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# CEEN 3144 Construction Materials

## Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Program Texas A&M University Kingsville

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Francisco Aguiga

Asphalt concrete

Hot-mix asphalt Asphalt cement + aggregates mixed at high temperature placed and compacted while still hot 93% of the US roads (2 M miles)

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## Objectives of asphalt concrete mix design

Provide

Stability avoid permanent deformation under traffic loads Fatigue resistance avoid fatigue cracking Resistance to thermal cracking Resistance to hardening Resistance to moisture damage Provide skid resistance Provide workability
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## Fundamentals of mix design

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Stable structure with considerable internal friction High resistance to deformation under load Less stable structure with less internal friction Less resistance to deformation under load
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## Fundamentals of mix design

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Aggregate skeleton with asphalt binder Some air Aggregate internal friction available + asphalt binding Too little air brittle pavement No air rutting, bleeding Too much asphalt Aggregate floats on asphalt Easily deforms under load since there is no internal Page 5 friction

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## Asphalt concrete mix design

1. Select the grading max aggregate size 2. Select the aggregate to use 3. Select the proportion of each aggregate to use 4. Find specific gravity of aggregate combination and asphalt cement 5. Make trial specimens 6. Find specific gravity of each specimen 7. Conduct stability tests 8. Compute percentage of voids, VMA, and percent voids filled with asphalt 9. Select optimum asphalt content
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## 2. Select the aggregate to use

Aggregates almost always selected by the contractor Select most economical materials Have as few aggregate piles as possible (usually 2 to 5) \$ transportation > \$ aggregate Uncrushed river gravel can be inexpensive, but yield a poor performance Select crushed stone whenever possible

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3. Proportioning of aggregates

## aA + bB = T When b is zero A = T/a

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4. Specific gravities

## Usually provided by manufacturer Obtained in the laboratory Average specific gravity

ga = W1

100 W W + 2 + 3 g1 g2 g3

ga = Specific gravity of combined aggregate W1, W2, W3 = Respective percents by weight of aggregate 1, 2, and 3 g1, g2, g3 = respective specific gravities of aggregate 1, 2, and 3
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4. Specific gravities

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4. Specific gravities

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4. Specific gravities

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4. Specific gravities

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4. Specific gravities

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4. Specific gravities

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4. Specific gravities

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## 5. Preparation of compacted specimens Marshall Method

Objective

Optimize the asphalt content to obtain the highest stability value (load) and highest density Try asphalt contents in increments of 0.5 % Optimize the asphalt content to obtain the highest stability value (load) and highest density Heat aggregates (350 to 375 F) Heat asphalt (250 to 280 F) stir constantly Discard hot asphalt sitting longer than 1 hour Weight size fractions and add aggregate, mix Temperature of mix should not be less than 225 F before compaction No reheating of mix
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Preparation of mix

## 5. Preparation of compacted specimens

Compaction of specimens

Clean and heat compaction mold and hammer to 200 to 300 F in a bath of boiling water Place mold on base and insert paper filter, place 1200 g of hot batch mix and spade the mixture 15 times on perimeter and 10 times in the middle Remove collar and smooth surface Replace collar and apply 50 blows Reverse specimen and apply another 50 blows Release specimen from mold and allow to cool at room temperature over night
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## Marshall flow test

Weigh and measure specimens Heat specimen to 140 F in a water bath for 30 to 40 min Clean and lubricate guide rods Remove specimen from bath and place in lower segment of head, place top segment of head Place and zero flow meter Load specimen at 50.8 mm (2 in.) per minute until the load decreases (max reached) Record the flow in twenty-five hundredths of a millimeter (hundredths of an inch) Total elapsed time not to exceed 30 sec

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