arbitrary # based on the size of the kick that can be detected) V1 = 25 BBLS The kick tolerance that we want to check is 25 BBL. & 0.4 PPG With TD = Shoe = MW = 25,500 TVD 19,000 TVD 13.8 PPG

* If any of these change the kick tolerance changes.

188

P1 V1 = P2 V2 P1 = Bottom hole pressure (Pressure of the kick) Bottom hole pressure = predicted maximum pore pressure + mud overbalance + kick tolerance. FOR THIS EXAMPLE: Predicted max pore pressure (at 25,500 TVD) = 13.6 PPG EMW Mud overbalance (for this example it is 0.2 PPG) = 13.6 + 0.2 = 13.8 PPG Kick Intensity (Arbitrary number relative to mud weight) = 13.8 + 0.4 = 14.2 PPG EMW
189

P2 = Weak Link By design the Weak Link is the shoe. The Weak Link is defined by the fracture pressure (AKA Leak Off Test Pressure) of the shoe. P2 = Fracture pressure of the shoe = 14.7 PPG EMW (Predicted) = 14.7 PPG X 19,000 X 0.052 P2 = 14,524 PSI

V2 = The size of the kick when it gets to the shoe this is unknown. We solve for it.

190

Equation Triangle
P1 x V1 = P2 X V2
P1 is the pressure that the gas is under. P1 = BHP V1 is the size of kick V1 = Barrels P2 is the pressure of the gas at its new position in the well. P2 = Hydrostatic + Gauge Pressure V2 is the new size of the kick at its new position in the well. V2 = Barrels

P1 x V1

P2

V2

191

Equation Triangle
P1 x V1 = P2 X V2
P1 = 18,829 psi V1 = 25 bbls P2 = 14,524 psi V2 = ?

18,829 X P1 x V 1 25

18,829 X 25 = 32.4 bbls 14,524


On your calculator you would key in: 18,829 x 25 = (470,725) 14,524 =

P2 14,524

? V 2
192

P1 V1 = P2 V2

V2 = P1 V1 V2 = (18,829 psi X 25 bbl) 14,524 psi V2 = 32.4 bbls The 25 BBL kick taken at 25,500 will have expanded to 32.4 BBL when it is at the shoe at 19,000.

193

The maximum pressure that the shoe will see is when the top of the gas bubble (kick) is at the shoe. Now that we have the volume of the kick we need to determine the pressure on the shoe. If the pressure on the shoe exceeds the fracture pressure then our kick tolerance is too high and must be re-designed. What height does the 32.4 Bbl occupy in 14 3/4 hole X 6 5/8 DP - Annulus capacity is 0.1687 bpf 32.4 bbls 0.1687 bpf = 192
194

DPP

CP

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE (HP)


A) 19,000 X 13.8 X 0.052 = 13,634 psi B) 192 X 0.1 psi/ft = 19 psi C) 25,500 - 192 - 19,000 = 6308 A 6308 X 13.8 PPG X 0.052 = 4527 psi TOTAL HP = A + B + C = 13,634 + 19 + 4527 = 18180 psi BHP = HP + Gauge Pressure or Casing Gauge = BHP - HP = 18,829 - 18180 = 649 psi
195

Water

7129

Sea bed

19,000/ 11,871 BML

}B

25,500/ 18371 BML

}c

P@shoe = Gauge Press + Hydrostatic@shoe = 649 + 13,634 = 14,283 psi

Frac Pressure at shoe = 14,524 psi 14,283 < 14,524 Therefore our design is valid and our Kick Tolerance is greater than 25 BBL and 0.4 PPG so we would be able to tolerate this kick in our design.
196

FRACTURE PRESSURE LEAK OFF TEST (SHOE TEST) AND ROCK FRACTURE GRADIENT Both Leak off and rock fracture gradient are derived from the fracture pressure. Leak off pressure is normally reported as PPG EMW. Rock Fracture Gradient is normally reported as PSI/FT
197

RKB MSL

92 Air 7037 Water

Fracture pressure at 19,000 TVD = 14,524 psi


A) What is the Leak-off Pressure? =14,524 psi 19,000 = 0.764 psi/ft 0.764 psi/ft 0.052 = 14.7 PPG

Mudline

B) What is the rock fracture gradient (FG)? 11,871 Rock Fracture Press. = HYD Press water + HYD Press rock 14,524 = (7037 X 0.447) + (11871 X FG) 14,524 = 3146 + (11,871 X FG) 19,000/ 11,871 BML FG = (14,524 - 3146) 11871 = 0.95 psi/ft
198

Leak-off pressure is most important to the foreman and drill crews. (Execution) * This number is a direct indication of what maximum mud weight you can use in this hole section. Rock fracture gradient is most important to the engineers. (Design) * This is an indirect means to compare geology in different areas. It also provides a sound method to compare actual and theoretical (predicted) leak off pressures - answers rock competency question.

199

RKB 92 Air MSL 7037 Water Mudline

11,871

Rock

19,000

Shoe

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000 = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 7037 X .447 = 11,379 psi 11,379 psi 11,871 = 0.95 psi/ft 200

RKB 92 Air MSL 7037 Water Mudline

RKB 82 Air MSL 2600 Water Mudline

11,871

Rock

16,316

Rock

19,000

Shoe

19,000

Shoe

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000 = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 7037 X .447 = 11,379 psi 11,379 psi 11,871 = 0.95 psi/ft

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000 = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 2600 X .447 = 13, 362 psi 13,362 psi 16,316 = 0.82 psi/ft 201

RKB 92 Air MSL 7037 Water Mudline

RKB 82 Air MSL 2600 Water Mudline

RKB 82 Air MSL 2600 Water Mudline

11,871

Rock

16,316

Rock

16,316

Rock

19,000

Shoe

19,000

Shoe

19,000

Shoe

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

Frac. Press. = 16,697 psi

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000 = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 7037 X .447 = 11,379 psi 11,379 psi 11,871 = 0.95 psi/ft

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000 = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 2600 X .447 = 13, 362 psi 13,362 psi 16,316 = 0.82 psi/ft

LOT Press. = 16,697 psi 19,000 = .879 psi/ft = .879psi/ft = 16.9 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 16,697 - 2600 X .447 = 15,534 psi 15,534 psi 16,316 = 0.95 psi/ft 202

RKB 92 Air MSL 7037 Water Mudline

RKB 82 Air MSL 2600 Water Mudline

RKB 82 Air MSL 2600 Water Mudline

RKB 84 Air MSL 2600 Water Mudline 11,871 Rock Shoe

11,871

Rock

16,316

Rock

16,316

Rock 14,555

19,000

Shoe

19,000

Shoe

19,000

Shoe Frac. Press. = 12,440 psi

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

Frac. Press. = 16,697 psi LOT Press. = 12,420 psi

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000 = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 7037 X .447 = 11,379 psi 11,379 psi 11,871 = 0.95 psi/ft

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000 = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 2600 X .447 = 13, 362 psi 13,362 psi 16,316 = 0.82 psi/ft

LOT Press. = 16,697 psi 19,000 = .879 psi/ft = .879psi/ft = 16.9 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 16,697 - 2600 X .447 = 15,534 psi 15,534 psi 16,316 = 0.95 psi/ft

14,555 = .854 psi/ft = .854psi/ft = 16.4 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 12,440 - 2600 X .447 = 11,278 psi 13,362 psi 11,871 = 0.95 psi/ft 203

SHALLOW LEAK-OFF TEST DRIVES THE WELL DESIGN

204

LEAK-OFF TESTS
BELOW IS A VERY SMALL SAMPLING OF OUR MANY THOUSANDS OFL.O.T. STATISTICS
WELL NAME FRAC LOCATION DEPTH WELL GRAD WELL NAME LOCATION FRAC DEPTH WELL GRAD

BS 52#1 GOM A-19 Cal 16-2CT Midland A-17 Cal Sibual 2-2 Indo YC-2 Indo 220 Midland Yakin YC-5HZ Indo 201 Midland

186 393 396 397 403 414 420 421 424

1.08 .93 1.02 .92 1.46 1.02 1.18 1.05 1.00

Attaka#32 Indo Sakon #1 Thai VE 66 #3 GOM BA #28 Alaska EHI 302 A-13 GOM A-20 Cal VE 328 #2 La A-19 Cal Kham Palai #1Thai BA #28 Alaska B-KL-1X Vietnam #1-9 Michigan

448 495 562 582 679 681 681 755 774 802 814 869

1.00 .92 .83 .94 .89 1.18 .81 .93 1.77 .94 .94 1.71

205

LOCATION OF SECOND CASING SHOE


(THE KEY TO SHALLOW WELL CONTROL) FIRST CEMENTED SHOE
INCREASING EXPOSURE MORE TIME MORE POSSIBILITY OF ENCOUNTERING GAS

SECOND CEMENTED SHOE

DECREASING RESISTANCE TO FRACTURE (PSI)

206

RECOMMENDED DESIGN / OPERATIONS APPROACH


1. Design well to shut-in. 2. Locate casing shoes in more competent formations. 3. Cement casing. 4. Measure fracture gradients. 5. Use squeezing to guarantee validity of L.O.T.s Value of fracture pressure Location of fracture 6. Shut in on all kicks at all depths.
207

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM

Special Problems

208

Shallow Hazards
Definition any phenomenon, located from mudline to the depth riserless drilling is ended, which puts a wellbore, location, or structure at risk.The hazard may be natural or man made.

209

Shallow Hazard Examples


Pipelines and man made structures Unstable Seafloor: faults, slumps, and channels Gas vents and mud volcanoes Hydrates (Primary and Secondary) Chemosynthetic Communities

Subsurface water, gas and sediment flows (SWF)

210

Gas Hydrates

Gas Hydrates are ice-like crystalline solids (minerals) in which hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon gases are held within rigid cages of water molecules.

211

Hydrate Formation
Form at high pressures and low temperatures 40 degrees F and 780 psia Commonly found in water depths of 1200 6000 (deeper sites not well sampled) Usually associated with some type of gas vent Modeling has indicated hydrates may exist as deep as 3000 BML on GOM slope*
212 * Sloan 1998

Hydrate Hazards

Unstable sea floor if hydrates are melted Chemosynthetic Communities / Hardgrounds Unstable wellbore associated with primary hydrates Secondary Hydrate accumulation on subsea equipment. (Associated with SWFs not primary hydrates)

213

Kutai Basin, Indonesia Hydrate X-Section

Hydrates

214

Subsurface Hydrates

GR

RES

WD : 5312 5635

Hydrates Interval

-5987

Nakula #1, Kutai Basin, Indonesia (Near Seno Field)

215

Hydrate Characteristics Kutai Basin, Indonesia

Water depths > 3000, Mudline temp ~ 40o F Encountered between 0 - 600 BML Seismic character high amplitude events Log character high resistivity zones Increase in ROP Flows noted while reaming with seawater Borehole swelling (could not get casing down)
216

Hydrate Drilling SOP Indonesia*


Initial drilling riserless with Seawater Displace with 9.8ppg WBM and pull out of hole If tight spots noted across from Hydrates begin back reaming with 9.8ppg WBM. If back reaming becomes problematic switch to seawater and re-ream the hole to bottom. Displace with 9.8ppg WBM mud and spot 18ppg floating mud cap across hydrate zone to ML.
217

* Glen Olivera Drilling Superintendent Unocal Indonesia

Shallow Water Flows (SWF)

Any flow of water and/or gas into the wellbore, in flow paths around the annulus or to the seafloor. SWFs have been reported in water depths of 500 7,000 feet and observed between the mudline and 4000 below mudline (BML). Typically problems arise between 950 and 2000 feet BML.

218

Overpressure Mechanisms

219 From paper by Pelletier 1999 SWF Forum

Overpressure Mechanisms
Remember the sponges and Charged formation

220

Problems Associated with SWFs


Uncontrolled Water Flows Sediment washout (cement integrity) Sediment Compaction Casing Collapse and Buckling Formation of seafloor craters, mounds and cracks

221

ERWE-19 WELL-SEC

Water Depth = 198 SSD

Prog.@-732 SSD of top gas sand

Prog.@-902 SSD of top gas sand

Final Depth-923 SSD

222

Two-way time ms.

Depth (Ft. SS.)

223

Unocal Deepwater Shallow Hazard Assessment


Integrated Team Work

Geology Geophysics Drilling Petrophysics

224

Geomechanics

Overburden Assessment Fracture Gradient Prediction Pore Pressure Prediction Offset and Regional Mud and LOT data Real Time analysis with PWD and ROV

225

BEST PRACTICES - PART 1


Site Assessments to start early in prospect life. Multi-discipline cross functional team involved Third party analysis of hazards is not enough Pick locations with shallow hazards in mind Depth Thickness Geologic setting Presence/absence of sandstone Presence/absence of a pressure seal Presence/absence of hydrocarbons
226

BEST PRACTICES - PART 2

Wherever possible move locations to avoid potential hazards If hazard can not be avoided, mitigate risk map interval & specific horizons radial seismic panels pressure prediction revise well design Set 36 casing deep enough to allow control of shallow hazards with weighted mud. Utilize UCL Riserless Drilling Procedure to minimize probability of a flow occurring.
227

BEST PRACTICES - PART 3


If flow occurs kill well immediately

Problems worsen with time Assess situation before resuming drilling operations
Riserless drilling stops when a 10 PPG leak-off can be

reasonably expected.

Pump out of hole with good quality kill weight mud Run 20 casing as per UCL Riserless Drilling

Procedure

Use Cementing Best practices

Foam cement Centralized casing


228

CONCLUSIONS

Unocal has made significant improvement with regards to shallow hazard identification Shallow Hazard identification requires considerable time & focused effort Unocals well design and well execution capabilities have enabled us to drill potential shallow hazards with a high degree of success Fully integrated multi-disciplined team approach to shallow hazard identification is paying off

229

First Hole Section- Riser or Riserless?

230

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM

Special Problems

231

SHALLOW GAS KICKS 1980-1989


CERVEZA - 1983
2500 Diverted 2 - 8 lines Diverter Failed Fire No Breach $35 Million 420

GRAYLING - 1985
Diverted

4000

3565

1 - 4 line Diverter Failed No Fire Breached $40 Million

ATTAKA J1 - 1981
456 Diverter Failed Fire 5 Fatalities Multiple Injuries 766

STEELHEAD - 1987
Diverted 2 - 10 lines Diverter Failed Fire Breached

1225

2265

$150 Million (Operated by Marathon)232

SHALLOW GAS KICKS 1990 - 2000


Attaka 38 - 1998
Gas in water

Attaka 38a - 1998


Gas in water

500

Moved rig off location Flow stopped on its own No Injuries Minimal Cost

460

Evacuated Rig Flow stopped on its own No Injuries Minimal Cost

B-TXT-2X - 2000
Gas in water

Molavia Bazar - 1997


509

915

Evacuated Rig Flow stopped on its own No Injuries Minimal Cost

Diverter system failed Fire Breached $10+ Million (Operated by Oxy)


233

2755

DIVERTERS
Gas/Sand mixtures flowing through diverter lines have been measured to erode through steel at the rate of 8 per hour.

NO RELIABLE MEANS EXISTS TO ELIMINATE THIS PROBLEM!


Use of a diverter does not lead to control of a well. These devices may be required where no better alternative exists for handling flow from shallow holes, but their use should be limited to improving the conditions during which evacuation takes place. In short ---

DIVERT AND DESERT !


234

Well Control Equipment


One of the critical aspects in planning a well is the theoretical maximum surface pressure to be used in designing the casing, wellhead, bop stack, choke manifold, gas buster, testing, and other equipment.

Checklist: Well Control Equipment


Check temperature rating for elastomers, particularly in variable bore rams. If shear rams are installed, ensure that the shear rams can, in fact, shear all grades of drill pipe in use.

235

BOP CONSIDERATIONS
ANNULAR

PIPE RAMS BLIND RAMS

TO KILL LINE PIPE RAMS

TO CHOKE LINE

WELLHEAD

236

Well Control Equipment

Accumulators Should have sufficient volume to close and hold closed all preventers and maintain accumulator pressure above minimum system pressure.

237

USEABLE FLUID
To provide energy, the bladder is pre-charged to 1000 psi with Nitrogen. To provide closing fluid, it must be pumped into the bottle
1000

10 gal N2

238

Equation Triangle
P1 x V1 = P2 X V2
P1 = 1000 psi V1 = 10 gal P2 = 1200 psi V2 = ?

1000 P1 x X V110

1000 X 10 = 8.3 gal of Nitrogen 1200 10 - 8.3 = 1.7 gal of fluid


On your calculator you would key in: 1000 x 10 = (10,000) 1200 =

P2 1200

? V 2

239

USEABLE FLUID
It takes 1.7 gallons of fluid to compress the Nitrogen to the Minimum System Pressure of 1200 psi.
1000 1200

10 gal N2

8.3 gal N2

1.7 gal Fluid


240

Equation Triangle
P1 x V1 = P2 X V2
P1 = 1000 psi V1 = 10 gal P2 = 3000 psi V2 = ?

1000 P1 x X V110

1000 X 10 = 3.3 gal of Nitrogen 3000 10 - 3.3 = 6.7 gal of fluid


On your calculator you would key in: 1000 x 10 = (10,000) 3000 =

P2 3000

? V 2

241

USEABLE FLUID
To get useable fluid, I must continue to pump fluid until I reach the Operating Pressure of 3000 psi. It takes a total of 6.7 gallons of fluid to compress the Nitrogen to 3000 psi.
1200

3000

8.3 gal N2

3.3 gal N2
Useable Fluid

The volume of fluid it takes to change the pressure from Minimum System Pressure to Operating Pressure is the useable Fluid per bottle. (6.7 - 1.6 = 5 gallons/bottle)

1.7 gal Fluid

6.7 gal Fluid


242

Accumulator Volume

18 gal. to close 7 gal. To close


3000 psi

Atmospheric Pressure

6 gal. To close 7 gal. To close

1 gal. To open

Total gallons to close = 39 gallons 39 gal. X 1.5 safety factor = 59 gal. Of useable fluid required 59 gal. X 2 = 118 gal. Of total stored fluid 118 10 = 11.8 or 12 bottles
243

Well Control Equipment

High Pressure Flexible Hoses Confirm that flexible hoses are acceptable for exposure to unusual fluids which may be encountered or used and meet acceptable temperature ranges.

244

Well Control Equipment

Bleed Off Valve & Line The bleed off valve and line allow flow directly from the choke manifold to the overboard line or burner boom to protect the mud/gas separator from being overloaded.

245

Low Temperature Problems


All equipment, which may be exposed to wellbore fluid downstream of the choke, should be designed to withstand the low temperatures resulting from gas expansion during well control procedures. Critical guidelines on choke manifold acceptance and maintenance is important. Periodic checks should be conducted to check the thickness of piping and manifolds.
246

Well Control Equipment


Mud/Gas Separator Pressure gauge on the separator body should be installed to ensure that the separator is operating within its rated capacity and no gas is being allowed to "blow through" to the mud processing areas. Thoroughly inspect the separator structural integrity and internal condition.

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GAS BUSTER
Vent Line GAS

NO VALVES!
Pressure Gauge Impingement Plate Siphon Breaker

Diameter & length of vent line controls amount of pressure in separator


Inspection Cover

Baffle Plates From Choke

d
To Mud Degasser

Height, Diameter & Internal design controls separation efficiency

NO VALVES! D
Drain Line With Valve

Height of U tube (D) & distance from bottom of separator to top of U tube (d) controls fluid level in separator and keeps gas from going to flowline
248

Well Control Equipment


Additional Considerations The compatibility of elastomers with drilling, completion, & testing fluids should be checked. The collapse rating of the drill string should be checked against collapse load during a well control operation. The most severe load is frequently found at the closed pipe rams.

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BOP TESTING
RECOMMENDED FIELD TESTS: Ram Preventers Annular Preventers Low 200-300 psi High WP or CSG. Burst 70% WP

Ram and Annular preventers are Wellbore Assisted. This means that pressure from the well helps to energise the elements and seal off the well. This is why low pressure tests are sometimes harder to achieve. Bumping the pressure up to get a seal and then bleeding off to get the test is dangerous. How many 5,000 psi vs. 300 psi kicks do we take?
250

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems

251

SBM OBM
Gas Kicks: migration, solubility. Ballooning;

252

Myths about Synthetic and Oil Base Muds Gas kicks do not migrate. Gas kicks do not cause volume change. Gas kicks come out of solution all at once. Gas kicks come out of solution slowly.

253

Facts about Synthetic Base and Oil Base Muds


Gas migrates in SBM / OBM until it goes into solution. Gas enters the wellbore at full volume. Gas in solution may have one half the volume as does gaseous gas. Gas come out of solution at rates depending on temperature, pressure and concentration.
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Solubility vol/vol
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 0 200 400 600 Pressure West North

255

Boyles Law P1 x V1 = Constant P1 x V1 = Constant = P2 x V2


Known information Any point in the well

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Boyles Law (continued)


11.0ppg MW

P2 = ? 2,860 psi V2 = P1 x V1 P2 = ? 20 bbl

5,000

10 bbl

10,000 11 x 00.052 x 10,000 = 5,720 psi 257

Temperature ( F) 78

Pressure (psig) 0 3,000 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000 0 3,000 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000 3,000 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000

200

350

Measured Density ( lbm/gal) 17.000 17.145 17.275 17.389 17.492 17.589 16.392 16.592 16.760 16.905 17.033 17.149 15.890 16.122 16.310 16.469 16.608

Pressure / Temperature Effect on Density

This table shows laboratory results on a 17 ppg mineral-oil based mud.

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Kick Detection
Kick detection is more difficult when oil/synthetic base drilling fluid is used over a water base drilling fluid because gas is soluble in the OBM/SBM. However, gas cannot enter the wellbore without causing some changes in fluid volume . Therefore, it is concluded that an increase in flow and/or pit gain is the most reliable indicator of a kick during drilling in either OBM/SBM or WBM.

The perception that gas kicks totally hide in OBM / SBM is false. The gain is there but our ability to measure that gain depends on accurate, working PVTs and flow shows, good pit discipline and alert Drillers and Mud Loggers.
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Volume At Surface
12.4 ppg SBM The well unloaded 30 bbls at Bottoms Up.

P1 = 14.7 psi V1 = 30 bbls P2 = 12.4 x 0.052 x 12,000 = 7,740 psi V2 = .057 bbl kick on Bottom (no solubility) V2 = .03 bbl Kick on Bottom (50% solubility)

Can you detect this size kick?


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6 Open Hole to TD@12,000

The gas oil ratio (GOR) is a measure of the amount of gas that is mixed with a given volume of oil.

Bubble Point

The higher the GOR the deeper in the well the gas begins to break out. As some of the gas breaks out it lowers the GOR of the remaining influx. The remaining influx is then circulated further up the hole until it reaches the new bubble point at which time some of the gas breaks out, again lowering the GOR in the remaining influx.

This cycle is repeated till all of the gas has become free gas.
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Bubble Point
If the well is circulated with the BOPs open, the gas is able to come out of solution quickly. This can result in mud being pushed above the bushings.

If the well is being circulated through the choke, the backpressure helps keep the gas in solution and protects the rig and its crews.

262

Bubble Point
At any time that you suspect that you have taken a gas influx, or that it is possible that you have taken a gas influx, circulate the well with the last 2000+ ft. circulated across the choke.

263

General Trends With Gas Solubility


The OBM/SBM composition has a dramatic effect on gas solubility. Assuming that gas is insoluble in water, as the amount of brine or water and emulsifiers increase then the solubility of the gas in the mud system decreases. As the amount of solids increase, the solubility of the gas decreases. As temperature increases, gas solubility decreases. As the gas specific gravity increases gas solubility decreases. As pressure increases gas solubility increases.
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Ballooning / Micro Fracturing

265

Connection Flow Monitor - Breathing


150

130 Feb. 14, 142 bbl. Breathing 110 Feb. 15, 112 bbl. Breathing Change Pit Vol., bble 90 Feb. 14, 80 bbl. No breathing

70

50

30

10

1 -10

9 Time, min.

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

266

Connection Flow Monitor - Flowing


150

130 Jan.. 12, well flowing, 140 + bbls 110 Point of infelction 90 Jan. 10, start of interval, 100 bbls. No breathing

Change Pit Vol., bble

70

50

30

10

1 -10

9 Time, min.

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

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268

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems

269

GAS INFLUX / MIGRATION AFTER CEMENTING

Gas may enter well after cementing due to temporary reduction in annulus pressure as cement begins to set, resulting in a kick. Observe the well after cementing and be ready to shut well in if annular flow occurs. To reduce the likelihood of this problem, the following cementing practices have been shown to be helpful: Fast Transition Time- Right set cement Condition mud well before cementing. Use a well designed spacer/wash ahead of the cement to assist in mud removal. Centralize the casing in the wellbore. Maintain turbulent flow while cementing. Move the casing while cementing.

No technique to date has been 100% successful in eliminating this problem 270 Remain Alert!

ABANDONING A DEAD WELL

Air

Air

Heavy Fluid Oil

Water
Producing Zone

271

ABANDONING A DEAD WELL


There are very few DEAD wells. Remain ALERT at ALL times Use the trip tank when ever possible Keep good pit Discipline

272

BROKEN U-TUBES

This requires a high rate of losses. Slight losses can be dealt with during the regular Drillers Method.

273

RECOGNIZING BROKEN U-TUBES


A sudden break back in surface pressures Fluctuations in casing pressure Fluctuations in drillpipe pressure Numerous choke changes Loss of communication between drillpipe & annulus Drillpipe pressure decreasing or on vacuum Sudden vibration in drillpipe, BOP, and/or tree
274

REPAIRING BROKEN U-TUBES


Analyze and think Try slowing down first - ECDs may be to high. Must fix from the top down. Temporarily shut off bottom.

275

COMMON CONTROL METHODS

Most of the attempts to control an Underground Blowout (complete losses) are hit or miss. Instead of analyzing the well to define the real problem, assumptions are made and one of the following solutions is begun. If this doesnt work you try something else.
276

COMMON CONTROL METHODS


Pumping LCM, gunk or cement to the loss zone in an attempt to regain conventional control. Bullheading kill fluids into the loss and/or producing zones. A Dynamic kill using frictional pressure loss and fluid density to increase wellbore pressure opposite the producing zone. A Bottom Kill (weighted slug below the loss zone to overbalance the producing zone). A sandwich kill that bullheads kill fluid from both above and below the loss zone. A barite pill or cement plug to bridge and isolate the producing zone from the loss zone. A bridge plug set to isolate the producing zone from the loss zone, or more commonly just to provide a subsurface closure while surface equipment is changed or pipe is run in the well.

277

COMMON CONTROL METHODS


To improve your chance of success with the previous methods, formulate a strategy that includes;
Knowledge of the location, pressure, and flow characteristics of the producing and loss zones and the flow path Definition of a kill approach and a sequence of steps that will achieve the ultimate objective Confirmed information on fluid properties, densities, volumes, placement and rates necessary Access to the necessary people, equipment, materials and instrumentation to implement the strategy Checkpoints, usually pressures, that allow you to monitor your progress and/or success An agreed upon basis for stopping the operation, analyzing and changing the operation if your plan is not progressing as 278 predicted.

MECHANICAL COMPLICATIONS
= HAPPENS FIRST = HAPPENS AFTER TIME LAG

COMPLICATION
PLUGGED JET PLUGGED CHOKE WASHED CHOKE LOSING CIRCULATION HOLE IN WORKSTRING HOLE PACKED OFF

DP GAUGE

CP GAUGE
NO CHANGE

WILL FOLLOW CP WITH SMALLER SWINGS

ERRATIC FLUCTUATING NO CHANGE

279

INTACT U-TUBE
DRILLERS METHOD CLEAR INFLUX KWF TO BIT KWF TO SURFACE DP GAUGE KEEP CONSTANT DECREASING CP GAUGE SLOWLY INCREASING KEEP CONSTANT SLOWLY DECREASING PIT CHOKE GAIN DIRECTION INCREASING MOSTLY THEN BACK OPENING TO ORIGINAL CONSTANT NO CHANGE CONSTANT MOSTLY OPENING

KEEP CONSTANT

280

WELL CONTROL LOG


TIME DP PSI CASING PSI CHOKE SIZE STROKES PIT GAIN COMMENTS

281

ORGANIZING & DIRECTING IN WELL CONTROL Value of Rig Crew Drills - TEAMWORK
Keeps possibility of kick control in minds of crew and supervisors (like school). Gets everyone familiar with the equipment on the rig and get more comfortable with the procedures. Causes drilling foreman to plan ahead of time how he will organize and direct. Make assignments for circulating-out kick the last step in shut-in drills.
282

ORGANIZING & DIRECTING IN WELL CONTROL


Foreman Should Be At Critical Spot While Kick Is Being Circulated Out
Needs to be free to move around as much as possible. Will depend on competence of contractor people (toolpusher and driller, particularly). Hopefully not running the choke, but should be observing choke operations until a certain point. When is that point? Drillers Method: Bringing pumps up & down, changing gauges. W & W Method: Bringing pumps up & down, until KWM to bit.
283

Formulas
1 Phydrostatic = MWppg x .052 x TVDft 2 MWppg = Pressurepsi .052 TVDft 3 TVDft = Pressurepsi .052 MWppg 4 Gradientpsi/ft = MWppg x .052 5 Gradientpsi/ft = Pressurepsi TVDft 6 MWppg = Gradientpsi/ ft .052 7 Capacitybbl/ft = Hole Diameter2 1029.4 8 Annular Capacitybbl/ft = (Hole diameter2 - Pipe Diameter2) 1029.4 9 Fluid Column Heightft = Volumebbls Capacitybbl/ft
284

Formulas
1 2 3 4 Displacementbbl/ft = Pipe Weightlbs x .00036 Triplex Pump Outputbbl/stk = .000243 x Liner Diameterin2 x Stroke Lengthin x Efficiency% Total Pump Strokes = Volumebbls Pump Outputbbl/stk Kill Weight Mudppg = (SIDPPpsi .052 TVDft) + MWppg

Volume of Slugbbls = Mud Weight.ppg x Dry Pipe Lengthft x Pipe Capacitybbl/ft Slug Weightppg - Mud Weightppg Slug Weightppg = Mud Weightppg + Mud Weight.ppg x Dry Pipe Lengthft x Pipe Capacitybbl/ft Slug Volumebbls Pit Gain from Slugbbls = Volume of Slugbbls x Slug Weightppg - Mud Weightppg Mud Weightppg Depth Slug Fallsft = Pit Gain from Slugbbls Pipe Capacitybbl/ft Pump Pressure Correction: For Mud Weight ChangeNew Pump Pressurepsi = Original Pressurepsi x (New Mud Weightppg Old Mud Weightppg) 285

8 9

Contact Information
Rick Dolan: richard.dolan@unocal.com

George Grundt: grundt@unocal.com

Benny Mason: bmason@unocal.com

286