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Introduction

Introduction
The 1/1998 issue replaces all previous issues of the Wrtsil 32 Project Guide. Major revisions of issue 1/1998 are: Technical data sheets revised Some engine dimensions have been revised Leak oil pipes on engine changed Pump curves of engine driven water pumps added Airborne noise figures added Start & stop sequences revised Chapter on control & monitoring revised Modbus addresses revised Holding down bolt instructions revised Drilling scheme of V-engines revised Lifting tool of V-engines changed

Application Technology, Wrtsil NSD Finland Oy, Marine Vaasa, 6 August 1998

THIS PUBLICATION IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AS ACCURATE AND AUTHORITIVE INFORMATION REGARDING THE SUBJECTS COVERED AS WAS AVAILABLE AT THE TIME OF WRITING. HOWEVER, THE PUBLICATION DEALS WITH COMPLICATED TECHNICAL MATTERS AND THE DESIGN OF THE SUBJECT AND PRODUCTS IS SUBJECT TO REGULAR IMPROVEMENTS, MODIFICATIONS AND CHANGES. CONSEQUENTLY, THE PUBLISHER AND COPYRIGHT OWNER OF THIS PUBLICATION CANNOT TAKE ANY RESPONSIBILITY OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS OR OMISSIONS IN THIS PUBLICATION OR FOR DISCREPANCIES ARISING FROMTHE FEATURES OF ANY ACTUAL ITEM IN THE RESPECTIVE PRODUCT BEING DIFFERENT FROM THOSE SHOWN IN THIS PUBLICATION. THE PUBLISHER AND COPYRIGHT OWNER SHALL NOT BE LIABLE UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL, CONTINGENT, OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES OR INJURY, FINANCIAL OR OTHERWISE, SUFFERED BY ANY PART ARISING OUT OF, CONNECTED WITH, OR RESULTING FROMTHE USE OF THIS PUBLICATION OR THE INFORMATION CONTAINED THEREIN.

COPYRIGHT 1998 BY WRTSIL NSD FINLAND OY ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR COPIED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS,

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

Table of contents

Table of contents
Page 1. 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 2. 2.1 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. General data and outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical main data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating oil quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Max. continuous output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principal dimensions and weights . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 11. 12. 13. 13.1. 13.2. 13.3. 13.4. 13.5. 13.6. 13.7. 13.8. 13.9. 13.10. 14. 14.1. 14.2. 14.3. 14.4. 15. 15.1. 15.2. 15.3. 16. 16.1. 16.2. Page Crankcase ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Exhaust gas system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Control and monitoring system . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed measuring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric prelubricating pump . . . . . . . . . . . . Preheating of cooling water . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring and alarm sensors . . . . . . . . . . . Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modbus communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rigid mounting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexible mounting of generating sets . . . . . . Flexible pipe connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . External forces and couples . . . . . . . . . . . . Airborne noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 66 67 67 68 74 75 75 75 76 77 80 80 81 90 91 92 92 92 93

Operational data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Dimensioning of propellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Loading capacity for generating sets . . . . . 10 Restrictions for low load operation and idling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Overhaul intervals and expected lifetime of engine components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diesel engine Wrtsil 6L32. . . . . . . . . . . . Diesel engine Wrtsil 8L32. . . . . . . . . . . . Diesel engine Wrtsil 9L32. . . . . . . . . . . . Diesel engine Wrtsil 12V32 . . . . . . . . . . Diesel engine Wrtsil 16V32 . . . . . . . . . . Diesel engine Wrtsil 18V32 . . . . . . . . . . 12 12 14 16 18 20 22

3. 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 4. 5. 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 6. 6.1. 6.2. 7. 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 8. 8.1. 8.2. 9. 10.

Description of the engine . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Fuel system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internal fuel system on the engine . . . . . . . Design of the external fuel system . . . . . . . Flushing instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 26 26 26 36

Power transmission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Connection to driven equipment . . . . . . . . . 94 Data and drawings required for torsional vibration analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Lifting of engines and generating sets . . 97 Lifting of engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Lifting of generating sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Engine room arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Arrangement of generating sets . . . . . . . . . 99 Arrangement of main engines . . . . . . . . . . 100 Dimensions and weights of engine components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 List of symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Lubricating oil system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Internal lubricating oil system on the engine 37 Design of the external lubricating oil system 40 Cooling water system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internal cooling water system on the engine. Design of the external cooling water system. 44 44 44 46

17. 17.1. 17.2. 18. 18.1. 18.2. 19.

Starting air system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Internal starting air system on the engine . 57 Design of the external starting air system . 59 Turbocharger turbine washing system . 61 Engine room ventilation and combustion air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

20.

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

1. General data and outputs

1. General data and outputs


1.1. Technical main data
The Wrtsil 32 is a 4-stroke diesel engine, non-reversible, turbocharged and intercooled with direct fuel injection. Cylinder bore Stroke Swept volume Number of valves Cylinder configuration V-angle Compression ratio Direction of rotation, seen from flywheel end 320 mm 400 mm 32.2 l/cylinder 2 inlet valves and 2 exhaust valves 6, 8 and 9 in-line 12, 16 and 18 in V-form 55 16.0:1 clockwise, counter-clockwise on request 720 450 612 750 460 625 Flash point, closed Pensky Martens, min. Total sediment potential 60C 0.10% by weight The fuel specification corresponds to fuel according to ISO 8217 : 1996 (E) categories up to ISO-F-RMK 55. Maximum limits for sodium, water content before engine and asphaltenes have been added. Provided the fuel treatment system can remove water and solids. Sodium contributes to hot corrosion on exhaust valves when combined with high vanadium content. Sodium also contributes strongly to fouling of the exhaust gas turbine blading at high load. The aggressiveness of the fuel depends not only on its proportions of sodium and vanadium but also on the total amount of ash. Hot corrosion and deposit formation are, however, also influenced by other ash constituents. It is therefore difficult to set strict limits based only on the sodium and vanadium content of the fuel. Also a fuel with lower sodium and vanadium contents than specified above, can cause hot corrosion on engine components.

Speed Cylinder output

RPM kW hp

Fuel consumption Lube oil consumption

see Technical Data see Technical Data

1.3. Lubricating oil quality


Engine
The system oil should be of viscosity class SAE 40 (ISO VG 150). The alkalinity, BN, of the system oil should be 30 - 55 (mg/KOH/g); higher at higher sulphur content of the fuel. During the warranty period lube oil of an approved type has to be used.

1.2. Fuel specification


Viscosity at 50C, max. Viscosity at 100F, max. Density at 15C, max. Conradson Carbon Residue, max. Sulphur content, max. Vanadium content, max. Sodium content, max. Ash, max. Water content, max. Water content before engine, max. Pour point, max. Asphaltenes, max. Aluminium + silicon, max. 730 cSt 7200 sRI 0.991 kg/dm / 1.010 kg/dm 22% by weight 5.0% by weight 600 ppm 50 ppm 0.20% by weight 1.0% by volume 0.3% by volume 30C 14% by weight 80 ppm

Speed governor
The speed governor can use engine oil.

Oil quantity in governor


Governor type Woodward PG 58 Woodward EGB 58 Regulateurs Europa 1100 Litres 1.7 2.3 2.5

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

1. General data and outputs

1.4. Max. continuous output


Main engines
Engine 6L32 8L32 9L32 12V32 16V32 18V32 720 RPM kW 2700 3600 4050 5400 7200 8100 HP 3670 4890 5510 7340 9790 11010 750 RPM kW 2760 3680 4140 5520 7360 8280 HP 3750 5000 5630 7510 10010 11260

The cylinder output P1 can be calculated as follows: P1 [kW] = pe [bar] x n [RPM] x 0.0268 pe [bar] x n [RPM] x 0.0365 P1 [hp] = where P1 = output per cylinder pe = mean effective pressure n = engine speed

1.5. Reference conditions


The maximum continuous output is available at a charge air coolant temperature of max. 38C, an air temperature of max. 45C and an exhaust gas back pressure of max. 300 mmWC. If the actual figures exceed these, the engine should be derated. The specific fuel consumption indicated in Technical Data is valid under reference conditions according to ISO 3046/1-1995, i.e.:

The maximum fuel rack position is mechanically limited to 100%.

Auxiliary engines
Engine 720 RPM, 60 Hz Engine kW 6L32 8L32 9L32 12V32 16V32 18V32 2700 3600 4050 5400 7200 8100 Alternator kVA 3250 4340 4880 6510 8680 9770 kW 2600 3470 3900 5210 6940 7810 750 RPM, 50 Hz Engine kW 2760 3680 4140 5520 7360 8280 Alternator kVA 3320 4430 4990 6650 8870 9980 kW 2660 3550 3990 5320 7100 7990

total barometric pressure air temperature relative humidity charge air coolant temperature

1.0 bar 25C 30% 25C

For other than ISO 3046/I conditions the same standard gives correction factors. The influence of an engine driven lube oil pump on the specific fuel consumption is about 2 g/kWh and of each engine driven cooling water pump about 1 g/kWh, at full load and nominal speed.

For auxiliary engines the permissible overload is 10% for one hour every twelve hours. The maximum fuel rack position is mechanically limited to 110% 2% continuous output. The alternator outputs are calculated for an efficiency of 0.965 and a power factor of 0.8. The above output is also available from the free end of the engine for in-line engines, if necessary. See section 16. Power Transmission.

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

1. General data and outputs

1.6. Principal dimensions and weights


In-line engines (3V58E0475a)

Engine 6L32 8L32 9L32 Engine 6L32 8L32 9L32

A* 4955 6199 6689 M 1258 1258 1258

A 5110 6405 6895 N 750 1014 1014

B* 2553 2806 2806 P 1848 1920 1920

B 2553 2806 2806 R 705 886 886

C 2207 2207 2207 S* 660 730 730

D 2345 2345 2345 S 660 730 730

E 500 500 500 T 318 433 433

F 1150 1150 1150 U 1190 1505 1505

G 3670 4650 5140 V 122 9 9

H 250 250 250 X 1848 1920 1920

I 886 886 886

K 1350 1350 1350

Weight [ton]** 32 42 48

* Turbocharger at flywheel end ** Weight with liquids (wet sump), but without flywheel

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

1. General data and outputs

V-engines (3V58E0476a)

Engine 12V32 16V32 18V32 Engine 12V32 16V32 18V32

A* 6868 8206 8766 M 1460 1648 1648

A 6868 8206 8766 N 1608 1826 1826

B 2680 2910 2910 O 1085 1085 1085

C 2920 3296 3296 P 1915 1915 1915

D 2080 2080 2080 R 765 995 995

E 650 650 650 S 525 525 525

F 1472 1472 1472 T 535 535 535

G 4150 5270 5830 U 1608 1826 1826

H 300 300 300 V 535 535 535

I 1220 1220 1220 X 1915 1915 1915

K 1590 1590 1590 Weight [ton]** 55 67 75

* Turbocharger at flywheel end ** Weight with liquids (wet sump), but without flywheel

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

1. General data and outputs

Generating sets, in-line engine (3V58E0478a)

Engine 6L32 8L32 9L32

A 8980 10090 10580

B 1190 1450 1450

C 7240 8020 8510

D 3770 3639 3639

E 2330 2730 2730

F 1950 2350 2350

G 1600 2000 2000

H 980 1180 1180

I 1450 1620 1620

K 2345 2345 2345

L 4003 4426 4426

Weight* [ton] 56 73 79

* Weights of the running genset

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

1. General data and outputs

Generating sets, V-engine (3V58E0477a)

Engine 12V32 16V32 18V32

A 10053 11621 12381

B 1608 1826 1826

C 8080 9430 10190

D 3845 4075 4275

E 3060 3060 3360

F 2620 2620 2920

G 2200 2200 2500

H 1353 1353 1353

I 1892 1892 1892

K 2080 2080 2080

L 4572 4802 4802

Weight* [ton] 90 107 117

* Weights of the running genset

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

2. Operation data

2. Operation data
2.1. Dimensioning of propellers
Controllable pitch (CP) propellers
Controllable pitch propellers are designed so that 100% of the maximum continuous engine output at nominal engine speed is utilized when the ship is on trial at specified speed and draft. Shaft generators or generators connected to the free end of the engine should be considered when dimensioning propellers in case continuous generator output is to be used at sea. Overload protection or load control is recommended in all installations. In installations where several engines are connected to the same propeller, overload protection or load control is required. The graph, 4V93L0687, shows the operating range for a CP-propeller installation. The recommended combinator curve and the 100% load curve are valid for a single-engine installation. In case of a twin-engine installation a lighter combinator program shall be used, when only one engine is in operation. The idling (clutch-in) speed should be as high as possible and will be decided separately in each case.

Fixed pitch (FP) propellers


The dimensioning of fixed pitch propellers should be made very thoroughly for every vessel as there are only limited possibilities to control the absorbed power. Factors which influence the design are: The resistance of the ship increases with time due to fouling of the hull. The wake factor of the ship increases with time. The propeller blade frictional resistance in water increases with time. Bollard pull requires higher torque than free running. Propellers rotating in ice require higher torque. The FP-propeller shall be designed to absorb 85% of the maximum continuous output of the engine at nominal speed when the ship is on trial, at specified speed and load. In ships intended for towing, the propeller can be designed for 95% of the maximum continuous output of the engine at nominal engine speed in bollard pull or at towing speed. The absorbed power at free running and nominal speed is usually then relatively low, 65 - 80% of the output at bollard pull.

Operating range, Wrtsil 32, CP-propeller (4V93L0687)

Operating range, Wrtsil 32, FP-propeller (4V93L0688)

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

2. Operation data

In ships intended for operation in heavy ice, the additional torque must be considered. The graph, 4V93L0688, shows the permissible operating range for an FP-propeller installation as well as the recommended design point at 85% MCR at engine flywheel and nominal speed. The min. speed will be decided separately for each installation. It is recommended that the speed control system is designed to give a speed boost signal to the speed governor in order to prevent the engine speed from decreasing when clutching-in. The clutch should be dimensioned for a slipping time of 5 - 8 seconds. A propeller shaft brake should be used to enable fast maneuvering (crash-stop).

2.3. Restrictions for low load operation and idling


The engine can be started, stopped and run on heavy fuel under all operating conditions. Continuous operation on heavy fuel is preferred instead of changing over to diesel fuel at low load operation and manoeuvering. The following recommendations apply to idling and low load operation:

Absolute idling
(declutched main engine, unloaded generator) Max. 10 min., (recommended 3 - 5 min.), if the engine is to be stopped after the idling. Max. 6 hours after which the engine must be loaded to min. 70% of the rated load for at least 1 hour.

2.2. Loading capacity for generating sets


Provided that the engine is preheated so that the cooling water temperature is min. 70C, the engine can be loaded immediately after start without other restrictions than the maximum transient frequency deviation specified by the classification societies. For supercharged engines, full load cannot be instantly applied due to the air deficit until the turbocharger has accelerated. The fastest loading is achieved with a successive gradual increase in load from 0 to 100%. It is recommended that the switchboards and the power management is designed to increase the load in three or four steps, from 0 - 100%, as also suggested by the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS), see drawing 4V93F0092. This shall be done with the agreement of the relevant classification society.

Operation at 5 - 20% load


Max. 100 hours continuous operation. At intervals of 100 operating hours the engine must be loaded to min. 70% of the rated load for at least 1 hour.

Operation at higher than 20% load


No restrictions.

Limiting curves for loading 4-stroke engines (4V93F0092)

10

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

2. Operation data

2.4. Overhaul intervals and expected life times of engine components


The following overhaul intervals and life times are for guidance only. Actual figures may differ depending on service conditions, etc.

Fuel quality Fuel viscosity (max.) at 50C [cSt] Component - Piston - Piston rings - Cylinder liner - Cylinder head - Inlet valve - Exhaust valve - Injection valve nozzle - Injection pump element - Main bearing - Big end bearing

HFO 700

MDO 10

HFO 700

MDO 10

Time between overhauls [h] 12000 - 20000 12000 - 20000 12000 - 20000 12000 - 20000 12000 - 20000 12000 - 20000 4000 24000 16000 - 20000 12000 - 20000 20000 - 24000 20000 - 24000 20000 - 24000 20000 - 24000 20000 - 24000 20000 - 24000 4000 24000 16000 - 20000 20000 - 24000

Expected lifetime [h] 48000 - 60000 12000 - 20000 60000 - 100000 60000 - 100000 36000 - 40000 24000 - 40000 4000 - 8000 24000 - 48000 32000 - 40000 24000 - 40000 60000 - 100000 20000 - 24000 > 100000 > 100000 40000 - 48000 20000 - 48000 8000 - 12000 24000 - 48000 32000 - 40000 24000 - 40000

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

11

3. Technical data

3. Technical data
3.1. Diesel engine Wrtsil 6L32
Engine speed Engine output Engine output Cylinder bore Stroke Swept volume Compression ratio Compression pressure, max. Firing pressure, max Charge air pressure Mean effective pressure Mean piston speed Idling speed RPM kW HP mm mm dm bar bar bar bar m/s RPM kg/s C C C kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s 2) 2) 2) 2) C C C C C mmWC mm kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW bar g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh kg/h bar bar bar bar bar 720 2700 3670 320 400 193 16:1 160 190 2.65 23.3 9.6 500 5.4 45 55 75 5.6 5.1 4.3 3.1 344 339 329 304 500 300 600 744 403 341 743 421 322 1864 142 7...8 182 183 189 2.0 4.5 3 2 0.5 0.3 183 184 191 765 414 351 764 433 331 1938 147 5.8 5.3 4.5 3.2 342 337 327 302 5.65 2.7 22.9 10.0 750 2760 3750

1)

Combustion air system


Flow of air at 100% load Ambient air temperature, max. Air temperature after air cooler Air temperature after air cooler, alarm

Exhaust gas system


Exhaust gas flow (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temperature after turbocharger (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temperature after cylinder, alarm Exhaust gas back pressure, rec. max. Exhaust gas pipe diameter, min.

Heat balance
HT-circuit, total Jacket water, HT-circuit Charge air, HT-circuit LT-circuit, total Charge air, LT-circuit Lubricating oil, LT-circuit Exhaust gases Radiation

3)

Fuel system
Pressure before injection pumps Fuel consumption (100% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Leak fuel quantity, clean fuel (100% load) 5) 5) 5)

Lubricating oil system


Pressure before engine, nom Pressure before engine, alarm. Pressure before engine, stop Priming pressure, nom. Priming pressure, alarm

12

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

3. Technical data

Engine speed Temperature before engine, nom. Temperature before engine, alarm Temperature after engine, abt. Pump capacity (main), direct driven Pump capacity (main), separate Pump capacity (priming) Oil volume, wet sump, nom. Oil volume in separate system oil tank, nom. Filter fineness, mesh size Filters difference pressure, alarm. Oil consumption (100% load) abt.

RPM C C C m/h m/h m/h m m microns bar g/kWh

720 63 80 78 78 67 15.0/18.0 1.6 3.2 30 0.8/2.0 0.5

750

81 70

4)

7)

Cooling water system High temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max. Temperature before engine, abt. Temperature after engine, nom. Temperature after engine, alarm Temperature after engine, stop Pump capacity, nom Pressure drop over engine Water volume in engine Pressure from expansion tank Pressure drop over central cooler, max. Delivery head of standby pump bar bar bar C C C C m/h bar m bar bar bar bar bar bar C C m/h bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar Nm 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 85 91 105 110 60 1.2 0.41 0.7...1.5 0.6 2.5 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 38 44 60 1.0 0.3 0.6 0.7...1.5 2.5 30 10 30 18 0.7

Low temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max Temperature before engine, max. Temperature after engine, min. Pump capacity, nom. Pressure drop over charge air cooler Pressure drop over oil cooler Pressure drop over central cooler, max. pressure from expansion tank Delivery head of standby pump

Starting air system


Air pressure, nom. Air pressure, min. (20C) Air pressure, max. Air pressure, alarm Air consumption per start (20C) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) If priming pump is connected, 400 RPM. At an ambient temperature of 25C. The figures are without margins at 100% load, and constant speed. Capacities at 50 and 60 Hz respectively, According to ISO 3046/l, lower calorific value 42 700 kJ/kg, at constant engine speed, with engine driven pumps. Tolerance + 5%. At remote and automatic starting the consumption is 2...3 times higher First alarm/second alarm

6)

Subject to revision without notice.

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

13

3. Technical data

3.2. Diesel engine Wrtsil 8L32


Engine speed Engine output Engine output Cylinder bore Stroke Swept volume Compression ratio Compression pressure, max. Firing pressure, max Charge air pressure Mean effective pressure Mean piston speed Idling speed RPM kW HP mm mm dm bar bar bar bar m/s RPM kg/s C C C kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s 2) 2) 2) 2) C C C C C mmWC mm kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW bar g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh kg/h bar bar bar bar bar C C C 720 3600 4890 320 400 257.4 16:1 160 190 2.65 23.3 9.6 500 7.3 45 55 75 7.5 6.8 5.8 4.1 344 339 329 304 500 300 700 991 537 454 1423 991 432 2485 190 7...8 182 183 189 2.6 4.5 3 2 0.5 0.3 63 80 79 183 184 191 1019 552 467 1459 1020 439 2541 195 7.7 7.0 5.9 4.2 340 335 325 300 7.5 2.7 22.9 10 750 3680 5000

1)

Combustion air system


Flow of air at 100% load Ambient air temperature, max. Air temperature after air cooler Air temperature after air cooler, alarm Exhaust gas system Exhaust gas flow (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temperature after turbocharger (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temperature after cylinder, alarm Exhaust gas back pressure, rec. max. Exhaust gas pipe diameter, min.

Heat balance
HT-circuit, total Jacket water, HT-circuit Charge air, HT-circuit LT-circuit, total Charge air, LT-circuit Lubricating oil, LT-circuit Exhaust gases Radiation

3)

Fuel system
Pressure before injection pumps Fuel consumption (100%load) ( 75%load) ( 50%load) Leak fuel quantity, clean fuel (100%load) 5) 5) 5)

Lubricating oil system


Pressure before engine, nom Pressure before engine, alarm. Pressure before engine, stop Priming pressure, nom. Priming pressure, alarm Temperature before engine, nom. Temperature before engine, alarm Temperature after engine, abt.

14

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

3. Technical data

Engine speed Pump capacity (main), direct driven Pump capacity (main), separate Pump capacity (priming) Oil volume, wet sump, nom. Oil volume in separate system oil tank, nom. Filter fineness, mesh size Filters difference pressure, alarm. Oil consumption (100% load), abt.

RPM m/h m/h m/h m m microns bar g/kWh

720 101 91 21.6/25.9 2.0 4.0 30 0.8/2.0 0.5

750 105 95

4)

7)

Cooling water system High temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max Temperature before engine, abt. Temperature after engine, nom. Temperature after engine, alarm Temperature after engine, stop Pump capacity, nom. Pressure drop over engine Water volume in engine Pressure from expansion tank Pressure drop over central cooler, max. Delivery head of standby pump bar bar bar C C C C m/h bar m bar bar bar bar bar bar C C m/h bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar Nm 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 85 91 105 110 80 1.2 0.51 0.7...1.5 0.6 2.5 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 38 44 80 1.0 0.3 0.6 0.7...1.5 2.5 30 10 30 18 0.9

Low temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max Temperature before engine, max. Temperature after engine, min. Pump capacity, nom. Pressure drop over charge air cooler Pressure drop over oil cooler Pressure drop over central cooler, max. pressure from expansion tank Delivery head of standby pump

Starting air system


Air pressure, nom. Air pressure, min. (20C) Air pressure, max. Air pressure, alarm Air consumption per start (20C)

6)

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

If priming pump is connected, 400 RPM At an ambient temperature of 25C. The figures are without margins at 100% load and constant speed. Capacities at 50 and 60 Hz respectively. According to ISO 3046/l, lower calorific value 42 700 kJ/kg, at constant engine speed, with engine driven pumps. Tolerance + 5%. At remote and automatic starting the consumption is 2...3 times higher First alarm/second alarm

Subject to revision without notice.

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

15

3. Technical data

3.3. Diesel engine Wrtsil 9L32


Engine speed Engine output Engine output Cylinder bore Stroke Swept volume Compression ratio Compression pressure, max. Firing pressure, max Charge air pressure Mean effective pressure Mean piston speed Idling speed RPM kW HP mm mm dm bar bar bar bar m/s RPM kg/s C C C kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s 2) 2) 2) 2) C C C C C mmWC mm kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW bar g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh kg/h bar bar bar bar bar C C C 720 4050 5510 320 400 289.5 16:1 160 190 2.65 23.3 9.6 500 8.1 45 55 75 8.4 7.6 6.5 4.6 344 339 329 304 500 300 700 1115 604 511 1115 632 483 2796 214 7...8 182 183 189 3.0 4.5 3 2 0.5 0.3 63 80 79 183 184 191 1147 621 526 1147 650 497 2907 220 8.7 7.9 6.7 4.8 341 336 326 301 8.5 2.7 22.9 10.0 750 4140 5630

1)

Combustion air system


Flow of air at 100% load Ambient air temperature, max. Air temperature after air cooler Air temperature after air cooler, alarm

Exhaust gas system


Exhaust gas flow (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temperature after turbocharger (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temperature after cylinder, alarm Exhaust gas back pressure, rec. max. Exhaust gas pipe diameter, min.

Heat balance
HT-circuit, total Jacket water, HT-circuit Charge air, HT-circuit LT-circuit, total Charge air, LT-circuit Lubricating oil, LT-circuit Exhaust gases Radiation

3)

Fuel system
Pressure before injection pumps Fuel consumption (100% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Leak fuel quantity, clean fuel (100% load) 5) 5) 5)

Lubricating oil system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm. Pressure before engine, stop Priming pressure, nom. Priming pressure, alarm Temperature before engine, nom. Temperature before engine, alarm Temperature after engine, abt.

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Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

3. Technical data

Engine speed Pump capacity (main), direct driven Pump capacity (main), separate Pump capacity (priming) Oil volume, wet sump, nom. Oil volume in separate system oil tank, nom. Filter fineness, mesh size Filters difference pressure, alarm. Oil consumption (100% load) abt.

RPM m/h m/h m/h m m microns bar g/kWh

720 108 96 21.6/25.9 2.3 4.6 30 0.8/2.0 0.5

750 112 100

4)

7)

Cooling water system High temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max. Temperature before engine, abt. Temperature after engine, nom. Temperature after engine, alarm Temperature after engine, stop Pump capacity, nom. Pressure drop over engine Water volume in engine Pressure from expansion tank Pressure drop over central cooler, max. Delivery head of standby pump bar bar bar C C C C m/h bar m bar bar bar bar bar bar C C m/h bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar Nm 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 85 91 105 110 90 1.2 0.56 0.7...1.5 0.6 2.5 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 38 44 90 1.0 0.3 0.6 0.7...1.5 2.5 30 10 30 18 0.9

Low temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max. Temperature before engine, max. Temperature after engine, min. Pump capacity, nom. Pressure drop over charge air cooler Pressure drop over oil cooler Pressure drop over central cooler, max. Pressure from expansion tank Delivery head of standby pump

Starting air system


Air pressure, nom. Air pressure, min. (20C) Air pressure, max. Air pressure, alarm Air consumption per start (20C)

6)

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

If priming pump is connected, 400 RPM At an ambient temperature of 25C. The figures are without margins at 100% load and constant speed. Capacities at 50 and 60 Hz respectively. According to ISO 3046/l, lower calorific value 42 700 kJ/kg, at constant engine speed, with engine driven pumps. Tolerance + 5%. At remote and automatic starting the consumption is 2...3 times higher First alarm/second alarm

Subject to revision without notice.

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

17

3. Technical data

3.4. Diesel engine Wrtsil 12V32


Engine speed Engine output Engine output Cylinder bore Stroke Swept volume Compression ratio Compression pressure, max. Firing pressure, max. Charge air pressure Mean effective pressure Mean piston speed Idling speed RPM kW HP mm mm dm bar bar bar bar m/s RPM kg/s C C C kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s 2) 2) 2) 2) C C C C C mmWC mm mm kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW bar g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh kg/h bar bar bar bar bar C C 720 5400 7340 320 400 386.0 16:1 160 190 2.65 23.3 9.6 500 10.8 45 55 75 11.2 10.2 8.6 6.2 344 339 329 304 500 300 800 2 x 600 1701 838 863 1257 641 616 3723 247 7...8 180 181 187 4.0 4.5 3 2 0.5 0.3 63 80 181 182 189 1751 863 888 1294 660 634 3870 254 11.8 10.7 9.1 6.5 340 335 325 300 11.4 2.7 22.9 10.0 750 5520 7510

1)

Combustion air system


Flow of air at 100% load Ambient air temperature, max. Air temperature after air cooler Air temperature after air cooler, alarm

Exhaust gas system


Exhaust gas flow (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temperature after turbocharger (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temp. after cylinder, alarm Exhaust gas back pressure, rec. max. Exhaust gas pipe diameter, min. Exhaust gas pipe diameter, (outlet)

Heat balance
HT-circuit, total Jacket water, HT-circuit Charge air, HT-circuit LT-circuit, total Charge air, LT-circuit Lubricating oil, LT-circuit Exhaust gases Radiation

3)

Fuel system
Pressure before injection pumps Fuel consumption (100% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Leak fuel quantity, clean fuel (100% load) 5) 5) 5)

Lubricating oil system


Pressure before engine, nom Pressure before engine, alarm. Pressure before engine, stop Priming pressure, nom. Priming pressure, alarm Temperature before engine, nom. Temperature before engine, alarm

18

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

3. Technical data

Engine speed Temperature after engine, abt. Pump capacity (main), direct driven Pump capacity (main), separate Pump capacity (priming) Oil volume, wet sump, nom. Oil volume in separate system oil tank, nom. Filter fineness, mesh size Filters difference pressure, alarm. Oil consumption (100% load), abt.

RPM C m/h m/h m/h m m microns bar g/kWh

720 81 115 106 30.0/36.2 3.0 6.0 30 0.8/2.0 0.5

750

120 110

4)

8)

Cooling water system High temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max. Temperature before engine, abt. Temperature after engine, nom. Temperature after engine, alarm Temperature after engine, stop Pump capacity, nom. Pressure drop over engine Water volume in engine Pressure from expansion tank Pressure drop over central cooler, max. Delivery head of standby pump bar bar bar C C C C m/h bar m bar bar bar bar bar bar C C m/h bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar Nm 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 85 91 105 110 100 1.2 0.74 0.7...1.5 0.6 2.5 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 38 44 100 1.0 0.2 0.6 0.7...1.5 2.5 30 10 30 18 1.0

Low temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max Temperature before engine, max Temperature after engine, min. Pump capacity, nom. Pressure drop over charge air cooler Pressure drop over oil cooler Pressure drop over central cooler, max. Pressure from expansion tank Delivery head of standby pump

6)

Starting air system


Air pressure, nom. Air pressure, min. (20C) Air pressure, max. Air pressure, alarm Air consumption per start (20C)

7)

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

If priming pump is connected, 400 RPM At an ambient temperature of 25C. The figures are without margins at 100% load and constant speed. Capacities at 50 and 60 Hz respectively. According to ISO 3046/l, lower calorific value 42 700 kJ/kg, at constant engine speed, with engine driven pumps. Tolerance + 5%. Including lubricating oil cooler. At remote and automatic starting the consumption is 2...3 times higher First alarm/second alarm

Subject to revision without notice.

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

19

3. Technical data

3.5. Diesel engine Wrtsil 16V32


Engine speed Engine output Engine output Cylinder bore Stroke Swept volume Compression ratio Compression pressure, max. Firing pressure, max. Charge air pressure Mean effective pressure Mean piston speed Idling speed RPM kW HP mm mm dm bar bar bar bar m/s RPM kg/s C C C kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s 2) 2) 2) 2) C C C C C mmWC mm mm kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW bar g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh kg/h bar bar bar bar bar C C 720 7200 9790 320 400 514.7 16:1 160 190 2.65 23.3 9.6 500 14.4 45 55 75 14.9 13.6 11.5 8.2 343 338 328 303 500 300 900 2 x 700 2248 1108 1140 1661 847 814 4854 326 7...8 180 181 187 5.2 4.5 3 2 0.5 0.3 63 80 181 182 189 2306 1140 1166 1710 872 838 5046 335 15.3 13.9 11.8 8.4 339 334 324 299 14.9 2.7 22.9 10.0 750 7360 10010

1)

Combustion air system


Flow of air at 100% load Ambient air temperature, max. Air temperature after air cooler Air temperature after air cooler, alarm

Exhaust gas system


Exhaust gas flow (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temperature after turbocharger (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temperature after cylinder, alarm Exhaust gas back pressure, rec. max. Exhaust gas pipe diameter, min. (common) Exhaust gas pipe diameter, (outlet)

Heat balance
HT-circuit, total Jacket water, HT-circuit Charge air, HT-circuit LT-circuit, total Charge air, LT-circuit Lubricating oil, LT-circuit Exhaust gases Radiation

3)

Fuel system
Pressure before injection pumps Fuel consumption (100% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Leak fuel quantity, clean fuel (100% load) 5) 5) 5)

Lubricating oil system


Pressure before engine, nom Pressure before engine, alarm. Pressure before engine, stop Priming pressure, nom. Priming pressure, alarm Temperature before engine, nom. Temperature before engine, alarm

20

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

3. Technical data

Engine speed Temperature after engine, abt. Pump capacity (main), direct driven Pump capacity (main), separate Pump capacity (priming) Oil volume, wet sump, nom. Oil volume in separate system oil tank, nom. Filter fineness, mesh size Filters difference pressure, alarm. Oil consumption (100% load) abt.

RPM C m/h m/h m/h m m microns bar g/kWh

720 81 152 130 38.0/45.9 3.9 8.0 30 0.8/2.0 0.5

750

158 135

4)

8)

Cooling water system High temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max Temperature before engine, abt. Temperature after engine, nom. Temperature after engine, alarm Temperature after engine, stop Pump capacity, nom Pressure drop over engine Water volume in engine Pressure from expansion tank Pressure drop over central cooler, max. Delivery head of standby pump bar bar bar C C C C m/h bar m bar bar bar bar bar bar C C m/h bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar Nm 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 85 91 105 110 135 1.2 0.84 0.7...1.5 0.6 2.5 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 38 44 135 1.0 0.2 0.6 0.7...1.5 2.5 30 10 30 18 1.2

Low temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max Temperature before engine, max Temperature after engine, min. Pump capacity, nom. Pressure drop over charge air cooler Pressure drop over oil cooler Pressure drop over central cooler, max. Pressure from expansion tank Delivery head of standby pump

6)

Starting air system


Air pressure, nom. Air pressure, min. (20C) Air pressure, max. Air pressure, alarm Air consumption per start (20C)

7)

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

If priming pump is connected, 400 RPM At an ambient temperature of 25C. The figures are without margins at 100% load and constant speed. Capacities at 50 and 60 Hz respectively. According to ISO 3046/l, lower calorific value 42 700 kJ/kg, at constant engine speed, with engine driven pumps. Tolerance + 5%. Including lubricating oil cooler. At remote and automatic starting the consumption is 2...3 times higher First alarm/second alarm

Subject to revision without notice.

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

21

3. Technical data

3.6. Diesel engine Wrtsil 18V32


Engine speed Engine output Engine output Cylinder bore Stroke Swept volume Compression ratio Compression pressure, max. Firing pressure, max. Charge air pressure Mean effective pressure Mean piston speed Idling speed RPM kW HP mm mm dm bar bar bar bar m/s RPM kg/s C C C kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s 2) 2) 2) 2) C C C C C mmWC mm mm kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW bar g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh kg/h bar bar bar bar bar C C 720 8100 11010 320 400 579.0 16:1 160 190 2.65 23.3 9.6 500 16.1 45 55 75 16.5 15.0 12.7 9.1 343 338 328 303 500 300 1000 2 x 700 2529 1246 1283 1869 953 916 5479 348 7...8 180 181 187 6.0 4.5 3 2 0.5 0.3 63 80 181 182 189 2583 1283 1300 1924 981 943 5696 358 17.3 15.7 13.3 9.5 339 334 324 299 16.9 2.7 22.9 10.0 750 8280 11260

1)

Combustion air system


Flow of air at 100% load Ambient air temperature, max. Air temperature after air cooler Air temperature after air cooler, alarm

Exhaust gas system


Exhaust gas flow (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temperature after turbocharger (100% load) ( 90% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Exhaust gas temperature after cylinder, alarm Exhaust gas back pressure, rec. max. Exhaust gas pipe diameter, min. (common) Exhaust gas pipe diameter, (outlet)

Heat balance
HT-circuit, total Jacket water, HT-circuit Charge air, HT-circuit LT-circuit, total Charge air, LT-circuit Lubricating oil, LT-circuit Exhaust gases Radiation

3)

Fuel system
Pressure before injection pumps Fuel consumption (100% load) ( 75% load) ( 50% load) Leak fuel quantity, clean fuel (100% load) 5) 5) 5)

Lubricating oil system


Pressure before engine, nom Pressure before engine, alarm. Pressure before engine, stop Priming pressure, nom. Priming pressure, alarm Temperature before engine, nom. Temperature before engine, alarm

22

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

3. Technical data

Engine speed Temperature after engine, abt. Pump capacity (main), direct driven Pump capacity (main), separate Pump capacity (priming) Oil volume, wet sump, nom. Oil volume in separate system oil tank, nom. Filter fineness, mesh size Filters difference pressure, alarm. Oil consumption (100% load) abt.

RPM C m/h m/h m/h m m microns bar g/kWh

720 81 173 144 38.0/45.9 4.3 9.0 30 0.8/2.0 0.5

750

180 150

4)

8)

Cooling water system High temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max. Temperature before engine, abt. Temperature after engine, nom. Temperature after engine, alarm Temperature after engine, stop Pump capacity, nom Pressure drop over engine Water volume in engine Pressure from expansion tank Pressure drop over central cooler, max. Delivery head of standby pump bar bar bar C C C C m/h bar m bar bar bar bar bar bar C C m/h bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar Nm 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 85 91 105 110 150 1.2 0.84 0.7...1.5 0.6 2.5 2.5 + static 1.0 + static 4.0 38 44 150 1.0 0.2 0.6 0.7...1.5 2.5 30 10 30 18 1.3

Low temperature cooling water system


Pressure before engine, nom. Pressure before engine, alarm Pressure before engine, max. Temperature before engine, max. Temperature after engine, min. Pump capacity, nom. Pressure drop over charge air cooler Pressure drop over oil cooler Pressure drop over central cooler, max. Pressure from expansion tank Delivery head of standby pump

6)

Starting air system


Air pressure, nom. Air pressure, min. (20C) Air pressure, max. Air pressure, alarm Air consumption per start (20C)

7)

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

If priming pump is connected, 400 RPM At an ambient temperature of 25C. The figures are without margins at 100% load and constant speed. Capacities at 50 and 60 Hz respectively. According to ISO 3046/l, lower calorific value 42 700 kJ/kg, at constant engine speed, with engine driven pumps. Tolerance + 5%. Including lubricating oil cooler. At remote and automatic starting the consumption is 2...3 times higher First alarm/second alarm

Subject to revision without notice

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

23

4. Description of the engine

4. Description of the engine


Engine block
The engine block, made of nodular cast iron, is cast in one piece for all cylinder numbers. It incorporates the jacket water manifold, the camshaft bearings and the charge air receiver. In V-engines the charge air receiver is located between the cylinder banks. The crankshaft is mounted in the engine block in an underslung way. The bearing caps, made of nodular cast iron, are fixed from below by two hydraulically tensioned screws. They are guided sideways by the engine block at the top as well as at bottom. Hydraulically tensioned horizontal side screws at the lower guiding provide a very rigid crankshaft bearing. A hydraulic jack, supported in the oil sump, offers the possibility to lower and lift the main bearing caps, e.g. when inspecting the bearings. Lubricating oil is led to the bearings and piston through this jack. Flywheel and thrust bearings are located at the driving end of the engine. The oil sump, a light welded design, is mounted on the engine block from below and sealed by O-rings. The oil sump is available in two alternative designs, wet or dry sump, depending on the type of application. A wet oil sump comprises, in addition to a lubricating oil suction pipe, also a pipe for distributing oil to the main bearings and suction and return connections for the separator. The dry sump is drained at either end (free choice) to a separate system oil tank. The engine mounting bolts are hydraulically tightened in order to facilitate the engine fixation to the foundation.

Main bearings and big end bearings


The main bearings and big end bearings are either of tri-metal design with steel back, lead-bronze lining and a soft running layer, or of the bi-metal design with steel back and a tin-aluminium running layer.

Cylinder liner
The cylinder liners are centrifugally cast of special alloyed cast iron. The top collar of the cylinder liner is provided with bore cooling for efficient control of the liner temperature. The liner is equipped with an anti-polishing ring, preventing bore polishing.

Piston
The piston is of the composite type with steel crown and nodular cast iron skirt. The piston skirt/cylinder liner is lubricated by a piston skirt lubricating system featuring four lubricating bores in a groove on the piston skirt. The piston top is cooled by means of The shaker effect. The piston ring grooves are hardened.

Piston rings
The piston ring set consists of two chromium-plated compression rings and one spring-loaded oil scraper ring with chromium-plated edges.

Cylinder head
The cylinder head is made of nodular cast iron. The flame plate, which is thermally loaded, is relatively thin and is efficiently cooled by cooling water led from the periphery of the head radially towards the centre. In the bridges between the valves cooling channels are drilled to provide the best possible heat transfer. The mechanical load is absorbed by a strong intermediate deck, which together with the upper deck and the side walls form a box section in the four corners at which the hydraulically tightened cylinder head bolts are situated. The exhaust valve seats are directly water cooled. The valve seat rings are made of specially alloyed cast iron with good wear resistance. The inlet valves as well as the exhaust valves have stellite-plated seat faces and chromium-plated stems. In HFO operated engines nimonic exhaust gas valves are used. All valves are equipped with valve rotators. A multi-duct casting is fitted to the cylinder head. It connects the following media with the cylinder head: charge air from air receiver exhaust gas to exhaust system cooling water from cylinder head to the return pipe

Crankshaft
The crankshaft is forged in one piece. The connecting rods, at the same crank in the V-engines, are arranged side-by-side. For the same reason the diameters of the crank pins and journals are equal irrespective of the cylinder number. The crankshaft is fully balanced to counteract bearing loads from eccentric masses. If necessary, it is provided with a torsional vibration damper at the free end of the engine.

Connecting rod
The three-piece connecting rod design gives a minimum dismantling height and possibility to dismount the piston without opening the big end bearing. The connecting rod of alloy steel is forged and machined with round sections. All connecting rod studs are hydraulically tightened. The gudgeon pin bearing is of tri-metal type. Lubricating oil flows to the gudgeon pin bearing and piston through a bore in the connecting rod.

24

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

4. Description of the engine

Camshaft and valve mechanism


The cams are integrated in the drop forged shaft material. The bearing journals are made in separate pieces which are fitted to the camshaft pieces by flange connections. This solution allows removing of the camshaft pieces sideways. The bearing housings are integrated in the engine block casting. The camshaft bearings are installed and removed by means of a hydraulic tool. The camshaft covers, one for each cylinder, seal against the engine block with a closed sealing profile. The valve tappets are of the piston type with a certain self adjustment of roller against cam to give an even distribution of the contact pressure. The valve springs together with the tappet spring make the roller follow the cam continuously.

The fuel injection is stopped by setting the fuel rack to zero position. For emergencies the fuel rack of each injection pump is fitted with a stop cylinder. The blocking device can be operated by the operator. The fuel pump and pump bracket are adjusted in manufacturing to tight tolerances. This means that adjustments are not necessary after initial assembly. The fuel injection pump design is a reliable mono-element type designed for injection pressures up to 2000 bar. The constant pressure relief valve system provides for optimum injection, which guarantees long intervals between overhauls. The injector holder is designed for easy maintenance.

Exhaust pipes
The exhaust pipes are cast of nodular iron. The connections are of flange type. The exhaust system is enclosed in an insulated box consisting of easily removable plates supported on the multi-duct. Mineral wool is used as insulating material.

Camshaft drive
The camshafts are driven by the crankshaft through a gear train. The driving gear is fixed to the camshaft by means of flange connections.

Turbocharging and charge air cooling


The selected turbocharger offers the ideal combination of high pressure ratios and good efficiency both at full and part load. The V-engine has one charger per cylinder bank. For in-line engines and 12V-engines the turbochargers can be placed either at the driving or the free end. For cleaning of the turbocharger during operation there is, as standard, a water washing device for the air side and the exhaust side. The turbocharger is supplied with inboard plain bearings, which offers easy maintenance of the cartridge from the compressor side. The turbocharger is lubricated by the engine lubricating oil with integrated connections.

Wrtsil Engine Control System (WECS)


WECS is used for monitoring and control of the engine. It is developed for diesel engines and designed for the harsh environment. Wrtsil 32 is equipped with WECS 2000 and the structure of the system depends on the cylinder configuration. WECS comprises: measuring of the engine and turbocharger speed the safety system - starting of the engine - stopping of the engine - start blocking - slowdown request - automatic shutdown of the engine the signal processing of all monitoring and alarm sensors the readout of important engine parameters on a graphical display the data communication with external systems (e.g. alarm and monitoring systems). All sensors on the engine are connected to Distributed Control Units (DCU) and Sensor Multiplexer Units (SMU), while the signals to and from the external systems are connected to the Main Control Unit (MCU) and the Relay Module (RM). The engine parameters are shown on the Local Display Unit (LDU).

Injection equipment
The fuel injection equipment and system piping are located in a hot-box, providing maximum reliability and safety when using preheated heavy fuels. The fuel oil feed pipes are mounted directly to the injection pumps, using a specially designed connecting piece. The return pipe is integrated in the tappet housing. There is one fuel injection pump per cylinder with shielded high pressure pipe to the injector. The injection pumps, which are of the flow-through type, ensure good performance with all types of fuel. The pumps are completely sealed off from the camshaft compartment.

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

25

5. Fuel system

5. Fuel system
5.1. General
The Wrtsil 32 diesel engine is designed for continuous heavy fuel duty. It is, however, possible to operate the engine on diesel fuel without making any alterations. Main engines as well as auxiliary engines can be started and stopped on heavy fuel provided that the engine and fuel system are preheated to operating temperature. Also standby engines in unattended engine rooms can be started on heavy fuel. Usually only the tank, from which fuel is pumped to the settling tank, is heated to 40 - 50C, while the other tanks remain at a lower temperature. The heat consumption calculations are mainly based on heat losses from the day tank and the settling tank, to maintain the largest bunker tank at pumping temperature and simultaneously heating up the next largest tank. The design of the external fuel system may vary from ship to ship but every system should provide well cleaned fuel with the correct temperature and pressure to each engine. When using heavy fuel it is most important that the fuel is properly cleaned from solid particles and water. In addition to the harm poorly centrifuged fuel will do to the engine, high content of water may cause big problems for the heavy fuel feed system. Well-proven components should be used for the feed system. The fuel treatment system should comprise a settling tank and purifiers to supply the engine(s) with sufficiently clean fuel. When operating on heavy fuel the dimensioning of the purifier is of greatest importance and therefore the recommendations for the design of the purifier must be followed closely. In multi-engine installations, the main principles for dimensioning the fuel system are: Recommended maximum number of engines connected in parallel to the same fuel feed system is three. For main engines, separate fuel feed circuits are recommended for each propeller shaft (two-engine installations); in four-engine installations one engine from each shaft is fed from the same circuit. Main and auxiliary engines are recommended to be connected to separate circuits.

5.2. Internal fuel system on the engine


The standard system built on the engines comprises the following equipment: heavy fuel injection pumps injection valves pressure control valve or orifice in the outlet pipe All engines are furnished with injection pumps where the leak fuel is drained to atmospheric pressure (the clean leak fuel system). The leak fuel can be reconducted to the system without treatment. Concerning quantity of leak fuel, see Technical Data. Other possible leak fuel (the dirty leak fuel system) is drained separately and shall be led to a sludge tank. For in-line engines operating only on MDO engine driven fuel feed pump is available as an option.

5.3. Design of the external fuel system


In ships intended for operation on heavy fuel, heating coils must be installed in the bunker tanks. Normally the heating coils are dimensioned on the basis of heat transfer requirements for raising the temperature of the tank in a certain time e.g. 1C/h, considering also the heat losses when maintaining the tank at the required temperature.

26

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

5. Fuel system

Internal fuel system (4V76F3283c)

System components 01 02 Injection pump Injection valve

Pipe connections 101 102 1031 1033 1041 1043 Fuel inlet Fuel outlet Clean fuel leakage, outlet Clean fuel leakage, outlet Dirty fuel leakage, outlet Dirty fuel leakage, outlet DN25 DN25 DN20 M16x1.5 18 M16x1.5

LS103 LS106 LS108

Sensor for broken injection pipe Abnormal leakage, clean fuel Abnormal leakage, dirty fuel

All connections DIN 2576, PN 16

Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

27

5. Fuel system

FUEL TRANSFER AND SEPARATING SYSTEM


Heavy fuel (residual, and mixtures of residual and distillate) must be purified in an efficient centrifugal separator before entering the day tank. In case pure distillated fuel is used, centrifuging is still recommended as fuel may be contaminated in the storage tanks. The rated capacity of the separator may be used provided the fuel viscosity is less than 12 cSt at centrifuging temperature.

Suction strainer, separator feed pump


A suction strainer shall be fitted to protect the feed pump. The strainer should be equipped with a heating jacket in case the installation place is cold. The strainer can be either a duplex filter with change over valves or two separate simplex strainers. The design of the strainer should be such that air suction cannot occur. fineness 0.5 mm

Separator mode of operation


Two separators, both of the same size, should be installed. The capacity of one separator must be sufficient for the total fuel consumption. The other (standby) separator should also be in operation all the time. It is recommended that conventional separators with gravity disc are arranged for operation in series, the first as a purifier and the second as a clarifier. This arrangement can be used for fuels with a viscosity up to max. about 991 kg/m at 15C. Separators with controlled discharge of sludge (without gravity disc) operating on a continuous basis can handle fuels with a viscosity exceeding 991 kg/m at 15C. In this case the main and standby separators should be run in parallel. For pure distillate fuel, a separate purifier should be installed.

Feed pump, separator


The use of a high temperature resistant screw pump is recommended. The pump should be separate from the separator and electrically driven. Design data: The pump should be dimensioned for the actual fuel quality and recommended throughput of the separator. The flow rate through the separators should, however, not exceed the maximum fuel consumption by more than 10%. No control valve should be used to reduce the flow of the pump. operating pressure, max. operating temperature viscosity for dimensioning of the electric motor 5 bar 100C 1000 cSt

Preheater, separator
The preheater is dimensioned according to the feed pump capacity and a given settling tank temperature. The heater surface temperature must not be too high in order to avoid cracking of the fuel. The heater should be thermostatically controlled for maintaining the fuel temperature within 2C. The recommended preheating temperature for heavy fuel is 98C. Design data: The required minimum capacity of the heater is:
P kW = m l / h t C 1700

SEPARATING SYSTEM COMPONENTS Day tank, heavy fuel


See Feed system

Settling tank, heavy fuel


The settling tank should normally be dimensioned to ensure fuel supply for min. 24 operating hours when filled to maximum. The tank should be designed to provide an efficient sludge and water rejecting effect. The tank must be provided with a heating coil and should be well insulated. To ensure constant fuel temperature at the separator, the settling tank temperature should be kept stable. The temperature in the settling tank should be between 50 70C. The min. level in the settling tank should be kept high. This ensures that the temperature will not decrease too much when the tank is filled up with cold bunker.

m = capacity of the separator feed pump t = temperature rise in heater For heavy fuels t = 38C can be used, i.e. a settling tank temperature of 60C. Fuels having a viscosity higher than 5 cSt at 50C need preheating before the separator.

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5. Fuel system

Transfer and separating system (3V76F3202)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 Settling tank Suction filter Feed pump Heater Separator

06 07 08 09 10

Transfer pump Bunker tank Overflow tank Sludge tank Day tank

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5. Fuel system

Alfa-Laval fuel separators / Engine MCR [MW] Separator GO MDO 60 MMPX 303 MMPX 304 MOPX 205 MOPX 207 MOPX 309 MOPX 310 MOPX 213 FOPX 605 MFPX 307 FOPX 609 FOPX 610 FOPX 613 5.2 9.3 17.7 29.0 41.9 60.9 77.0 12.2 27.3 41.6 41.6 63.9 4.8 8.1 15.3 25.0 35.9 52.4 58.1 12.2 27.3 41.6 41.6 63.9 3.2 5.6 10.5 17.7 25.4 36.7 40.7 9.2 20.6 31.5 31.5 48.3 100 3.0 5.2 10.1 16.9 24.2 35.1 39.1 8.8 19.8 30.2 30.2 46.2 HFO fuel viscosity [cSt/50C] 180 2.8 4.8 8.9 14.9 21.4 31.4 34.7 8.0 17.6 26.9 28.4 40.3 380 1.8 3.0 6.0 9.7 14.1 20.2 22.6 5.0 11.3 17.6 21.0 29.4 460 600 700

8.1 11.7 17.3 19.0 4.2 9.7 14.7 18.1 26.9

6.8 9.7 14.1 15.7 3.6 8.0 12.2 14.7 22.3

3.2 7.1 10.9 13.0 19.8

Westfalia fuel separators / Engine MCR [MW] Separator GO MDO 60 OCS 4-nn-066/3 OCS 4-nn-066/4 OCS 4-nn-066/5 OSA 7-nn-066/7 OSA 7-nn-066/8 OSA 20-nn-066/14 OSA 20-nn-066/20 OSA 20-nn-066/25 OSB 30-nn-066/30 OSB 35-nn-066/35 OSB 35-nn-066/40 6.4 8.0 10.2 13.8 17.3 27.9 37.7 46.6 57.6 70.9 94.9 4.9 6.2 8.0 10.6 14.6 21.3 29.3 39.2 44.3 54.5 73.6 4.9 6.2 8.0 10.6 14.6 21.3 29.3 39.2 44.3 54.5 73.6 100 4.7 6.0 7.7 10.3 14.2 20.6 28.4 38.0 42.8 52.9 71.3 HFO fuel viscosity [cSt/50C] 180 4.2 5.3 6.6 8.9 12.4 17.7 24.8 33.2 36.8 46.6 62.1 380 2.6 3.1 4.0 5.3 7.3 10.6 14.8 19.5 22.0 27.9 37.2 460 2.0 2.4 3.1 4.3 5.8 8.6 11.8 15.7 17.8 22.3 29.7 600 1.6 2.0 2.5 3.5 4.6 7.1 9.3 12.4 14.0 17.7 23.5 700 1.4 1.7 2.3 3.1 4.2 6.2 8.4 11.3 12.6 15.7 21.3

In the above table: Substitute -nn- by -02-(Varizone, 991 kg/m) or by -0136- (Unitrol, 1010 kg/m) The table shows engine MCR in MW for each corresponding separator type.

Separator
The fuel oil separator shall be sized according to the recommendations of the separator maker. The maximum service throughput of a separator for the specific application should be:

Fuel viscosity (cSt at 50C) 700 380 180

Max. service throughput (% of nominal capacity) 16 26 40

Q l/h =
P= b= = t=

P kW b g / kWh 24 h kg / m3 t h

in which

The percentage can vary according to fuel type and separator make. For final dimensioning the separator maker should be consulted. For MDO (max. viscosity 11 cSt at 50C) a flow rate of 80% and a preheating temperature of 45C are recommended. The flow rates recommended for the separator and the grade of fuel in use must not be exceeded. The lower the flow rate the better the separation efficiency. Suitable Alfa Laval and Westfalia separators are presented in the tables above.

max. continuous rating of the diesel engine specific fuel consumption + 15% safety margin density of the fuel daily separating time for self cleaning separator (usually = 23 h or 23.5 h)

This maximum service throughput of the separator depends on the type of HFO. It is typically expressed as a percentage of the nominal capacity of the separator.

Sludge tank, separator


The sludge tank should be placed below the separators as close as possible. The sludge pipe should be continuously falling without any horizontal parts.

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5. Fuel system

FUEL FEED SYSTEM General


For heavy fuel operation a pressurized fuel feed system shall be installed. The overpressure in the system ensures proper operation of the circulation and injection pumps and prevents the formation of gas bubbles in the return lines from the engines. For fuels with a viscosity well below 180 cSt/50C a system with an open deaeration tank can be considered if the tanks can be located high enough to prevent cavitation of the fuel circulation pump. The heavy fuel pipes shall be properly insulated and equipped with trace heating if the viscosity of the fuel is 180 cSt/50C or higher. It shall be possible to shut-off the heating of the pipes.

gravity tank min. 15 m above the engine centerline pneumatic emergency pump single phase electric motor driven pump fed from an emergency supply

Suction strainer
A suction strainer with a fineness of 0.5 mm should be installed for protecting the feed pumps. The strainer should be equipped with jacket heating. The strainer may be either of duplex type with changeover valves or two simplex strainers in parallel. The design should be such that air suction is prevented.

Feed pump
The feed pump maintains the pressure in the fuel feed system. It is recommended to use a high temperature resistant screw pump as feed pump. Design data: capacity to cover the total consumption of the engines and flushing of the automatic filter operating pressure operating temperature viscosity (for dimensioning the electric motor) 6 bar 100C 1000 cSt

SYSTEM COMPONENTS Day tank, heavy fuel


The heavy fuel day tank is usually dimensioned to ensure fuel supply for about 24 operating hours when filled to maximum. It should be noted that the Solas regulations have been amended and therefore for ships constructed on or after 1 July 1998 two fuel oil service tanks for each type of fuel used on board necessary for propulsion and vital systems or equivalent arrangements shall be provided. These should have a capacity of at least 8 h at max. continuous rating of the propulsion plant and normal operating load at sea of the generator plant. The design of the tanks should be such that water and dirt particles do not collect in the suction pipe. The tank has to be provided with a heating coil and should be well insulated. Maximum recommended viscosity in the day tank is 140 cSt. Due to the risk of wax formation, fuels with a viscosity lower than 50 cSt/50C must be kept at higher temperatures than the viscosity would require. Fuel viscosity [cSt at 50C] 700 380 180 Minimum day tank temperature [C] 65 60 55

Pressure control (overflow) valve


The pressure control valve maintains the pressure in the de-aeration tank directing the surplus flow to the suction side of the feed pump. set point 3 - 6 bar

Fuel consumption meter


If a fuel consumption meter is required, it should be fitted between the feed pumps and the deaeration tank. It is recommended to install an automatically opening bypass line around the consumption meter due to possible clogging.

De-aeration tank
The volume of the tank should be about 100 l. It shall be insulated and equipped with a heating coil and a vent valve, controlled by a level switch. The valve shall be insulated and equipped with trace heating. The vent pipe should, if possible, be led downwards, e.g. to the overflow tank.

The tank and pumps should be placed so that a positive static pressure of 0.3...0.5 bar is obtained on the suction side of the pumps.

Circulation pump
The purpose of this pump is to maintain a pressure of 7 bar at the injection pumps. It also circulates the fuel in the system to maintain the viscosity, and keeps the piping and injection pumps at operating temperature. Design data: capacity min. operating pressure operating temperature viscosity (for dimensioning the electric motor) 4 x the maximum consumption of the engines 10 bar 150C 500 cSt

Day tank, diesel fuel


The diesel fuel day tank is normally dimensioned to ensure fuel supply for 12 - 14 operating hours when filled to maximum. Note also the amended Solas regulations for new ships as decribed above in the chapter "Day tank, heavy fuel".

Black-out start
In installations where standby generating sets are fed from the diesel fuel day tank sufficient fuel pressure for a safe start must be ensured also in the case of a black-out. This can be done with:

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5. Fuel system

Pressurized fuel feed system, single engine (3V76F3203)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Day tank, heavy fuel Day tank, diesel fuel Change over valve Suction strainer Feed pumps Orifice Flow meter Deaeration tank Circulation pumps Heater Automatic filter Viscosimeter Overflow valve Safety filter Leak fuel tank, clean fuel Leak fuel tank, dirty fuel Radiator

Pipe connections, engine 101 102 103 104 Fuel inlet Fuel outlet Leak fuel drain, clean fuel Leak fuel drain, dirty fuel

Pipe dimensions Connection Size 101 DN25 102 DN25 103 DN20 104 DN32

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5. Fuel system

Pressurized fuel feed system, auxiliary engines (3V76F3204)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Orifice Day tank, heavy fuel Day tank, diesel fuel Change over valve Suction strainer, HFO Fuel feed pump, HFO MDO pressure control valve Flow meter Deaeration tank Circulation pumps Heater Automatic filter Viscosimeter Overflow valve 3-way change over valve MDO fine filter MDO pump Suction strainer, MDO

19 20 21 22 23

Pressure regulating valve Leak fuel tank, clean fuel Leak fuel tank, dirty fuel HFO safety filter Radiator

Pipe connections, engine 101 102 103 104 Fuel inlet Fuel outlet Leak fuel drain, clean fuel Leak fuel drain, dirty fuel

Pipe dimensions Connection Size 101 DN25 102 DN25 103 DN20 104 DN32

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5. Fuel system

Heater
The heater(s) is dimensioned to maintain an injection viscosity of 14 cSt (for fuels having a viscosity higher than 380 cSt/50C, the temperature at the engine inlet should not exceed 135C), according to the maximum fuel consumption and a given tank temperature. To avoid cracking of the fuel the surface temperature in the heater must not be too high. The surface power of electric heaters must not be higher than about 1.5 W/cm. The output of the heater is controlled by a viscosimeter. As a reserve a thermostat control may be fitted. The set point of the viscosimeter shall be somewhat lower than the required viscosity at the injection pumps to compensate for losses in the pipes. Design data: The required minimum capacity of the heater is:
P [kW] = m [l / h] t [ C] 1700

fineness: - back-flushing filter: - insert filter:

34 m (absolute mesh size) 34 m (absolute mesh size)

maximum recommended pressure drop for normal filters at 14 cSt: - clean filter 0.2 bar - dirty filter 0.8 bar - alarm 1.5 bar If a finer mesh size than 25 m is specified, the automatic filter must be placed between the feeder pumps and the deaeration tank to avoid clogging of the filter mesh due to cracking of the fuel.

Viscosimeter
For the control of the heater(s) a viscosimeter has to be installed. A thermostatic control shall be fitted, to be used as safety when the viscosimeter is out of order. The viscosimeter should be of a design that withstands the pressure peaks caused by the injection pumps of the diesel engine. Design data: viscosity range at injection pumps 10 - 24 cSt operating temperature 180C operating pressure 40 bar

m=

evaluated by multiplying the specific fuel consumption of the engines by the total max. output of the engines temperature rise, higher with increased fuel viscosity.

t =

The following values can be used: Fuel viscosity [cSt at 50C] 700 380 180 Temperature rise in heater [C] 80 (65 in day tank) 75 (60 in day tank) 65 (55 in day tank)

Safety filter
Since no fuel filters are built on the engine, one duplex type safety filter shall be installed between the booster module and the engine. The filter shall be located as close to the engines as possible. A common filter for all engines shall be used. The filter shall be equipped with an alarm contact for high differential pressure. fineness 34 - 37 m

To compensate for heat losses due to radiation the above values should be increased by 10 % + 5 kW.

Automatically cleaned fine filter


The use of an automatic back flushing filter is recommended, installed between the heaters and the viscosimeter in parallel with an insert filter as the standby half. For back-flushing filters the circulation pump capacity should be sufficient to prevent pressure drop during the flushing operation. Design data: fuel oil viscosity preheating flow operating pressure test pressure: - fuel side - heating jacket according to specification from 180 cSt/50C circulation pump capacity 10 bar 20 bar 10 bar operating temperature 0 - 150C

Leak fuel tank, clean fuel


Clean leak fuel draining from the injection pumps can, if desired, be reused without repeated treatment. The fuel should then be drained to a separate leak fuel tank and, from there, be pumped to the day tank. Alternatively, the clean leak fuel tank can be drained to another tank for clean fuel, e.g. the bunker tank, the overflow tank etc. The pipes from the engine to the drain tank shall be arranged continuously sloping and provided with trace heating and insulation.

Leak fuel tank, dirty fuel


Under normal operation no fuel should be leaking out of the dirty system. Fuel is drained only in case of a possible leakage or similar. The pipes to the sludge tank shall be trace heated and insulated.

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Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

5. Fuel system

Fuel feed unit (3V60L0791)

With steam heaters Booster module for engine output of A B C D F H K L P R HFO inlet Fuel to engine Drain from unit Deaeration line to overflow tank MDO inlet Return from engine Steam inlet Condensate outlet Sludge from automatic filter Instrument air inlet Weight dry [kg] 3, 5, 7 and 12 MW DN50 DN32 R2" DN32 DN50 DN32 DN32 DN32 DN50 10 mm 2100 15 and 18 MW DN65 DN50 R2" DN50 DN65 DN50 DN32 DN32 DN50 10 mm 2300

With electric heaters 3, 5, 7 and 12 MW DN50 DN32 R2" DN32 DN50 DN32 DN32 DN32 DN50 10 mm 2450 15 and 18 MW DN65 DN50 R2" DN50 DN65 DN50 DN32 DN32 DN50 10 mm 2650

Counterflanges DIN 2633 or DIN 2576, NP16, included

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5. Fuel system

Fuel feed unit


If required, a completely assembled fuel feed unit can be supplied as an option. This unit comprises normally the following equipment: two suction strainers two booster pumps of the screw type, equipped with built-on safety valves and electric motors one pressure control/overflow valve one pressurized de-aeration tank, equipped with a manually operated vent valve two circulation pumps, same type as above two heaters, steam or electric, one in operation, the other as spare one automatic back-flushing filter with bypass filter one viscosimeter for the control of the heaters one steam control valve or control cabinet for electric heaters one thermostat for emergency control of the heaters one control cabinet with starters for pumps, automatic filter and viscosimeter one alarm panel The above equipment is built on a steel frame, which can be welded or bolted to its foundation in the ship. All heavy fuel pipes are insulated and provided with trace heating. When installing the unit only power supply, group alarms, and fuel, steam and air pipes have to be connected.

5.4. Flushing instructions


Before start-up of the diesel engine(s) the external piping between the day tank(s) and the engine(s) must be flushed in order to remove any foreign particles, such as welding slag. Disconnect the fuel pipes at the engine inlet and outlet (connections 101 and 102). Install a temporary pipe or hose to connect the supply line to the return line, by-passing the engine. The piping should be flushed through a flushing filter with mesh size 34 microns or finer. The inserts of other filters should be removed. The heaters, automatic filters and viscosimeter should be by-passed to prevent permanent damage caused by debris in the piping. The automatic filter must not be used as flushing filter. The pump used should be protected by a suction strainer. The recommended flushing time is min. 6 hours. During this time the welds in the fuel piping should be gently knocked at with a hammer to release slag, and the filter inspected and carefully cleaned at regular intervals.

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6. Lubricating oil system

6. Lubricating oil system


6.1. Internal lubricating oil system on the engine
The standard engine is equipped with a complete lubricating oil system. The system consists of main pump, prelubricating pump, filters, coolers and wet sump (generator sets), built on the engine. For main engines (propeller drives) designed for heavy fuel operation, dry sump is recommended.

Lubricating oil cooler


The lubricating oil cooler is a fin tube cooler.

Thermostatic valve
A thermostatic valve of the direct acting type is installed on all engines. Design data:

inlet oil temperature to be


kept constant, set point 63C 8 bar

Lubricating oil pump


The direct driven lubricating oil pump is a gearwheel pump. It is dimensioned to provide sufficient flow even at low engine speeds and is equipped with an overflow valve, which is controlled from the oil inlet pipe. If necessary, the engine is provided with pipe connections for a separate, electric motor driven standby pump. Concerning flow rates and pressures, see chapter 3. Technical data. The suction height of the pump including losses in the piping should not exceed 4 m.

operating pressure, max.


Lubricating oil fine filter

The lubricating oil module is equipped with a fully automatic continuous back-flushing filter. Design data 30 m absolute mesh size 100 m absolute mesh size

full flow fine filter full flow safety filter alarm for high pressure
drop over the filter - first alarm - second alarm

Prelubricating pump
The prelubricating pump is an electric motor driven gear wheel pump equipped with a safety overflow valve. The pump is used for:

Filling of diesel engine lubricating oil system before


starting, e.g. when the engine has been out of operation for a long time

0.8 2.0 2.0 bar synthetic stainless steel

overflow valve, bypassing


the fine filtration

Continuous prelubrication of a stopped diesel engine


through which heated heavy fuel is circulating

materials:
- fine filter elements - safety mesh

Continuous prelubrication of a stopped diesel engine(s) in a multi-engine installation always when one of the engines is running Concerning flow rates and pressures, see chapter 3. Technical data. The suction height of the built-on prelubricating pump should not exceed 3.5 m.

Centrifugal filter
A centrifugal filter is installed to clean the back-flushing oil from the automatic filter.

Running in filters
All dry sump engines are provided with a full-flow wiremesh filter in the oil inlet line to each main bearing. Running in filters are removed after commissioning.

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6. Lubricating oil system

Internal lubricating oil system, in-line engines (4V76E2057a)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Lubricating oil main pump Prelubricating oil pump Lubricating oil cooler Thermostatic valve Automatic filter Centrifugal filter Pressure control valve

Pipe connections 202 203 205 207 208 213 214 Lubricating oil outlet (if dry sump) Lubricating oil to engine driven pump (if dry sump) Lubricating oil to priming pump (if dry sump) Lubricating oil to el. driven pump Lubricating oil from el. driven pump Lubricating oil from separator and filling (if wet sump) Lubricating oil to separator and drain (if wet sump)

Size DN150 DN200 DN80 DN150 DN100 DN40 DN40

All connections DIN 2576, PN 10

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Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

6. Lubricating oil system

Internal lubricating oil system, V-engines (4V76E2199b)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Lubricating oil main pump Prelubricating oil pump Lubricating oil cooler Thermostatic valve Automatic filter Centrifugal filter Pressure control valve

Pipe connections 202 203 205 207 208 213 214 231 232 Lubricating oil outlet (if dry sump) Lubricating oil to engine driven pump (if dry sump) Lubricating oil to priming pump Lubricating oil to el. driven pump Lubricating oil from el. driven pump Lubricating oil from separator and filling (if wet sump) Lubricating oil to separator and drain (if wet sump) Lubricating oil to external system Lubricating oil from external system

Size DN150 DN250 DN125 DN200 DN125 DN40 DN40 DN125 DN125

All connections DIN 2576, PN 10 F) Note! W12V32 has only one centrifugal filter

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39

6. Lubricating oil system

6.2. Design of the external lubricating oil system


Each engine should have a lubricating oil system of its own. Main engines as well as auxiliary engines operating on heavy fuel should have continuous centrifuging of the lubricating oil, either according to the bypass or batch principles. Auxiliary engines operating on fuels having a viscosity of max. 380 cSt/50C may have intermittent separation, with separation of a stopped engine. Alternatively, the used oil can be drained to a tank, from where it is separated to a storage tank for used oil.

Suitable Alfa-Laval and Westfalia separators are presented in the tables below:

Alfa-Laval lubricating oil separators


Separator Engine MCR [MW] GO MMPX 303 MMPX 304 MOPX 205 MOPX 207 MOPX 309 MOPX 310 MOPX 213 LOPX 705 LOPX 707 LOPX 709 LOPX 710 LOPX 713 2.2 3.6 6.7 11.1 16.1 23.9 26.1 6.5 11.8 20.6 25.3 38.2 MDO 1.7 2.7 6.0 8.3 12.1 17.9 19.6 4.8 8.7 15.2 18.7 28.3 HFO 1.3 2.2 4.0 6.7 9.7 14.3 15.7 3.9 7.1 12.5 15.4 23.2

Lubricating pump, standby


The standby lubricating oil pump can be a gear or screw pump and should be provided with a safety valve. Design data:

Capacity Operating pressure, max.


Separator

see Technical Data 8 bar

Westfalia lubricating oil separators


Separator Engine MCR [MW] GO OSC 4-02-066/3 OSC 4-02-066/4 OSC 4-02-066/5 OSA 7-02-066/7 & OSA 7-96-066/7 OSA 7-02-066/8 & OSA 7-96-066/8 OSA 20-02-066/14 & OSA 20-96-066/14 OSA 20-02-066/20 & OSA 20-96-066/20 OSA 20-02-066/25 & OSA 20-96-066/25 OSB 30-02-066/30 & OSB 30-96-066/30 OSB 35-02-066/35 & OSB 35-96-066/35 OSB 35-02-066/40 & OSB 35-96-066/40 2.9 3.5 4.4 6.3 8.4 12.7 17.3 23.0 26.5 32.5 43.8 MDO 2.2 2.6 3.3 4.8 6.3 9.5 13.0 17.3 19.9 24.4 32.8 HFO 1.7 2.1 2.7 3.8 5.0 7.6 10.4 13.8 15.9 19.5 26.3

Operating temperature, max. 100C


The separator should be dimensioned for continuous centrifuging. Each separate lubricating oil system should have its own separator. Auxiliary engines operating on a fuel having a viscosity of max. 380 cSt/50C may have a common separator. In installations with four or more auxiliary engines two separators should be installed. The separators should preferably have controlled discharge of the bowl to minimize the lubricating oil losses. The separator system must not be designed for water mixing when centrifuging. Design data:

Flow through the separator in


relation to rated capacity 22 - 25%

Rate of circulation of the


entire oil volume in 24 hours (dry sump) 4-5

Centrifuging temperature System tank oil volume

90 - 95C see Technical Data

The following rule, based on the above data and a separation time of 23 h/day, can be used for estimating the nominal capacity of the separator: Vnom [l/h] = 1.2 - 1.5 P [kW] P = total engine output

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6. Lubricating oil system

Separator pump
The separator pump can be directly driven by the separator or separately driven by a motor. The flow should be adapted to achieve the above mentioned optimal flow.

Suction strainer
If necessary, a suction strainer completed by magnetic bars can be fitted in the suction pipe to protect the lubricating oil pump. The suction strainer as well as the suction pipe diameter should be amply dimensioned to minimize the flow loss. The suction strainer should always be provided with alarm for high differential pressure.

Separator preheater
The separator preheater can be a steam or an electric heater. The surface temperature of the heater must not be too high in order to avoid coking of the oil. Design data: For main engines with centrifuging during operation, the heater should be dimensioned for this operating condition. The temperature in the separate system oil tank in the ships bottom is normally 65 - 75C. For auxiliary engines with centrifuging when stopped engine, the heater should be dimensioned large enough to allow centrifuging at optimal rate of the separator without heat supply from the diesel engine.

Fineness
System oil tank (separate)

0.5 - 1.0 mm

Lubricating oil storage tank


In engines with wet sump system, the lubricating oil can be added to the engine through the filling hole in the crankcase cover, by using a hand oil can, or through the separator pipe. The system should be arranged so that it is possible to measure the added oil volume.

Valve system
In auxiliary engines with wet sump operation, the standard engine is delivered with interconnected valves to make a replacement of flexible connections possible without draining the oil sump. Normally these valves will be open and the valves in the outside pipes have to be closed and opened when the oil is centrifuged.

The engine dry sump has two drain outlets at each end. On V-engines both outlets shall be used. The pipe connection between the sump and the system oil tank should be arranged flexible enough to prevent damages due to thermal expansion. The drain pipe from the oil sump to the system oil tank shall end below the min. oil level and shall not be led to the same place as the suction pipe. The end of the suction pipe should be trumpet-shaped or conical in order to reduce the pressure loss. For the same reason the suction pipe shall be as short and straight as possible. Also the suction and return pipes for the separator should not be located near each other. Recommendation for the design of the tank is given in the drawing of the engine room arrangement. The tank must not be placed so that the oil is cooled so much that the recommended lubricating oil temperature cannot be obtained. A cofferdam between the system oil tank and the hull plating is recommended. Design data:

Oil volume Tank filling

1.2 - 1.5 l/kW 75 - 80 %

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41

6. Lubricating oil system

Lubricating oil system, main engine (3V76E2058)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 Lubricating oil main pump Prelubricating oil pump Lubricating oil cooler Thermostatic valve Automatic filter Pressure control valve Suction strainer Separator pump Separator heater Separator System oil tank Sludge tank Suction strainer Lubricating oil pump, standby

Pipe connections 202 203 208 Lubricating oil outlet (if dry sump) Lubricating oil to engine driven pump Lubricating oil from el. driven pump

Size L32 DN150 DN200 DN100

V32 DN150 DN250 DN125

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6. Lubricating oil system

Lubricating oil system, auxiliary engines (3V76E2059)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 Lubricating oil main pump Prelubricating oil pump Lubricating oil cooler Thermostatic valve Automatic filter Pressure control valve Suction strainer Separator pump Separator heater Separator System oil tank Sludge tank New oil tank Renovated oil tank

Pipe connections 213 214 215 Lubricating oil from separator and filling Lubricating oil to separator and drain Lubricating oil filling

Size DN40 DN40 DN40

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43

7. Cooling water system

7. Cooling water system


7.1. General
Cylinder and turbocharger cooling as well as charge air and oil cooling is arranged by using fresh water. The pH-value and hardness of the water must be within normal values and the chlorine and sulphate contents should be as low as possible. To prevent rust forming in the cooling water system, a corrosion inhibitor should be added to the system, according to the instructions in the instruction manual. The cooling water pipes of the engine are made of steel. To allow start on heavy fuel, the cooling water system should be preheated to a temperature as near to the operating temperature as possible, or min. 70C. Engines in which full load is applied immediately after start should as well be preheated before start.

Circulating pump, direct driven, LT and HT circuit


As standard the engine is equipped with direct driven centrifugal LT and HT circulation pumps. Material: - housing - impeller - shaft - sealing Capacity cast iron cast iron stainless steel mechanical see Technical data

Pump curves for standard engines are shown in diagrams below. These pumps are driven by the engine crankshaft through gear transmission. On request, outlet and inlet connections for a separate standby pump can be provided. Shut-off valves are provided on the suction side of the engine driven pumps and non-return valves on the delivery side.

7.2. Internal cooling water system on the engine


Low temperature and high temperature circuits
The engine cooling circuit consists of a low temperature (LT) circuit for cooling of the lubricating oil and the charge air and a high temperature (HT) circuit for cooling of the jackets, cylinder head and charge air. The outlet temperatures of the LT and the HT circuits are controlled by thermostatic valves. Set point, HT-valve Set point, LT-valve 91C 44C

Charge air cooler


The charge air cooler is of self-supporting type screwed directly to the engine block. A two-stage cooler is used with a low temperature circuit cooled section and a high temperature cooled section, which increases the amount of recoverable heat.

Lubricating oil cooler


The lubricating oil cooler is built on the engine and fitted in series with the charge air cooler. For technical data see Lubricating oil system.

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7. Cooling water system

Pump diagram for engine driven HT- and LT-water pumps, in-line engines, 720 RPM (4V19L0291)

Pump diagram for engine driven HT- and LT-water pumps, in-line engines, 750 RPM (4V19L0292)

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45

7. Cooling water system

Pump diagram for engine driven HT- and LT-water pumps, 12V32, 720 / 750 RPM (4V19L0293a)

12V32, 750 RPM

12V32, 720 RPM

Pump diagram for engine driven HT- and LT-water pumps, 16V32 and 18V32, 720 / 750 RPM (4V19L0294a)

16V32 & 18V32, 750 RPM

16V32 & 18V32, 720 RPM

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Marine Project Guide W32 - 1/1998

7. Cooling water system

Internal cooling water system (4V76C2630a)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 HT-cooling water pump LT-cooling water pump Charge air cooler (LT) Lubricating oil cooler HT-thermostatic valve LT-thermostatic valve Turbocharger Shut-off valve Charge air cooler (HT)

Pipe connections 401 402 404 406 408 451 452 454 457 HT-water inlet HT-water outlet HT-water air vent Water from preheater to HT-circuit HT-water from standby pump LT-water inlet LT-water outlet LT-water air vent LT-water from standby pump

Size L32 DN100 DN100 OD12 OD28 DN100 DN100 DN100 OD15 DN100

V32 DN125 DN125 OD12 DN125 DN125 DN125 OD15 DN125

DIN 2576, PN 10 (401, 402, 408, 451, 452 and 457) DIN 2353 (404, 406 and 454)

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47

7. Cooling water system

7.3. Design of the external cooling water system


The pipe dimensions in the cooling water system should be based on the following maximum water velocities: Fresh water, pressure pipe Fresh water, suction pipe Sea water, pressure pipe Sea water, suction pipe 3.0 m/s 2.5 m/s 2.5 m/s 1.5 m/s

Standby circulating water pumps, LT- and HT-circuit


The pumps should be electric motor driven centrifugal pumps. Concerning capacity, see technical data. The delivery head of the pumps should be increased with the actual flow resistance in the external pipes and valves.

Sea water pump


The sea water pumps have to be electrically driven. The capacity of the pumps are determined by the type of central coolers used and the heat to be dissipated.

The fresh water pipes should be designed to minimize the flow resistance as much as possible. The smaller the pressure drop in the pipes the bigger pressure drop can be allowed for the cooler.

Drain tank
It is recommended to provide a tank for draining the cooling water from the engines during maintenance so that the water and cooling water treatment can be collected and reused.

Fresh water central cooler (4V47E0188a)

Engine

P [kW]

Medium

Flow [m/h]

Pressure drop [bar] 0.6 1.2 0.6 1.2 0.6 1.2 0.6 1.2 0.6 1.2 0.6 1.2

Weight [kg] dry 312 349 366 870 927 951 operating 377 437 466 1000 1110 1150

Model size

A [mm]

B [mm]

C [mm]

1 x 6L32 1 x 8L32 1 x 9L32 1 x 12V32 1 x 16V32 1 x 18V32

1635 2181 2453 3384 4349 4894

FW SW FW SW FW SW FW SW FW SW FW SW

75 97 100 130 112 146 130 169 175 227 195 253

1 1 1 2 2 2

295 398 451 265 357 400

905 1225 1225 1065 1365 1365

1105 1455 1455 1150 1450 1450

FW = Fresh water SW = Sea-water P = Heat to be dissipated

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7. Cooling water system

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49

7. Cooling water system

Fresh water central cooler


The fresh water cooler can be either a tube or a plate cooler. Due to the smaller dimensions, lower cost and good resistance to erosion, plate coolers are normally used. The fresh water cooler can be common for several engines, also one independent cooler per engine is used. Design data: Fresh water flow to central cooler = q

The tank should be equipped so that it is possible to dose water treatment agents. The vent pipe of each engine should drain to the tank separately, continuously rising, and so that mixing of air into the water cannot occur (the outlet should be below the water level).

Preheating pump
Engines which are started on heavy fuel require preheating of the high temperature cooling water. Standby auxiliary engines should have preheated cooling water, also if in standby on MDO. Design data of the pump: Capacity 0.4 m/h x cyl. about 0.8 bar Pressure

q m 3 / h = q LT +
where qLT [m/h] = [kW] = Tout = Tin =

3.6 4.19 Tout Tin

nominal LT-pump capacity, see Technical Data heat dissipated from jackets and charge air (HT-section) HT-water temperature after engine (= 91C) HT-water temperature before engine (= 38C) 0.6 bar.

Preheater
The energy required for heating of the HT-cooling water in the main and auxiliary engines can be taken from a running engine or a separate source. In both cases a separate circulating pump should be used. If the cooling water systems of the main and auxiliary engines are separated from each other in other respects, the energy is recommended to be transmitted through heat exchangers. When preheating, the cooling water temperature of the engines should be kept as near the operating value as possible. Design data: Preheating temperature Required heating power min. 70C about 3 kW/cyl

Pressure drop on the fresh water side, max.

If the flow resistance in the external pipes is high it should be observed when designing the cooler. Sea water flow acc. to cooler manufacturer, normally 1.2 - 1.5 x the fresh water flow

Pressure drop on sea water side normally 0.8 - 1.4 bar Fresh water temperature after cooler (before engine), max. 38C Heat to be dissipated see the heat balance in Technical Data

Preheating unit
A complete preheating unit can be supplied as an option. The unit consists of the following parts: Electric or steam heaters Circulating pump Control cabinet for heaters and pump Safety valve One set of thermometers For installations with several engines the preheater unit can be chosen for heating up several engines. The heat from a running engine can be used and therefore the power consumption of the heaters will be less than the nominal capacity.

Safety margin to be added 15% + margin for fouling

Expansion tank
The expansion tank should compensate for volume changes in the cooling water system, serve as venting arrangement and provide sufficient static pressure for the circulating pumps. Pressure from the expansion tank Volume 0.7 - 1.5 bar min. 10% of the system water volume, however, min. 100 litres

Concerning engine water volumes, see Technical Data.

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7. Cooling water system

Preheating unit, electric (3V60L0562b)

Heater capacity [kW] 7.5 12 15 18 22.5 27 30 36 45 54 72

Pump capacity [m/h] 3 3 3 3 8 8 8 8 8 8 12

Weight [kg] 75 93 93 95 100 103 105 125 145 150 187

Pipe connection in/outlet DN40 DN40 DN40 DN40 DN40 DN40 DN40 DN40 DN40 DN40 DN40

Dimensions [mm] A 1050 1050 1050 1250 1050 1250 1050 1250 1250 1250 1260 B 720 550 720 900 720 900 720 900 720 900 900 C 610 660 660 660 700 700 700 700 755 755 805 D 190 240 240 240 290 290 290 290 350 350 400 E 460 460 460 460 480 480 480 480 510 510 550

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7. Cooling water system

Preheating unit, steam (4V60L0790)

Counter flanges DIN 2633 or DIN 2576 NP16 included. Pump capacity [m/h] DN50 DN50 DN25 DN25 3 3 5.4 8 8 10 13 13

Dimensions Heater capacity [kW] 12 18 36 24 54 72 72 108 Type 3-12S 3-18S 5, 4-36S 8-24S 8-54S 10-72S 13-72S 13-108S

Connections A B C D HT-water inlet HT-water outlet Steam inlet Condense outlet

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7. Cooling water system

Waste heat recovery


The waste heat of the HT-circuit can be used for fresh water production. An additional thermostatic valve should be installed after the heat recovery equipment to avoid heat loss through the central cooler. The set point of this valve should be 85C. In order to maximize the FW production it is recommended to install a circulating pump for maintaining the HT-water flow constant through the FW generator, regardless of the engine load.

Available heat in HT-circuit


The heat dissipated to the HT-circuit is shown in the graph below. The recoverable heat will be about 10% lower due to heat losses to the expansion tank, etc.

Heat exchanger for recovery of waste heat


Design data: Flow, according to optimum temperature program Heat dissipation as function of load. See the graph below. Cooling water temperature. The temperature of the high temperature cooling water out from the engines is about 85C.

Heat dissipation in HT-circuit


120

100 Heat dissipation [% of max. ]

80

60

40

20

0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 Engine load [% mcr]

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7. Cooling water system

Cooling water system, main engine (3V76C2632b)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 HT-cooling water pump LT-cooling water pump Charge air cooler LT Lubricating oil cooler HT-thermostatic valve LT-thermostatic valve Expansion tank HT-preheating pump HT-preheater HT-standby pump LT-standby pump Central cooler Sea-water pump Sea-water standby pump

15 16 17 18

Sea-water filter Discharge valve Charge air cooler HT Other sea-water cooled equipment

Pipe connections 401 402 404 406 408 451 452 454 457 HT-water inlet HT-water outlet HT-water air vent Water from preheater to HT-circuit HT-water from stand-by pump LT-water inlet LT-water outlet LT-water air vent LT-water from standby pump

Pipe dimensions Connection size L V 401 DN100 DN125 402 DN100 DN125 404 OD12 OD12 406 OD28 408 DN100 DN125 451 DN100 DN125 452 DN100 DN125 454 OD15 OD15 457 DN100 DN125

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7. Cooling water system

Cooling water system, auxiliary engines (3V76C2633a)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 HT-cooling water pump LT-cooling water pump Charge air cooler LT Lubricating oil cooler HT-thermostatic valve LT-thermostatic valve Expansion tank HT-preheating pump HT-preheater Thermostatic valve Heat recovery Central cooler Charge air cooler HT

Pipe connections 401 402 404 406 451 452 454 HT-water inlet HT-water outlet HT-water air vent Water from preheater to HT-circuit LT-water inlet LT-water outlet LT-water air vent

Pipe dimensions Connection size L V 401 DN100 DN125 402 DN100 DN125 404 OD12 OD12 406 OD28 451 DN100 DN125 452 DN100 DN125 454 OD15 OD15

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7. Cooling water system

Cooling water system, auxiliary engines in common water system with main engine (3V76C2634a)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 HT-cooling water pump LT-cooling water pump Charge air cooler LT Lubricating oil cooler HT-thermostatic valve LT-thermostatic valve HT-preheating pump HT-preheater HT-cooling water pump HT-stand-by pump Heat recovery LT-cooling water pump LT-standby pump Alternator cooler Charge air cooler HT Central cooler

Pipe connections 401 402 404 406 451 452 454 460 461 HT-water inlet HT-water outlet HT-water air vent Water from preheater to HT-circuit LT-water inlet LT-water outlet LT-water air vent LT-water to alternator cooler LT-water from alternator cooler

Pipe dimensions Connection size L V 401 DN100 DN125 402 DN100 DN125 404 OD12 OD12 406 OD28 451 DN100 DN125 452 DN100 DN125 454 OD15 OD15 460 461

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8. Starting air system

8. Starting air system


8.1. Internal starting air system on the engine
All engines are started with compressed air with a nominal maximum pressure of 30 bar. The start is performed by direct injection of air into the cylinders through the starting air valves in the cylinder heads. V-engines are provided with starting air valves for the cylinders on one bank. The master starting valve is built on the engine and can be operated both manually and electrically. All engines have built-on non-return valves and flame arresters.

Internal starting air system (4V76H1876a)

System components 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 Main starting air valve Starting air distributor Starting air valve in cylinder head Blocking valve, when turning gear engaged Air container Pneumatic stop cylinder at each injection pump Non-return valve Starting booster for speed governor Flame arrester

Pipe connections 301 Starting air inlet

Size DN32

DIN 2635, PN 40

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8. Starting air system

Starting air system (3V76H1847)

System components 01 02 03 Starting air vessel Oil and water separator Starting air compressor

Pipe connections, engine 301 Starting air inlet

Size DN32

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8. Starting air system

8.2. Design of the external starting air system


The design of the starting air system is, in part, determined by the rules of the classification societies. The number of starts required by the classification societies is: American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) Bureau Veritas (BV) Det Norske Veritas (DNV) Germanischer Lloyd (GL) Lloyds Register of Shipping (LRS) Maritime Register (MR) Registro Italiano Navale (RINA) 6 starts 6 6 6 6 6 6

Oil and water separator


An oil and water separator should always be installed in the pipe between the compressor and the air vessel. The starting air bottles are equipped with a manual valve for condensate drain. It is recommended to provide for a timer controlled automatic drain valve after the manual valve. The starting air pipes should always be drawn with slope and be arranged with manual or automatic draining at the lowest points.

Starting air compressor


It shall be possible to fill the starting air vessel from minimum to maximum pressure in 15 - 30 minutes. For exact determination of the capacity, the rules of the classification societies should be followed.

In multi-engine installations, the number of starts is dependent on the number of engines. To determine the required volume of the starting air vessel the following values can be used: Engine 6L32 8L32 9L32 12V32 16V32 18V32 A= B= A 30 30 30 30 30 30 B 10 10 10 10 10 10 C 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.3

Configuration table (4V59L0168)


Configuration Factor

Twin engines with clutches on single propeller

1.5

Nominal maximum pressure in bar (absolute maximum pressure 33 bar) Minimum air pressure in bar for a safe start. Applies to an engine room temperature of 20C. At lower temperature higher pressure is required. Starting air consumption (average) per start, in Nm, at 20C.

Two engines on two propellers

1.5

C=

The above air consumptions apply to a 2 - 3 sec long start impulse. This is also the shortest time required for a safe start.

Double - twin engines with clutches on two propellers

Starting air vessel


The starting air vessel should be dimensioned for a nominal maximum pressure of 30 bar. Recommended volumes of starting air vessels are 125, 250, and 500 litres. In multiple engine propulsion installations the minimum capacity of the starting air vessels shall be multiplied by the factor mentioned in table 4V59L0168.

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8. Starting air system

Starting air vessel (3V49A0121)

Detail A Starting air outlet

Leg. A B C D E F G

Connection Starting air outlet Filling, 125 l Filling, 250 l and 500 l Manometer connect. Condense drain Overpressure relief Air relief valve Drain

Size R" R" R" R" R"

Size [litres] L 125 250 500 1807 1767 3204

Dimensions [mm] L1* 1917 1877 3329 D 320 480 480

Weight [kg]

140 270 470

* with drain in bottom

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9. Turbocharger turbine washing system

9. Turbocharger turbine washing system


For washing of the turbine side of the turbocharger, fresh water of 3 - 3.5 bar pressure is required. The washing is carried out during operation at regular intervals, depending on the quality of the heavy fuel, 100 - 500 hours. Duration of the washing period is 5 - 10 minutes. Washing time and water volume flow required for each turbine washing: Engine 6L, 12V 8-9L, 16-18V 6L, 12V 8-9L, 16-18V Turbocharger EGT 295, 297 EGT 355, 357 ABB TPL 65 ABB TPL 69 Water flow [l/min] 12 - 19 24 - 30 16 - 19 22 - 27

Turbocharger cleaning system (3V76A1021a)

System components 01 02 03 Shut-off and flow adjusting valve Rubber hose Bilge or sludge tank

Pipe dimensions Connection size Note! 01 02 Shut-off and flow adjusting valve bulkhead mounted in the engine room Rubber hose length ~ 10 m 502 OD18 503 OD28

Pipe connections, engine 502 503 Cleaning water to turbine, Quick coupling PN4 Cleaning water from turbine, DIN 2391

Pipe connection to the pressure reducing unit (01) is OD28.

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10. Engine room ventilation and combustion air

10. Engine room ventilation and combustion air


General
To obtain good working conditions in the engine room and to ensure trouble free operation of all equipment attention shall be paid to the engine room ventilation and the supply of combustion air. The air intakes to the engine room must be so located that water spray, dust and exhaust gases cannot enter the ventilation ducts and the engine room. The dimensioning of blowers and extractors should ensure that an overpressure of about 5 mmWC is maintained in the engine room in all running conditions. For the minimum requirements concerning the engine room ventilation and more details, see applicable standards, such as ISO 8861. The heat emitted by the engine is listed in the Technical Data. The ventilation air is to be equally distributed in the engine room considering air flows from points of delivery towards the exits. This is usually done so that the funnel serves as an exit for the majority of the air. To avoid stagnant air, extractors can be used. It is good practice to provide areas with significant heat sources, such as separator rooms with their own air supply and extractors.

Combustion air
Usually, the air required for combustion is taken from the engine room through a filter fitted on the turbocharger. This reduces the risk for too low temperatures and contamination of the combustion air. It is imperative that the combustion air is free from sea water, dust, fumes, etc. The combustion air should be delivered through a dedicated duct close to the turbocharger(s), directed towards the turbocharger air intake(s). Also auxiliary engines shall be served by dedicated combustion air ducts. For the required amount of combustion air, see Technical Data. If necessary, the combustion air duct can be directly connected to the turbocharger with a flexible connection piece. To protect the turbocharger a filter must be built into the air duct. The permissible pressure drop in the duct is max. 100 mmWC. See also Cold operating conditions below.

Ventilation
The amount of air required for ventilation is calculated from the total heat emission to evacuate. To determine , all heat sources shall be considered, e.g.: Main and auxiliary diesel engines Exhaust gas piping Alternators Electric appliances and lighting Boilers Steam and condensate piping Tanks It is recommended to consider an outside air temperature of not less than 35C and a temperature rise of 11C for the ventilation air. The amount of air required for ventilation is then calculated from the formula:

Cold operating conditions


In installations intended for operation in cold air conditions restrictions for operation at low air temperature must be considered. This might require preheating of the combustion air and/or equipment to limit the cylinder pressures. To ensure starting, the min. inlet air temperature is min. 5C: For continuous idling, the min. inlet air temperature is min. -5C. The lowest permissible inlet air temperature at full load is -20C. Subzero inlet air temperatures require non-standard equipment on the engine.

qv =
qv = = = t = c=

t c
amount of ventilation air [m/s] total heat emission to be evacuated [kW] density of ventilation air 1.15 kg/m temperature rise in the engine room [C] specific heat capacity of the ventilation air 1.01 kJ/kgK

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11. Crankcase ventilation

11. Crankcase ventilation


The crankcase venting should be arranged separately for each engine. The vent pipe must be equipped with a condensate trap and drain. It is recommended to expand the crankcase air vent pipe by one pipe dimension 1 - 2 meters from the engine. The connection between the engine and the pipe is to be made flexible.

Crankcase ventilation (4V60A1024a)

Pipe connections 701 Crankcase air vent

L32 V32

DN80 DIN2576 DN100 DIN2576

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12. Exhaust gas system

12. Exhaust gas system


Exhaust gas system design
Each engine should have its own exhaust pipe. A flexible bellow has to be mounted directly to the transition piece at the turbocharger outlet, to compensate for thermal expansion and to protect the turbocharger from vibrations. It is imperative that the exhaust gas pipe is stayed with a fixed support immediately (and in any case within 1 m) after the flexible bellows of the turbocharger outlet as shown in drawing 4V76A1017 so that any thermal expansion of the pipe is directed away from the engine and its turbocharger. The exhaust gas piping should be as short and straight as possible. The bends should be made with the largest possible bending radius, minimum radius used should be 1.5 D. The exhaust pipe must be insulated all the way from the turbocharger up and the insulation protected by a metal plating or similar. Closest to the turbocharger the insulation should consist of a hook on padding to facilitate maintenance. It is paramount to prevent the insulation material from being drawn into the turbocharger. The exhaust pipes should be provided with a water separating pocket and drain. The maximum allowable exhaust gas back pressure is 300 mmWC at full load. Concerning exhaust gas quantities and temperatures, see Technical Data.

Exhaust pipe connections (4V60A1023)

Pipe connection 501 Exhaust gas outlet

Pipe dimensions 6L32 8L32 9L32 12V32 16V32 18V32 NS600 NS700 NS700 2 x NS600 2 x NS700 2 x NS700

DIN 2501, PN 2.5

Turbocharger

Wrtsil V32: TC at free end TC at flywheel end 0 0

Wrtsil L32: TC at free end 0 90 to rear side 0 45 to rear side 90 to rear side TC at flywheel end 0 90 to rear side 0 45 to rear side 90 to rear side

EGT (Napier) ABB (TPL)

0 / 30 (A-bank) 0 / 45 (A-bank)

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12. Exhaust gas system

Fixing of exhaust pipe (4V76A1833)

Silencer
When included in the scope of supply, the standard silencer is an absorption silencer, equipped with spark arrester. It is also provided with a soot collector and water drain, but is without mounting brackets and insulation. The silencer can be mounted either horizontally or vertically. The noise attenuation of the standard silencer is either 25 or 35 dB(A).

Exhaust gas boiler


Each engine should have a separate exhaust gas boiler. Alternatively, a common boiler with separate gas sections for each engine is acceptable. For dimensioning the boiler, The exhaust gas quantities and temperatures given in Technical Data may be used. Particularly when exhaust gas boilers are installed attention must be paid not to exceed the maximum recommended back pressure. Engine Napier (7-series) A* 6L 8, 9L 12V 16, 18V 360 450 360 450 B* 600 700 600 700 ABB (TPL) A* 400 500 400 500 B* 600 700 600 700

*inner diameter

Exhaust silencer (3V49E0142)

Attenuation Engine 6L32 8L32, 9L32 12V32 16V32 18V32 NS 600 700 800 900 1000 D 1300 1500 1700 1800 1900 A 705 810 920 1020 1120 B 300 300 300 300 300 L

25 dB(A) kg 800 1250 1700 1900 2750 L

35 dB(A) kg 1000 1600 2000 2400 3500

4010 4550 4840 5360 5880

5260 6050 6340 6870 7620

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13. Control and monitoring system

13. Control and monitoring system


13.1. General
All engines are equipped with the Wrtsil Engine Control System - WECS 2000. WECS is used for monitoring and control of the engine. It is developed for the engines and designed for harsh environment. The various components of WECS are shown in Fig 1. Only the components shown as engine mounted are included in the delivery of the diesel engine.

Components of WECS (Fig. 1)

Superior monitoring system

RS-485, Modbus RTU

Hardwired signals

External system

WECS 2000

Engine mounted

START

ENGINE SPEED
STOP

LUBE OIL SHUTDO WN LUBE OIL SHUTDO WNBLOCKI NG

STOP RELAY HARDWIRED START BLOCKI NG HARDWIRED START ECU START FUEL LIM ITER SLOW TURNI NG FAILURE ALARM SPEED SWITCH 1 SPEED SWITCH 2

U1

U2

U3

U4

U5 BACKUP

LUBE OIL
RESET

OPTIO NAL SHUTDO WN ECU STOP/SHU TDOWN HARDWIRED STOP OVERSPEED SHUTDO WN EMER GENC Y STOP ECU WATCHDO G STOP/SHUTDO WNOVERR IDE SHUTDOWN RESET

CAN

VAISALA

RS-485

VAISALA

RELAY MODULE

LUBE OIL SHUTDO WNSWITCH FAILURE

REMOTE

OPTIO NAL SHUTDO WN SWITCH FAILURE

HT-WATER

ENERG IZED STOP SOLEN OID FAILUR E

Local Control Panel with backup instruments

Local Display Unit

Relay Module

Main Control Unit

Distributed Control Unit

Sensor Multiplexer Unit

The exact structure of the system, i.e. the number of Distributed Control Units (DCU) and Sensor Multiplexer Units (SMU), depends on the cylinder configuration. All sensors on the engine are connected to the DCUs, SMUs, Relay Module or Local Control Panel (LCP), while the signals to and from the external system are connected to the Main Control Unit (MCU) and the Relay Module (RM). The engine parameters are shown on the Local Display Unit (LDU).

WECS comprises: Measuring of the engine and turbocharger speed Engine safety system - starting of the engine - stopping of the engine - start blocking - automatic shutdown of the engine - load reduction request Signal processing of all monitoring and alarm sensors Readout of important engine parameters on a graphical display Data communication with external systems (e.g. alarm and monitoring systems).

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13. Control and monitoring system

13.2. Power supply


It is recommended to install a separate power supply (24 V DC) to ensure that an external power failure will not disturb WECS. Three power supply lines shall be connected to WECS as shown in Fig 2. The main supply feeds the WECS units, while the backup supply only feeds stop related functions in the Relay Module. The auxiliary supply feeds auxiliary equipment on the engine (e.g. oil mist detector). Main and auxiliary supplies may be connected to the same power source. The maximum current need for main and backup supplies is 5 A, because in normal operation the safety backup supply is not loaded.

The backup supply is recommended to have a separate power supply. Both power supplies are recommended to be: galvanically isolated from other equipment in accordance with the classification societies requirements. fed from the UPS system of the ship Main and auxiliary supply: Backup supply: Max. ripple 24 V DC / 5 A (18 - 32 VDC) 24 V DC / 3 A (18 - 32 VDC) 500 mVp-p

WECS power supply (Fig. 2)

MCU supply 24 VDC

WECS units

DCU1 supply 24 VDC DCU2 supply 24 VDC LDU supply 24 VDC Stop supply 24 VDC

Relay module

Main supply + 24 VDC

External system

Backup supply + 24 VDC

Aux. supply + 24 VDC

Yard connections

13.3. Speed measuring


The engine speed is measured by two pick-ups and the turbocharger speed by one pick-up. One of the engine speed pick-ups is connected to a DCU. The speed calculation is carried out in the DCU software. The DCU to where the pick-up is connected will initiate a stop of the engine in case of overspeed. The second engine speed pick-up is connected to the Relay Module, which is located in the MCU cabinet of the engine. The module initiates a shutdown of the engine in case the overspeed is not detected by the first pick-up. Shutdown due to low lubricating oil pressure initiated by the Relay Module (backup) is suppressed by the second speed pick-up. The turbocharger speed pick-up is connected to a DCU or an SMU, depending on the structure of WECS. The speed calculation of the turbocharger is carried out in the DCU software.

The following hardwired signals are available from the speed measuring function: Engine running output, potential free contact (closed = running) Overspeed alarm switch output, potential free contact (closed = overspeed alarm) Engine speed output, 4 - 20 mA for engine speed 0 - 1000 RPM, max. load 50 Turbocharger speed output, 4 - 20 mA for turbocharger speed 0 - 30000 RPM, max. load 50 Engine speed pulse output, potential free opto connection, 0 - 400 Hz for engine speed 0 - 1000 RPM Speed switch 3 output, potential free opto connection (closed = speed over limit), (optional) Speed switch 4 output, potential free opto connection (closed = speed over limit), (optional)

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13. Control and monitoring system

13.4. Safety system


The safety system is implemented in the software of the WECS. In addition, there are some redundant safety functions in the Relay Module. The safety system can be split into five major parts: starting, stopping, start blocking, shutdowns and load reduction requests.

Emergency start of the engine


Would the electrical system fail, the engine can be started by operating the master starting valve manually. Note that the start is mechanically blocked, if the stop lever on the engine is in STOP position, or pneumatically blocked, if the turning gear is engaged.

STARTING Normal start of the engine


The engine is started by opening the master starting valve. The solenoid valve controlling the master starting valve is activated by pressing the START button on the engine or remotely via the remote start input. Optionally the start sequence can also be initiated via the Modbus communication link. When starting, the diesel engine accelerates to a predeterminated speed set by the governor. Usually, the engine is accelerated to idling speed, but can also run up to rated speed. When an electrical start fuel limiter is built into the governor, it is engaged by WECS during the acceleration period to optimize the fuel demand. When starting manually, the acceleration can be controlled by the stop lever. Note! The start sequence may vary depending on the installation The engine will not start after a shutdown, before either local or remote reset button is pressed. The start sequence of the MCU is shown in Fig 3. The following hardwired signals are available to/from the starting function: Inputs remote start input, potential free contact required (start = closed) black-out start input, potential free contact required (start = closed) Outputs indication output: ready for start, potential free opto connection (ready = closed) indication output: start failure, potential free opto connection (failure = closed)

STOPPING
The engine is stopped by turning the stop lever to the stop position or by energizing two solenoid valves. One valve operates the pneumatic cylinders on the injection pumps cutting the fuel injection. The other valve acts on the speed governor. The solenoid valves are energized by pressing the STOP button on the engine or remotely via the remote stop input. Optionally the solenoid valves can also be activated via the Modbus communication link. When two engines are connected to a common reduction gear it is recommended that the clutches are blocked in the OUT position when the engine is not running. When an engine is stopped, the clutch should open to prevent the engine from being driven through the gear. At an overspeed shutdown signal the clutch should remain closed. The stop sequence of the MCU is shown in Fig 4. The following hardwired signals are available to/from the stopping function: Inputs remote stop input, potential free contact required (stop = closed) remote reset shutdown input, potential free contact required (reset = closed) external shutdown 1 input, potential free contact required (shutdown = closed) external shutdown 2 input, potential free contact required (shutdown = closed), (optional) shutdown override input, potential free contact required (override = closed) Outputs indication output: shutdown, potential free opto connection (shutdown = closed) engine stop/shutdown output, potential free contact (stop/shutdown = closed) run/stop output to the electronic speed governor (if used), potential free opto connection (closed = stop) Engine stop/shutdown output is always closed when the stop signal is active, while indication output shutdown only is closed when an automatic shutdown has occurred. Consequently indication output shutdown can be used to control the shutdown reset indicator lamp.

Blackout start of emergency genset


It is possible to configure a blackout start input. This means that the startblock checking is skipped. The blackout start command shall be given manually or by the external automation system. The blackout start is not possible, if prelubrication has been off for more than 5 minutes.

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13. Control and monitoring system

Start sequence (Fig. 3)

2.0

BLACK OUT START?

NOT BLACK OUT START HW: X6:17-18


2.1 INITIATE START BLOCK CYCLE START BLOCK CYCLE =0 2.2

BLACK OUT START HW: X6:17-18 AND ENGINE WITHOUT SLOW TURNING FEATURE

BLACK OUT START HW: X6:17-18 AND ENGINE WITH SLOW TURNING FEATURE

SET MODBUS: READY FOR START MODE

S CLEAR MODBUS: START BLOCKED MODE S


ACTIVATE HW: X1:7 READY FOR START IND 2.11 START CYCLE = 1 START BLOCK CYCLE =1 START BLOCK CYCLE =1

SET MODBUS: START BLOCKED MODE

2.3

S CLEAR MODBUS:READY FOR START S


DEACTIVATE HW: X1:7 READY FOR START IND ENGINE WITHOUT SLOW TURNING FEATURE

2.9

S INDICATE START BLOCK SOURCE IN MODBUS S CLEAR MODBUS:READY FOR START S


DEACTIVATE HW: X1:7 READY FOR START IND =1

ENGINE WITH SLOW TURNING FEATURE

2.4
=1

NO SLOW TURNING

2.5 3.7
=1 2.7

SLOW TURNING

2.0

2.6

ACTIVATE START C SOLENOID 5s IF SPEED L < START SPEED LIMIT t1 = 0

ACTIVATE SLOW TURNING SOLENOID 5s C IF SPEED < START L SPEED LIMIT (IF W32, WV32) ACTIVATE START C L SOLENOID 5s IF SPEED

=1

=1

2.8

NO OPERATION

SPEED > RUN LIMIT AND t1 < 30 s

SPEED < RUN LIMIT AND t1 > 30 s

2.9

S CLEAR MODBUS: START ATTEMPT


S DEACTIVATE HW: X1:8 START FAILURE IND START SEQUENCE ENDS

2.10

L S L S L S

SET MODBUS: FAILED START ATTEMPT t = 20 s SET MODBUS: START BLOCKED MODE ACTIVATE HW: X1:8 START FAILURE IND t = 20 s

20 s / X2.10

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Stop sequence (Fig. 4)

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START BLOCKING
An engine start is blocked by the following conditions: low prelubricating oil pressure turning gear engaged stop lever in stop position local/remote switch in local position (blocks the remote start) local/remote switch in remote position (blocks the local start) external start blocking 1 input external start blocking 2 input, (optional) The following hardwired signals are available to/from the start blocking function: Inputs external start blocking 1 input, potential free contact required (start blocked = closed) external start blocking 2 input, potential free contact required (start blocked = closed), (optional) Outputs indication output: local control mode, potential free opto connection (local mode = closed) If a start blocking is active, it is not possible to start the engine. On the Modbus communication link an alarm is raised for each active start blocking. Start blockings are ignored in case of a blackout start.

Main engine shutdowns


The required safety shutdowns depend on the classification society and the type of installation. The following are usually compulsory: low lubricating oil pressure engine overspeed oil mist detection external shutdown input emergency stop input

Auxiliary engine shutdowns


The following are shutdown conditions on most installations: low lubricating oil pressure engine overspeed oil mist detection external shutdown input emergency stop input high cooling water temperature high main bearing temperature high cylinder liner temperature

Shutdown backup system


Some shutdown functions of the WECS are backed up in the Relay Module, which is an independent hardwired system. These functions are: low lubricating oil pressure overspeed trip optional shutdown switch Also the emergency stop button is connected to the Relay Module. The lubricating oil pressure shutdown is initiated by a dedicated pressure switch. The shutdown is suppressed at low engine speed and at stand-still. The Relay Module is using a separate speed sensor (proximity switch) for generating an overspeed trip. The trip level is set slightly higher than the level in the WECS configuration, and the function is latching.

SHUTDOWNS
An engine shutdown is carried out in the same way as a normal stop, i.e. by energizing two solenoid valves. The sensors used for shutdown are of analogue type, and the shutdown levels are defined in the WECS software. The shutdown is latching, and a shutdown reset has to be given before it is possible to re-start. Naturally, before this, the reason of the shutdown must be investigated. The reason of any shutdown will be indicated on the Modbus communication link to the external systems.

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LOAD REDUCTION Main engine load reductions


On main engines the following conditions will cause a load reduction request: high lubricating oil temperature low cooling water pressure high cooling water temperature high main bearing temperature high exhaust gas temperature high exhaust gas temperature deviation high cylinder liner temperature There is one hardwired signal from the load reduction function: load reduction request. It is a potential free opto connection and closes when load reduction is requested. The external control system or the power management system should reduce the load demand on the engine. If the load reduction is not made automatic, an alarm should be raised requesting the operator to manually reduce the load.

When the alarm condition is over, the following actions are taken: On the LDU the measured value is shown as normal text On the Modbus the alarm bit is set to value 0 Common engine alarm is deactivated, if there are no other active alarms The following hardwired signals are available from the alarm function: Common engine alarm, potential free opto connection (alarm = open) RM failure, potential free contact (alarm = open) WECS failure, potential free opto connection (alarm = open) Load switch, potential free opto connection (high load = closed) Note! WECS shall not be considered an alarm system. The Modbus link shall be connected to the ships alarm system, where latching and acknowledge of alarms shall be handled.

Auxiliary engine load reduction


There are no conditions that will cause load reduction request on auxiliary engines.

STANDBY PUMP OUTPUTS


In installations with standby pumps, the WECS system has an optional DMI4-card with four (4) standby pump start outputs available: HT-water LT-water Fuel oil Lubricating oil If pressure drops below a preset level, WECS activates the standby output. 24VDC is fed to the standby pump starter and the standby pump should be started. Also an alarm on the Modbus is given. When the pressure is raised to normal level by the standby pump, both the standby output and alarm from WECS is reset, thus meaning no latching of the output(s) is done in WECS. Latching must instead be done in the standby starter and alarm system respectively. The reason for the pressure drop should be investigated as soon as possible. Stop of the standby pump should ALWAYS be a manual operation. Before stopping the standby pump, the reason for the pressure drop must have been investigated and rectified. Due to classification requirements, the standby pump output and the Modbus alarm is triggered in case of a sensor failure.

ALARMS
The following settings can be configured for any measured data item Alarm limit Alarm condition Blocked at standstill Startup delay These settings are documented in the Modbus list of the engine. An alarm condition generates the following actions: On the LDU the measured value is shown inverted An alarm message is printed on the history page of the LDU On the Modbus the alarm bit is set to value 1 Common engine alarm is activated

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WECS BLOCK DIAGRAMS


An overview of the hardwired input signals is shown in Fig 5.

Hardwired inputs (Fig. 5)


Main Control Unit (MCU)
Remote start Remote stop Remote reset Remote standby request External shutdown 1 External start block 1 Black-out start External shutdown 2

External system

Option
Shutdown override Emergency stop

External start block 2 Shutdown override Emergency stop

Option

Relay module

Yard connections

An overview of the hardwired output signals is shown in Fig 6. There are two types of ON/OFF output signals: potential free contacts and potential free opto connections.

Hardwired outputs (Fig. 6)


Engine speed (4 - 20 mA) Turbo A speed (4 - 20 mA) Turbo B speed (4 - 20 mA) Local control mode Engine speed (4 - 20 mA)

Isolating converters Opto relays

Turbo A speed (4 - 20 mA) Turbo B speed (4 - 20 mA) Local control mode indication Ready for start indication Start failure indication Shutdown indication Supply to indications

External system

Main Control Unit (MCU)

Ready for start mode Start failed mode Shutdown mode

Prelubricating pump control Load reduction request Common engine alarm WECS failure

Prelubricating pump control Load reduction request Common engine alarm WECS failure Engine speed pulse Run / stop

Engine speed pulse

Relay Module

RM failure Engine running Overspeed alarm switch Engine stop / shutdown Speed switch 3

Engine stop & shutdown Speed switch 3

Option

Speed switch 4 Load switch Fuel oil standby pump control Lube oil standby pump control HT water standby pump control LT water standby pump control

Optional opto relays

Speed switch 4 Load switch Fuel oil standby pump control Lube oil standby pump control HT water standby pump control LT water standby pump control

Option

Yard connections

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The principle of the output signals is shown in Fig 7 and Fig 8.

Potential free contact (Fig. 7)


Breaking capacity max. 2 A, 30 V DC Relay 24 V DC

Potential free opto connection (Fig. 8)


Breaking capacity max. 3 A, 24 V DC Opto relay 24 V DC

0V

0V

Yard connection

Yard connection

13.5. Speed control


Main engine speed control
The engines are normally provided with mechanical/ hydraulic governors prepared for pneumatic or electric remote control. The standard type of governors used are: Regulateurs Europa 1104 Woodward PGA 58 Both governors are equipped with a shutdown solenoid and with either a pneumatic smoke limiter or with an electrical start fuel limiter. If an electronic speed governor is specified, a Woodward PG-EG type actuator or similar can be used. The idling speed is selected for each installation based on calculations, for CP-propeller installations at 60 - 70% of the nominal speed and for FP-propeller installations at about 40 - 50%. The standard control air pressure for pneumatically controlled governors is: p = 0.00857 * n - 1.43 p = control air pressure [bar] n = engine speed [RPM] Governors for engines in FP-propeller installations are provided with a smoke limiter function, which limits the fuel injection as a function of the charge air pressure. Governors for engines connected to a common reduction gear are specially adapted and adjusted for the same speed droop, normally 4%, to obtain basic load sharing. In addition, it is recommended to arrange external load sharing based on the fuel rack position transducer. Optionally, electronic speed controls with isochronous load sharing can be specified for engines connected to a common reduction gear. Governors are, as standard, equipped with a built-in delay of the speed change rate so that the time for speed acceleration from idle to rated speed and vice versa at speed decrease is 10...12 seconds.

Generating set speed control


Generator engines are usually provided with mechanical/ hydraulic governors for electric speed setting. The standard type of governors used are: Regulateurs Europa 1102 Woodward PGG 58 Both governors are equipped with speed setting motors for synchronizing, load sharing and frequency control. They are also equipped with a shutdown solenoid and an electrically controlled start fuel limiter. The synchronizing is operated by ON/OFF control as increase or decrease by polarity switching (PGG 58) or by activating two coils, one for incrementing and the other one for decrementing (Europa 1102). Normal speed change rate is about 0.3 Hz/s. Engines, which are to be run in parallel have governors specially adapted for the same speed droop, about 4%, to obtain basic load sharing. During load sharing and frequency control, the external load sharing system (PMS) must have a control deadband implemented, allowing for an uneven load or frequency drift of 1 - 2%. If electronic type speed governors are specified, Woodward PG-EG type actuators or similar can be used. Electronic governors are recommended for diesel-electric main engines.

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13.6. Electric prelubricating pump


All diesel engines are equipped with an electric prelubricating pump. The pump is normally used in the following cases: For filling the lubricating oil system of the diesel engine before start, for example when the engine has not run for a long time. For continuous prelubricating of a stopped diesel engine, through which heavy fuel is circulating. For continuous prelubricating of a stopped diesel engine in a multi-engine installation always when one or more engines are in operation. The automatic starting and stopping of the prelubricating pump can be controlled by the prelubricating pump output with the switch point 250 rpm.

Code LS103A LS103B LS106A LS106B LS108A LS108B PT101 TE101 LS204 PT201-1 PT241 PDY243 TE201 TE231 PT301 PT311 PT401 PT471 TE401 TE402-1 TEZ402 TE422A TE422B TE432 TE432A TE471 TE472 TE482 TE511 TE517 TE51CA.. TE622 PT622 PDT623 PDT633 QU700 TE700... TE711A... PT700 GT165 GS171 ST173 ST174 SE518 SE528 GS792 PSZ201

Name Fuel oil leakage, inj. pipe A-bank Fuel oil leakage, inj. pipe B-bank Fuel oil leakage, clean fuel A-bank Fuel oil leakage, clean fuel B-bank Fuel oil leakage, dirty fuel A-bank Fuel oil leakage, dirty fuel B-bank Fuel oil pressure, inlet Fuel oil temperature, inlet Lube oil level (if wet sump) Lube oil pressure, inlet Lube oil pressure, filter inlet Lube oil filter pressure difference1) Lube oil temperature, inlet Lube oil temperature, LOC inlet Start air pressure Control air pressure HT-water pressure, inlet LT-water pressure, inlet HT-water temperature, inlet HT-water temperature, outlet HT-water temperature, engine outlet HT-water temperature, TC A outlet 5) HT-water temperature, TC B outlet 5, 6) HT-water temperature, CAC outlet 7) HT-water temperature, CAC outlet LT-water temperature, CAC inlet LT-water temperature, CAC outlet LT-water temperature, LOC outlet Exhaust gas temp., turbo inlet 2) Exhaust gas temp., turbo outlet Exhaust gas temp., cylinder outlet 3) Charge air temperature, inlet Charge air pressure, inlet CAC pressure difference, A-bank CAC pressure difference, B-bank 6) Oil mist detector, alarm Main bearing 0 temperature 4) Cylinder liner temperature1 3) Crankcase pressure Fuel rack position Stop lever in stop position Engine speed Engine speed, backup system Turbocharger A speed Turbocharger B speed 6) Turning gear engaged Lube oil pressure, inlet (backup syst.)

Type b b b b b b a a b a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b a a a a b a a a a b b

13.7. Preheating of cooling water


Preheating of the cooling water has to be arranged on engines which are in standby on heavy fuel and for all engines which are arranged for instant load application. Preheating is preferably controlled automatically. In an installation with several engines and a common preheater the circulating pump should start when one engine stops and stop when all engines are running. The function should be checked for each installation depending on the design of the cooling water system. Automatic starting and stopping of the circulating pump can be controlled by the engine running output with the switch point 250 rpm.

13.8. Monitoring and alarm sensors


WECS signal processing
In WECS the data acquisition is distributed. The sensors are connected to the distributed units - SMUs or DCUs - which are located close to groups of sensors. In the SMU the signal is measured, filtered, linearized and checked for errors and sent to a DCU over a serial link. The DCU does the same as the SMU for sensors connected directly to the DCU. In addition the DCU performs the validity, alarm, load reduction request and shutdown checks for both the signals from the SMUs and from DCU itself. Signals are then sent over a CAN link to the MCU. Only start and stop related switches are connected directly to the MCU. Backup sensors are connected to the Relay Module. Measured values are in analogue mode only from the sensor to the DCU/SMU. After that the values are in digital mode.

a analogue sensor b binary (ON/OFF) sensor


1) 2)

Sensors for remote monitoring and alarms


The following standard set of sensors for monitoring, alarm and safety are mounted on the engine.

calculated value (not a separate sensor) 1 - 4 pcs, depending on exhaust gas system 3) 2 pcs/cylinder 4) (n + 2) pcs, where n = number of cylinders / bank 5) Only if EGT turbocharger 6) Only if V-engine 7) Only if two stage CAC

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Note! All sensors are connected to WECS and can only communicate with the remote alarm & monitoring system by means of the Modbus communication link. The only hardwired signals existing are those listed in the Safety system, see paragraph 13.4. Even if the above mentioned sensors are considered as standard the amount and type of sensors can vary, depending on the needs for various installations. The actual set of sensors and other electrical equipment mounted on the engine, as well as alarm set points, can be found in the installation specific instructions.

The load balance of the cylinders is shown as temperature deviation for each cylinder from the average temperature of all cylinders. In the lower part of the meter window the following pressures and temperatures are normally shown: Fuel oil pressure, inlet Lube oil pressure, inlet HT-water pressure, inlet LT-water pressure, inlet Charge air pressure, inlet Fuel oil temperature, inlet Lube oil temperature, inlet HT-water temperature, outlet LT-water temperature, inlet Charge air temperature, inlet The message window is the bottom part of the display area. The window shows the status of the engine.

13.9. Instrumentation
LOCAL DISPLAY UNIT
The Local Display Unit (LDU) replaces the traditional pressure gauge panel, the thermometers and other instruments. It is connected to the MCU, which sends the necessary data to the display. Three different pages can be displayed: the meter page the history page the status pages

The history page


The history page shows the latest events of the engine, e.g. engine being started, alarms, shutdowns, etc. In the case of alarm and shutdown the sensor codes and set point limits are also indicated.

Meter page
The meter page is divided into two different sub windows: the meter window and the message window. In the meter window the parameters are shown as graphical meter images with explanatory text and exact numerical value below the meter. Abnormal values are shown in inverted colours. Three important parameters of the engine are at the upper part of the meter window: the engine speed the load balance of the cylinders the fuel rack position

The status pages


There are always several status pages. The number of pages vary depending on the number of sensors in the WECS. One status page show either all connections to a specific SMU/DCU or values of logical sensor groups like for example main bearing temperatures.

BACKUP INSTRUMENTS
In addition to the LDU there are three backup instruments that are independent of the rest of the system. The three instruments are: engine speed, HT cooling water temperature and lubricating oil pressure.

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13.10. Modbus communication link


The communication between the external system and the WECS is done via Modbus communication link. Modbus is a standard defined by Modicon primarily for use in industrial applications. Modbus is a binary data transfer protocol. In the WECS the Modbus serial link is used for getting measurement data and status information from the MCU to the external alarm & monitoring system. Optionally the Modbus communication link can be used for controlling the engine through the MCU (e.g. starting and stopping the engine). The MCU always functions as a slave in a Modbus network, i.e. the alarm & monitoring system is always the master. The physical connection is standard 4-wire RS485 with optical isolation at the MCU side.The used communication parameters are: baud rate 9600, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit and no parity.

MODBUS RTU PROTOCOL


The WECS uses the transmission mode RTU and the following commands are in use at the moment: 02 Read Input Status offset 10000 1 = ON or ALARM 0 = OFF or NORMAL returns information about alarm, shutdown and load reduction packed into bit fields Read Input Registers offset 30000 returns sensors values as 2s complement two byte integers Force Single Coil offset 0 FF 00 hex = ON 00 00 hex = OFF sets database items in the MCU

04

05

Modbus communication link (Fig. 9)

Main Control Unit (MCU)

Standard Modbus RDStandard Modbus RD+ Standard Modbus SDStandard Modbus SD+

External system

The WECS returns exception response in case of an illegal query. This kind of situation may occur if the master tries to use function that is not supported by the WECS. The exception response is formed according to instructions given in Appendix A of the Modicon Modbus Protocol Reference Guide. Note! The commands follow the Modicon Modbus Protocol Reference Guide, PI-MBUS-300 Rev. D, March 1992. A misprint on page 113 should be noticed. The reference guide states in section Placing the CRC into the Message that When the 16-bit CRC (2 8-bit bytes) is transmitted in the message, the low-order byte will be transmitted first, followed by the high-order byte. It should be the other way around, i.e. When the 16-bit CRC (2 8-bit bytes) is transmitted in the message, the high-order byte will be transmitted first, followed by the low-order byte. For example, if the CRC value is 1241 hex (0001 0010 0100 0001).

Option Modbus RDOption Modbus RD+ Option Modbus SDOption Modbus SD+

Option

Option

CRC byte sequence (Figure 10)

Addr

Func

Data count

Data

Data

Data

Data

CRC Hi 12

CRC Lo 41

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Packets in Modbus
Modbus packets are binary. The packets are recognized with delays in communications. All communication is initiated by a master, the slaved can send data only when requested. A 1.5 character delay means that the packet was interrupted and should be discarded by recipients. A 2.5 character delay means that the next character starts a new packet.

Reply message: 01 03 ... FF FF slave address, same as in the poll message function code, same as in the poll message data CRC high byte CRC low byte

Two byte binary numbers are sent HIGH BYTE FIRST.

Message format
The general message format is described below. Poll message: 01 03 ... FF FF slave address (id) function code parameters CRC high byte CRC low byte

Modbus address tables


The table below lists some example lines of the Modbus protocol used in the WECS.

Code name Norm. External commands: OS731 Engine start OS732 Engine stop Fuel oil: LS103A LS106A LS108A PT101 TE101 Lube oil: LS204 PT201-1 PT241 PDY243 TE201 TE231 Fuel oil leakage, injection pipe Fuel oil leakage, clean fuel Fuel oil leakage, dirty fuel Fuel oil pressure, inlet Fuel oil temperature, inlet Lube oil level Lube oil pressure, inlet Lube oil pressure, filter inlet Lube oil filter pressure difference Lube oil temperature, inlet Lube oil temperature, LOC inlet

Modbus addresses Alarm Stop Load red.

WECS scale

Alarm condition

00001 00002 10001 10002 10003 10004 high high high low

30004 30005

10 1

30008 30009 30010 30011 30012

10007 10008 10010 10011

11008

12011

10 10 10 1 1

low low high high

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Data addressing and requests


Registers in a Modbus slave are addressed starting with 1 (e.g. 30001, 10001,110001,12001). In contrast the poll messages refer to registers beginning with 0 and without the tens thousands (e.g. 0, 0). Scaling is needed, because Modbus can transfer only integers. The value of the signal is scaled with the scaling factor. When reading this value in the alarm & monitoring system it must be re-scaled with 1/scaling factor, i.e. in the case of Fuel oil pressure with 0.1. Values in addresses beginning from 00001 can be set with command 05 (offset 0). Addresses beginning from 30001 contain analogue values of the signals. The analogue value is below -900, if the status of the measured value is not normal in the MCU database. The status may be abnormal for several reasons; sensor failure, update delayed more than 60 seconds or measured value out of range. Consequently error information is read from analogue address series for all sensors, including binary ON/OFF switches. Every signal of the engine has its own address in this series. All unused addresses are set to value 0. These addresses can be read with command 04 (offset 30000). The alarm/stop/load reduction information of the signal is represented in addresses beginning from 10001. This series is divided so that alarm values begin from 10001, stop values from 11001 and load reduction values from 12001. Binary and switch information is normally read only from these addresses, not from analogue address. The information in this series is of ON/OFF type. Alarm ON situation is indicated with value 1, whereas alarm OFF situation is indicated with value 0. The information can be read with command 02 (offset 10000). In multiple engine projects it is recommended to have a separate Modbus network for each engine. Normally, a Modbus master cannot poll all analog addresses on one query (Modbus Reference Guide recommends maximum 125 addresses per query). Therefore several queries are required for analog address series whereas alarm/stop/load reduction address series require one query per address series. The exact analog value is not normally as time critical as the alarm/stop/ load reduction information. Therefore binary addresses are sometimes polled more often than analog addresses.

Two examples of sequences are shown in the following: Sequence 1: 30001 ... 30125 10001 ... 10250 11001 ... 11250 12001 ... 12250 30126 ... 30250 10001 ... 10250 11001 ... 11250 12001 ... 12250 30001 ... 30125 ... The bus is 55 - 60% loaded when analog addresses are read once every 2 seconds and binary addresses once every second. Sequence 2: 30001 ... 30085 10001 ... 10250 11001 ... 11250 12001 ... 12250 30086 ... 30170 10001 ... 10250 11001 ... 11250 12001 ... 12250 30171 ... 30250 10001 ... 10250 11001 ... 11250 12001 ... 12250 30001 .. .30085 ... The bus is 55 - 60% loaded when analog addresses are read once every 2.5 seconds and binary addresses once every 0.83 second. Update rate of analog blocks may also vary. In the sequence 2, the update frequency is lower for analog addresses and higher for binary addresses than in the sequence 1. Messages are also shorter in sequence 2, which is good in case of failed transmission. The purpose of this example is to show that in every project the correct update rate must be carefully investigated for all data blocks. This is the only way to guarantee safe and optimized communication. More detailed information about addresses and alarm/ stop/load reduction limits is represented in installation specific instructions.

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14. Seating
14.1. General
Main engines are usually rigidly mounted to the foundation, either on steel or resin chocks. Diesel generator sets are flexibly mounted on rubber elements. Also main engines can be flexibly mounted, if required. The foundation should be stiff in all directions to absorb the dynamic forces caused by the engine. Especially the foundation of the propeller thrust bearing (the reduction gear) should be dimensioned and designed so that harmful deformations are avoided. Dynamic forces caused by the engine appear from the table.

External forces and couples (1V93C0025)

Engine 8L32 9L32 16V32 18V32

Speed [RPM] 720 750 720 750 720 750 720 750

Frequency FY [Hz] [kN] 48 50 48 50 4.6 4.9

FZ [kN] 5.3 5.7 3.2 3.5

Frequency MY [Hz] [kNm] 12 12.5 12 12.5 44 47 57 62

MZ [kNm] 44 47 57 62

Frequency MY [Hz] [kNm] 24 25 24 25 26 28 30 32

MZ [kNm] 22 24

couples and forces = zero or insignificant

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14.2. Rigid mounting


Installation of main engines
Holes for holding down bolts must be drilled through the seating top plate. The holes for the bolts shall have a diameter, 44, except those holes which are to be reamed and equipped with fitted bolts. The holes can be drilled through the holes in the engine feet. The mounting bolts are through-bolts with a lock nut at the lower end and a hydraulically tightened nut at the upper end. One fitted bolt is used on each side of the engine closest to the flywheel. All other bolts are clearance bolts. The bolts are tightened with the hydraulic tools supplied with the engine. The necessary hydraulic pressure is calculated from: phyd = Fbolt / (Apiston [N/mm] x C) The hydraulic tool has an effective piston area Apiston = 7130 mm C= Coefficient considering the setting of the bolt connection when the load is transferred from the hydraulic tool to the nut. For relatively short bolts, such as the engine holding down bolts, C = 0.85 should be used.

The design of the clearance and the fitted bolts is shown in drawings 1V69A0144 and 1V69A0145. The bolts are designed as tensile bolts, with a reduced diameter, 35, to ensure a sufficient elongation and thus avoid loosening. The bolts are dimensioned so that a sufficient elongation is achieved if using St 52-3 and tightening the bolts to 80% of the yield point. It is however recommended to use 34CrNiMo6V (or similar) which will result in a better elongation already when tightened to 60% of the yield point. In order to assure proper fastening and avoid bending stress in the bolts, the contact faces of the nuts shall be spotfaced. Oil pressure to be used for the hydraulic tool: 34CrNiMo6V Tightened to 60% of yield point bolt = 60% x 785 N/mm = 471 N/mm Fbolt = 471 N/mm x Phyd = St 52-3

352 = 453155 N 4

453155 N = 748 bar 7130 mm2 0.85

Tightened to 80% of the yield point

bolt = 80% x 335 N/mm = 268 N/mm Fbolt = 268 N/mm x Phyd =

352 = 257846 N 4

Side supports must be installed for all engines. On six, eight, twelve and sixteen cylinder engines, two supports on each side of the engine are used and on nine and eighteen cylinder engines three on each side. If resin chocks are used, an additional side support shall be fitted on each side closest to the flywheel. The side supports are to be welded to the seating top plate before aligning the engine and fitting the chocks. An acceptable bearing surface must be obtained on the wedges of the side supports.

257846 N = 425 bar 7130 mm2 x 0.85

Fitting on resin chocks


Installation of main engines on resin chocks is permitted provided that the requirements of the classification societies are fulfilled. The principal dimensions of the chocks are 400 x150 mm. During normal operating conditions, the supporting surface of the engine feet has a maximum temperature of about 75C, which should be considered when selecting type of resin. Due to the lower permissible surface pressure of the resin chocks, the tightening force of the mounting bolts is lower than with steel chocks. The bolts are made as tensile bolts, with a reduced diameter, to ensure sufficient elongation and thus avoid loosening. The design of the clearance and the fitted bolts is shown in drawings 1V69A0140 and 1V69A0146. The bolt diameter shall be 30. Assuming a permissible surface pressure of 3.5 N/mm the oil pressure to be used for the hydraulic tool is: 34CrNiMo6V phyd = 285 bar St 52-3 phyd = 285 bar In order to assure proper fastening and avoid bending stress in the bolts, the contact faces of the nuts shall be spotfaced.

Fitting on steel chocks


The seating top plate is usually inclined outwards with regard to the centre line of the engine. The inclination of the supporting surface should be 1:100. Otherwise, the seating top plate should be designed so that the wedgetype chocks can easily be fitted into their position. The size of the chocks should be 250 x 150 mm and they should have an inclination of 1:100. The chocks are preferably made of steel but also cast iron chocks are permitted. When fitting the chocks, the supporting surface of the seating top plate should be machined so that a good bearing surface on both sides of at least 70% is obtained. The cut out in the chock shall be 44 mm (M42 bolts) for all chocks, except those, which are to be reamed and equipped with fitted bolts.

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Main engine seating and fastening, L32, steel chocks (1V69A0144)

View B - B

View A - A

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Main engine seating and fastening, L32, resin chocks (1V69A0140)

View B - B

View A - A

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Main engine seating and fastening, V32, steel chocks (1V69A0145b)

View B - B

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Main engine seating and fastening, V32, resin chocks (1V69A0146b)

View B - B

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14. Seating

14.3. Flexible mounting of generating sets


Generating sets, consisting of engine and generator mounted on a common base plate, are usually installed on resilient mounts on the foundation in the ship. The resilient mounts reduce the structure borne noise transmitted to the ship and also serve to protect the generating set bearings from possible fretting caused by hull vibration. The number of mounts and their location is calculated to avoid resonance with excitations from the generating set engine, the main engine and the propeller. It is therefore important that the shipyard already at the design stage advises main engine speed, number of cylinders, propeller speed and number of propeller blades. The selected number of mounts and their position will be shown in the generating set dimensional drawing.

Normally, conical rubber mounts are used; in special cases also other types of mounts can be considered. The rubber element in the mounts is designed to withstand both compression and shear loads. In addition, the mounts have built-in buffers to limit the movements of the generating set due to the sea state. The mounts are made of natural rubber and care must be taken that the mounts will not come in contact with oil, oily water or fuel. The compression of all mounts must be equal when the generating set is installed and aligned on the ships foundation. The maximum permissible variation in compression is 2.0 mm when using conical mounts. Adjustments in height are made using steel chocks. If shims are used, the minimum thickness of a shim is 0.5 mm and only one shim per mount is permitted. The transmission of forces emitted by the engine is 10 20% when using conical mounts. For the foundation design, see drawing 3V46L0295 (in-line engines) and 3V46L0294 (V-engines).

Generating set seating, in-line engine (3V46L0295)

Generating set seating, V-engine (3V46L0294)

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14. Seating

14.4. Flexible pipe connections


When the generating set is installed on flexible mounts, all connections to the set must be flexible and no grating nor ladder may be fixed to it. Generator cables must be flexible and led in such a way that they allow the normal movements of the set. When installing the flexible pipe connections, all bending and stretching of the connections must be avoided.

The external pipe must be precisely aligned to the fitting or the flange of the engine. Observe that the pipe clamp for the pipe outside the flexible connection must be very rigid and welded to the steel structure of the foundation to prevent vibrations, which could damage the flexible connections. Most problems with bursting of the flexible connection originate from poor clamping. See drawing 4V60L0796 showing how pipes shall be clamped.

Examples of flexible pipe connections (4V60L0796)

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15. Dynamic characteristics

15. Dynamic characteristics


15.1. General
Dynamic forces and moments caused by the engine are shown in the table. Due to manufacturing tolerances, some variation in these values may occur.

15.2. External forces and couples


Torque variation at 100% load
Engine 6L32 8L32 9L32 Speed [RPM] 720 750 720 750 720 750 720 750 720 750 720 750 Frequency [Hz] 36 37.5 48 50 54 56.2 36 37.5 48 50 54 56.2 MX [kNm] 32 29 59 59 55 55 8.4 7.5 40 40 61 61 Frequency [Hz] 72 75 96 100 108 112.5 72 75 96 100 108 112.5 MX [kNm] 18 18 7.4 7.5 4.4 4.5 34 34 11 11 3.3 3.4 Frequency [Hz] 108 112.5 144 150 108 112.5 144 150 MX [kNm] 2.9 3.0 0.3 0.4 2.2 2.3 0.5 0.6

12V32 16V32 18V32

couples and forces = zero or insignificant

Torque variation at 0% load


Engine 6L32 8L32 9L32 12V32 16V32 18V32 Speed [RPM] 720 750 720 750 720 750 720 750 720 750 720 750 Frequency [Hz] 36 37.5 48 50 54 56.2 36 37.5 48 50 54 56.2 MX [kNm] 25 29 11 10 14 14 6.6 7.5 7.4 7.2 16 16 Frequency [Hz] 72 75 96 100 108 112.5 72 75 96 100 108 112.5 MX [kNm] 5.2 5.2 2.9 3.0 2.1 2.2 10 10 4.5 4.5 1.6 1.7 Frequency [Hz] 108 112.5 144 150 162 168.7 108 112.5 144 150 162 168.7 MX [kNm] 1.4 1.4 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.4 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.7 0.7

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15. Dynamic characteristics

15.3. Airborne noise


The airborne noise of the engines is measured as a sound power level according to ISO 9614-2. The results are presented with A-weighting in octave bands, reference level 1 pW. Two values are given, a minimum value and a 90%-value. The minimum value is the smallest sound power level found in the measurements. The 90% level is such that 90% of all measured values are below this figure.

Sound power level for engine noise


170 150 Lw [dB(A)], ref 1 pW 130
119 122 117

129 113 103 117 111

126

110 90 70 50
76 82 70 94

90% Min.
124 121

109 98

113

117

114

112

103

1/1 Octave band [Hz]

* Corresponding sound pressure level for 18V32 is 110 dB(A) when reverberation time in engine room is 1.5 second.

Sound power level for exhaust noise


170 150 Lw [dB(A)], ref 1 pW 130 110
107 115 109 141 124 112 112 101

147 135 127 130 129 127 121

A-weight*

Linear

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

8000

31.5

90% Min.

90
108

121 98

119

116

70 50

1/1 Octave band [Hz]

The values are based on measurements perpendicular to the free exhaust pipe outlet (no exhaust gas silencer installed in the piping).

A-weight*

Linear

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

31.5

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16. Power transmission

16. Power transmission


16.1. Connection to driven equipment
Power transmission from propulsion engines is accomplished through a flexible coupling. Alternatively, a combined flexible coupling and clutch mounted on the flywheel are used. The crankshaft is equipped with an additional shield bearing at the flywheel end. Therefore, also a rather heavy coupling can be mounted on the flywheel without intermediate bearings. Generating set engines with more than six cylinders must have a flexible coupling between the engine and the alternator. This means that the generator must be of 2-bearing type. With six cylinder engines a single bearing alternator with flange connection to the flywheel is preferred. On in-line engines full output is also available at the free end of the engine. On V-engines the output available must be verified according to the torsional vibration calculations. The power take off at the free end with the intermediate shaft is shown in 4V62L0583. A flexible coupling is usually required. To determine the vibration damper of the engine, the flywheel dimensions and the type of flexible couplings, exact data of all components included in the shaft system are required. This data is listed in chapter 16.2. The mass-moments of inertia of the propulsion engines (including flywheel) are typically as follows: Engine 6L32 8L32 9L32 12V32 16V32 18V32 J [kg m] 260 - 520 420 - 660 520 - 610 530 - 710 550 - 730 570 - 750

Connection engine-alternator (3V64L0058)

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16. Power transmission

Power take off at free end, in-line engines (4V62L0583)

Rating [kW/RPM] 4.69

D1 200

D2 200

D3 300

D4 260

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16. Power transmission

16.2. Data and drawings required for torsional vibration analysis


Data of reduction gear
A mass elastic diagram showing: all clutching possibilities sense of rotation of all shafts dimensions of all shafts mass moment of inertia of all rotating parts including shafts and flanges torsional stiffness of shafts between rotating masses material of shafts including tensile strength and modulus of rigidity gear ratios drawing number of the diagram

Data of shaft alternator


A mass-elastic diagram or an alternator shaft drawing showing: alternator output, speed and sense of rotation mass moment of inertia of all rotating parts or a total inertia value of the rotor, including the shaft torsional stiffness or dimensions of the shaft material of the shaft including tensile strength and modulus of rigidity drawing number of the diagram or drawing

Data of flexible coupling/clutch


If a certain make of flexible coupling has to be used, the following data of it must be informed: mass moment of inertia of all parts of the coupling number of flexible elements linear, progressive or degressive torsional stiffness per element dynamic magnification or relative damping nominal torque, permissible vibratory torque and persmissible power loss drawing of the coupling showing make, type and drawing number

Data of propeller and shafting


A mass-elastic diagram or propeller shaft drawing showing: mass moment of inertia of all rotating parts including the rotating part of the OD-box, SKF couplings and rotating parts of the bearings mass moment of inertia of the propeller at full/zero pitch in water torsional stiffness or dimensions of the shaft material of the shaft including tensile strength and modulus of rigidity drawing number of the diagram or drawing

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17. Lifting of engines and generating sets

17. Lifting of engines and generating sets


17.1. Lifting of engines
Lifting of engines (2V83D0253a)

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17. Lifting of engines and generating sets

17.2. Lifting of generating sets


Generating sets, L32 (3V83D0251a)

Generating sets, V32 (3V83D0252a)

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18. Engine room arrangement

18. Engine room arrangement


18.1. Arrangement of generating sets
Generating sets, L32 (2V69C0183a)

Engine ***A 6L 8L, 9L 1600 2000

Dimensions B 1660 2060 C 1950 2350 D 2500 2900

* ** ***

Piston and connecting rod can be freely transported over adjacent cylinder heads Piston and connecting rod can be freely transported over insulation box The breadth of the common baseplate can vary with the type of alternator

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18. Engine room arrangement

18.2. Arrangement of main engines


Main engines, L32 (2V69C0184)

* Piston and connecting rod can be freely transported over adjacent cylinder head covers ** Piston and connecting rod can be freely transported over insulation box

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18. Engine room arrangement

Main engines, V32 (2V69C0186)

* Piston and connecting rod can be freely transported over adjacent cylinder head covers ** Piston and connecting rod can be freely transported over insulation box

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19. Dimensions and weights of engine components

19. Dimensions and weights of engine components


Turbocharger and cooler inserts (2V92L1099)

1. Lubricating oil cooler insert

2. Charge air cooler insert

3. Turbocharger

Engine 1. 6L32 8L32 9L32 12V32 16V32 18V32 87 120 120 180 180 180

Item weight [kg] 2. 385 500 500 770 1000 1000 3. 690 870 870 2 x 690 2 x 870 2 x 870 A 730 1220 1220 1338 1338 1338 B 369.4 369.4 369.4 479.4 479.4 479.4

Dimensions C 963 963 963 1896 1896 1896 D 630 630 630 630 630 630 E 400 400 400 400 400 400

Engine Na-7 series F 6L32 8L32 9L32 12V32 16V32 18V32 1186 1445 1445 1186 1445 1445

Dimensions TPL F 1313 1574 1574 1313 1574 1574 G 880 1036 1036 880 1036 1036

G 863 1000 1000 863 1000 1000

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19. Dimensions and weights of engine components

Major spare parts (1V92L1098a)

Item 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Connecting rod Piston Cylinder liner Cylinder head Inlet valve Exhuast valve Injection pump

Weight (kg) 153.5 116 253 410 3 2.8 37

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Injection valve Starting valve Main bearing shell Split gear wheel Small intermediate gear Large intermediate gear Camshaft gear wheel Piston ring

12 1 8.5 127 31 156 103 1.2

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20. List of symbols

20. List of symbols


(4V92A0548)
Valve, general sign Non-return valve, general sign Electrically driven compressor Automatic actuating valve Spring-loaded overflow valve, straight, angle Remote-controlled valve Three-way valve, general sign Self-contained thermostat valve Solenoid valve Pump, general sign Electrically driven pump Compressor Turbocharger Filter or strainer Pressure switch, shut-down (backup) Automatic filter with by-pass filter Level switch Local and remote display Analogue pressure transmitter with indicator in engine panel Analogue temperature sensor with indicator in engine panel Air distributor Water, oil and condensate separator, general sign

Tank Flexible pipe, hose Insulated pipe Insulated and heated pipe Orifice Quick-coupling Temperature sensor Local and remote display Pressure transmitter Local and remote display

Heater Separator Flow meter Viscosimeter Reciver

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