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Multi-physics Simulation with CST STUDIO SUITE

Ulrich Becker, CST

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Electromagnetic Losses cause Heating

Which EM-Solver can feed Thermal run?



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Thermal Materials Properties

Thermal conductivity: Heat transport by conduction. Perfect Thermal material (PTC) available as Type. Heat capacity: Used in transient solver to e.g. compute time it takes for the heat to propagate. Bioheat: Special cooling mechanism due to heat transport in flowing blood. Convection transfer coefficient: Convection at boundaries of voxel model, e.g. natural convection. General convection and radiation available as surface properties. Three material types are available for the thermal simulation.
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Some typical materials

Silicium: Air:

Density: 2330 kg/m^3 Thermal condutivity: 148 W/kg/m Heat capacity: 0.7 kJ/kg/K

Density: 1.292 kg/m^3 Thermal condutivity: 0.024 W/kg/m Heat capacity: 1.012 kJ/kg/K

Density: 1200 kg/m^3 Thermal condutivity: 0.26 W/kg/m Heat capacity: 0.6 kJ/kg/K


Density: 8960 kg/m^3 Thermal condutivity: 401 W/kg/m Heat capacity: 0.385 kJ/kg/K


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Boundary Conditions
Adiabatic = no heat flow passes the boundary Isothermal = Like a heat sink but the temperature of the boundary is constant Open = simulated structure with an infinite expansion of the background material
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Thermal Solver Features

Sources / sinks: Fixed and Floating Temperature Background temperature Heat Source Thermal Loss Distribution, generated by EM solvers Thermal Radiation Solver: Stationary and transient Isothermal, adiabatic and open boundaries/symmetries User-friendly checks for material properties / overlaps Results: Imported thermal loss distributions Temperature (static and transient) Heat Flow density Integrated Heat Flow values
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Solver Overview

Stationary Heat equation:

Heat diffusion equation:

kT T = P

T P 2 = k T + t c kT k= c

With: Thermal Conductivity (kT), Mass Density (), Source Term (P), Specific Heat Capacity (c)
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Mechanical modeling

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Structural Mechanics Solver Physics

Youngs modulus (elastic modulus):

Stress (force per area) over strain (deformation). Determines the deformation strength for a given force.

Poissons ratio:

Ratio of transversal to axial strain. Defines the distortion, when stress is applied.

Thermal expansion coefficient:

The thermal expansion coefficient relates the change in temperature to the change in a material's linear dimensions.
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Features of Structural Mechanics Solver

Import of Temperature Distribution Fixture of faces/bodies in space Apply external forces fixed support traction: force/area

Zero displacement defines a fixture

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Results of Structural Mechanics Solver


Strain = u/L = 4.16e-5 / 8.8e-3 = 4.7e-3

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Multiphysics Simulation

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Multiphysics Simulation
Coupling between Simulation Projects

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Multiphysics Simulation
Parameter Sweep / Optimization

CST STUDIO SUITE 2012\Examples\MPS\Coupled\Combline Filter
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Latest Developments
Non-linear stress solver (finite deformations) Non-linear thermal solver Lorentz force detuning (direct force Temperature dependent Materials

computation from TET-Eigenmode Solver)

(Macro Solution in v2012, fully integrated workflow in v2013)

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Temperature Dependent Materials (v2013)

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Output in Results folder

1D Results: Kappa, Eps, Mue as a function of temperature (def, fit) 2D/3D Results: Imported temperature distribution T(x,y,z) Temperature dependent conductivity distribution Kappa(x,y,z)

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Sequence Task (v2013)

Functionality to control stopping criterion

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Electromagnetic design is main goal of most CST users. EM fields create metallic or dielectric losses CST MPHYSICS STUDIO contains solvers for the analysis of stationary and transient thermal effects (including a bio-heat description for biological tissues) as well as mechanical stress. Tight integration that facilitates parametric studies and optimization
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Detailed Workflow Description

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Create SAM Project

Create a new DS model which will be the starting point for the SAM model. Save it.
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Import Model

Drag and drop the model into the DS schematic.

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New Simulation Projects in DS

Simulation Projects can be derived from a given DS schematic

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Setup EM Simulation Project

Create the EM simulation project using the frequency domain solver.

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Run EM Simulation Project

Start the simulation project from the SAM schematic.

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Define Thermal Loss Post Processing

Define a thermal loss calculation post processing template. It is needed for transferring the losses to the thermal model.
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Setup Thermal Simulation Project

Create the thermal simulation project using the thermal stationary solver.
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Define Loss Distribution as Source

Define a loss distribution as a source for the thermal model. We will use the losses from the EM simulation project.
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Run Thermal Simulation Project

Run the thermal simulation project and visualize the temperature distribution.
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Setup Mechanical Simulation Project

Set up the mechanical simulation project.

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Define Temperature Distribution as Source

Define the temperature distribution from the thermal simulation project as the source for the mechanical project.
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Optional: Displacement Boundaries

Displacement boundaries are needed for sensitivity analysis.

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Run the Mechanical Simulation Project

Run the mechanical simulation project.

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Visualize Results of Mechanical Simualtion

Deformed mesh is indicating how the structure is deformed due to loss heating.
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Optional: Sensitivity Analysis

Create a new EM simulation project. It will use the data from the mechanical solver to calculate the effect of the deformation on the S Parameter.
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Optional: Sensitivity Analysis Setup

Import the field distribution from the mechanical simulation project.

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Optional: Sensitivity Analysis Setup

Activate the sensitivity analysis in the frequency domain solver. Run the simulation.
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Optional: Sensitivity Analysis Results

Create a comparison folder and drag and drop the results. For 50W input power the effect of the deformation is quite low!
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Parameterize the complete loop

Create a global parameter my_length and assign it to L1 in the filter model.

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Start the Coupled Simulation

By choosing update tasks in the SAM schematic, the coupled simulation is started with the new parameter. The complete loop does not require any further input!
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Visualize Results

Due to the change in the length the filter has been detuned. The monitor frequency is no longer in the passband.
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Visualize Results

Because the filter is detuned, the energy does not couple into the center of the structure and the deformation is no longer symmetric.
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