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Chapter 1

The Broadband Wireless

1.1.

Introduction

The main feature of the broadband wireless systems will be the convergence of multi-media services. This implies that a future wireless terminal, by guaranteeing high speed data, will be able to connect to different networks in order to support various services: switched traffic, IP data packets, and broadband streaming services such as video. The development of wireless terminals with generic protocols and multiple physical layers or softwaredefined radio interfaces is expected to allow users to seamlessly switch access between existing and future standards [1]. Looking past, wireless access technologies have followed different evolutionary paths aimed at unified target: performance and efficiency in high mobile environment. The first generation (1G) has fulfilled the basic mobile voice, while the second generation (2G) has introduced capacity and coverage. This is followed by the third generation (3G), which has quest for data at higher speeds to open the gates for truly mobile broadband experience.1 what is mobile broadband then? Broadband refers to an Internet connection that allows support for data, voice, and video information at high speeds, typically given by land-based high-speed connectivity such as DSL or cable services. On the one hand, it is considered broad because multiple types of services can travel across the wide band, and mobile broadband, on the other hand, pushes these services to mobile devices [2] . We are seeing that mobile broadband technologies are reaching a commonality in the air interface and networking architecture; they are being converged to an IP-based network architecture with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based air interface technology. Although network evolution has not reached to the point of true and full convergence, wireless access networks, all at various stage of evolution, is being designed to support ubiquitous delivery of multimedia services via internetworking. The transition to full convergence itself presents a set of unique challenges that the industry needs to address, however, IP-OFDMAbased technologies, the subject of this book, at one end and common policy control and multimedia services at the other end are good starts for full convergence. First worldwide debut of IP-OFDMA-based mobile broadband is with WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)

technology. This may be followed by Long Term Evolution (LTE), Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB), and others [2]. The underlying technology of WiMAX is considered to be a 4G system but early evolution and adoption of WiMAX has led the IEEE and the WiMAX Forum to ask R-ITU (Radio communication sector of the International Telecommunication Union) to include mobile WiMAX based on 802.16e into its IMT2000 specification (International Mobile Telecommunications 2000). WiMAX is included in IMT2000 in October 2007, which was originally created to harmonize 3G mobile systems. IMT2000 now supports seven different access technologies, including OFDMA (WiMAX), FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access), TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). This will put OFDMA on a comparable worldwide footing with other recent and planned enhancements to 3G technology. As a result, alternative migration path as seen in Fig. 1.1 is now an option for operators to debut for value-added broadband services. What remains for 4G then? IMT-Advanced, which is the ITU umbrella name for future 4G technologies has set vision of the characteristic of future 4G IMT Advanced systems. Although there is no clear definition as of now, the ITU-R M.1645 considers a radio interface(s) that need to support data rates up to approximately 100 Mbps for high mobility such as mobile access and 1 G bps for low mobility such as nomadic/local access. These figures are seen to be the target and be researched and investigated further for feasible implementation. Current targeted landscape is shown in Fig. 1.2.

Figure 1.1 Evolution of radio technologies source

As can be seen mobile WiMAX based on 802.16e (We call WiMAX-e) would not qualify as a 4G IMT-Advanced standard since data rates even under ideal conditions are much lower but IEEE 802.16m, which is considered as the next Mobile WiMAX technology (we call WiMAX-m) and expected to be ratified in 2009, satisfies 4G requirements by achieving 1 Gbps data rate. Similar to current 802.16e Mobile WiMAX, the 802.16m standard would use multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) antenna technology, while maintaining backward compatibility with the existing standards. The speed on the order of 1Gbps reportedly can be reached by using larger antenna arrays but current research shows that the data rate requirements described in ITU-R M.1645 can only be achieved with frequency bands above 100 MHz; however, there are very few large bands available. These requirements might be relaxed for the final release of 4G IMT-Advanced [2].

Figure 1.2 Wireless standard landscape

1.2.

Mobile broadband Evolution

Mobile broadband has two dimensions: mobility and broadband. However, traditionally, mobility first emerged for voice communication with cellular systems, and broadband has started with no mobility. Let us look first how these two have evolved to mobile broadband [2].

Figure 1.3 Evolutionary path of cellular technology

1.2.1.

First Generation

The first generation was not the beginning of mobile communications, as there were several mobile radio networks in existence before then, but they were not cellular systems either. The capacity of these early networks was much lower than that of cellular networks, and the support for mobility was weaker.

In mobile cellular networks the coverage area is divided into small cells, and thus the same frequencies can be used several times in the network without disruptive interference. This increases the system capacity. The first generation used analog transmission techniques for traffic, which was almost entirely voice. There was no dominant standard but several competing ones. The most notable 1G cellular system was called the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS), which was introduced by Bell Labs on the basis of cellular concept in 1947 and deployed worldwide in the 1980s. AMPS is an analog FDMA-based system for voice communication through 30 KHz FM modulated channels [3].

1.2.2.

Second Generation

The second-generation (2G) mobile cellular systems use digital radio transmission for traffic. Thus, the boundary line between first- and second generation systems is obvious: It is the analog/digital split. The 2G networks have much higher capacity than the first-generation systems. One frequency channel is simultaneously divided among several users (either by code or time division). Hierarchical cell structures in which the service area is covered by macrocells, microcells, and picocells enhance the system capacity even further. There are four main standards for 2G systems: Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications and its derivatives; digital AMPS (D-AMPS); code division multiple access (CDMA) IS-95; and personal digital cellular (PDC). GSM is by far the most successful and widely used 2G system. Originally designed as a pan-European standard, it was quickly adopted all over the world [3].

i.

GSM

The well known GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) entered into commercial service in 1991 GSM was only providing a voice service, SMS (Short Message Service) and low-rate circuit-switched data at 9.6 Kb/s. GSM Key Features: o The modulation scheme used in GSM is Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) o GSM uses a combined time division multiple access (TDMA) and frequency division multiple access (FDMA) scheme The available
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spectrum is partitioned into a number of bands each 200 kHz wide. Each of these bands may be occupied by a GMSK modulated RF carrier supporting a 8 TDMA time slots. o GSM uses three frequency bands: 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1900 MHz.

ii.

CDMAONE

CDMAONE (IS-95B) S-95B is a standard evolution of IS-95A systems, first deployed in September 1999, offering simultaneous voice and packet data services up to 115 Kb/s (maximum theoretical bit rate). Key Features: o The duplex separation used different 45 MHz and the carrier spacing is 1.25MHz. o CDMA uses codes to separate transmissions on the same frequency. o CDMAONE uses three frequency bands: 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1900 MHz

1.2.3.

Generation 2.5

Generation 2.5 is a designation that broadly includes all advanced upgrades for the 2G networks. These upgrades may in fact sometimes provide almost the same capabilities as the planned 3G systems. The boundary line between 2G and 2.5G is a hazy one. It is difficult to say when a 2G becomes a 2.5G system in a technical sense. Generally, a 2.5G GSM system includes at least one of the following technologies: high-speed circuit-switched data (HSCSD), General Packet Radio Services (GPRS), and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE). An IS-136 system becomes 2.5G with the introduction of GPRS and EDGE, and an IS-95 system is called 2.5G when it implements IS-95B, or CDMA2000 1xRTT upgrades [3].

i.

HSCSD

HSCSD is the easiest way to speed things up. This means that instead of one time slot, a mobile station can use several time slots for a data connection. One time slot can use either 9.6-Kbps or 14.4-Kbps speeds. The total rate is simply the number of time slots times the data rate of one slot. This is a relatively inexpensive way to upgrade the data capabilities, as it requires
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only software upgrades to the network (plus, of course, new HSCSD-capable phones), but it has drawbacks. The biggest problem is the usage of scarce radio resources. Because it is circuit switched, HSCSD allocates the used time slots constantly, even when nothing is being transmitted. In contrast, this same feature makes HSCSD a good choice for real-time applications [3].

ii.

GPRS

A GPRS system cannot do all the things HSCSD can do. For example, GPRS is weak with respect to real-time services. The next solution is GPRS. With this technology, the data rates can be pushed up to 115 Kbps, What is even more important than the increased throughput is that GPRS is packet switched, and thus it does not allocate the radio resources continuously but only when there is something to be sent. GPRS is especially suitable for non-real-time applications, such as e-mail and Web surfing. The implementation of a GPRS system is much more expensive than that of an HSCSD system. The network needs new components as well as modifications to the existing ones. However, it is seen as a necessary step to operate 3G networks in the future [3].

iii.

EDGE

EDGE is the third 2.5G improvement to GSM. The idea behind EDGE is a new modulation scheme called eight-phase shift keying (8PSK). EDGE is an attractive upgrade for GSM networks, as it only requires a software upgrade to base stations if the RF amplifiers can handle the non constant envelope modulation with EDGEs relatively high peak-to-average power ratio. It does not replace but rather coexists with the old Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) modulation, so mobile users can continue using their old phones if they do not immediately need the better service quality provided by the higher data rates of EDGE. It is also necessary to keep the old GMSK because 8PSK can only be used effectively over a short distance. For wide area coverage, GMSK is still needed.

iv.

Combinations

If EDGE is used with GPRS, then the combination is known as enhanced GPRS (EGPRS). The maximum data rate of EGPRS using eight time slots (and adequate error protection) is 384 Kbps. ECSD is the combination of EDGE and HSCSD and it also provides data rates three times the standard HSCSD. A combination of these three methods provides a powerful system, and it can well match the competition by early 3G networks.

v.

CDMA2000 1xRTT

The IS-95 (CDMA) standard currently provides 14.4-Kbps data rates. It can be upgraded to IS-95B, which is able to transfer 64 Kbps with the use of multiple code channels. However, many IS-95 operators have decided to move straight into a CDMA2000 1xRTT system. 1xRTT is one of several types of radio access techniques included in the CDMA2000 initiative. The North American version of 3G, CDMA2000, is in a way just an upgrade of the IS-95 system, although a large one. The IS-95 and CDMA2000 air interfaces can coexist, so in that sense the transition to 3G will be quite smooth for the IS-95 community. There are several evolution phases in CDMA2000 networks, and the first phase, CDMA2000 1xRTT, is widely regarded to be still a 2.5G system.

1.2.4.

3G and Broadband Wireless

Moving toward mobility and high speed from broadband and cellular systems has continued in different angles in the third generation era. The 3GPP and 3GPP2 have introduced the 3G technologies as an evolution to their existing second generation paths. After summarizing these technologies, we give the evolution of broadband to WiMAX from broadband wireless access.

1.2.4.1. 3GPP
The 3GPP is an organization that develops specifications for a 3G system based on the UTRA radio interface and on the enhanced GSM core
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network.3GPP is also responsible for future GSM specification work. This work used to belong to ETSI, but because both 3GPP and GSM use the same core network (GSM-MAP) and the highly international character of GSM, it makes sense to develop the specifications for both systems in one place [3].

GSM

GPRS

UMTS

EDGE
Figure 1.4 GSM to UMTS Transition

i.

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), which is based on Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), has been studied in Release-1999 (Rel-99) of 3GPP and published in 2000. UMTS was the next step after GSM, GPRS, and EDGE to offer improved voice and data services with a 5MHz bandwidth [2]. This bandwidth was chosen because: It is enough to provide data rates of 144 and 384 Kbps (these were 3G targets), and even 2 Mbps in good conditions. Bandwidth is always scarce, and the smallest possible allocation should be used, especially if the system must use frequency bands already occupied by existing 2G systems. This bandwidth can resolve more multi paths than narrower bandwidths, thus improving performance. The 3G WCDMA radio interface proposals can be divided into two groups: network synchronous and network asynchronous. In a synchronous network all base stations are time synchronized to each other. These results in a more efficient radio interface but require more expensive hardware in base stations. For example, it could be possible to achieve synchronization with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in all base stations, although this is not as simple as it sounds. GPS receivers are not very useful
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in high-block city centers (many blind spots) or indoors. Other WCDMA characteristics include fast power control in both the uplink and downlink and the ability to vary the bit rate and service parameters on a frame-byframe basis using variable spreading. The ETSI/ARIB WCDMA proposal was asynchronous, as was Koreas TTA II proposal. Rapid growth of UMTS has led to the next step in evolutionary phase termed, Release-2005 (Rel-5). Rel-5 provided High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

Figure 1.2.1.5 UMTS Evolution

ii.

HSDPA

(High Speed Downlink Packet Access) The aim of HSDPA is to increase user throughput for packet downlink transmission (from network to mobile). For this purpose, new modulation has been introduced 16 QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) allowing a theoretical peak rate of 14.4Mb/s (using the lowest channel protection algorithm). HSDPA is based on a shared radio scheme and real time (every 2ms) evaluation and allocation of radio resources, allowing the system to quickly react to data bursts. In addition, HSDPA implements a HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) which is a fast packet retransmission scheme located in the Base Station as close as possible to the radio interface. This allows fast adaptation to a change in radio transmission characteristics. HSDPA also introduced IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) and IP UMTS Terrestrial Radio
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Access Network (UTRAN) to offer flexibility to operator to provide such hosted services for greater user experience. Meanwhile, Rel-4 is introduced in March 2001, which separated call and bearer in the core network.

iii.

HSUPA

HSPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access) is the equivalent of HSDPA for uplink (from terminal to network) packet transmission. HSUPA actually implements the same sort of techniques already used by HSDPA, such as a HARQ packet retransmission scheme providing low latency packet repetition between the terminal and the base station, and a reduced transmission time interval of 2ms. However, unlike HSDPA, HSUPA is not based on a complete shared channel transmission scheme. Each of the HSUPA channels is actually a dedicated channel with its own physical resources. The actual resource sharing is provided by the Base Station, which allocates transmission power for uplink HSUPA transmission based on resource requests sent by terminals. In theory, HSUPA can provide up to 5.7Mb/s, using the top-level mobile category and larger transmission resources than can be allocated to a single terminal. HSUPA may be combined with HSDPA the association of the two is often referred to as HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) so that data sessions can benefit from an increased data rate for both uplink and downlink.

iv.

HSPA+

Rel-7, on the other hand, focuses on MIMO technology and flat-IP based base stations. GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) has started to be used in order to connect packet switched network to radio access network. Rel-7 is expected to finish in 2008 with new enhancements and it is termed HSPA Evolution, commonly known as HSPA+. Rel-7 has also improved receiver architecture and brought interference aware receivers (referred as type 2i and type 3i, which are extensions to existing type 2 and type 3 receivers). The receiver employs interference aware structure, which not only takes into account the channel response matrix of the serving cell but also the channel response matrix of the interfering cell that has the most significant power. Rel-7 also introduced the use of higher order modulations such as 64QAM with MIMO support since in Rel-6, HSPA systems used 16QAM in the
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downlink and QPSK in the uplink. To reduce latency when exiting the idle mode, Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) has been introduced for data users. This mainly keeps more users in the cell active state. The protocol is modified to ensure the user keep synchronized and the power control ready for rapid resumption (Table 1.3). In the network side, architecture has been improved as well. HSPA+ has integrated the RNC (Radio Network Controller) to NodeB (base station) to reduce latency and to make the architecture flatter and simpler. It is also a good move toward femtocell10 deployments and a good step to enable packet-based services toward LTE since HSPA+ is considered to be the missing link between HSPA and LTE.

v.

LTE

3GPP LTE is also referred to as evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA) or Super 3G (S3G) and is introduced by 3GPP as Release 8 (R8) [8]. The specifications define a new physical air interface in order to further increase the data rate of the cellular mobile radio compared to HSPA. The key differentiation compared to WCDMA and HSPA is the OFDM downlink and single-carrier FDMA uplink. LTE is targeting data rates of 100Mbit/s in the downlink and 50Mbit/s in the uplink. The improvements in data rate are due to enhanced channel-dependent scheduling and rate adaptation, also in the frequency domain, spatial multiplexing with MIMO, and larger channel bandwidths of up to 20MHz. Requirements on LTE The first part of the study resulted in an agreement on the requirements for the Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN). Key aspects of the requirements are as follows: o Up to 100 Mb/s within a 20 MHz downlink spectrum allocation (5 b/s/Hz) and 50 Mb/s (2.5 b/s/Hz) within a 20 MHz uplink spectrum allocation. o Control-plane capacity: at least 200 users per cell should be supported in the active state for spectrum allocations up to 5 MHz o User-plane latency: less than 5msec in an unloaded condition (i.e., single user with single data stream) for small IP packet. o Mobility: E-UTRAN should be optimized for low mobile speeds 015 km/h. higher mobile speeds between 15 and 120 km/h should be supported with high performance. Connections shall be maintained at
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speeds 120350 km/h (or even up to 500 km/h depending on the frequency band). o Coverage: throughput, spectrum efficiency, and mobility targets should be met for 5 km cells and with a slight degradation for 30 km cells. Cells ranging up to 100 km should not be precluded. o Enhanced multimedia broadcast multicast service (E-MBMS). Spectrum flexibility: E-UTRA shall operate in spectrum allocations of different sizes including 1.25 MHz, 1.6 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz, and 20 MHz in both uplink and downlink Architecture and migration: packet-based single E-UTRAN architecture with provision to support systems supporting real-time and conversational class traffic and support for an end-to-end QoS. o Radio Resource Management: enhanced support for end-to-end QoS, efficient support for transmission of higher layers, and support of load sharing and policy management across different radio access technologies. The wide set of options initially identified by the early LTE work was narrowed down in December 2005 to a working assumption that the downlink would use Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) and the uplink would use Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA). Supported data modulation schemes are QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM. The use of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology with up to four antennas at the mobile side and four antennas at the base station was agreed. Re-using the expertise from the UTRAN, they agreed to the same channel coding type as UTRAN (turbo codes), and to a transmission time interval (TTI) of 1msec to reduce signaling overhead and to improve efficiency.

1.2.4.2. 3GPP2
The 3GPP2 has continued to evolve its second generation (IS-95) based systems with EV-DO (Evolution-Data Optimized) series of CDMA2000 standard. First standard of series, termed CDMA2000 1xEV-DO, introduces data-centric broadband network to deliver data rates beyond 2Mbps in a mobile environment. In 2001, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO was approved as an IMT2000 standard as CDMA2000 High Rate Packet Data (HRPD) Air Interface, IS-856. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Release 0 (Rel-0) offers highspeed data access up to 2.4 Mbps and it was the first mobile broadband technology deployed worldwide. Rel-0 provides a peak data rate of 2.4 Mbps in the forward link (FL) and\ 153 Kbps in the reverse link (RL) in a single 1.25MHz FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing ) carrier. In
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commercial networks, Rel 0 delivers average throughput of 300700 Kbps in the forward link and 7090 Kbps in the reverse link. Rel-0 has also started always on user experience as in IP and also supports IP-based network connectivity and applications. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO devices include a CDMA2000 1X modem in order to be compatible with CDMA2000 1X and cdmaOne systems. In addition to the air interface techniques of CDMA2000 1X, the following new high-speed packet data transmission enhancements are incorporated into Rel-0: downlink channelization to offer higher rate with bundling, Adaptive Modulation and Coding, Hybrid-ARQ, etc. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision A (Rev-A) is an evolution of CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rel-0 to increase peak rates on reverse and forward links to support a wide-variety of symmetric, delay-sensitive, real-time, and concurrent voice and broadband data applications. It also incorporates OFDM technology to enable multicasting (one-to-many) for multimedia content delivery.

i.

Rev. A

Rev-A has introduced first All-IP based broadband architecture in 2006 to support time-sensitive applications such as VoIP, etc. Rev-A provides a peak data rate of 3.1 Mbps in the forward link and 1.8 Mbps in the reverse link with a 1.25MHz FDD carrier. However, in commercial networks, Rev A achieves average throughput of 450800 Kbps in the forward ink and 300 400 Kbps in the reverse link. As the successor of Rev-A,

ii.

Rev. B

CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision B (Rev-B) introduces dynamic bandwidth allocation to provide higher performance by aggregating multiple 1.25MHz Rev-A channels. Consequently, peak data rates scales with the number of carriers aggregated. When 15 channels are combined within a 20MHz bandwidth, Rev-B delivers up to 46.6 Mbps in the forward link and 27 Mbps in the reverse link. However, with 5MHz aggregation, the peak data rates are around 14.7Mbps.14 Rev-B also supports OFDM based multicasting and introduces lower latency for delay sensitive applications.

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iii.

Ultra Mobile Broadband

3GPP2 developed Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) based on the frameworks of CDMA2000 1xEV-DO revision C [11], IEEE 802.20 [12], and Qualcomm Flarion Technologies FLASH-OFDM [13]. The UMB standard was published in April 2007 by the 3GPP2 and the UMB system is expected to be commercially available in early 2009. The key features of UMB include [4]: o OFDMA-based air interface. o Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA). o Improved interference management techniques. o Up to 280 Mb/s peak data rate on forward link and up to 68 Mb/s peak data rate on reverse link. o An average of 16.8 msec (32-byte, round trip time) end-to-end network latency. o Up to 500 simultaneous VoIP users (10 MHz FDD allocations). o Scalable IP-based flat or hierarchical architecture. o Flexible spectrum allocations: scalable, noncontiguous, and dynamic channel (bandwidth) allocations and support for bandwidth allocations of 1.25 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, and 20 MHz. o Low power consumption and improved battery life [4] .

1.2.4.3. Broadband, WLAN and BWA


In this section we will introduce the evaluation of Wireless LAN and BWA starting from DSL to WiMAX.

i.

DSL

Another evaluation is as we said broadband connectivity, which has started with Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable modem technology. DSL utilizes the twisted pair copper wire of the local loop of the public switched telephone network (PSTN), which is used to carry Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) voice communication between 300 and 3.4 KHz. DSL uses the bandwidth beyond 3.4 KHz. DSL utilizes Discrete Multitone Modulation (aka Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)) and DSL modem converts digital data into analog waveform. All of which depend upon more traditional methods such as copper wire or coaxial cable for last
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mile delivery. However, the broadband over DSL and cable are only capable to provide last mile connection with no mobility. Limited mobility is introduced with the introduction of Wireless Local Area Networking (WLAN) within the past decade [2].

ii.

WLAN

WLAN systems are confined to deliver wireless connectivity within a small range, and they are utilized to distribute fixed broadband connectivity to nomadic wireless users as well as users with pedestrian speed. WLAN establishes wireless connection between wireless stations (such as PCs, laptops, handhelds, etc.) and the access point that connects to DSL or Cable modem or Ethernet for broadband connectivity. WLAN operates in unlicensed frequency bands. The primary unlicensed bands are the ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical) bands at 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz and the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) band at 5 GHz. The WLAN has been standardized in IEEE within 802.11 frameworks. WLAN standard within IEEE frame only defines the physical and MAC layers. The industry formed the Wi-Fi Alliance as a nonprofit industry association to enhance the user experience by defining the networking layer as well as testing and certification programs. Currently, wireless LAN is proliferating at homes, enterprises, and even in cities, and has become the standard for last feet broadband connectivity. The success of WLAN has accelerated the hype toward broadband wireless access with more mobility and guaranteed QoS[2]. A good example is the proliferation of home and business wireless LANs and commercial hotspots based on the IEEE 802.11 standard. This proliferation of WLANs is driving the demand for broadband connectivity back to the Internet, which 802.16 can fulfill by providing the outdoor, long range connection back to the service provider. For operators and service providers, systems built upon the 802.16 standard represent an easily deployable third pipe capable of delivering flexible and affordable last-mile broadband access for millions of subscribers in homes and businesses throughout the world.

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iii.

Broadband Wireless Access (BWA)

Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) has started with a fixed access in mind to compete with DSL and cable modem since rapid growth of broadband access has created demand for new wireless technologies to reduce the cost of operation and by pass monopoly of service providers in wire-line access. We give a chronological listing of BWA toward fixed WiMAX in this section and mobile WiMAX in the next section [2].

LMDS
The Local Multipoint Distribution Systems (LMDS) is the first notable BWA that showed a short-lived rapid success as a wireless alternative to fiber and coaxial cables in the late 1990s. LMDS has utilized 28 & 31 GHz with two types of LMDS licenses to or in? Offer up to several hundreds of megabits per second. However, LMDS system requires roof-top antennas to achieve line-of-sight (LOS) connection.

MMDS
Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Services (MMDS or Wireless Cable) technology has emerged at 2.5 GHz and become popular in sparsely populated rural areas. LMDS and MMDS have adapted the modified version of DOCSIS for wireless broadband also known as DOCSIS+. MMDS provided greater range than LMDS but still required LOS link to operate. The LOS challenge of broadband wireless has tackled with OFDM modulation and standardization activities have begun in 1998 by IEEE under the 802.16 working group

IEEE 802.16 family


This group has targeted to standardize the technology for Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (Wireless MAN), also adopted by ETSI HiPERMAN (High Performance Radio Metropolitan Area Network) ((see table 1.1)).

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Table 1.1 IEEE 802.16 family

Standards 802.16

Publication date Apr. 2002

Highlights Highlights Line-of-sight fixed operation in 10 to 66 GHz band. Air interface support for 2 to 11 GHz band. Minor improvements and fixes to 802.16a. Support for vehicular mobility and asymmetrical link.

802.16a

Apr. 2003

802.16-2004 (802.16d) 802.16e

Oct. 2004

Feb. 2006

802.16m

In progress

Higher peak data rate, reduced latency, and efficient security mechanism.

IEEE 802.16e-Based Mobile WiMAX


The WiMAX Forum Network Working Group (NWG) develops the higherlevel networking specifications for Mobile WiMAX systems beyond what is defined in the IEEE 802.16 specifications, which address the air interface only. Key features of the 802.16e-based Mobile WiMAX are: o Up to 63 Mb/s for downlink and up to 28 Mb/s for uplink per sector throughput in a 10 MHz band. o End-to-end IP-based Quality of Service (QoS). o Scalable OFDMA and spectrum scalability. o Robust security: Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)-based authentication, AES-CCM-based authenticated encryption, and CMAC/HMAC-based control message protection schemes. o Optimized handoff scheme and low latency. o Adaptive modulation and coding (AMC). o Hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) and fast channel feedback. o Smart antenna technologies: beamforming, space-time coding, and spatial multiplexing. o Multicast and broadcast service (MBS) [4].

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1.2.4.4. IMT-2000
IMT-2000 is the umbrella specification of all 3G systems. Originally it was the purpose of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to have only one truly global 3G specification, but for both technical and political reasons this did not happen until November 1999 in its meeting in Helsinki, many years passes and WiMAX is included in IMT2000 in October 2007 [3]. As shown in Table 1.2
Table 1.2.1.2 IMT2000

UMTS/WCDMA CDMA2000 UMTS-TDD TD-SCDMA UWC-136 IS-136 EDGE DECT WiMAX

CDMA Direct Spread CDMA Multi-Carrier Time-Code Time-Code Single Carrier Single Carrier Single Carrier FDMA/TDMA OFDMA TDD

1.2.5.

4G (IMT-Advanced)

The fourth generation (4G) of the cellular mobile radio is referred to as IMT-Advanced and encompasses new radio technologies as well as existing technologies. The standardization of new physical air interfaces is targeting downlink peak data rates of 1Gbit/s at low mobility and 100Mbit/s at high mobility.

1.2.5.1. Beyond 4G Wireless


Europe Belgium: With much of the mobile world yet to migrate to 3G mobile communications, let alone 4G, European researchers are already working on a new technology able to deliver data wirelessly up to 12.5Gb/s. The technology known as millimetre (mm)-wave or microwave photonics has commercial applications not just in telecommunications (access and in-house networks) but also in instrumentation, radar, security, radio astronomy and other fields. Despite the quantum leap in performance made possible by combining the latest radio and optics technologies to produce mm-wave components, it will probably only be a few years before there are real benefits for the average
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EU citizen. This is thanks to research and development work being done by the EU-funded project IPHOBAC, which brings together partners from both academia and industry with the aim of developing a new class of components and systems for mm-wave applications. One way in which the technology can be deployed in the relatively short term, according to Sthr, is wirelessly supporting very fast broadband to remote areas. You can have your fibre in the ground delivering 10Gb/s but we can deliver this by air to remote areas where there is no fibre or to bridge gaps in fibre networks, he says 1.2.6. Summary for wireless technologies: In this section we put the Whole technologies together in order to show the main difference between each of them (see table (1.3))
Table 1.3 Comparison between several wireless technologies
Technology Bandwidth 3GPP Technology DL/UL peak GSM -9.6 Kbps GPRS 14.4 - 115.2 Kbps EDGE: 547.2 Kbps 384/384 Kbps 1.814.4/5.72 Mbps 22/11 Mbps 100/50 Mbps 14.4 Kbps 153/153 Kbps 2.4 Mbps/153 Kbps 3.1/1.8 Mbps 14.7/5.4 Mbps 33-152/17-75 Mbps 54 Mbps shared 9.4/3.3 Mbps with 3:1; 6.1/6.5 Mbps with 1:1 46/7 Mbps 22 MIMO in 10 Hz with 3:1; 32/4 Mbps with 1:1

GSM(+ GPRS, EDGE)

900MHz 1800MHz
5MHz FDD 5MHz FDD 5MHz FDD 1.2520MHz FDD 3GPP2

TDMA

WCDMA Rel. 99 HSPA Rel. 6 HSPA+ Rel. 7 LTE CDMA One CDMA2000 1x 1xEV-DO Rev-0 1xEV-DO Rev-A 1xEV-DO Rev-B UMB WiFi Fixed WiMAX

TDM/CDMA TDM/CDMA TDM/CDMA OFDMA/SC-FDMA

850MHz 1900MHz

CDMA

Mobile WiMAX

1.25MHz FDD TDM/CDMA 1.25MHz FDD TDM/CDMA 1.25MHz FDD TDM/CDMA 5MHz FDD TDM/CDMA 1.2520MHz FDD OFDMA WLANS&WMANS 20MHz TDD for CSMA/OFDM 802.11a/g TDD, FDD TDM/OFDM 3.5MHz, 7 MHz, 10MHz TDD 3.5MHz, TDM/OFDMA 7MHz, 5MHz, 10 MHz, 8.75MHz

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1.3. Network Architecture In this section we will discuss the network for 3gpp and its architecture. 1.3.1. GSM Network Architecture
In this section we briefly examine the different components that together make up a GSM network. Many of these components are common to any cellular network; however, a few are peculiar to GSM. We also note that GSM sometimes uses its own terminology to describe familiar components. A block diagram showing the simplified hierarchical structure of the GSM public land mobile network (PLMN)

Figure 1.2.1 6 GSM Network

Component

Description
GSM-PLMN contains as many MSs as possible, available in various styles and power classes. In particular, the handheld and portable stations need to be distinguished.

Mobile Station GSM distinguishes between the identity of the subscriber and that of the mobile equipment. The SIM determines the directory number and the calls billed to a subscriber. The SIM is a database on the user side. Physically, it consists of a chip, which the user must insert into the GSM telephone before it can be used. To make its handling easier, the SIM has the format of a credit card or is inserted as a plug-in SIM. The SIM communicates directly with the VLR and indirectly with the HLR.

Subscriber Identity Module

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A large number of BTSs take care of the radio-related tasks and provide the connectivity between the network and the mobile station via the Air-interface. Base Transceiver Station The BTSs of an area (e.g., the size of a medium-size town) are connected to the BSC via an interface called the Abis-interface. TheBSC takes care of all the central functions and the control of the subsystem, referred to as the base station subsystem (BSS). The BSS comprises the BSC itself and the connected BTSs. One of the most important aspects of a mobile network is the effectiveness with which it uses the available frequency resources. Effectiveness addresses how many calls can be made by using a certain bandwidth, which in turn translates into the necessity to compress data, at least over the Air interface. In a GSM system, data compression is performed in both the MS and the TRAU. From the architecture perspective, the TRAU is part of the BSS. An appropriate graphical representation of the TRAU is a black box or, more symbolically,a clamp. A large number of BSCs are connected to the MSC via the Ainterface. The MSC is very similar to a regular digital telephone exchange and is accessed by external networks exactly the same way. The major tasks of an MSC are the routing of incoming and outgoing calls and the assignment of user channels on the Ainterface.
Table 1.4 GSM network components

Base Station Controller

Transcoding Rate and Adaptation Unit

Mobile Services Switching Center

1.3.2.

GPRS Network

Works elements: service GPRS support node (SGSN) and gateway GPRS support node (GGSN).

i.

SGSN

The SGSN represents for the packet world what the mobile switching center (MSC) represents for the circuit world. The SGSN performs mobility management [routing area update, attach/detach process, mobile station (MS) paging] as well as security tasks (e.g., ciphering of user data, authentication) [6].

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ii.

GGSN

GGSN tasks are comparable to the ones of a gateway MSC. It is not connected directly to the access network, but provides a means to connect SGSNs to other nodes or external packet data networks (PDNs). It also provides routing for packets coming from external networks to the SGSN where the MS is located as specified by the home location register (HLR). The new hardware boards for the BSC are called packet data units (PDUs) and their main functions are as follows: GPRS radio channels management (e.g., set-up/release); multiplexing of users among the available channels; power control, congestion control, broadcast of system information to the cells, and GPRS signaling from/to MS, base transceiver station (BTS) and SGSN [6].
Figure1.7 GPRS Network

1.3.3.

UMTS

The IMT-2000 network is divided into two logical concepts, the core network (CN) and the generic radio access network (GRAN). The noble idea behind this arrangement is that the GRAN will be capable of connecting, perhaps simultaneously, to several different CNs, such as GSM, B-ISDN + IN, or a packet-data network. The GRAN could be implemented, for example, as a GSM BSS, DECT, LAN, CATV, or Hiper- LAN2 network. 3GPP has also specified a new dedicated UMTS radio access network (RAN) called the UMTS Terrestrial RAN (UTRAN). An important requirement for the GRAN implementations is that they conform to the Iu interface specifications. Note, however, that the 3GPP Release 99
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specifications only contain provisions for the GSM-MAP (including GPRS) and the ANSI-41 core networks. In GSM terms, the GRAN contains the base station subsystem, that is, the base transceiver stations (BTS) and the base station controller (BSC). In the 3GPP specifications, the generic GRAN concept is translated into a concrete UTRAN network in which the BTS has the curious name Node B. The new name for the BSC is the radio network controller (RNC). Between the GRAN and the core network we find the Iu interface, and between the GRAN and the UE we see the Uu interface (radio interface).

Figure 1.2.1.8 UMTS Network

The next evolution step is the release 4 (R4) architecture (Figure 1.8 ). Here, the GSM vcore is replaced with an IP network infrastructure based around voice over IP (VoIP) technology. The MSC evolves into two separate components: an MGW and an MSC server (MSS). This essentially breaks apart the roles of connection and connection control. An MSS can handle multiple MGWs, making the network more scalable.

Figure 1.9 Network for Release four

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Since there are now a number of IP clouds in the 3G network, it makes sense to merge these together into one IP or IP/ATM backbone (it is likely both options will be available to operators.) This extends IP right across the whole network, all the way to the BTS. This is referred to as the all-IP network, or the release 5 (R5) architecture, as shown in Figure (1.10) . The HLR/VLR/EIR are generalized and referred to as the HLR subsystem (HSS). Now the last remnants of traditional telecommunications switching are removed, leaving a network operating completely on the IP protocol, and generalized for the transport of many service types. Real-time services are supported through the introduction of a new network domain, the IP multimedia subsystem (IMS).

Figure 1.10 Network for Release five

Currently the 3GPP are working on release 6, which purports to cover all aspects not addressed in frozen releases. Some call UMTS release 6 4G and it includes such issues as interworking of hotspot radio access technologies such as wireless LAN. For HSPA+ the architecture has been improved as well. HSPA+ has integrated the RNC (Radio Network Controller) to NodeB which reduces the latency in the RAN. Its a good step to to enable packet-based services toward LTE since HSPA+ is considered to be the missing link between HSPA and LTE. This leads LTE to shift more complexity into the eNodeB

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Figure 1.11 Network for LTE

1.3.4.

WiMAX Network

Network Reference Model, seen in Fig. 1.12, defines functional entities and reference points regarding interoperability between vendors. Functional entities are grouped into three sets: Mobile WiMAX Subscriber (MS), Access Service Network (ASN), and Connectivity Service Network (CSN), where OFDMA and IP define the demarcation between the sets; ASN is radio-agnostic and responsible for assisting MS to maintain the uninterrupted connectivity of OFDMA air link during mobility and idle mode; CSN provides set of network functions to provide IP connectivity services to the subscriber.

Figure 1.12 WiMAX Network

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1.4.

MULTIPLE ACCESS:

In any communications system with many users, whether it be a fixed line or a wireless scheme, those users share some resource. Some mechanism must be employed to enable this resource sharing, and this is referred to as a multiple access scheme. In the wireless domain, the resource that is shared is frequency. For cellular communications, a change in generation has generally meant a change in the multiple access scheme that is implemented. The first generation of cellular systems used frequency division multiple access (FDMA); the majority of second generation systems use time division multiple access (TDMA) and most of the third generation schemes use code division multiple access (CDMA).Next attitudes uses Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA) which is multicarrier Technique.

Figure 1.13 MULTIPLE ACCESS

1.4.1. FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (FDMA)


As previously stated, a wireless system has the resource of frequency to share among many users. The first approach to solving this problem is to split the available frequency into a number of channels, each with a narrow slice of the frequency. This concept is shown in (fig 1.14) . Each user in the system that wishes to communicate is allocated a frequency channel, and each channel has a certain gap, known as a guard band, between it and the next channel so that the two do not interfere with each other. Once all the channels are in use, a new user to the system must wait for a channel to become free before communication can commence. Therefore, the system is limited in capacity as it can only support as many simultaneous users as
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there are channels. This is known as a hard capacity system. Another problem is that if there is any external interference at a particular frequency, then a whole channel may be blocked. The concept of FDMA can be considered in the context of radio broadcasting.

Figure 1.2.1 FDMA

1.4.2. TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA)


As wireless communications systems are expected to support more and more simultaneous users, there are clearly severe limitations with the FDMA scheme. A more efficient channel usage is required. With TDMA, a frequency channel is divided up into a number of slices of time, as shown in Figure (1.15). Here, a user is allocated a particular time slot, which repeats periodically. In the diagram, the frequency is split into six time slots; a user is allocated one slot in every six. Providing that the time slices are small enough and occur frequently enough, a user is oblivious to the fact that they are only being allocated a discrete, periodic amount of time. In this manner, the capacity can be dramatically increased and hence the efficiency of our system. Again, this is referred to as a hard capacity type network. As an example, the global system for mobile communications (GSM) employs both a TDMA and FDMA approach.

Figure 1.2.15 TDM

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1.4.3. CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA)


If the previous multiple access schemes are considered in terms of efficiency, each of them involves only one user transmitting on a particular channel at a particular time, which is clearly inefficient. For example, with GSM, in a given cell, only one user is transmitting at any time; all other active users are waiting for their time slot to come around. If a mechanism could allow more than one user to transmit at a time; then the resource usage could be dramatically improved. CDMA is such a scheme, where all users are transmitting at the same frequency at the same time. The effect of interference that users cause to each other is discussed under the heading of noise. Having a system that is limited by a noise target rather than specifically allocating resources for the sole use of a particular mobile device is known as a soft capacity system. CDMA is part of a general field of communications known as spread spectrum. Spread spectrum describes any system in which a signal is modulated so that its energy is spread across a frequency range that is greater than that of the original signal. In CDMA, it is the codes that perform this spreading function, and also allow multiple users to be separated at the receiver. The two most common forms of CDMA are: Frequency hopping (FH): with FH, the transmitted signal on a certain carrier frequency is changed after a certain time interval, known as the hopping rate. This has the effect of hopping the signal around different frequencies across a certain wide frequency range. At a particular instant in time, the signal is transmitted on a certain frequency, and the code defines this frequency. This system is used for many communications systems, including the 802.11b wireless LAN standard and Bluetooth. By using a large number of frequencies, the effect of interference on the signal is substantially reduced, since the interference will tend to be concentrated in a particular narrow frequency range. FH is also employed in military communications, where the secrecy of the code and the rejection of interference in the form of a jamming Signal make it extremely effective.

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Direct sequence (DS): with DS, a binary modulated signal is directly multiplied by a code. The code is a pseudo-random sequence of 1, where the bit rate of the code is higher than the rate of the signal, usually considerably higher. This has the effect of spreading the signal to a wideband. At the receiver, the same code is used to extract the original signal from the incoming wideband signal. A bit of the code is referred to as a chip, and the defining parameter for such a system is the chip rate. DSCDMA is the form used for the air interface in UMTS, known as wideband CDMA (WCDMA) According to information theory, as the frequency spectrum a signal occupies is expanded, the overall power level decreases. In CDMA, the user signals are spread up to a wideband by multiplication by a code. Consider a narrowband signal, say, for example, a voice call. When viewed in the frequency spectrum, it occupies some frequency and has some power level, as illustrated in Figure 1.16. Once the frequency is spread across a wideband, the total power of this signal is substantially reduced. Now consider that another user has the same procedure performed on it and is also spread to the same wideband. The total system power is increased by a small amount as the two users are transmitted at the same time. Therefore, each new user entering the system will cause the power of the wideband to increase. The idea is shown in Figure .An important characteristic is the rejection of unwanted narrowband noise signals. If a wideband signal is affected by a narrowband noise signal, then since the spreading function is commutative, the dispreading operation while extracting the wanted signal will in turn spread the narrowband noise to the wideband, and reduce its power level. The rejection of the interference effects of wideband noise from other users is the role of convolution coding,

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Figure 1.2.16 CDMA a).single b).n signal

1.4.4. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)


Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) consists of assigning one or several sub-carrier frequencies to each user (terminal station) with the constraint that the sub-carrier spacing is equal to the OFDM frequency spacing 1/Ts,in next section we will explain OFDM .

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM):


OFDM is similar to frequency division multiplexing (FDM). OFDM distributes the data over a large number of carriers that are spaced apart at precise frequencies. The spacing provides the orthogonality in this technique, which prevents the demodulator from seeing frequencies other than their own. We consider a data stream operating at R bps and an available bandwidth of Nf centered at fc. The entire bandwidth could be used to transmit a data stream, in which case the bit duration would be 1 /R. By splitting the data stream into N substreams using a serial-to-parallel converter, each substream has a data rate of R/N and is transmitted on a separate subcarrier, with spacing between adjacent subcarriers of f (see Figure 1.17). The bit duration is N/R.

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Figure 1.17 OFDM

The most important feature of OFDM is the orthogonal relationship between the subcarrier signals. Orthogonality allows the OFDM subcarriers to overlap each other without interference. OFDM uses FH to create a spread spectrum system. In the OFDM the input information sequence is first converted into parallel data sequences and each serial/parallel converter output is multiplied with spreading code. Data from all subcarriers is modulated in baseband by inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) and converted back into serial data. The guard interval is inserted between symbols to avoid ISI caused by multipath fading and finally the signal is transmitted after RF up-conversion.

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Table 1.5 comparisons between Multiple Access Techniques

Multiple access technique FDMA

TDMA

CDMA

OFDMA

Advantages Low transmit power Robust to multi-path Easy frequency planning Low delay High peak data rate High multiplexing gain in the case of bursty Traffic Low transmit power Robust to multi-path Easy frequency planning High scalability Low delay High spectral efficiency Simple digital realization Low complex receivers Flexible spectrum adaptation can be realized Different modulation schemes can be used on individual sub-carriers

Drawbacks Low peak data rate Loss due to guard bands Sensitive to narrowband Interference High transmit power Sensitive to multi-path Difficult frequency planning Low peak data rate Limited capacity per sector due to multiple access interference Multi-carrier signals with high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) require high linear amplifiers. - Loss in spectral efficiency More sensitive to Doppler spreads Phase noise
Accurate synchronization is required

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