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Middle East Technical University Department of Chemical Engineering Ch.E.

204 Thermodynamics I (Section 3)

April 27, 2012

Problem Set 6
(Questions 3 is homework to be submitted on May 18) 1. In a Rankine cycle, steam enters the single stage turbine at 7 MPa and 425oC. Heat is rejected in the condenser at 25oC. Calculate the thermal efficiency of the cycle if the turbine efficiency is 90 %. Repeat the calculation for reheat of the steam at 3.5 MPa back to 425oC, i.e. the turbine consists of two-stages: after expansion in the first stage to 3.5 MPa, the steam is reheated to 425oC in the boiler, then expanded in the second stage to the condenser pressure. Each turbine has an efficiency of 90%. 2. A power plant operates on a regenerative vapor cycle with one well-insulated mixing chamber (open feedwater heater). Steam enters the first turbine at 12 MPa, 520oC and expands to 1 MPa, where some of the steam is extracted and diverted to the mixing chamber operating at 1 MPa. The remaining steam expands through the second turbine to the condenser pressure of 6 kPa. Saturated liquid produced in the condenser is pumped to the mixing chamber and saturated liquid exits the mixing chamber at 1 MPa. For isentropic processes in the turbines and pumps. a. show the process on a T-S diagram b. determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle 3. Steam enters the turbine of a cogeneration plant at 7 MPa and 500oC. One-fourth of the steam is extracted from the turbine at 600 kPa for process heating. The remaining steam continues to expand 10 kPa. The extracted steam is then condensed and mixed with feedwater at constant pressure and the mixture is pumped to the boiler pressure of 7 MPa. The mass flow rate of steam through the boiler is 30 kg/s. Disregarding any pressure drops and heat losses in the piping, and assuming the turbine and the pump to be isentropic, determine the net power produced. 8 Pump 2 7

Boiler

5
6 Pump 1

Process heater

Turbine

Qprocess Condenser
4 3

4. A two-stage cascade refrigeration system operates between pressure limits of 1 and 0.2 MPa. Each stage operates on the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with HFC134a as the working fluid. Heat rejection from the lower cycle to the upper cycle takes place in an adiabatic heat exchanger where both streams enter at 0.5 MPa. If the mass flow rate of the refrigerant through the upper cycle is 0.3 kg/s, determine a. the mass flow rate of the refrigerant through the lower cycle b. the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the power input to the compressors c. the coefficient of performance 5. Suggested: Question 35, 36, 38, 40, 42 in Chapter 3 of textbook.

Condenser 7 6

8
3

5
2

Evaporator 4 1