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Polyethersulfone (PES)

Technical Literature

Mitsui Chemicals, Inc.

Polyethersulfone (PES)
I II III IV 1 Introduction Grades of PES General Physical Properties of PES Physical Properties of PES Heat Resistance 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 9 11 12 12 13 14 15 17 17 19 21 21 22 24 25 26

1-1 Short-term Heat Resistance 1-2 Long-term Heat Resistance 1-3-1 Dimensional Stability 1-3-2 Water Absorption and Dimensional Change 2 Mechanical Properties

2-1 Creep Resistance 2-2 Impact Resistance 2-3 Friction and Wear Properties 3 4 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 V VI VII Electrical Properties Environmental Properties Flame Retardancy Chemical Resistance Hot Water Resistance Weathering Resistance PES Molding Method Fabrication of PES PES Certification

VIII PES Molding Conditions

Polyethersulfone 1 Introduction
Polyethersulfone (PES) is a heat-resistant, transparent, amber, non-crystalline
. engineering plastic having the molecular structure of PES is a tough and rigid resin similar to conventional engineering plastics, such as polycarbonate, at room temperature. The greatest characteristic of PES is that it has by far better high-temperature properties than conventional engineering plastics. Specifically, PES remains in satisfactory condition in long-term continuous use without causing any dimensional change or physical deterioration at temperatures as high as 200C.

Properties of PES: (1) Heat resistance: Short-term heat resistance: HDT is 200 to 210C, and flexural modulus does not decline at temperatures of up to nearly 200C. (ASTM method) Long-term heat resistance: UL temperature index is 180C, and the half life period of tensile strength at 180C is 20 years. (Heat aging properties) Dimensional stability: The coefficient of linear expansion remains constant at temperatures of up to nearly 200C. Creep resistance: PES shows excellent creep resistance. Electrical properties: PES shows excellent electrical properties, which are retained even in a high-temperature range. Flame retardancy: PES is certified for UL94-VO. Moldability: Although PES is a high-temperature-resistant resin, it can be molded on common injection-molding equipment.






Precautions in Using PES: (1) Weathering resistance: As the weathering resistance of the natural resin of PES is not very good, it is not fit to be used outdoors. Chemical resistance: PES is attacked by some polar solvents. Water absorption: PES has satisfactory water absorption properties but has to be dried before molding because it shows some water absorption. Notch dependence of impact strength: Since PES moldings exhibit high notch dependence of impact strength, they have to be so designed that they will have no sharp notch.





Grades of PES
Grade SGN3030R SGN2020R SGN2030R SGP2020R SGP2021R Uses Standard grade + 30% GF: For injection molding. Improved mold release. High-flowability grade + 20% GF: For injection molding. Improved mold release. High-flowability grade + 30% GF: For injection molding. Improved mold release. Super-high-flowability grade + 20% GF: For injection molding. Improved mold release. Improved-flowability grade of SGP2020R High strength and electric conductivity. For injection molding. Low-friction/low-wear grade + 20%. With fluorocarbon resin added. Low-friction/low-wear grade + 30%. With fluorocarbon resin added. Low-friction/low-wear grade. No fiber reinforcement. With fluorocarbon resin added.

Description Glass-fiber-reinforced grade pellets

Carbon-fiber-reinforced grade pellets Sliding grade

EXS-1 SGF2030 SGF2040 FO-10D

The above grades are Mitsui Chemicals proprietary compounds. Packing: Pellets 25 kg, powder: 10 kg


General Properties of PES (Representative Grades)

Item Testing Method ASTM D-1003 ASTM D-792 ASTM D-570 ASTM D-955 ASTM D-638 ASTM D-638 ASTM D-638 ASTM D-790 ASTM D-790 ASTM D-256 ASTM D-648 ASTM D-648 Unit % % % MPa % MPa MPa MPa J/M C C X10 /C

SGN2020R SGN3030R SGP2020R SGF2030 1.51 0.6 0.2/0.6 127 3 6800 167 6700 60 M98 214 2.6/5.6 1016 3.7 3.7 1.60 0.5 0.2/0.6 137 3 9800 190 8800 90 M98 217 1.6/5.6 1016 3.7 3.7 0.001 0.006 26 179 7400 80 215 2.4/5.5 1016 181 7400 90 216 1.9/5.4 1016 1.51 0.3/0.6 130 3 1.57 0.3/0.6 127 3

Physical properties

Light transmittance Refractive index Specific gravity Water absorption Molding shrinkage

Mechanical properties

Tensile strength Tensile elongation Tensile modulus Flexural strength Flexural modulus Izod impact strength Rockwell hardness

Thermal properties

Deflection temperature under load Glass transition temperature

Linear expansion coefficient, MD/TD ASTM D-696 UL temperature index Electrical properties Volume resistivity Dielectric constant 50 Hz 1 MHz Dielectric dissipation 50 Hz factor Dielectric strength Other properties 1 MHz JIS C2110 ASTM D-150 UL-746 ASTM D-257 ASTM D-150

C cm

0.001 0.006



Coefficient of kinetic friction* Flame retardancy 1.5 mm 0.4 mm Limiting oxygen index 1.6 mm



V-0 41


ASTM D-2863


Note: The above data show representative figures, not guaranteed figures. Unit conversion: Tensile modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus: 1 MPa = 10.2 kg/cm2 *: The other material = Al Conditions: P = 1 MPa, V = 10 m/min, T = 30 min, no lubrication


Physical Properties of PES

Heat Resistance

1-1 Short-term Heat Resistance Generally, the flexural modulus of thermoplastic resins, particularly crystalline resins, falls sharply as temperature rises. However, PES retains a high flexural modulus in a high-temperature range, with its physical properties declining only slightly with a rise in temperature. Figs. 1 and 2 give actual examples with respect to flexural modulus and tensile strength.
Figure 1

GF reinforced

Flexural modulus (MPa)

Temperature (C)

Figure 2

GF reinforced

1-2 Long-term Heat Resistance (Heat Deterioration) There is a method for evaluating the long-term heat resistance of resin in which uses the half-life period of tensile strength. The half-life period of the tensile strength of PES is 20 years at 180C as shown in Fig. 3. Further, PES is certified under UL standards (UL746B) to be fit for continuous use at 180C. Fig. 4 makes a comparison of temperature index of PES and other resins. Fig. 4 indicates that PES has a higher temperature index than thermosetting resins as well as conventional thermoplastic resins.

Tensile strength (MPa)


Temperature (C)

Figure 3

Temperature Dependence of Half-life Period of Tensile Strength

Figure 3
20 yr 10 yr 5 yr

Temperature Dependence of Half-life Period of Tensile Strength


1 yr 6 mon

1 mon

Temperature (C)

Figure 4

Comparison of UL Temperature of Various Resins

Natural Increase in heat resistance by use of GF Temperature (C)

1-3-1 Dimensional Stability The molding shrinkage of PES varies with gate shape and molding conditions. But generally, the natural resin of PES shows molding shrinkage of 0.6% and is not anisotropic. The GF-reinforced grade shows molding shrinkage of 0.2% but is anisotropic. The coefficient of linear expansion is low with that of the natural grade being 5.6x10-5/C and that of the GF-reinforced grade being 2.3x10-5/C and remains constant in a broad range of temperature. (Fig. 5) PES stands adequately high temperature at the soldering step. (Fig. 6) At 260C x 10 seconds, PES may cause a problem especially if the product has not been dried properly. Furthermore, although PES shows some water absorption, it exhibits only slight dimensional change due to water absorption even it is in saturated condition.
Figure 5 Temperature Dependence of Linear Expansion Coefficient

Coefficient of linear expansion (x10-5/C)

Natural GF reinforced Temperature (C)

Figure 6

Soldering Resistance

Immersion time (sec) 10 30 {: No change : Slight change : Significant change

SGN2020R SGN2030R SGN2040R SGN3020R SGN3030R SGF2030 SGF2040 SGP2020R

{ { { { { { { {

Testing method: A test specimen 3 mm thick was hanged vertically and immersed in the soldering bath. Soldering temperature: 260C Test specimen drying conditions: 150C x 5 hr


1-3-2 Water Absorption and Dimensional Stability PES moldings absorb water in water or in the atmosphere. Water absorption depends on humidity, time in which PES is allowed to stand, temperature, moldings thickness and grades of PES. Fig. 7 shows water absorption curves in water and under standard conditions.

Figure 7

Water Absorption Curves under Various Conditions Sample Thickness: 2 mm

Xxx (%)


PES E2010 PES SGN2020R(GF20%) PES SGN3030R(GF30%)

Water absorption (%)

Time (day) Time (day)

Dimensional Changes Due to Water Absorption: Specimens Immersed in Water at 23C Until Saturation
Water absorption (%) 2.1 1.7 1.5 Change in cross section (%) +0.3 +0.3 +0.3 Change in length (%) +0.3 +0.2 +0.1


Mechanical Properties

2-1 Creep Resistance Fig. 8 shows changes with time in creep of PES at room temperature. Fig. 8 indicates that PES is superior in creep resistance to other engineering plastics. Further, Fig. 9 shows creep resistance of PES at high temperatures. PES has excellent creep resistance even at high temperatures. Especially, the GF-reinforced grade is suitable for uses requiring creep resistance.
Figure 8 Creep Curves of PES E2010 (DIN53444, 23C, equilibrium water absorption condition)

Figure 9 Distortion (%)

Distortion (%) Time (hr) High-temperature Creep (Tensile) Properties (Temp.: 150C, stress: 50 MPa) Time (hr)


2-2 Impact Resistance PES is a tough resin. Its toughness is retained adequately even at small thickness of 0.5 mm or so, and PES allows a product to be designed to small wall thickness. Furthermore, PES fails in a ductile way even at low temperature below 0C and has satisfactory low-temperature impact resistance. However, the impact resistance of PES is susceptible to notches, and the impact resistance of a molded article declines if it has a sharp notch. Because of this, it is necessary to design PES molded articles so that they will have no sharp notch. Moreover, the impact resistance of PES is affected by water absorption, and the impact resistance falls to some extent when PES is dry.
Figure 10 Temperature Dependence of Impact Resistance an and

Notched Impact Resistance ak (in Dry Condition)

Impact Resistance an and Notched Impact

Resistance ak (J/m)

Temperature (C)


2-3 Friction/Wear Properties Friction and wear are properties inherent to any sliding part and involve many factors. Specifically, friction and wear have to do with the opposite sliding part material and its surface roughness, contour of the contact area, media such as lubricant, load, sliding speed and outside factors such as temperature. The main factors affecting the friction coefficient and wear of PES are the hardness and surface roughness of the opposite sliding part material, pressure that is applied to the sliding part, temperature of the sliding surface and use/non-use of a lubricant. Table 2 gives results of measurement of the friction coefficient and wear of various grades of PES by using the same testing equipment. Suzuki Friction/Wear Test
Test load (constant)
Opposite material (Fixed hallow tube)

Sliding surface

Square test specimen (fixed

Table 2 Sliding Properties Testing method: Suzuki friction/wear test (opposite material: board; test sample: ring-shaped molded article) Testing equipment: Friction/wear testing equipment of Tosoku Seimitsu Co. Opposite material: SUS304(#800) with no lubricant, Al board Testing conditions: P = 1 MPa (P = 0.5 MPa only for SNG2020R), V = 10 m/min, T = 30 min
Test Item Unit PES Sliding Grade PES Standard Grade PEI Sliding Grade

FO-10D SGF2030 SGF2040 SGN2020R Kinetic coefficient of friction Wear Kinetic coefficient of friction Wear mg mg 0.19 9 0.17 7 0.250.40 0.300.40 0.300.40 3 3 38 0.300.45 4 0.350.50 12


0.150.25 0.150.35 0.300.50 7 7 117



Electrical Properties

PES shows excellent properties in dielectric constant and dielectric dissipation factor. These excellent properties are retained in a broad range of temperature from low temperature to high temperature close to the glass transition point. The dielectric dissipation factor of PES is stable at a low value of 0.002 in a temperature range from 20 to 225C. Further, frequency dependence is low at approx. 0.003 to 0.004 at 105 Hz. (Fig. 11) The dielectric constant of PES remains practically constant up to the vicinity of Tg. (Fig. 12) Thus, PES having these excellent electrical properties in the high-temperature range and heat resistance is most suited for H-class applications.
Figure 11 Temperature Dependence of Dielectric Dissipation Factor

Dielectric dissipation factor (tan ) Temperature (C)


Figure 12

Temperature Dependence of Dielectric Constant

Dielectric constant ( ) Temperature (C)


Environmental Properties

4-1 Flame Retardancy PES is a self-extinguishing resin. PES with no flame retardant added has been given 94V-0 under the UL Standards. Fig. 13 shows the limiting oxygen index to make a comparison of flame retardancy. It is evident from the low limiting oxygen index that PES has excellent flame retardancy. Furthermore, the excellent flame retardancy of PES is also known from the fact that PES emits very little smoke. Fig. 14 gives results of a smoke emission test of the American National Bureau of Standard to make a comparison with other resins.
Figure 13 Comparison of Limiting Oxygen Index of Various Resins (ASTM D-2863)

Limiting oxygen index (%)

Flame retardant grade

The resins show higher flame retardancy as the value increases.


Figure 14

Comparison of Smoke Emission (Smoke Chamber Test of NBS of USA, Using Samples 1.6 mm Thick

Absorbance (corrected value)

It becomes more difficult for resin to absorb light as smoke emission increases.


4-2 Chemical Resistance PES has excellent resistance to aqueous chemicals such as hot water, steam, acid and alkali, oils, grease, gasoline, alcohols, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. (Table 3) However, like almost all other organic compounds, PES is attacked by concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid. On the other hand, PES being non-crystalline may be attacked by highly polar solvents, such as ester, ketone and trichloroethylene. However, in almost all cases, there is no problem because there are solvents available for substitution that do not attack PES and perform the same function as such polar solvents. For example, trichloroethane can be cited as a substitute for trichloroethylene. The chemical resistance of PES varies to some extent, depending on the grades of PES. E3010 is superior to E2010 in chemical resistance, and the GF-reinforced grades are superior to the natural grade.
Table 3
Inorganic reagent Ammonia Ammonia water 50% NaOH 50% KOH 10% hydrochloric acid Concentrated hydrochloric acid 10% nitric acid Concentrated sulfuric acid Concentrated nitric acid Acetic acid Boric acid Hydrogen peroxide solution Hydrogen sulfide Iodine in potassium iodine

Chemical Resistance of PES (under No Load)

Effect A A A A A A A C C A A A A B Benzene Benzoic acid Acetone Oxalic acid Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanon Methanol Glycerin Trichloroethylene Trichloroethane Xylene Petroleum ether Ethylene glycol Inorganic reagent Effect A A C A A A C A A C A B A A

A: B: C:

No effect. No absorption at 20C Some effect. There will be some absorption and swelling. Depending on uses, the chemical is adequately usable. Significant effect. Not usable for PES.


Table 4
Chemicals Acetone Methylethylketone Cyclohexane Benzene Toluene Xylene Trichloroethylene 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Carbon tetrachloride 1,2-Dichloroethane Perchloroethylene Chloroform Trichlorotrifluoroethane Methanol Ethanol n-Butylalcohol Ethylene glycol 2-Ethoxyethanol Propane-1,2-diol Heptan Ethyl acetate Dimethylether Carbon bisulfide Gasoline Diesel fuel

Chemical Resistance of PES (under Stress of 9 MPa)

Resin PES E2010 R1S R1S R1S C20S C20S R1S R1S C20S R31S C20M PES E3010 R4S R2S R19S C20S R1S R1S C20S R20S C20M 20M+ PES SGN3030R 20M+ 20M+ PSu PC Modified PPO R1 D D D D D D D D D D D D

R2S R1S D R1S R1S R4S D R8S SLC2M D C20M D C20M R3S C20M R8S

R1S D R4M R11M R15M R3M R6S D R1S D R17M R1M R1S C20M

Symbols: -: No change for 20 minutes C: Crazing SLC: Slight crazing R: Failure D: Melting S: Sand M: Minute +: Softening (deemed practically unusable) *: For example, this indicates that R19S failed in 19 seconds.


4-3 Hot Water Resistance There is no problem with the natural grade up to 100C, but microcracks will occur at 120 in it. With the GF-reinforced grades, there is no problem with no microcrack occurring even at 140C. (Table 5) Further, with respect to mechanical properties, tensile strength and elongation decline in the initial period but after that remain unchanged at satisfactory levels, posing no practical problem.

Table 5

Changes with Time in Tensile Strength in Water (E3010)

100C 120C Slight microcracking No change 140C Slight microcracking No change

Observation of the surface: After 10-day immersion in an autoclave

Solid line Dotted line E2010 SGN2030R No change No change

Figure 15
Tensile strength (MPa)

Results of Immersion-in-water Test at 100C

Time (day)

Elongation (%)

Time (day)

Figure 16

Results of Immersion-in-water Test

Tensile strength (MPa)

Time (day)

Elongation (%)

Time (day)

4-4 Weathering Test Molded articles of PES colored grades yellow and become brittle, like other general moldings of aromatic resins. 21

PES Molding Method

PES, which is a high-temperature-resistant resin, can be molded on common molding equipment. PES can be processed by all types of processing, including injection molding, extrusion, compression molding, solution casting and sintering. An example of injection molding, the processing method used most commonly, is explained in this section. Fig. 17 shows the flowability and viscosity of PES. As can be seen clearly from Fig. 17, injection molding temperature has to be 350C or higher for PES. It is also necessary to keep the mold temperature at 150 to 180C to improve the flowability of PES in the mold and reduce residual strain. The flow behavior of PES under these conditions is similar to that of polycarbonate, and in fact PES can be test-molded easily in a mold for polycarbonate. For detailed molding conditions and operating procedure, refer to Section VIII PES Molding Conditions. Precautions: 1. Since PES has water absorption properties, it has to be dried for more than 3 hours at 150C before molding. 2. A general hot air dryer is not suitable for drying PES. A vacuum dryer or a dehumidifying dryer is fit for use for PES. 3. The heat stability of PES is satisfactory as shown in Fig. 18. But it is safe to make sure that molding temperature will not exceed 380C.
Figure 17 Spiral Flow of PES

Flow length (Spiral flow: wall thickness 1 mm, mold temp. 150C,

injection pressure 150 MPa)

Flow length (mm) Molding temperature (C)


Figure 18 Weight loss (%)

Thermal Decomposition Curves of PES

Temperature (C)

In air Temperature rise rate:




Fabrication of PES

Many adhesives, such as epoxy-, urethane-, phenol- and silicone-based adhesives, can be used for bonding PES/ PES and PES/other materials. PES shows satisfactory adhesion. The use of these different adhesives is determined depending on temperature, humidity and other use environmental conditions. The bonding surfaces have to be degreased, roughened and treated otherwise so that satisfactory adhesion will be achieved. PES is also bonded by use of solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyroridon (NMP), N,N-dimethylformaldehide and dichloromethane. However, these solvents may cause stress cracking in those parts which will be subject to mechanical stress. The viscosity of these solvents is increased by adding 3% to 15% PES. The bonded materials have to be dried completely until all of the solvent is evaporated. 2 Other Bonding Method

Fastening with screws or bolts, snap-fitting and other joining methods can be used for joining methods that will allow the PES product to be removed. Joining with bolts is suitable for those products which are subject to high load and removed frequently. Under this method, molded PES products are threaded for metal parts to be inserted there. Such inserts may be fixed by force while the product is hot after molding or by ultrasonic welding. 3 Hot Press Molding

PES sheets can be molded by use of a hot press using vacuum or compressed air. The equipment for use requires a fixed frame that can be heated and a 2-step heating means for providing a uniform temperature distribution to the surface and cross section of the sheet. The heater has to be so designed that the temperature will reach 270 to 280C within 40 to 50 seconds. A metal mold is generally used, and an electric heater or a temperature controller of the oil circulating type is attached to it. A wooden or resin mold is not suited for this purpose. A vent should be provided in the mold to enable the air between the mold and the sheet to be vented quickly. The vent should be provided at the end of the molded product to be released from the mold. Generally, it is preferably that the curved area of the mold should have a large radius and a large draft in contour and a sharp edge should be avoided. It may be said that the female mold is suited for hot-plate molding because the molded product may shrink freely in the wall thickness direction. As the dimensions of the molded product change significantly, the use of the male mold may cause cracks at the time of shrinkage.


VII PES Certification

1 UL Standards 94V-0 746B 2 Natural grade SGN (GF-reinforced grade) Natural grade 1.5 mm 0.4 mm 0.75 mm 180C

Food Sanitation Law Requirements under standards for food, additives, etc. E2010 ( 1959 Notification No. 370 of the Ministry of Health and Welfare)

Synthetic Resin Utensils and Packaging Containers Other Than Stipulated by Individual Standards E2010 ( 1982 Notification No. 20 of the Ministry of Health and Welfare)


VIII PES Molding Conditions 1 Molding Conditions for Glass-fiber-reinforced PES Grade Molding equipment: PES can be molded easily on common injection-molding equipment. Preferable molding conditions are as follows: High-temperature specifications specifying max. cylinder temperature of 400C Injection pressure: Approx. 100 to 200 MPa Size shall be such that 60% to 80% of the max. injection volume will be the basis volume of the molded product. The PES material has to be dried preliminarily prior to molding to reduce the water content to 0.05% or less to prevent the deterioration of the resin and the formation of a silver surface. For this purpose, the pellets should be put in a vat so that the thickness of the pellet layer will be 3 cm or less, and the pellets should be dried for 3 to 5 hours or longer at 150 to 170C in a dehumidifying dryer. If the same effect can be achieved, a hopper dryer may be used. The appropriate cylinder temperature is 340 to 380C. But if the cylinder is not charged to full capacity, a higher temperature may be set. A set temperature of 390C or higher is not preferable because at such temperature, gels will be formed and deposited onto the area of the molding equipment in which gels will be readily deposited. The appropriate mold temperature is 150 to 170C. But this does not apply to any case in which charging conditions and mold release conditions, among other things, are not satisfactory. If the allowable time for the suspension of operation during injection molding shall be 20 minutes or less. If the suspension of the operation is extended for longer time, PES shall be purged completely from the cylinder before resumption of the operation, and the cylinder temperature shall be set to 350C or lower. If the resin was used at a molding temperature higher than that for PES in the immediately preceding molding operation, the cylinder temperature shall be set to the same level as that for the resin used immediately before the present PES resin (the set temperature shall be 330C or lower), and the previous resin shall be purged adequately with a polyethylene resin with a low 26

Preliminary drying:

Molding conditions:

Precautions in molding:

Start-up procedures:

melt flow index. This shall then be followed by setting the cylinder temperature to 330C, purging the cylinder with PES neat resin (E3010) adequately, and setting the cylinder temperature to the PES molding conditions. Stopping procedures: If PES is to be molded in the next molding operation, purge the resin in the cylinder adequately with PES neat resin, lower the cylinder temperature to 350C, discharge the PES remaining in the cylinder adequately, and turn off the power supply. If a resin other than PES is molded in the next molding operation, purge the resin in the cylinder adequately with PES neat resin, lower the cylinder temperature to 350C, and slowly lower the cylinder temperature to 300C while purging the resin with a polyethylene resin with a low melt flow index. After confirming that the polyethylene alone is being discharged from the cylinder and the cylinder temperature has lowered to 300C, discharge the polyethylene completely from the screw and then turn off the power supply.

If gel formation If get formation should have started, do not raise the cylinder has started: temperature under any circumstance but immediately discharge gelled materials. Then, purge the materials adequately from the cylinder by slowing lowering the cylinder temperature to 300C while purging the resin with a polyethylene resin with a low melt flow index. During the purging operation, never draw near the nozzle of the injection molding equipment. Cleaning of the In cleaning the screw, slowing lower the cylinder temperature to screw: 300C while purging the resin with a polyethylene resin with a low melt flow index. After confirming that the polyethylene alone is being discharged from the cylinder and the cylinder temperature has lowered to 300C, pull the screw out of the cylinder.


Example of Injection Molding Conditions Given below is an example of injection molding conditions for PES.

Molded article Gate shape Resin Grade Composition, etc. (C) C1 C2 C3 NH Mold temperature (C) Charging pressure (MPa) Follow-up pressure(MPa) Injection time (second) Cooling time (second)

Fuse box Pin 1 point E2010 Natural 340 350 360 360 150 100 30 5 15

Burn-in outlet Pin 4 points SGN3030R GF-reinforced 360 370 370 370 160 200 50 10 30

Molding conditions

Mold Material

Since the mold temperature is raised to 150 to 180C for PES, it is recommended that hardened steel be used. In the event of a small amount of production, the use of NAC steel is also acceptable. 4 Annealing

Basically there is no need for annealing. But it has been found that the annealing of molded articles with high residual strain (such as insert moldings and thin-walled articles) improves their mechanical strength and stress crack resistance. 5 Mold Release

There is normally no need for using a mold release agent. However, if a mold release agent has to be used unavoidably, fluorine-based ones or zinc stearate should be used. No silicone-based mold release should be used because the use of such mold release agent may cause stress cracks.