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AIRFIELD COMPONENTS AND LIGHTINGS

OBJECTIVE Learning Outcome 11 Describe Airfield Components and Lightings.

Assessment Criteria 11

11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4

State the components and layout of airfield. Describe the layout of the permanent airfield lightings. Identify the layout of temporary airfield lightings. Describe the airfield obstruction markings and lightings.

REFERENCES a. Air Trafic Control (AP 3418).

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AIRFIELD COMPONENTS AND LIGHTINGS

INTRODUCTION The air field is designed to be in accordance with ICAO standards and recommendation. However, due to local terrain and nature of military operations, the layout of an airfield may differ. The deviations may be in terms of dimensions or clearance but terminologies used to describe the various areas of the airfield are the same. ATCAs are expected to have a basic knowledge and understanding of the aerodrome specifications though they are not responsible for applying the aerodrome criteria to the existing aerodrome or for checking their accuracy. This note will give general idea of an aerodrome layout. COMPONENTS OF AN AIRFIELD Runway. Runways are defined rectangular area on an airfield prepared for the landing and take-off an aircraft. Shoulders. These are areas immediately adjacent to the runway, taxiways. Operational Readiness Platforms or hard standings prepared for accidental or emergency use by aircraft. Stop ways. This is defined rectangular area at the end of the runway in the direction of take-off and prepaid as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an interrupted take-off. Cleared Zones. These are portion of an aerodrome adjacent to any of shoulder which, to permit the safe separation of aircraft, must have a reasonably even surface and free from all non-essential obstacles. Cleared Area. This area extends out words from the overrun area to the width of the fight strip. It may vary in length along the line at approach and should have a reasonably even surface and be free from obstacle. Flight Strip. This a rectangular portion of the aerodrome surface comprising the runway, runway shoulders, fight strip cleared zone and stop ways if one is provided (see Fig.1)

CLEARED AREA

CLEARED ZONE

Overrun Area and Stop way

Shoulder Runway Shoulder Cleared Zone Fig.1 Flight Strip

Taxiway. A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxiing of aircraft and intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and another.

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Aircraft Servicing Platform (ASP). These are paved areas provided around the perimeter of an airfield for the dispersal of aircraft. Dispersed Hard standings. These are paved areas provided around the perimeter of an airfield for the dispersal of aircraft. Operational Readiness Platform (ORP). Specially prepared areas on which aircraft may be assembled, either for rapid scrambling: or for final preparation. They are normally positioned at each end of the runway immediately adjacent to one side. Maneuvering Areas. This is that part of an aerodrome to be used for take-off and landing of aircraft and for the movement of aircraft associated with take-off and landing, excluding the apron. Aerodrome Reference Points (ARP). Designated geographical location of an aerodrome, normally taken as a geometrical center of the runways or runway in a case of a single runway aerodrome. Helicopter Pads. Normally helicopters are parked on and operated from the parking apron. In certain circumstances, however, specially prepared helicopter pads (helipads) will be provided.
CLEARED AREA RUNWAY TRESHOLD OVERRUN AREA

ORP

SHOULDER HOLDING POINT TAXIWAY CLEARED ZONE

ASP/ APRON

PERMANENT AIRFIELD LIGHTINGS Types of Airfield Lightings. The types of airfield lighting used are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. Runway edge lights. Runway end lights. Runways threshold lights. Wing bar lights. Stop bar lights.
Threshold Light & Runway End Light (Green & Red)

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Runway Edge Light (White)

Stop Bar Light (Green)

Wing Bar Light (Green)

Taxiway Edge Light (Blue/Purple)

Fig. 1 Lay of an Airfield An example of a permanent airfield layout Runway Edge Lights a. The runway edge lights shall be placed along the full length of the runway and shall be in two parallel rows equidistant from the center line. b. Runway edge lights shall be placed along the edge of the area declared for use as the runway or outside the edges of the area at distance of not more than 3 m. c. The runway edge lights shall be fixed lights showing white and shall be uniformly spaced in rows at intervals of not more than 60 m for an instrument runway and at intervals of not more than 100 m for a non-instrument runway. Runway End Lights. Runway end lights shall be provided for a runway equipped with runway edge lights. When the threshold is at the runway extremity, fitting serving as threshold lights is may be used as runway end lights. The location of runway end lights shall be placed on a line at right angles to the runway axis as near to the end of the runway as possible and, in any case, not more than 3 m outside the end. Runway end lights should consist of at least six (6) lights. The light should either: a. Equally spaced between the rows of runway edge lights.

b. Symmetrically disposed about the runway center line in two groups with the lights uniformly spaced in each group and with a gap between the groups of not more than half the distance between the rows of runway edge lights. Runway end light shall be fixed uni-directional lights showing red in the direction of the runway. Runway Threshold Lights. Runway threshold lights shall be provided for a runway equipped with runway edge lights except on a non-instrument of instrument approach runway where the threshold is displaced and wing bar lights provided. When a threshold is at the extremity of a runway, the threshold lights shall be placed in a row at right angles to the runway as possible and, in any case, not more than 3 m outside the extremity (see Fig 2 & 3). Uni-directional

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Fig.2

Fig.3

When a threshold is placed from the extremity of a runway, threshold lights shall be placed in a row right angles so the runway axis at the displaced threshold. Threshold lights shall consist of a t least six (6) lights on a non-instrument or instrument approach runway. Runway threshold lights shall be fixed unidirectional lights showing green in the direction of a approach to the runway. Wing Bar Lights. The wing bar lights should be provided on a precision approach runway where additional conspicuity is considered desirable. Wing bar lights shall be provided on a non-instrument of an instrument approach runway where the threshold is displaced and runway threshold lights are required, but are not provided.The location of wing bar lights shall be symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line at the threshold in two groups, i.e. wing bars. Each wing bar lights will be formed by at least five (5) lights extending at least 10 m outward from; and at right angles to the line of the runway edge lights with the innermost light of each wing bar in the line of the runway edge lights. Taxiway Edge Lights. Taxiway edge lights shall be provided on a holding bay, apron, etc, intended for use at night and on a taxiway not provided with taxiway center line lights and intended for use at night. Taxiway edge lights on a straight section of a taxiway should be spaced at uniform longitudinal intervals of not more than 60 m. The lights on a curve are spaced at intervals less than 60 m so that a clear indication of the curve provided. The lights should be located as near as practicable to the edges of the taxiways, holding bay or apron etc, or outside the edges at distance of not than 3 m, taxiway edge lights shall be fixed lights showing blue. Stop Bar Lights. One or more stop bars, as appropriate, should be provided at a taxiway, intersection or taxi-holding position when it is desired to supplement or replace markings with lights and to provide traffic control by visual means. The location of stop bars shall be located across the taxiway in the direction of approach to the intersection or taxi holding position spaced at intervals of 3 across the taxiway. LAYOUT OF TEMPORATRY AIRFIELD LIGHTING Introduction. The airfield without permanent airfield lighting employs a combination of goosenecks and PERL lights. This noted/lesson lays down the guidelines to be adopted when positioning PERL/goosenecks for temporary airfield lighting.

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Night flying operations are not to be curtailed because of the inability of a unit to comply with all guidelines laid down. Basic Requirement. The basic requirement for lighting using the PERL/gooseneck arrangement has been assessed ad follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Runway edge lights. Threshold lights. Runway end lights. Taxiway edge lights. Holding point lights. Dispersal lights. Temporary obstruction lights. ORP edge lights.

Runway Edge Lights. Runway edge lights shall be placed along the full length of the area declared for use as the runway. The following guidelines apply: a. They shall be in two parallel rows, one on either side of the runway and shall be equidistant from the centerline. b. They are to be placed at the edge of the runway or outside the edge at a distance of not more than 10 feet. c. feet. The lights shall be uniformly spaced in rows, at intervals of not more than 200

d. The lights on opposite sides of the runway axis shall be on lines at right angle to that axis e. Goosenecks are to be used.

f. In the case of a displaced threshold, the lights between the beginning of the runway and the displaced threshold shall be red PERL. Spacing and arrangement of these lights shall be similar to the primary runway edge lights. Runway Threshold Lights. Threshold lights are to be provided according to the following guidelines: a. When the threshold is at the extremity of a runway, the threshold lights shall be placed as follows: (1) In a row at right angles to the runway axis as far to the runway extremity as possible, and in air case, not more than 10 feet outside the extremity. (2) (3) Not less than 10 lights to be used. Spacing to be as follows: (a) Equal space between the rows of runway edge lights. OR

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(b) Symmetrically disposed about the runway center line in two groups with the lights uniformly spaced in each group and with a gap between the groups of not more than half the distance between the rows of runway edge lights. b. When a threshold is displaced from the extremity of a runway, wing bar lights are to be provided as follows: (a) Symmetrically disposed about the runway center line at the threshold in two groups i.e. wing bars. (b) Each wing bar is too placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis at the displaced threshold. (c) Each wing bar shall be formed by a least five lights.

(d) Each wing bar shall be positioned at rights angles to the line of the runway edge lights. (e) Each wing bar shall be extending at least 35 feet outward from the line of the runway edge lights. (f) The innermost light of each wing bar is to be in the line of the runway edge lights. b. Green PERL lights are to be used for all threshold lights.

Runway End Lights. Runway end lights are to be placed at the extremity of the runway accordance with the following: a. b. Red PERL lights to be used. Placed on a line at right angles to the runway axis.

c. As near to the end of the runway as possible and, in any case, not than 10 feel outside the end. d. At least six (6) lights to be used.

e.

The lights should be spaced as follows: (1) Either equally spaced between the rows of runway lights, or

(2) Symmetrically disposed about the runway center line in two groups with the lights uniformly spaced each group and with a gap, between the rows of the runway edge lights. f. When the threshold is at the runway extremity, the threshold lights are used as runway end lights. No red PERL need to be added. Taxiway Edge Lights. Taxiway edge lights are to be provided as follows: a. Blue PERLs to be used.

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b. The lights should be located as near as practicable to the edges of the taxiway or outside the edge at a distance of not more than 10 feet. c. Along the straight section of a taxiway, the edge lights should be spaced at uniform longitudinal intervals of not more than 200 feet. d. The lights on a curve should be spaced at intervals less than 200 feet so that a clear indication of the curve is provided. Holding Point Lights. Holding points are to be indicated by the used of double blue PERL lights, two on each side of the taxiway, in addition to taxiway, in addition to taxiway edge lights. They are to be positioned outside but close to the taxiway edge lights. Dispersal Lights. Hard standing without flood lighting are to be outlined with no used of Blue PERL lights. These lights are to be placed as near as practicable to the edges of the hard standing and are to be spaced at regular intervals of not more than 100 feet. Temporary Obstruction Lighting. Temporary obstruction lights are to be placed at the extremities of the obstruction or unserviceable portion of the airfield to indicate the full extend of the obstruction. Red PERL lights are to be used. This also applies to lighting around parked aircraft during night operations. ORP Edge Lights. It is also necessary to indicate the outline of the ORPs on our airfields. This is to be done using red PERL lights. They are to be placed at the edge of the ORP, and in any case not more than 10 feet outside the edge. They are to be spaced at regular intervals of not more than 200 feet. AIRFIELD OBSTRUCTION MARKINGS AND LIGHTINGS An obstruction is defined as: a. Any object or structure, man made or natural, which penetrates: (1) (2) The airspace above a clearance surface. Above ground level within the flight strip; or

(3) A horizontal surface equal in level to the taxiway centerline, and extending for 45 meters either side of the taxiway centerline; or b. Any man-made object or structure at any location outside the Airfield Obstruction Restriction Area which rises more than 150 meters above the immediate natural or constructed surface. Markings a. Permanent Obstructions. Using contrasting colors normally orange and white or red and white as described below: (1) An obstruction, the projections of which on any vertical plane have both dimensions less than 1.5m, is to be colored in a single conspicuous color. (2) An obstruction with essentially broken surface, the projection of which on any vertical plane exceed 4.5m in both dimensions is to be colored to

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show a checkered pattern of squares of not less than 1.5m or more than 3m on side, the top and bottom corners being the darker color. (3) An obstruction with essentially broken surface, the projection of which exceeds 1.5m in one dimension and is less than 4.5m in the other dimension, and any skeletal structure having either dimension greater than 1.5m, is to be colored with alternate contrasting bands, perpendicular to the largest dimension. The bands at the extremities of the structure are to be of the darker color. b. Temporary Obstruction. It is to be surrounded by a series of white cones which clearly indicate the extremities of the obstruction. Temporary vertical obstructions are to use contrasting color marking the same as permanent obstruction. c. Hazards. obstruction. d. Such as a hole on the taxiway are marked as per temporary

Bad Grounds. Cones surrounding plus a white cross in the center.

e. Abandoned Airfields and Runways. On a closed runway, a closed marking is to be located at each end of the runway or portion thereof declared closed and additional markings are to be located so that the minimum interval between markings does not exceed 300m. In addition when runway is permanently closed, all normal runways are to be obliterated. Vehicle Markings. Airfield Control Vehicle which is routinely used within the manicuring area is to be painted aviation surface yellow with a white top. Other vehicles temporarily used within the manicuring area to carry a black and yellow checkered flag if engaged in airfield control duties or a plain yellow if engaged in other activities. Such flag are to be 0.6m square and mounted on a mast attached to the vehicle and of such height that the flag may be seeing by a taxing aircraft. Lighting. All lights for display of obstructions are to be omni-directional red in color, intensity of 100 candles and to be positioned at these locations: a. Less than 45m tall double red on top.

b. Taller than 45m double red on top and additional red lights at interval or placed equally between the top lights to ground level. b. Vehicles should have flashing red or yellow omni-directional lights.

CONCLUCION With this education every fireman required know names part that found inside an airport, in order to identify and know locations that directed by Controller or Fire Controller.

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