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NGY GERMANY 1918-39 REVISION GUIDE

REVISION SKILLS

Write your own diagrammatic revision notes emphasising key features of events, causes and consequences Use a table like this: Causes Key features Consequences

Draw up mind maps (spider diagrams) for some topics Draw up flow diagrams for some topics Also make sure that you know how to analyse examination questions for key words And make sure that you know how to divide an essay into paragraphs Question 1 (a)

You will be asked to make an inference from a source of evidence and to provide evidence from the source to support your inference. To do inference try one or more of these: Write in your own words rather than the words used in the Source Write about the context of the Source, using your own knowledge Try to explain the reason why the author has written a part of the Source Use the phrase, Source A suggests Use the phrase, This meant that or The meaning of this was The question will be worth 4 marks. In the examination you should spend about 6 minutes answering this question. This will be the mark scheme: Copy or paraphrase the source Unsupported inferences Supported inferences 1 mark 2-3 marks 4 marks

Question 1 (b) You will be asked to explain the key features of an event. The question will be worth 6 marks. In the examination you should spend about 8 minutes answering this question. This will be the mark scheme: Simple statement(s) Developed statement(s) Question 1 (c) You will be asked to use your knowledge to explain consequences. The question will be worth 8 marks. In the examination you should spend about 12 minutes answering this question. This will be the mark scheme: Simple statement(s) Developed statement(s) Developed explanation Question 1 (d) You will be asked to use your knowledge to explain why something happened (causes). The question will be worth 8 marks. In the examination you should spend about 12 minutes answering this question. This will be the mark scheme: Simple statement(s) Explanation of causes Explanation of causes linked to outcomes 1-2 marks 3-5 marks 6-8 marks 1-2 marks 3-5 marks 6-8 marks 1-3 marks 4-6 marks

Question 2 You will be asked to use your knowledge to explain how something changed or developed (change). There will be two questions, 2 (a) and 2 (b) but you will only have to answer one of these questions. You will be able to choose which one out of the two questions to answer. Do not answer both questions as you will only be given marks for one of them. The question will be worth 8 marks. In the examination you should spend about 12 minutes answering this question. This will be the mark scheme: Simple or generalised statements of change Developed statements of change Developed explanation of change Question 3 You will be asked to use your knowledge to make judgements on causes, effects or importance of factors (judgement). There will be two questions, 3 (a) and 3 (b) but you will only have to answer one of these questions. You will be able to choose which one out of the two questions to answer. Do not answer both questions as you will only be given marks for one of them. The question will be worth 16 marks. In the examination you should spend about 25 minutes answering this question. This will be the mark scheme: Simple or generalised statements Developed statements Developed explanation A sustained argument 1-4 marks 5-8 marks 9-12 marks 13-16 marks 1-2 marks 3-5 marks 6-8 marks

NGY REVISION LIST GERMANY 1918-39 The Treaty of Versailles The Weimar Republic a new constitution Economic problems 1918-23 Political problems 1918-23 Economic recovery under Stresemann 1924-29 Improved foreign relations under Stresemann 1924-29 The impact of the Great Depression 1929-33 Economic problems The impact of the Great Depression 1929-33 Political problems The birth of the Nazi Party 1919-23 The Munich Putsch 1923 The re-birth of Nazism 1924 Nazi beliefs Nazi aims Nazi Party organisation in the lean years 1924-29 Nazi support grows 1929-32 The role of Hitler The Nazis win power, 1932-33 Who supported Hitler? The removal of opposition 1933-34 The Night of the Long Knives The Nazi police state Censorship and propaganda Education in Nazi Germany Youth movements Women in Nazi Germany 1933-39 Employment and the economy 1933-39 Nazi racial beliefs and policies Opposition to the Nazis

REVISION NOTES KEY TOPIC 1 THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC 1918-33 The origins and early problems of the Weimar Republic 1918-23 The Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles was a Diktat Germany was not invited to negotiate the terms of the treaty and they had no choice but to sign it it was imposed on Germany Germany had to accept guilt for starting the First World War Germany had to pay reparations which were fixed, in 1921, at 136,000,000,000 marks (6,600,000,000) Germany lost all its overseas colonies (in Africa and Asia) which were given to the victorious countries like Britain and France as League of Nations mandates the idea was that these countries would be looked after until they were ready for independence but to the Germans it seemed as if Britain and France were just expanding their own empires The German army was limited in size to only 100,000 men The German navy was limited to 6 battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers and 12 torpedo boats Germany was allowed no submarines and no air force The Rhineland was demilitarised Germany lost land to France, Belgium and Poland Plebiscites were held in certain border areas which resulted in further loss of land to Poland and Denmark Altogether Germany lost about 13% of its European territory (as well as all of its overseas territory) The Treaty of Versailles was very unpopular in Germany partly because Germany had not been finally defeated on the battlefield people said that Germany had been stabbed in the back by the politicians in Berlin (the Dolchstoss) The Weimar Republic a new constitution A constitution is a set of rules stating how a country is to be governed The Weimar Constitution was named after the town of Weimar, a seaside resort on the Baltic coast in northern Germany It was a democratic constitution The President was the head of state The President was directly elected by the people once every seven years The parliament contained two houses, the Reichstag (which was the dominant house and which controlled taxation) and the Reichsrat (in which the regions of Germany were represented) Members of the Reichstag were elected every four years using a system of proportional representation which contributed to the fact that the Reichstag always contained representatives of many different political parties

The head of the government was the Chancellor (like the prime minister in Britain) who chose ministers and ran the government but the Chancellor needed majority support in the Reichstag to be able to pass laws If the Chancellor could not achieve a majority in the Reichstag then under Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution the President was allowed to pass laws by decree The Reichsrat which could delay the passing of new laws unless overruled by a two-thirds majority in the Reichstag

Economic problems 1918-23 The German government was more or less bankruptcy as a result of overspending during the First World War Germany had to pay reparations but the government could not afford to pay them (they paid the first instalment in 1921 but fell behind with their payments in 1922) Instead of raising taxes to pay its debts, the government printed money, which led to inflation Valuable lands such as Silesia had been lost as a result of the Treaty of Versailles There was inflation shortages of goods and government policy led to price increases Political problems 1918-23 The Weimar government was unpopular with many Germans because it was associated with the surrender at the end of the First World War In January 1919 Spartacists (Communists) tried to take over the government of Germany in a revolution The Spartacists were defeated by the Freikorps demobilised soldiers returning from the First World War who refused to hand in their weapons and who took a right-wing political stance In March 1920 Dr Wolfgang Kapp led a right-wing revolt that tried to overthrow the Weimar government by force The Kapp Putsch was defeated by the workers of Berlin who went on strike and brought the capital to a halt Another right-wing Putsch was attempted by Adolf Hitler of the NSDAP in Munich in November 1923 this also failed and Hitler was sent to prison The Ruhr crisis 1923 When Germany stopped reparations payments the French (and Belgians) occupied the Ruhr so that they could confiscate the industrial produce of the region The German government encouraged the German workers in the Ruhr to refuse to co-operate with the French by going on strike and the German government printed money to pay the workers wages, which led to hyperinflation The crisis was only ended when Germany agreed to restart reparations payments

The effects of inflation (1918-23) and hyperinflation (1923) People with savings lost out these were mostly middle class people People who have debts benefit Rich people who owned property (e.g. land, houses) or foreign currency had their wealth protected During the hyperinflation money became nearly worthless people had to carry vast amounts of banknotes in suitcases just to buy everyday things like bread but this was so inconvenient that business activity was greatly reduced leading to increases in unemployment The recovery of the Republic under Stresemann 1924-29 Political recovery Gustav Stresemann (who was a member of the DVP) was appointed Chancellor in August 1923 Stresemann remained Chancellor until November 1923 and was then Foreign Minister until his death in October 1929 he dominated the German government during this time Economic recovery Stresemann withdrew the old mark and introduced a new currency (the Rentenmark) In 1924 a new independent central bank was set up (the Reichsbank) The Dawes Plan (1924) allowed Germany to restart reparations payments because the annual payments were reduced and the German economy was supported by American loans The Young Plan (1929) reduced the total reparations bill from 6,600,000 to 2,000,000 and extended payments over a period of 59 years so that the annual payments were greatly reduced Improved foreign relations The Locarno Pact (1925) was signed by Germany, France, Belgium, Britain and Italy Germany accepted the boundaries established by the Treaty of Versailles and in return the last Allied troops left Germany In 1926 Germany was allowed to join the League of Nations Germany was one of sixty-five countries that signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact in 1928 by which the signatories agreed to renounce war as a method of solving international disputes

The impact of the Great Depression 1929-33 Economic problems th On 24 October 1929 Wall Street, the American Stock Exchange crashed US bankers called in their loans to Germany and many German companies had to close down By 1932 6,000,000 Germans (one in three of all workers) were out of work Unemployment pay only lasted six months after that came real poverty and homelessness Political problems rd On 3 October 1929 Gustav Stresemann, who had been responsible, more than any other politician, for Germanys recovery in the 1920s, died The Weimar government seemed unable to deal with the crisis (along with most governments in the world) The Socialist Party (SPD) refused to cut unemployment pay and so went into opposition As the SPD was the largest single party this made it difficult to make a coalition government with the support of a majority in the Reichstag In this situation, President Hindenburg began to allow the Chancellor (Brning) to use his emergency powers on a regular basis to by-pass the Reichstag Support for the Weimar Republic, never strong, declined and people began to look for other solutions to Germanys problems

KEY TOPIC 2 HITLER AND THE GROWTH OF THE NAZI PARTY 1918-33 The founding and early growth of the Nazi Party 1919-23 Adolf Hitler early life Hitler was born in 1889 in Austria Hitler served in the German army during the First World War At the time of the surrender of the German army in November 1918, Hitler was in a sanatorium the Baltic Sea coast, so he did not witness the defeat of Germany which he never accepted as genuine Hitler was convinced that the army had been betrayed by the November Criminals (the politicians who had signed the Armistice in November 1918) After the war Hitler was employed by the army in Munich where he had to check up on extremist groups and if necessary counter their propaganda In 1919 the army sent Hitler to a meeting of the German Workers Party, which Hitler joined and took over In November 1923 Hitler tried to seize power in Munich, but was arrested and put in prison for five years.

The birth of the Nazi Party 1919-23 The NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party or Nazi Party) was at first a small right-wing party that aimed to take over the government of Germany by a Putsch (aided by elements of the German army) In 1921 Hitler set up the SA (Sturm-Abteilung or Stormtroopers), a private army which wore a brown uniform (Brownshirts) and which protected Nazi meetings and broke-up the meetings of the Nazis political opponents Hitler became the undisputed leader of the NSDAP Hitler personally designed the Nazi flag, which featured a swastika and the red, white and black colours of the German flag before 1918 Apart from Hitler, early Nazi leaders included Josef Goebbels, Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Heinrich Himmler and Ernst Rhm The Munich Putsch and the lean years 1923-29 The Munich Putsch 1923 In November 1923 the NSDAP failed to seize control of Bavaria in the Beer Hall Putsch following which Hitler and other Nazi leaders were sent to prison The re-birth of Nazism, 1924 Hitlers ideas were set out in his rambling autobiography Mein Kampf which he wrote whilst in 1924 whilst in prison following the failure of the Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923 Nazi beliefs The beliefs of Hitler and the Nazis were a mixture of nationalism, socialism and anti-Semitism Hitler blamed the Jews and Socialist politicians for the problems facing Germany, claiming that German blood had been polluted The Nazis believed that the German people were a master race, a 'Herrenvolk' and that all non-German peoples or races (including Slavs, Jews, black people and gypsies) were inferior 'Untermenschen' The Nazis believed that German citizens should be prepared to subordinate themselves to the needs of the state The Nazis believed that men and women had separate roles in society, which they had to be prepared for from the earliest age The Nazis believed that democracy was a weak system and should be replaced by dictatorship

Nazi aims To undo the Treaty of Versailles To rearm Germany To unite all German-speaking people in a Greater Germany To gain extra land (Lebensraum) to feed our people and settle our surplus population To exclude those not of German blood (i.e. Jews) from the German nation To destroy the Weimar Republic and to establish a dictatorship To destroy Communism To educate gifted children at the states expense To increase old age pensions To make Germany great again, a new leader was needed Nazi Party organisation in the lean years, 1924-29 After Hitlers release from prison in 1924 the NSDAP tried to win power by democratic methods (we shall have to hold our noses and enter the Reichstag against the opposition deputies) The NSDAP had little electoral success until after the start of the Great Depression in 1929 Increased support and political developments 1929-January 1933 Nazi support grows 1929-32 During the Great Depression the NSDAP won widespread support partly because Hitler offered simple solutions to Germanys economic problems and partly because of the failure of the other political parties By 1932 the NSDAP was the largest single party in Germany (although they never won over half the votes in a free election) The NSDAP gained only12 seats in the Reichstag elections of May 1928 but they increased their number of seats to 107 (in September 1930), 230 (in July 1932), 196 (in November 1932) and 288 (in March 1933) The NSDAP was very well organised The Nazis were very good at using propaganda, for example they deliberately picked fights with Communists and then gained support by claiming that they were dealing with the Communist threat The NSDAP were the only political party in Weimar Germany to run evening classes for their members to train them in public speaking The Nazis were able to focus on the issues that people thought were important Goebbels organised torchlight processions, rallies, radio broadcasts The Nazis used modern technology in their election campaigns, for example Hitler used aeroplanes to travel to massive election rallies The Nazis made extravagant promises to the electorate and (to some extent) were prepared to change their policies if they found they were unpopular, for example they dropped plans to nationalise industry which were unpopular with industrialists and the middle classes

The Nazis benefited from the weakness of the other political parties, which seemed unable to cope with the problems of the Great Depression The SA rose in numbers from 30,000 in 1929 to 440,000 in 1932 The discipline, the processions and the uniforms gave the impression of toughness and knowing what was needed, and reminded people of the old days under the Kaiser The violence of the SA increased, which gave the impression of action and purpose The SA particularly attacked Communists, which pleased middle class and business people, and which also made it look as if the Weimar government couldnt maintain law and order

The role of Hitler Hitler was always the focus of Nazi electioneering Hitler was a brilliant public speaker Hitler told the German people that the problems of the Depression were not their fault Hitler blamed the Jews and the Weimar democrats for Germanys problems (he used them as a scapegoat) Hitler gained the support of powerful industrialists (who were frightened of Communism) In the autumn of 1931 the Harzburg Front was formed, by which Hitler received the support of a group of rich industrialists (including Hugenberg) in return for a promise to reduce the amount of Socialism in National Socialism Hitler hired a private plane to fly around Germany (he was the first politician to do this) Hitler said that he would be able to solve Germanys problems Hitler offered strong leadership and easy solutions Hitler said that he would do away with the Treaty of Versailles, which had treated Germany so badly, and make Germany great again Hitler was always backed up by large numbers of disciplined and uniformed followers Hitler promised different things to different groups of people to businessmen he promised that he would control the Trade Unions and deal with the Communists to workers he promised that he would provide jobs.

The Nazis win power 1932-33 In 1932 Hitler stood in the presidential elections against Hindenburg. Hindenburg won 17 million votes, Hitler won 11 million In the July 1932 general election the Nazis became the biggest party in Reichstag, but Hindenburg refused to appoint Hitler Chancellor and Franz von Papen became Chancellor. In the November 1932 the Nazis lost some support, but were still the biggest party in the Reichstag Franz von Papen was replaced as Chancellor by General Kurt von Schleicher Von Papen was furious that von Schleicher had taken his place and was determined to get rid of him so in January 1933 he suggested that Hindenburg appoint Hitler as Chancellor, with von Papen as Vice-Chancellor in a coalition government Who supported Hitler? The middle classes supported him because he offered stability and protection from communism At first many working men supported Hitler, because he offered work and security Many women supported Hitler, because he seemed to offer a better family life Hitlers greatest support came from children, who seem to have admired the order and discipline of the Nazi movement and to whom Hitler set out to make a special appeal Opposed to Hitler were the communists and socialists, they saw that his ideas would take away basic freedoms Members of some churches, especially the German Lutheran Church opposed Hitler Hitler claimed to be a Roman Catholic and this led some Catholics to back him at first

KEY TOPIC 3 THE NAZI DICTATORSHIP 1933-39 The removal of opposition 1933-34 Timechart 30th January 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor 4th February 1933 Decree to ensure free and peaceful elections (which gave the Nazi-controlled police the information necessary to break-up opposition meetings) th 17 February 1933 As Prussian Minister of the Interior, Hermann Gring ordered the police to permit NSDAP political meetings but to disrupt those of the KPD nd 22 February 1933 Members of the SA were appointed as auxiliary police officers in Prussia th 27 February 1933 The Reichstag Fire: this was started by Nazis but blamed on Communists and used as anti-Communist propaganda th 28 February 1933 Decree suspending personal liberty, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of assembly th 5 March 1933 Reichstag election in which the Nazis won 288 out of 629 seats (46% of seats) March 1933 The KPD was banned from sitting in the Reichstag rd 23 March 1933 The Enabling Act was passed giving Hitler the power to make laws without the approval of either the Reichstag or the President May 1933 Trade Unions were banned July 1933 All political parties except the NSDAP were banned th 29 June 1934 The SA leadership was purged on the Night of the Long Knives (see below) nd 2 August 1934 On the death of President Hindenburg Hitler declared himself President and thereafter Hitler was President and Chancellor combined The Night of the Long Knives Once Hitler became Chancellor, he began to face opposition within the Nazi Party Hitlers only rival was Ernst Rhm, chief of the SA, 3 million strong by 1934 The SA were more socialist than Hitler, they were mostly working class and they were eager for real power now that the Nazis had taken over the government of Germany Rhm wanted a socialist revolution in Germany and also wanted the SA to become units in the German Army, with him at the head Hitler did not want the socialists within the party to take control because he needed support from right-wing industrialists

Hitler needed the support of the army for his plans for war and knew that the generals would not accept Rhm as their leader Rhm claimed that the SA was growing rapidly he put the membership at 3,000,000, although it was probably nearer 500,000 Rhm ordered all members of the SA to go on holiday for the month of July 1934 and summoned the leaders to Munich for a conference On the night of 30 June 1934, 400 SA leaders, including Rhm, were assassinated by the SS on Hitlers orders Also murdered were General Kurt von Schleicher and his wife

The Nazi police state


Nazi Germany was a dictatorship The NSDAP was the only political party permitted Nazi Germany was a police state in which people seen as enemies of the state were arrested and punished by the police and the SS (which took over from the SA following the Night of the Long Knives) The first concentration camp, at Dachau, was set up for political opponents in 1933 Hitler was given the informal title Fuhrer (leader) After the death of Hindenburg, the army swore its oath of loyalty to Hitler personally The Gestapo (Geheime Staats Polizei), or secret police, was set up (and was run by Himmler after 1936) People were arrested and imprisoned without trial Evidence from informers was used people were encouraged to inform on neighbours, colleagues, even their own family Every block or street had an informer who reported on any behaviour that might suggest non-Nazi views e.g. not giving the Hitler salute Nazi Peoples Courts tried people, often in secret

Censorship and propaganda Josef Goebbels Josef Goebbels was the Nazis propaganda expert Radio, cinema, books and posters No non-Nazi views were ever heard and only messages praising Hitler and the Nazis reached the public In 1934 the Burning of the books took place, when Nazi students took books by Jewish or anti-Nazi authors out of libraries and burnt them in huge bonfires Many books were banned, removed from bookshops and libraries, and burned The Nazis believed that, if they controlled what people in Germany heard, saw and read, then they would be able to win over hearts and minds

After the establishment of the Nazi dictatorship in 1933, Goebbels took control of all forms of communication: books, newspapers, films, newsreels, radio and posters as well as music and the arts Germans were encouraged to celebrate special days such as the Founding of the Nazi Party Day, Hitlers birthday and German Culture Day Cheap radios were made Hitlers portrait was in every public place and people almost worshipped him Hitler was portrayed as Germanys saviour from disaster This total control of every aspect of life and attempt to keep even peoples thoughts under control is called totalitarianism Germans were continually reminded that women were supposed to be mothers and housewives, men were supposed to be soldiers and workers

The arts, sport, and entertainment Goebbels set up the Reich Chamber of Culture Goebbels could stop any musician, actor, writer or artist from working by ending his or her membership of the Chamber of Culture Some artists left Germany in protest, but others started to produce work which was acceptable to the Nazis Music was supposed to be German, including folk songs, marching music and classical music by composers such as Bach, Mozart, Beethoven or Wagner Jazz was not allowed as it was black and therefore by definition (from the Nazi viewpoint) racially inferior Theatre was supposed to concentrate on German history and political drama Hitler believed architecture was the finest of the arts Hitler favoured a monumental style of architecture for public buildings and a country style for family homes and youth hostels In 1937 the Nazis opened the House of German Art to show officially approved art An exhibition of Degenerate Art which had been banned by the Reich Chamber of Culture was five times as popular with the German public as the exhibition of approved art at the House of German Art The Berlin Olympics in 1936 were used as an opportunity to show the world that Germany was a modern, well-organised and civilised society Germany headed the medals table at the Berlin Olympics Some leading German athletes were not allowed to compete at the Berlin Olympics because they were Jewish The best individual performance at the Berlin Olympics was that of Jesse Owens, a black American athlete, who won four gold medals Religion Hitler was hostile to Christianity, but many Germans were churchgoers and he did not attack the churches at once Hitler claimed to be a Catholic to win support from the papacy and in 1933 a Concordat was signed with the Pope to protect the Roman Catholic Church in Germany Despite the Concordat, Catholic groups were shut down and bishops imprisoned

Some Protestants formed a Reich Church, as part of the Nazi Party Mein Kampf was placed next to the Bible on the altar and the swastika was given equal prominence with the cross. Many Protestants refused to join the Reich Church and many were arrested Many other religious groups persecuted

KEY TOPIC 4 NAZI DOMESTIC POLICIES 1933-39 Nazi policies towards women and the young Youth and education in Nazi Germany The school curriculum was controlled by the Nazis German, History, Biology and Physical Education were regarded as the most important school subjects Girls were prevented from studying science and could only learn the mathematics necessary to be a housewife In History pupils were taught about great events of German history, from a pro-German point of view The Nazis view of the First World War, the stab in the back was taught as the truth In Biology pupils were taught the phoney 'race science', which was designed to 'prove' the superiority of the German race PE was given more time on the curriculum (to help boys to prepare to be soldiers and girls to prepare to be mothers); boxing was compulsory for boys Girls were taught to cook and care for the home Teachers were encouraged to join the National Socialist Teachers League, which by 1937 included 97% of teachers Elite schools were set up by the SS and Hitler Youth organisations All schools came under Nazi control All school books were rewritten and included Nazi ideas about hatred of the Jews and love of war Boys and girls went to separate schools Youth movements Baldur von Schirach was the Youth Leader of the Reich Girls were members of the League of Young Girls from 10 to 14 and of the League of German Maidens from 14 to 18 Boys were joined the Pimpfen from the age of 5, then the German Young People from 10 to 14 and the Hitler Youth from 14 to 18 Through the youth organisations, young people were indoctrinated with important Nazi ideas and values such as duty, obedience, honour, courage, strength and ruthlessness In the youth organisations children took part in fun activities such as camping, sports and outings

In the youth organisations children also had lectures about Nazi ideas, like racism, the girls were taught about child-rearing and the boys did activities which prepared them for the army: cleaning rifles, reading maps, throwing hand grenades, doing mock parachute jumps, going on long marches Values such as peace, kindness, intellect, individuality and humanity were despised and discouraged Boys and girls were encouraged to be physically fit Boys were prepared for military service, and girls for motherhood Meetings were in the evenings and at weekends Children were encouraged to spy on their parents and report what they did and said Membership of the youth organisations became compulsory as a result of laws passed in 1936 and 1939 In 1933 30% of young people in Germany were in the Nazi Youth movements, and by 1938 it was 82% By the later 1930s some young people were getting resentful of the time it took up, the boring lectures they had all heard before at school, the incomprehensible readings from Mein Kampf

Women in Nazi Germany 1933-39 Hitler and the Nazis did not believe in equality for the sexes Women were expected to be wives and mothers Women had to stay at home, produce more children and look after the family There was a lot of propaganda about the ideal German family Photographs and posters showed the woman looking after the children and the man going out to work and protecting the wife The Nazi Party was a mans party and there were no women in senior positions A Nazi slogan encouraged women to be devoted to Kinder, Kche und Kirche (children, kitchen and church) Abortion was made illegal, the availability of contraceptive advice was restricted Maternity benefits and family allowances were improved Interest free loans were made available to young women who left their jobs to get married Couples received a loan of 1,000 marks on getting married, and less and less of this loan had to be paid back the more children you had The Honour Cross of the German Mother was awarded to women who had four or more children Women with hereditary diseases or metal illness were sterilised so as to keep the German race 'pure' Unmarried women could volunteer to have a child by a 'pure Aryan' SS member Nazi propaganda discouraged wearing make-up, high heels, perfume, smoking in public Women were encouraged to stop smoking, to stop slimming and to take up sport Mothercraft and homecraft classes were provided for young women Gertrude Scholtz-Klink was the Head of the Nazi Womens Bureau In 1936 there were 30% more births than in 1933

In 1938 the divorce law was changed to allow divorce if a husband or wife could not have children Women with hereditary diseases or metal illness were sterilised so as to keep the German race 'pure'. Unmarried women could volunteer to have a child by a 'pure Aryan' SS member.

Womens employment The Nazis reduced the number of women working in jobs directly controlled by the state Women were forced to give up work when they got married Men were to be preferred to women in job applications Women could not be civil servants, lawyers, judges or doctors 15% of women teachers were sacked The Nazis wanted to reduce male unemployment by removing women from the labour market By the late 1930s there were labour shortages as a result of German rearmament, so women were encouraged to re-enter the labour market Employment and the standard of living Employment and the economy Most people found themselves getting better off; transport improved, there was more security Workers had few rights Trade unions were abolished and they had to join the Labour Front Wages were low and rose much more slowly than business profits Conditions of work in the Labour Front were tough, but it was at least a job The Strength Through Joy campaign gave workers cheap holidays, concerts, sport The Nazis attempted to build a cheap car, the Volkswagen, but only a few were built before the Second World War started After what had happened to their country in the years after 1919 and during the Depression, many people were prepared to accept Nazism Many people were removed from the list of unemployed, for example Jews, many women and the young men in the National Labour Front By 1936 recorded unemployment was down from 6 million to 1 million By 1938 industry was short of workers and during the Second World War workers were forced into German factories from all the countries the Nazis had overrun The Labour Service Before the Nazis came to power the National Labour Service had been started This used government money to provide jobs for the unemployed, building bridges, roads and forests The Nazis took up and expanded these schemes Hitler was especially keen on the building of the first motorways, the Autobahns

All men had to spend six months in the Labour Service They only earned about 50p a week, wore uniforms and marched like soldiers Much of the work was done by hand and not by machinery This meant that there were more jobs

Rearmament German re-armament gave a huge boost to industry, which soon had millions of new jobs At first secretly, then quite openly, Hitler ordered the building of submarines, aircraft and tanks This was quite contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles The army was increased from 100,000 to 1,400,000 by 1939 Self-sufficiency Hitler wanted the German economy to be self-sufficient so that it would be able to operate even in a war Foreign imports were restricted and research put into finding substitutes for rubber, petrol, coffee and cotton This policy was known as Autarky The persecution of minorities Nazi racial beliefs and policies About 1% of the population of Germany was Jewish, and the Jews were well-integrated, filling many positions in society, and contributing to it Hitler blamed Jews for the defeat of Germany in the First World War Hitler wanted to purify German blood by eliminating all Jews and other minority groups The Nazis believed in the superiority of the German (Aryan) race, and in the inferiority of all other races The Nazis believed in following a policy of eugenics, i.e. the attempt to improve the German race by selective breeding, e.g. through the compulsory sterilisation of certain people and through forbidding marriage and sexual relations between Jews and non-Jews Minorities who were persecuted by the Nazis included Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, the work-shy, the severely disabled, mentally handicapped people, prostitutes, tramps and beggars, alcoholics and juvenile delinquents Methods of persecution included propaganda, compulsory sterilisation, concentration camps and euthanasia The groups that were persecuted by the Nazis were denied full rights as German citizens, for example physically handicapped children were not allowed to have a secondary education From 1933 Jews were subjected to increasing persecution in Nazi Germany st On 1 April 1933 there was an official one-day boycott of Jewish businesses

On 7th April 1933 the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service was passed, which banned Jews from government jobs The Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour (1935) banned marriages between Jews and Aryans and forbade them to have sexual relations outside marriage The Reich Citizenship Law made Jews subjects rather than citizens The Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour banned marriages between Jews and Aryans and forbade them to have sexual relations outside marriage The Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour are together known as the Nuremberg Laws and were passed in 1935 Anti-Semitic propaganda was endemic in Nazi Germany (except during the period of the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936) The Nazis encouraged the Aryanisation of Jewish businesses From April 1938 Jews had to register their property, which made it easier to confiscate In June and July 1938 it was made illegal for Jewish doctors, dentists and lawyers to treat Aryans From October 1938 Jews had to have a red letter J stamped on their passports On Kristallnacht (9th-10th November 1938) Nazis destroyed many synagogues, Jewish shops and homes From November 1938 Jewish pupils were only allowed to attend Jewish schools In December 1938 remaining Jewish businesses were confiscated From January 1939 all Jewish women had to have Sarah as their first name, and all Jewish men had to be called Israel The Reich Office for Jewish Emigration was established in January 1939, to promote emigration by every possible means On 12th March 1939 the first mass arrest of Jewish people took place when nearly 30,000 Jewish men and boys were sent to concentration camps

Opposition to the Nazis Political parties like the Communists and the Socialists were banned from 1933, but worked underground in secret, keeping their organisation together and publishing newsletters There was a big communist group called the Red Orchestra, which became very important during the Second World War In 1944 some army officers planted a bomb in Hitlers war-room, but it failed to kill him 5,000 people were executed in retaliation There were a number of student groups who distributed leaflets and organised meetings, for example a group at Munich University, called the White Rose, centred around Hans and Sophie Scholl (who were arrested and executed in 1944) Some young people simply rejected the Nazis, for example Swing groups listened to American jazz and openly admired American fashions

The Edelweiss Pirates was an example of a working class group who mocked the self-righteous Nazis and refused to join the Hitler Youth Some Christians spoke out against the Nazis, like Martin Niemoeller and Dietrich Bonhoeffer In 1936 Pastor Grueber formed a secret organisation to protect Jews Some church leaders openly criticised the Nazi policy of euthanasia Overall there was little active opposition to the Nazis, partly because of the repressive methods used by the Nazis Passive resistance, for example refusing to give the Heil Hitler salute, was quite common Anti-Nazi jokes were common An anti-Nazi joke

Dr Goebbels was drowning in a lake when a young boy saved him. Goebbels said, How can I repay you, my young fellow? Well, I think I would like to have a state funeral, the boy replied. At your age? Why youre not going to die so soon. Oh no? said the boy, Just wait till I get home and tell my father whom I saved from drowning!