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1 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION MEIOSIS: the Necessity for Chromosome Reduction Stages of Meiosis: Prophase I: initially resembles the beginning

of mitosis. DNA sdh mengalami duplikasi sebelum dimulainya pembelahan. dst. Metaphase I: terjadi pasangan kromosom yg diatur sekitar tengah bidang spindle dan melekat pd benang spindel dg perantaraan sentromer2nya. dst. Anaphase I: the chromosomes in each homologous pair separate andmove to opposite ends of the cell. The exact orientation of the centromeres on each side of an imaginary plane makes this prcise separation of homologoes possible. Each centromere remains undivided, and it ppears to pull an entire chromosome (two chromatids) with it to one pole of the spindle. Telophase I : begins when the chromosomes reach opposite ends of the spindle. Often the spindle disappears, chromosomes uncoil, and nuclear membrane forms around each set. Prophase II: In each of the daughter cells or nuclei formed by the first division, a spindle forms during prophase II, and the two-stranded chromosomes move toward the middle of the spindle. The chromosomes do not pair up as they did in the firs prophase because now there is only 0ne of each kind of chromosom. Metaphase II: the chromosomes line up on the middle of the spindle, attached by their centromeres to spindle fibers. Each chromosome clearly consist of two chromatids at this time. Anaphase II: the centromeres of each cromosome duplictes, pulls apart, each replica carrying a chromatid (sekarang berupa kromosom terpisah) with it toward one pole of the spindle. Telophase II. Mulai setelah kromosom mencapai ujung2 spindle (gelendong). Di sini tiap kelompok kromosom terorganisasi menjadi satu dr keempat sel anakan haploid sbg hasil akhir meiosis. .. HOW MEIOSIS DIFFERS FROM MITOSIS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. MEIOSIS Occurs in specialized reproductive tissue only Chromosomes pair in early prophase I Chromosomes exchange parts of chromatids while paired Centromeres lie on either side of metaphase plate in division I Centromers do not divide during anaphase I Haploid daughter cells formed at end of first division A second division produces a total of four haploid daughter cells to conclude meiosis MITOSIS 1. Occurs in all growing tissues 2. Chromosomes do not pair in prophase 3. Chromosomes do not exchange parts 4. Centromeres lie on the metaphase plate 5. Centromeres divide at anaphase 6. Diploid daughter cells, formed at the end of division, conclude mitosis. 7. -

2 1. Sexual reproduction is the biological process that produce new individuals from preexisting ones by the uniting of two specialized cells or nuclei known as gametes. The product of this union is called a zygote. 2. Since sexual reproduction results from the fusion of sex cells, a special type of division called meiosis is necessary to prevent the nuclear material from daubling in amount in the next generation 3. The daughter cells produced in meiosis vary in genetic makeup because of the crossing-over process in prophase I and the random orientation of chromosome pairs on the spindle in metaphase I. Differensiasi sel2 seksual 4. The haploid daughter cells produced by meiosis must undergo additional cellular changes before they can function as eggs or sperm. .. Bersatunya gamet2 5. In nature, a variety of mechanisms are found that insure that the gametes meet. These include large numbers of gametes released, internal fertilization, and coordinated male-female breeding seasons. .. Pembuahan 6. In fertilization, the sperm head penetrates the layers surrounding the egg and then fuses with the egg nucleus. This union of hereditary material from two parents provides new genetic combinations and, therefore, additional variability in the offspring. . Keuntungan dan kerugian reproduksi seksual 7. The major biological advantage of sexual reproduction is the variability that it introduces into the offspring of a population. This variability is of primary evolutionary importance, since it provides a species with a means of adapting over long periods of time to new environmental changes. 8. There are two disadvantages of sexual reproduction: (1) two kinds of gametes are required and (2) the gametes must be brought together in some manner. . Strategi reproduksi Protista Kingdom Animalia Reproduksi Mammalia 9. In most animal life cycles, the gametes are haploid portion. 10.Adaptations for successful reproduction in the large variety of environments inhabited by animals include: the number of gametes produced; the amount of yolk in the eggs; the presence or absence of larvae, of parthenogenesis, and of a placenta. Kingdom Plantae Lumut Tumbuhan berbunga 11. The reproductive cycle of plants differs from that of animals by having a sporophyte generation in which meiosis produces spores rather than gametes. Lower plants may have nearly equal sporophyte and gametophyte generations; more advanced members such as flowering plants have a dominant sporophyte generation. 12. In mosses, water must be present so that the sperm may swim to the egg. Flowering plants have a male gametophyte, the pollen, that is resistant to drying. 13. Fruits represent a method for dispersal of the seeds.