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PREFACE In this bok equivalent cies (satonary clestso-roult modes) are oveloped fo all rating elotaie machina and groups of machines by ‘means ofa uid physual pietre, without any mathemati analysis ‘The behavior of all type of machioes or groups of machines is repro: seated in th form of equivalent ceuite under all operating editions thot may be exprosed in terms of constant, sinusoidal, or sums of inuscdal cumenta and spends, ‘These operational eoziions embrace, frst of al, the usual stendy-etate, contantapeed operations, inluding ‘the eis in which time harmonies o space barmonins(o both) are, ot ‘the api voltages are unbelaned, or the impresed frequeces 20 ‘rvnble, Moreover, lnstantangous nd sustained polyp oF single blige short eioute, sudden Tond variation, and'asl-ecitatons are en eondered. “lihcugh th equivalent crits developed ae valid fr hunting prob ete len small oullatons wupeiapoced upon steady rolstion), the ‘ketlled study of hunting isnot undertaken hero ut ie fat for futare fansideration. ‘The present bok lys only the foundation forthe even- fal ayatenate treatment of stability and hunting of individual end soups of machines snd taneminion sytems by tho emo ried phys (Sl pltute and without the aid of equations of performance . ‘Practically all types of so rolating machinoe used in the powe! industry are vepresented. Unbalanced induction machines (including the espacitor and shaded-pole motors with spsso harmon), slient> pole eyacheonous machines, single-ghase slteraiors, -o commutator ‘oto, and several nterzenaodted machines runing et the same speed frat dierent epoede ae sadiod im oomplete deta Becsuse oftheir fimportenee, the synchronoue machine and the pelyphaee Indetion ‘olor ave examined der grater varity end more detiled opersting conditions tha other types of machin, ‘The valent eine sow all fundamental end baemenie curents and flows in every winding of the machine, and also the constant and harmonis tarquce developed by th rotor. For most machines both the eoae-eld and revolving-eld equivalent cireits are given, ofton in several simplifed forme. Such complex probs as ey earents in sald voter, tuto-turn short eet ofa double-winding goneraor, “ rerace currents flowing i each bar of « nonsnifem and non-symmetsies ‘mortise winding, eccentric rotors, and space and time hamanie: ‘ue to the winding ditribution and sot openings of polyphace inde ‘on motor ae invesgated in deal “A oscalent cite ere elised wil the wa of single puso of poformancs. The reasoning ae based upon generalization ofthe tions of eesttionary bvo-vindingteanformer only, sided by Diysialpltare of the Sx pate inside the mackines a hy the ob- nvable Interconnection ofthe windings. Iti moved in the Bpilogue that with certain precations the equations of all rotating electric tiachinery may be rodneed to Ohm's lair © = Zi~ (R+ 38) (vith ‘teymmetrieal Z) wader all Soueidal operating conditions, provided ‘hat the equations eoreapond tothe dynamical equations of Lagrange ‘and thee generalizations, and provided thu the correct selerenoe frame ieued ‘The word “tensa” ie not aed in the taxt (esc in Prologue and Rpilegue, but the method of attack flaws steely the basi tenor ‘ation of elestodyamien and the tonrrialresoning employed in their reduction to particular machine. Tn the present ook a tensor (a piysieal entity) ie represented fr ay pase machine, nck by sof mathamalieal symbol arranged ina mate (alherateal modal), ‘but by a st of lesen! symbols (eleti-ireuit mol). ‘Tha paral Ielism between the mathematical and eleticl models 9 loc and complete that the equivalent cvitsthenelves may be employed to ‘rte dows, by mere iupection, the equations of peforance of any ‘ype of machine, not only under sinuoidal operting conditions, but ‘ho—by alight ehango la symbolian—ander renee! an acsarling operation, "Tho physical analysis ital follow th wal analyte procedure wot by the author in hie other works * on electric machinery. ‘That i, Art the equivalent clout of « prototype, the aovalled"peimisive” ‘machine, at rest is etablished, afterwards Ube effect of rotation i i= ‘ded, snd Analy the aquiztet ere ofeach typeof machine found from that ofthe rive machine by meso of tenafermation. ‘No acquaintance with He authors ahar works Geman. ‘Tha book ie calf-containd, though some noqusnsnnes with the underlying piles ‘phy of the tensorial method should help. The aly prerequisite forthe understanding of te book Gide come famiarity with the cometary. ‘tee Appin of Tn the Anal of Reatng tal Mahey”| Gert Bate Reve Sikes, KY, WS; Tne aie of Neer She Woy & Sn New one N10 4 Skt Cue Fw hi fo ‘Metre, aks Wi Som, New Var N10 PREFACE Me theory of machines) is an earast desire to learn it, However, the ‘uivaenteeite may be copied nd wod fr the sation of practical ‘rablems without understanding bow thay have been derived "A word af caution may be injeted. The method of easing inthis book is wholly dedetive; all pecs examples are desivod as special toes of one eer prizcple ‘Now, ta many minds such n reasoning totally stenge; many ptople ike to examino fst each special cae seta np fon ier ae i wih rome plex one in etay stages. Bnginere preferring such inuetve methods ‘Should approach this book wit an open frame of mind snd proceed with fs reeptive attitude, in order to benefit from the author's deductive reasoning: "These equivalent crits have been developed by the author during ‘he at decade n connection with is everyday eginevig asks, Some ofthe eros have already ben published in the General Bletrie Review fein the Troneaton of the American Inside of Electrical Engineers, ‘bt mont of thera apen in this book forte Get ie. Of ours, some the simpler erste, sich a thse of tho ingle or interconnected Dolypbaes induction seotars and the singl-piaeoinduoion motor, have ‘een known for decals, Nevertheless, even sich anlemontary and ‘important equivalent. cuit as that of the sllen-pole synchronous ‘machine nang st eynchranovs spud was not available unl eset. Tn this bosk even tho wellknown equivalnt iruits have. boon generalized to be valid for eeriblefreuencyimpreseed voltage alo ‘The introduction of vaiabefrequeaey f operation allows a stady of sellexctation of systems and simple thn interconnection of the equi= ‘lent ciesite when machina: of varios types run at diferent speeds, ‘Moreover ll equivalent outs bovame mods for writing down out- right not only the steadystate but also the trent and acleaing euatons of pesformance of any oomplex ystems, by simply ceplacing the varnblefrequoneyayenbal feverywhere by —jp = =(@/a). The ‘arable frequency enivalent cit ave ideally suited to establish the transient freer Suietions of groupe of machines, nesded in stability sui "The sbeenoe of mathematis in the establishment of the equivalent eta should not be construed aan ttampt to belie the importance ff sicily mathematieal dovelopment of equivalent ciruits As @ tuater of fact, racial all equivalent czcuits even here have oign- ally been developed matomatieay ist and only after the availablity ‘of many examples di the orgie uty falcons beaome apparent. ‘Wilh umunua windings, or with mere complex interconnection, or with certain spon design requirements, the avekdance of mathematics my Deoome quite» nuisance, and in any doubiful ease a mathematical set ‘of equations must serves the nal nur of nuthorty forte correctness ofthe model. Example of one such mashematia! davelopsent of tho constants of iret given in Appenic 2 forthe shadest-ple motor. ‘The frst haf ofthe Book (contained in soven chaps) forms a com Scent group and covers in detail mush ofthe materst on odietion, Synchronous, ae commutator machines thet advanasd textbooks touch ‘pena arly allude to. Much ofthe sbjore mater ofthe remaining Sve chapters appesssy convention anal ool so highly advanced ‘that they are not to be found in any textbook, ot in period even, excoptperbaps in sketchy traced outlines. Begining with te seventh chapter, on commutator machines, parts of chapters or even eatie chapters may be left out to suit the spdal Interest of the ruder Several mimercal examples we alo ineudod “The systematic development of the equivalent circuits has been undeiaken a the request of 8, B, Crary. "Tho autho is indebtd aso 0.6. Concordia and P. Alger for many conversations. ‘Thane are Adve to Michal Termes fo reviwing tho bok frm the pint af view ofthe interested engine. Gasman. Kos Sahota, N.Y ‘CONTENTS Provoaue Tax Paocorit ov Baurvauser Cet Wot Iran Pasion Coie? (Grt Mode of tating Matinee Diterence between a Rotting Makin aa» tatooney Network ‘Trail ond Acoeraling Equation of Paommance ‘Tw Toor Pott of View ‘he Tansor Geeta Teak ‘Th Tanae a Phy Teo "The Tororo Ensonerng Toa Generation Pestle ‘A "Drliinry" Coniston Poise ‘Tye Fiat Gennalzton Poste ‘The Soeud Conralation Potts ‘The Tha Groeraaion Pete ‘The Absolute Meqnncies Smmary ef he Gnuaetin Postale ‘Te Abn of Maton ‘The Taw of Phyl Models Gaareae 1 The Paratsn Moose "The Parl td Wave Pot of Vin of Rotating Machines {Geetalition ofthe Maso Larets Fald Bquatioae (Caesntee Sye Waves ‘os Spa Waves ‘The Comte Equations ‘Two-Disndoal Vest ‘Too Relrenee Trae er Sequence Vstrs ‘Nea-Viantie Yoo ‘Tye Primive Maciae ‘Tom PhysealRefons Frame ‘raneton from Windlg a Waves ester Ganuazation COnsroen 2 ‘Ta Panumve Macro Susan ‘Sinptying Amwptone Stopes the Anais ‘tl Ensralent Grate of gle Call