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Introduction 1.0 Commitment of Malaysian companies in CSR 2.0 Compare and contrast

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3.0 The merits of Corporate Social Responsibility in Malaysia


4.0 Limitation CSR in Malaysia Conclusion

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Introduction Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an obligation, beyond the requirements of law and economics firmly adhere to a long, long-term goal for the community. To be continuing commitment by business ethical standards of conduct, while improving the quality of the workforce and their family life and the local community and society as a whole contribute to economic development. It describes how a company manages its business processes, resulting in an overall positive impact on society.

Corporate social responsibility also means to ethical manner and in the wider interests of the business community, to actively respond to emerging social priorities and expectations. In addition, it is a regulatory action against the wishes in advance. This is the balance of interests of the public with interests of the shareholders, the good citizens in the community.

Corporate social responsibility is important, because the business is based on trust and vision. To establish and maintain relationships with customers, community and trust in regulatory bodies, is not simple and can be easily damaged or lost. In long-term success, companies need to think beyond today to what affects them what will happen tomorrow. This is not only to solve technical or changes in customer demand, but in the social, environmental and governance issues, but also consider the conversion to. (Jennifer H., 2010)


1.0 Commitment of Malaysian companies in CSR DIGI Corporate Responsibility (CR) is to use the concept of core competencies and strengths, and social and business environment in positive changes. To this end, DIGI priorities which are consistent with the Telenor Group CR strategy, taking into account of the interest of key stakeholders and natural environment, as follows:

Responsible and Safe Business Practices DIGI endeavour to be a responsible company that promotes safe business practices

through its initiatives. DIGI empower its employees to act responsibly and ethically with all the key stakeholders, through the comprehensive governance structure. (Digi.Com Berhad, 2010)

Empowerment Through Connectivity DIGI also are pushing the boundaries by going beyond traditional philanthropy, to

create shared value in our engagements with the community. DIGI use its core competency as a communications and internet service provider to address social, economic and environmental needs in the community. Nevertheless, DIGI continue to support philanthropy in situations that require the contribution. (Digi.Com Berhad, 2010)


Strong Corporate Responsibility in 2010

2010 DIGI began with a strong Corporate Responsibility agenda to empower underserved communities in Malaysia through the launch of our first Community Broadband Centre (CBC) in Lundu, Sarawak. (Digi.Com Berhad, 2010)

Their Deep Green Challenge for Change competition encouraged young Malaysians to pioneer alternative energy solutions. The finale of the competition was attended by the Crown Prince and Princess of Norway. (Digi.Com Berhad, 2010)

In the same quarter, DIGI enriched their mobile internet proposition by introducing the best value iPhone 3GS packages in the market and announced a RM100 million investment to expand the Turbo 3G network in Perak and Sarawak over the next three years. (Digi.Com Berhad, 2010)


How did DIGI corporate social responsibility committed to the society?

An example shows how Digi committed their corporate social responsibility to the society.

Digi's Amazing Malaysians who are participating in the program have become an inspiring, life-changing journey. The program has a simple goal which is to determine the individual is doing great heritage work and engage in youth or children's programs, to support Malaysia's heritage preservation. (Harben A., 2011)

The program was established in faith, maintain the tradition, which is needed to retain capable people appreciate it or practice. Five broad areas of heritage were identified which to focus onto the namely natural, cultural, art, built and social heritage. The five representatives of each of these areas of important work done by the unsung heroes received a number of well-deserved recognition of their commitment to their craft.

In each project, an Amazing Malaysian works with 50-100 children or youth for three months. The projects were designed among the younger generation to be creating a lasting love for heritage and to contribute in a concrete, long-term way to its preservation. In addition, Digi's staff also played a different department to take a different project of Digi which involving about 20 to 30 volunteers to perform an important role. Project divided into three phases: - (Digi, 2011)

1. Discovery launch: children from different schools were introduced to Amazing Malaysia and the projects they are about to begin. This is an opportunity for them to mix, to understand each other. (Digi, 2011)

2. Implementation: At this stage, the participants under the guidance of Amazing Malaysia for their design solutions. At this stage the focus is the acquisition of new


3. Showcase: Highly participants in the final stages of the result of work in a special event, the climax of months of preparation, to their families, communities and other dignitaries. (Digi, 2011)

Digi's CSR program, in its three years, working with 15 Amazing Malaysians and hundreds of school children and facilitators was leaving a lasting impression on so many. The program has been received a lot of news reports, and captured the public imagination. It helps in a real and meaningful way to enhance knowledge, skills and technology, to connect Malaysia's past its present and future. (Harben A., 2011)

In conclude, Digi had created a sustained business growth through corporate social responsibility. Moreover, to continue attracting and retaining the best talents, Digi created a better alignment between human resource processes and DIGIs business goals, with stronger focus on development, incentives and performance.


2.0 Compare and contrast DIGI As a large Malaysia company, DIGI believes that a company, which is both the promoter and beneficiary of society, should not only make a contribution to economic development, but also assume corresponding social responsibilities. DIGI believe that their corporate brand should reflect a socially responsible business. Therefore, they offer a variety of choices to consumers with the aim of creating excellent customer experiences of the DiGi brand. Environmental protection is part of the key subjects that DIGI covers under its public welfare undertaking. The company not only provides high-quality eco-friendly products but also advocates environmental protection to the public through large-scale social activities.

Love To Save (June 2009) Money isn't the only thing we can save. In conjunction with the launch of DiGi's best value DG30 Postpaid Plan, DiGi enables their customers, or anyone else living in Malaysia, to go to www.lovetosave.com.my, choose their favorite charity, and "click" to support.

DiGi will donate RM5 per click the charity of their choice - in a mission to raise RM150,000 in 30 days. The campaign was held from 1 June - 30 June, 2009. The mission of this initiative is to raise RM150,000 in 30 days through online click-support (not actual monetary donations from the public). The public can choose who they want DiGi to support, by choosing from a list of predetermined charities.

DiGi Personal Accident Insurance (2008)

DiGi came up with another innovative offering after discovering that there were only a low percentage of insured Malaysians today. DiGi took the opportunity to draw relevant synergies

MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY with a reputable partner to make insurance coverage easy and accessible to their customers who normally would not get insured via traditional channels. The one-year personal accident (PA) insurance was made eligible to all DiGi subscribers for a free RM10,000 PA coverage, which is underwritten by AIG General Insurance (M) Bhd. DiGi subscribers with over three months tenure are entitled to the coverage and the service was made available via SMS activation. Later in the year, DiGi introduced a higher insurance coverage affordable to even more Malaysians with the introduction of two additional plans on top of the free RM10,000 Personal Accident (PA) insurance. For just RM2, a customer will be covered for accidental death or permanent disablement at RM50,000 valid for 30 days. Customers can also opt for a higher coverage of RM100,000 at RM6 for 30 days. For added convenience, the insurance policy will be renewed automatically at the end of the coverage period with a reminder sent 3 days before the renewal date.

This new offer gives customers the option to increase their PA coverage to give them better protection in line with DiGis ambition to bring relevant services to customers via easy mobile access to make life easier. With a modular plan, DiGi empower our customers to decide on the appropriate level of coverage for themselves and their loved ones.

Taking Entrepreneurs to "The Next Level"

DiGi partnered NTV7 on a reality television programme to encourage Malaysians to use ICT tools to develop their ideas into viable businesses. Called DiGi - The Next Level, the 10episode programme awarded the winner with a cash prize of RM50, 000 and 12 months' of enterprise support from DiGi worth over RM100, 000. Suren Haris Anwar's winning idea is a website dedicated to promoting running.

Contestants faced weekly challenges to test their skills in areas such as branding, public relations, and marketing and presentation skills. The audience also played a part in determining the winner by voting their favourite via sms. The programme proved that with the right tools and partners, anyone can take their idea to the next level.

MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY Here are some past activities that they have been involved in since 2002. 2002-2004 DiGi Yellow Mobile revolves around arts and culture, professionals and children, corporate life and the community, with the clear aim of creating a learning experience for underprivileged and disabled children in the country. 2005-2007 DiGi's Amazing Malaysians is founded on the belief that to preserve tradition, it is necessary to preserve the ability of people to practice it. The programme focuses on five broad areas of heritage, namely natural, cultural, art, built and social heritage. 2007-2008 DBA is a one-day workshop that is held once every 2 months with the aim of giving postgraduate students from various universities in Malaysia insights into fresh, new ways of working and doing business from a DiGi perspective. 2008 SPARK! targets pre-university students through an experiential learning programme with activities to spark creativity, challenge them to be different and to be open to new ideas, choices 2009-2011 R.A.P is a DiGi initiative that encourages proper English usage amongst primary school children. R.A.P. is targeted at encouraging students in Standard 4, 5, and 6 to read and express themselves in English through stage plays. Compare DIGI and Cable & Wireless Compare with international communications companies. More and more companies from home and abroad set a high value on corporate social responsibility (CSR). Cable & Wireless Communications is such a company and contributes generously to society.

MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY Cable & Wireless Communications Cable & Wireless is one of the worlds leading international communications companies. The history to a number of British telegraphs companies founded by Sir John Pender in the 1860s. Since then, they have provided telecommunications services, networks and equipment to businesses, governments and residential customers around the world. Their corporate social responsibility principles are to: Contribute positively to the social and economic development of the communities where they operate; Seek continuous improvement in their environmental performance; Respect cultures, values and human rights throughout their operations; and Nurture best practice in their activities. These principles set the overarching framework, with their activities generally taking place at a local level in the 39 markets where we operate. In many of these markets, they are one of the largest companies and they often provide critical national infrastructure.

Communities They support their local communities through an array of different activities primarily focused on education, sport, health and culture. In the past 12 months they have given US$2.6 million to community initiatives. They also provide substantial in kind support and positively encourage their colleagues to work with their chosen charities.

For example Education They fund the purchase of computers for schools, charities and other organisations in Jamaica alone they donated 616 computers in 2007/08. They also provide training, including running an internet summer school for deprived children in the Turks and Caicos Islands and training for teachers in Anguilla. In the Channel Islands and Isle of Man they provide the high capacity network to support the Grid for Learning which provides a host of education resources


MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY In Panama, working with the Ministry of Education, they have constructed three schools, installed 29 computer laboratories in schools and equipped 150 rural schools with satellite internet access.

Sport Sport is a positive means for teaching team work, discipline and wellbeing. They focus on youth and sports played at local level including athletics, cricket and football. From free soccer schools for deprived children on St. Kitts to softball tournaments in Antigua, they are at the heart of community sports, providing sponsorship and support in kind.

In Panama, they have introduced a nationwide youth basketball tournament and built or refurbished 25 basketball courts. In 2008 well double the size of this tournament by building another 25 facilities.

In Macau, in July 2007 they were appointed by the Olympic Council of Asia and the Macau 2007 2nd Asian Indoor Games organisers as the official telecom partner of the Macau 2nd Asian Indoor Games.

Health They support a range of local and global health initiatives. In the Caribbean they provide funding for research into diabetes and AIDS, including support of the HIV business council. In the Cayman Islands they support an annual walk for breast cancer research. In the Isle of Man they donated 10 for every mobile contract signed during October 2007 to Breakthrough Breast Cancer.

Environment Their environmental initiatives are focused on energy conservation, recycling, waste management, water usage and reducing our greenhouse gas emissions

Across the business, their annual greenhouse gas emissions are estimated at 160,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide (scope 1 and 2). While their main electricity sources are fossil fuels and hydroelectricity, they have initiated local campaigns to find alternative energy sources. In the Maldives, for example, they have introduced solar powered mobile base stations.


MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY In the Cayman Islands and Grenada they continue their growing participation in Earth Day activities, while in the Turks and Caicos Islands they sponsor Ozone Day and will host TeleGathering XIII a community event around environmental issues. We are committed to protecting the environment. Your Company minimizes the impact of its operations to the environment by setting highly challenging improvement targets to progressively reduce emissions and discharges. These efforts all fall in line with Malaysian legislations, DIGI Strategic Objectives and other related international conventions and protocols.

Customers They are focused on giving their customers a superior service experience and providing the products and services they need. For example, in Panama they developed a pioneering telemedicine service which enables local medical centers to carry out diagnosis under the supervision of specialist medics located elsewhere, using internet protocol technology. This allows patients to receive specialist advice, even if they are in remote locations. Protecting employees health We are committed to protecting the health of the people at our workplace. The year 2007 was a challenging one for your Company in relation to the increase number of sickness absenteeism compared to the previous year. Contributing to the higher sickness absenteeism numbers were incidences of long-term ailments such as heart problems, stiffness of shoulder and knee problems due to aging factors. Most of these cases involved the more senior workers who took longer time to recover and return back to the system. On the upside, our panel of doctors and third parties continue to carry out health promotions to increase the awareness of the employees and contractors. These efforts aim to ensure that employees and contractors are more proactive in looking after their own health and are not burdened by unnecessary ailments in the years to come. On a smaller scale, medical counseling is being carried out by Occupational Health Doctors with the aim of helping employees who have been exhibiting a pattern of sickness absenteeism due to short-term sickness. It is also an opportunity for these employees to voice out any occupational or non-occupational health problem to the doctors and at the same time maintains the medical confidentiality of the workers. DIGI also continues to promote occupational illness (OI) reporting among staff and contractors, and in particular among supervisors, to ensure that all occupational illness are

MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY tracked and reported. This is being carried out in a proactive manner by engaging staff and contractors alike in dialogue sessions. The efforts to track potential occupational illness began in 2007 and to date four employees have been diagnosed as having potential OI. An incidence of Contact Dermatitis was also recorded but upon further investigation by the Downstream Medical Advisor it was diagnosed as being non work related.

Security There were no untoward cases of loss of assets resulting from theft for the year. Improved security systems and adequate controls that have matured with time have led to a decline of such incidences in the past five years. We will continue to maintain a high security presence throughout our facilities including conducting spot checks on people leaving the site. COMPARISONS BETWEEN DIGI AND Cable & Wireless Communications

DIGI AND Cable & Wireless are two companies that are on the same industry provide more or like service which are telecommunication, internet services etc. In so many ways there

are same in their way of doing things especially their Corporate Social Responsibilities as well as the sustainability strategies. DIGI AND Cable & Wireless are two companies that are on the same industry provide more or like service which are telecommunication, internet services etc. There are brochures

given to customers to make them aware of the offers and any changes and benefits from different product they offer. On the processing of building customer relationship, they both help the customers to fill their tanks and wash their cars wind mirror. Both DIGI and Cable wireless do the community work to publicize their image to the community and the society as a whole. Both of them help the poor, provide education and training opportunities, job opportunities, public medical care and involve themselves in different sport sponsorship. (http://www.digi.com.my/aboutdigi sited on November 15 2012) Both of the two companies are conscious on the environmental conservation and they are trying to do all the way possible to reduce the impacts cause by the environmental pollution by reducing the amount of greenhouse gas, environmental campaigns, education to the society on the importance to conserve their environment. They are both have programs designed to support the well-being of the community surround them.

MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY Also both of them are multi international companies facing similar challenges in the marketing situations. They both face the legal constraints, political, economic and technological constraints. They all are working and promoting best practices with regulatory bodies. Moreover they are both have less accidents on their operation due to high safety measures taken and good working condition to the employees; they have different programs to motivate their employees and staffs. (http://www.digi.com.my/aboutdigi/cr/ cited on 15/11/2011) Not only that they are sharing same Corporate Social Responsibility Activities but also they are sharing same goal to achieve sustainability development through increase shareholder value, natural resources use, service stewardship, meet social needs, biodiversity, health, safety and environmental issues. They both have mission and vision statement that aim at the same goals, to make profit but most important to add value to the people. Lastly they have both manage to meet the international standards. (ttp://www.norway.org.my cited on 15/11/2012)


MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY 3.0 The merits of Corporate Social Responsibility in Malaysia The Corporate Social Responsibility is essentially the practice of measurement, disclosure and explanation of corporate performance towards ensuring sustainable development. In recent years, Malaysia has demonstrated an increasing awareness of corporate social responsibility as the international trends. Malaysian government's increasing focus on CSR has resulted in the development of new frameworks for implementation of CSR initiatives for the country's businesses. The Effort on Environment There is an organization WWF-Malaysia has been established, which is a national conservation trust that currently runs more than 75 projects covering a diverse range of environmental protection and nature conservation work in Malaysia. The early work focused on scientific research of wildlife and important natural habitats. The later expanded to the management of protected areas. Today, their work covers the broader issues of the natural environment, incorporating such aspects as policy work, environmental education, public awareness and campaigns. Besides that, in a recent effort to set-off carbon emissions, a tree-planting activity was held at Rimba Bursa Malaysia. Over 300 trees were planted and adopted by staff and family members. In addition, to create further understanding on the importance of conserving and protecting the environment, awareness programmes were initiated which included screenings of related documentaries, sharing of educational articles and nature activities with children. Bursa Malaysias dual certification of ISO9001:2000 and ISO14001:2004 which were achieved in 2007, further showcased the commitment to providing stakeholders an assurance of quality in fulfilling their requirements whilst optimizing environmental performance. The Effort on Market The market-oriented corporate social responsible activities have been given increasing awareness among companies in Malaysia as consumers have become more aware of how business activities affect society and the environmental consciousness. This applies particularly to companies that are active in European markets, as European consumers have expressed their willingness to punish, ignore the social and environmental factors in the company. Among the listed companies, it is especially those operating in the so-called "high

MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY risk" sectors that are active in the market-oriented CSR activities. This includes companies working on the extraction of natural resources and those with a special need to justify their own business; companies involved in tobacco, alcohol, gambling, etc. The Effort on Corporate Governance For centuries, Malaysias multicultural society has been united by companies social responsible behavior and the consideration shown by the members of the society for one another. In 2000, Malaysian companies introduced the idea of a Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance. The code establishes the principles of good governance and describes the kinds of structures and processes that companies should strive to achieve. The listed companies are required to submit reports detailing their compliance with the code, allowing shareholders and the general public to judge for themselves the behavior of these companies (Bursa Malaysia). The Stock Exchange therefore drives CSR to be one of the most powerful forces in Malaysia. According to the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA), 28 companies announced the Sustainable Development Report in 2009. For the past ten years, awards for good practices in the area of CSR have been given out in an effort to raise awareness of social responsibilities. Prime Ministers CSR Award. ACCA Malaysia Sustainability Reporting Awards (ACCA MaSRA) Ansted Social Responsibility International Award (ASRIA) StarBiz-ICR Malaysia CR Awards For example, the Malaysian mobile operator DiGi won the Prime Minister's CSR Award for best overall Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program in Malaysia. The honor was bestowed upon DiGi only two months after Telenor was ranked number one on the prestigious Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes. DiGi Communications (Telenor) integrates CSR into its business through the focus areas empowering communities through connectivity; climate change; and responsible and safe business practices. DiGi Company has set a target to reduce the "carbon footprint" by 50% by 2012. The company launched the "Deep Green Challenge", the University team project are competing to design, use of renewable energy in rural areas with limited energy

MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY supply of the best solution in Malaysia. The company has also implemented several measures to empower local communities to use mobile communications, including broadband in rural areas to establish community centers and SMS donations to carry out charity drive.

4.0 LIMITATIONS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN MALAYSIA Nowadays company does not just looking for profit only. Companies have responsibility to the way their operation in the business, because it will affect to societies, and natural environment. Sustainability refers to an organizations activities, voluntary, that could influence to environmental concerns in business operations (van Marrewijk & Verre, 2003). The sustainability of business that could be from internal and external factors that could be long term planning to grows up the companies. However Corporate Social Responsibility to sustainability the companies still have limitation that will explain in this part. 4.1 No specific regulation of doing Corporate Social Responsibility Nowadays so many corporate social responsibilities in the business practice. There is no specific regulation which is the good way to implement in the company. Moreover CSR does not offer the clear framework to answer. For example there are many different employees in the companies with different interest. Such as part time employee does not receive pension, they much more interested to get extra hour payment. Younger employee they interested to get day off for birth of child than older workers. CSR doesnt have specific regulation can fit of any employee interest (Andrew, 2010) 4.2 Lack of green marketing knowledge and price of green marketing. Green marketing in corporate social responsibilities has many reactions from the customer. Customer might think the green product has limitation in certain part of function, so that companys sill needs doing on research to improve their green product. Furthermore many of green products fail in the market place because customer thinking about the limitation of it. Companies need to focus on Quality, many features, including performance, look, feel, fit, comfort, and durability and customer always think about that kind of thing. In doing green marketing practice companies need to consider about the price they have to invest in certain production factor. Even thought the marketing product become

MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY popular but the price still cannot afford all target market. This is the company need to consider about many factor production that need to improve such as water consumption, electricity, lighting, and major household appliances. Change the way production with green model and using raw materials that not hazardous for environment will affect to cost of production and cost of new equipment that company must have it. However price is another problem that companies should face in CSR practice. Increasing cost in factor production will affect to demand of people in Malaysia (iisd.org).

4.3 Companies Are Facing Multiple Standards and Regulations on supply chain.

Due to support corporate social responsibilities companies has the standard in their product in ethical way and doesnt against the rules include supply chain factor. However supply chain such as supplier also must have a certain standard that doesnt harm customer. International standards aimed at addressing social and environmental issues in global supply chains include WRAP, FLA, SA8000, CSC9000T, ICTI CARE, ISO 14000 and soon ISO 26000. However companies have limitation to make sure their supplier do the right CSR in their business run. The companies have lack communication to social data on suppliers and difficulties to track material composition in parts and to maintain compliance information on an ongoing basis (bsr.org).



Conclusion As a conclusion this assignment defines about commitment of Malaysian companies on corporate social responsibilities practice compared to CSR in global corporation. Moreover there is discussion on the merits and limitation doing CSR in Malaysia. However doing CSR in Malaysia becomes popular and increasingly important in the business practice. This is for long term planning that affect short term business. Furthermore CSR in Malaysia focus on making sustainable change in the communities and environment for more better.



Bursa Malaysia Environment,( online)(cited 19 November 2011). Available from http://www.klse.com.my/website/bm/about_us/the_organisation/csr/environment.html

Compare and contrast ,(online)(cited 10 November 2011). Available from http://www.digi.com.my/aboutdigi/cr/ Corporate Social Responsibility in Malaysia, (online)(cited 19 November 2011). Available from http://www.norway.org.my/News_and_events/Business/Bedriftenes-Samfunnsansvar/ DiGi wins CSR Award,( online)(cited 19 November 2011). Available from http://www.telenor.com/en/news-and-media/articles/2007/digi-wins-csr-award Digi.Com Berhad, 2010, 2010 Annual Report, Online, Date Accessed: 25th October 2011, Available From: http://www.digi.com.my/aboutdigi/cr/pdf/ar2010.pdf Digi, 2011, Digis Amazing Malaysians, Online, Date Accessed: 25th October 2011, Available From: http://www.digi.com.my/aboutdigi/cr/cm_about.do

Jennifer H., 2010, The Rising Importance of Corporate Social Responsibility, Online, Date Accessed: 23rd October 2011, Available From: http://www.research.utoronto.ca/behind_the_headlines/corporate-social-responsibility/ Harben A., 2011, Corporate Social Responsibility, Online, Date Accessed: 25th October 2011, Available From: http://www.capitalcomm.com.my/wordpress/?page_id=240 Marketing (online)(cited 5 November 2011). Available from http://www.iisd.org/business/markets/green_marketing.aspx

Perspectives on Information Management in Sustainable


MKT 408 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY Supply Chains,(online)(cited 2 November 2011). Available from http://www.bsr.org/reports/BSR_Info-Management-Supply-Chains.pdf The Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility By Andrew W. Markley ,(online)(cited 3 November 2011). Available from http://www.visionandvalues.org/docs/A.Markley__Limits_of_Corporate_Social_Responsibility.pdf The role of CSR in Malaysia,( online)(cited 19 November 2011). Available from http://www.csr-weltweit.de/en/laenderprofile/profil/malaysia/index.nc.html Corporate social responsibilities ,(online)(cited 2 November 2011). Available from http://www.digi.com.my/aboutdigi/cr/