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MODELLING OF INELASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF MATERIALS

Evolution of elastic range accountig for strength differential effect and micro-shear banding
Ryszard B. Pcherski
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw

Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

Professor Piotr Perzyna (1931-2013) passed away June 22, 2013

Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

Acknowledgement
The part of these lectures originated during my visits in Metz as le professeur invit de lEcole Nationale dIngnieurs de Metz (National Engineering School of Metz) within the years (2009 2012). I appreciate the work and discussions with professor Alexis Rusinek on dynamic behaviour of materials.

Udine, July 16-20, 2012

R.B. Pcherski, Inelastic flow and failure of metallic solids

Invitation to Poland Warsaw Krakow

Ryszard B. PCHERSKI

Departments of the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Science: Physical Acoustics Computational Science Mechanics of Materials Div. Applied Plasticity Strength of Materials Intelligent Technologies Theory of Continuous Media Ultrasound

List of contents
Part I. Asymmetry of elastic range 1. Introduction experimental motivation Strength Differential Effect observations main assumptions the notion of material effort 2. Energy-based limit condtions for materials with asymmetry of elastic range isotropic solids examples of aplications

Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

List of contents

3. Elasto-plasticity theory accounting for paraboloid Burzyski yield surface


numerical approach examples of experimental verification

4. Identification methodolgy

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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List of contents
Part II. Phenomenological description of micro-shear banding
1. Inntroduction experimental motivation
2. Phenomenological description of inelastic flow viscoplasticity theory accounting for micro-shear banding

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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List of contents

3. Phenomenological approach to the evolution of yield surface (elastic range) discussion of a new methodology examples 4. Concluding remarks

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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1. Introduction
experimental

motivation

Two experimental observations about metals by P.W. Bridgman [1947]: no influence of hydrostatic pressure on yielding, incompressibility for plastic straining, became the basic tenets of classical metal plasticity.
Bridgman, P.W., 1947,"The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the Fracture of Brittle Substances," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 18, p. 246.

Percy Williams Bridgman (1882 1961) 1946 Nobel Prize

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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1. Introduction
experimental

motivation

P.W. Bridgman: Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture with Special Emphasis on the Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure, [1952], p. 64:

By the time the last series of measurements was being made under the arsenal contract, however, skill in making the measurements had so increased, and probably also the homogeneity of the material of the specimens had also increased because of care in preparation, that it was possible to establish a definite effect of pressure on the strain hardening curve.
(citation from C.D. Wilson A Critical Reexamination of Classical Metal Plasticity, J. Appl. Mech., 2002, 69, 63-68)
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1. Introduction
experimental

motivation

W.A. Spitzig et al. [1975], O. Richmond, W.A. Spitzig [1980], W.A. Spitzig, O. Richmond [1984].
4330 steel

I2

aI1

Drucker-Prager yield condition


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1. Introduction
experimental motivation
alluminium alloy: 2024-T351 Al
result of calculations with use of J2 theory

triaxial state of stress in notched specimen:

results of tension test

Yield criteria:
C. D. Wilson: A Critical Reexamination of Classical Metal Plasticity, J. Appl. Mech., 2002, 69, 63-68
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 16

1. Introduction
experimental

motivation

Bai, T. Wierzbicki, A new model of metal plasticity and fracture with pressure and Lode angle, Int. J. Plasticity, 24, 2008.
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Explanation of the Lode angle concept


Lode angle expressed by means of the second and third invariants of stress deviator s :

J3

det(s) ,

1 tr ()1 3

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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Explanation of the Lode angle concept

Lode angle dependence of the cross-section of the yield surface given at the octahedral plane, cf. M. Nowak et al. EngineeringTransactions, 59, 273-281, [2011]. S. K. I y e r, C. J. L i s s e n d e n, Multiaxial constitutive model accounting for the strength-differential in Inconel 718, Int J Plast 19, 2055-2081 (2003).
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1. Introduction
experimental motivation

Investigations of notched round bar specimens - A60 steel

[mm]

V2

V4

V6

U1

U2

R2

T. Fr, A. Rusinek, R. Pcherski [2010]


[mm] Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 20

1. Introduction
experimental motivation The effects of stress concentration in the notched round bar specimens
max hydrostatic stress [GPa]
difference in value of max experimental and simulated load [kN]

0.78 1.02 1.18 0.24 1.01 0.86 0.82 0 2.3 1.7 3.8 5.6 7.6 4.5

The larger value of hydrostatic stress, the larger deviation of the load predicted from the J 2 theory.
70

60

50

load [kN]

40

30

20

smooth

R2 U1 U2 V2 V4 V6

V4 num. modelling V4 experiment 10 Geometry: V4. Quasi static tension: 0.001 1/s Abaqus simulation: standard, axi-sym. el. 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5

T.Fr, A. Rusinek, R. Pcherski [2010]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

displacement [mm]

21

1. Introduction
SDE - Strength Differential Effect

SDE is observed in many materials, e.g.: - geological materials - high strength steels & hard deformable alloys - ultra fine grained and nano metals - cast iron
0

- polymers
0
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

1, f ( J1, J 2 , J 3 )

R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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1. Introduction
SDE - Strength Differential Effect

1. D.C. Drucker [1972], W.A. Spitzig et al. [1975], O. Richmond, W.A. Spitzig [1980], W.A. Spitzig, O. Richmond [1984].
2. P. S. Theocaris, Failure criteria for isotropic bodies revisited, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 51, 239264, 1995, collected the data of the first basic experiments for different materials: - G.I. Taylor & H. Quinney [1931] - copper and mild steel: 1.3 .

R.C. Grassi & I. Cornet [1949]; L.F. Coffin, Jr. [1950] gray 3. cast-iron: various polymers:
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1.3

R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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SDE - Strength Differential Effect

1.3

Coincidence of the experimental results with the modified yield locus (P.S. Theocaris [1995]).
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SDE - Strength Differential Effect

Coincidence of the experimental results with the SDE modified yield locus (P.S. Theocaris [1995]).
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SDE - Strength Differential Effect

1.3

The yield locus for various polymers revealing the SDE (P.S. Theocaris [1995]).
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1. Introduction
observations

The following observations can be drawn from the discussed experimental investigations:
it appears that in some cases the commonly used Huber-Mises yield condition is not sufficient for adequate description of material behaviour, the asymmetry of elastic range (SDE) should be taken into account, the initial anisotropy can play important role in the adequate simulations of material behaviour.
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1. Introduction
observations
Asymmetry of elastic range for isotropic materials is related with: pressure sensitivity of the limit state SDE is observed influence of the Lode angle on the limit state limit surface becomes asymmetric

dependence of the limit state on both: pressure and Lode angle.

limit state limit of linear elasticity or yield limit. Lode angle related with the third invariant of stress deviator.
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1. Introduction
main assumption

The novelty of proposed approach is based on the hypothesis that certain portions of elastic energy density accumulated in the deformed body can be applied to define the measure of material effort.

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1. Introductrion
the notion of material effort Consider deformable continuous body. The material point of the body corresponds to the Representative Volume Element (RVE) of the considered condensed matter. External loading applied to the deformed body changes on the atomic level the relative positions of the constituents of matter. This produces variation of the energy of the system and results in the change of chemical bonding strength.
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The notion of material effort


Material effort known since long in German literature on mechanics as Anstrengung, in Russian as napryazhennost and in Polish as wytenie has been used rather intuitevely.

It can be defined more precisely as a state of material point of the loaded deformable body related with the change of chemical bonding strength in the RVE of the condensed matter.
R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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1. Introductrion
the notion of material effort physical interpretation
Illustration of the EM observations of the change of relative positions of the constituents of the matter in the aluminum oxide-metal interface as an example of the studies how the change of the atomic structure of the boundary influences the energy of atomic interactions (cf. K. Nalepka and R. B. Pcherski [2009]. [2010]).
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

(K. Nalepka [2012c])


R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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1. Introductrion
the notion of material effort physical interpretation
Illustration of the EM observations of the change of relative positions of the constituents of the matter in the aluminum oxide-metal interface. An example of the studies how the change of the atomic structure of the boundary influences the change of the symmetry of Cu structure: cubic tertragonal (cf. K. Kowalczyk-Gajewska et al. [2003], K. Nalepka and R. B. Pcherski [2009], [2010]).
R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

tetragonal (K. Nalepka [2012c])

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33

1. Introductrion
the notion of material effort physical interpretation
Tertragonal deformation paths and the change of interaction energy In the Cu component of the interface calculated with use the originally specified atomic model by K. Nalepka [2012a], [2012b].

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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1. Introductrion
the notion of material effort physical interpretation
The change of the interaction energy In the Ni component of the interface Ni aluminum oxide calculated with use the originally specified atomic model by K. Nalepka and R.B. Pcherski [2010].

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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1. Introductrion
the notion of material effort physical interpretation
The interaction energy changes for tetragonal deformation paths of Cu constrained in the interface Al2O3-Cu with use of the proposed atomic model. The comparison with the results known in the literature K. Nalepka [2012a], [2012b].

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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Measure of material effort


A measure of material effort is required to assess the distance of the considered state of stress from the postulated surface of limit states.
Yield surce of Inconel 718
limit state

An example of the yield surface considered in the paper: M. Nowak et al., EngineeringTransactions, 59, 273-281, [2011].
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Measure of material effort


A limit value of the given measure of material effort defines the limit state of the considered material. The limit state can be related limit state with the limit of linear elasticity,onset of yielding, failure etc.

(
The limit state is commonly related with the notion of the strength of material.
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3. Energy-based limit condtions for materials with asymmetry of elastic range.


Energy as a multilevel scalar quantity can be assumed as apropriate universal measure of the change of the strength of chemical bonds material effort. E. Beltrami [1885] the density of total elastic energy. M.T. Huber [1904] - the density of elastic energy of distortion. J.C. Maxwell [1936] - the density of elastic energy of distortion (in private letter to William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)[1856]).
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Density of elastic energy


Decomposition of elastic energy density for isotropic solids derived by Stokes [1855] and Helmholtz [1907]:

f
distortion

v
volume change

1 ( 12G

(
1

1 2 ( 6E

2 ) 3

G shear modulus, E Young modulus,


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

Poisson ratio
40

The hypothesis of variable limit energy of volume change and distortion


W. BURZYSKI: Study on Material Effort Hypotheses, Lww, 1928 (in Polish) ; English translation: Engineering Transactions, vol. 57, No. 3-4, 185-215, 2009.
Ueber die Anstrengungshypothesen, Schweizerische Bauzeitung, 94, 259-162,1929.

( p) 3p , p

=K
1 2 3

f v
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density of elastic energy of distortion density of elastic energy of volume change


R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 41

The hypothesis of variable limit energy of volume change and distortion

( , , K)
I. II . III .
T Y
I I I T Y

(
II

T Y

C Y

,
C Y

Y)

2 Y T Y

2 Y C Y

,
II

0, 0, 0,
III

III

0; ;
Huber Mises Hencky condition
C Y T Y

0,
Y
2 e

II

III

C Y
2 Y

3
2 e

T Y
2 Y

C Y

p 2 3(
2
II

)p )
2

T Y

C Y

1 ( 2

(
I

III
42

Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

Basic modes of stress realized in experiments

I . Uniaxial tension III .Pure shear

T Y I

, 0,

II

0,
II

III

0;
III C Y

II . Uniaxial compression
I Y

0,
III
TT Y 1

0,
Y

II
1

IV . Biaxial uniform tension: VI . Triaxial uniform tension:

TT Y 2 2 CCC Y

,
TTT Y

3 CC Y

0; ,
3 3 TTT Y CCC Y CC Y

V . Biaxial uniform compression:


1

0, ,

;
CCC Y

TTT Y 1

;
3

VII . Triaxial uniform compression:

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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The Burzyski hypothesis expressed in the form of quadric in the principal stress space
T Y C Y
2 Y

(
T Y

)
2

1
C Y

C Y
2 Y

( (
1

T Y

T Y

C Y
T Y

0
,
C Y

The different relations between the parameters determine the separate limit conditions.
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Discussion of some special cases of Burzyskis quadric equivalent stress pressure p coordinates f

2 Y

T Y

C Y

2 f

12G

ellipse or circle
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W. Burzyski [1928], p. 115, Fig. 64 and 65.


R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 45

Discussion of some special cases of Burzyskis quadric


trace of the half of a cylinder
Y

T Y

C Y

parabola

equivalent stress

pressure

coordinates

W. Burzyski [1928], p. 115, Fig. 66 and 67.


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 46

Discussion of some special cases of Burzyskis quadric


trace of the half of a cone

2 3

T C Y Y T C Y Y

T C Y Y

3
Y

hyperbola

2 3

T C Y Y T C Y Y

equivalent stress

pressure

coordinates

W. Burzynski [1928], p. 116, Fig. 68 and 69.


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 47

Ilustration of some criteria resulting from Burzyskis hypothesis


Y

T Y

C Y
e

T Y

C Y

Burzynski-Torre paraboloid
C

Y
Y Huber-Mises-Hencky cylinder

2 3

T C Y Y T C Y Y

SDE
T

Y ellipse

Burzynski-Drucker-Prager cone

m 3
C Y T Y

2 Y

T Y

C Y

SDE Strength Differential Effect

Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, Some application of Burzyski yield condition in metal plasticity, Material and Design, 2011

Criteria resulting from Burzyskis hypothesis in the space of principal axes


1

,
3 3
2 3

,
T Y

3
C Y

The symmetry axis:

- elipsoid of revolution (circular)

T Y

C Y

- paraboloid of revolution (circular)


- hyperboloid of revolution of two sheets (one of sheets is considered) - cone of revolution of two sheets (one of sheets is considered only)
R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 49

T C Y Y T C Y Y

2 3

T C Y Y T C Y Y

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An extension of Burzyski hypothesis of material effort accounting for the effect of Lode angle

R.B. Pcherski et al., Arch. Met. Mat. [2011] M. Nowak et al., Engineering Transactions, [2011]
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R.B. Pcherski et al., Arch. Met. Mat. [2011] M. Nowak et al., Engineering Transactions, [2011]
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 51

R.B. Pcherski et al., Arch. Met. Mat. [2011] M. Nowak et al., Engineering Transactions, [2011]
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 52

R.B. Pcherski et al., Arch. Met. Mat. [2011] M. Nowak et al., Engineering Transactions, [2011]
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 53

Some more detail references


Nalepka K., Symmetry-based approach to parametrization of embedded-atom-method interatomic potentials, Computational Materials Science, 56, 100-107, 2012. Nalepka K., Efficient approach to metal/metal oxide interfaces within variable charge model, European Physical Journal B, 85,1-12, 2012. K. Nalepka, R.B.Pcherski, Modelling of the interatomic interactions in the Copper crystal applied in the structure (111)Cu/(0001) Al2O3, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, vol. 54, pp. 511-522, (2009). K. Nalepka and R.B. Pcherski, The Strength of the interfacial bond in the ceramic matrix composites Al2O3-Ni, Mechanics and Control, 29, pp. 132-137, (2010). R.B. Pcherski, P. Szeptyski, M. Nowak, An extension of Burzynski hypothesis of material effort accounting for the third invariant of stress tensor, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 56, 503-508, 2011. M. Nowak, J. Ostrowska-Maciejewska, R.B. Pcherski, P. Szeptyski, Yield criterion accounting for the third invariant of stress tensor deviator, Engineering Transactions, 59, 273-281, 2011.
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 54

3. Elasto-plasticity theory accounting for paraboloid Burzyski yield surface


numerical approach examples of experimental verification

4. Identification methodolgy

Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

55

Examples of the applications of paraboloid Burzyski limit criterion


T. Fr, Z.L. Kowalewski, R.B. Pcherski, A. Rusinek, Applications of Burzyski failure criteria. Part I. Isotropic materials with asymmetry of elastic range, Engineering Transactions, 58, 3-13, 2010,

Fr, T., Nowak, Z., Perzyna, P., Pecherski, R.B. Identification of the model describing viscoplastic behaviour of high strength metals, Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering, 19, 17-30, 2011.

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grey cast iron historical data confirmation of Burzynski paraboloid criterion

Teresa Fr, (with use of MATHEMATICA), PhD thesis, [2013], Univ. Lorraine, Metz supervisors: R. Pecherski & A. Rusinek
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

T Y

C Y

R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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mild steel & copper historical data confirmation of Burzynski paraboloid criterion

Teresa Fr, (with use of MATHEMATICA), PhD thesis, [2013], Univ. Lorraine, Metz - supervisors: R. Pecherski & A. Rusinek

[1926]

3
[1935]

T Y

C Y

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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polymers historical data confirmation of Burzynski paraboloid criterion

Teresa Fr, (with use of MATHEMATICA), PhD thesis, [2013], Univ. Lorraine, Metz, supervisors: R. Pecherski & A. Rusinek

T Y

C Y

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The application of Burzyski yield condition for nano-materials (T. Fr et al. [2009])
The section of the Burzyski paraboloid yield condition

C.A. Schuh, A.C. Lund, Atomistic basis for the plastic yield criterion of metallic glass, Nature Materials, 2, 449-452, 2003.

Coulomb-Mohr condition

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glassy metals Lund&Schuh [2003] confirmation of Burzynski paraboloid criterion

Teresa Fr, (with use of MATHEMATICA), PhD thesis, [2013], Univ. Lorraine, Metz, supervisors: R. Pecherski & A. Rusinek

T Y

C Y

Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

61

Limit surface for Al2O3 foam


Y

T Y

C Y

Teresa Fr with use of MATHEMATICA


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 62

Burzyski paraboloid yield criterion for the polycarbonate

T. Fr et al. Engineering Transactions [2010]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 63

Burzyski yield paraboloid criterion for the metal matrix composite: 6061 +2Zr + 20 Al2O3

T. Fr et al. Engineering Transactions [2010]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 64

Burzyski yield paraboloid criterion for the metal matrix composite: 75 Cr + 25 Al2O3

T. Fr et al. Engineering Transactions [2010]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 65

Some criteria resulting from Burzyskis hypothesis in the space of principal axes

2 3

T C Y Y T C Y Y

The one sheet of circular hyperboloid can appear also a versatile possibility to approximate the experimental data.

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

66

3. Elasto-plasticity theory accounting for paraboloid Burzyski yield surface


numerical approach examples of experimental verification

4. Identification methodolgy
G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, Some application of Burzyski yield condition in metal plasticity, Material and Design, [2011].

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Elasto-plasticity with paraboloid Burzyski yield condition

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


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Return mapping integration algorithm

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

Solution of elasto-plasticity problem


(
p e m, e, C Y

0
q m

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, Some application of Burzyski yield ocndition in metal plasticity, Material and Design, 2011

0
m

Newton- Raphson
t m t e

K 3G

p q

p C Y

Stiffness matrix:

K (1 KC11 )1 1 9 G (
2

2G 6
q t e

G2
t e

'

3KG
t e

C12

't

3KG
t e

C211 ' t

t 2 e

C22

' t

' t

The UMAT was programmed and implemented in Abaqus by Marcin Nowak, IPPT
70

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

FEM calculations of notched specimens. Mesh refinement

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 71

FEM calculations of notched specimens. Experimental data of Wilson [2002]

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 72

FEM calculations of notched specimens. Confrontation calculations with experiment

Experimental data of Wilson [2002]

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 73

FEM calculations of notched specimens. Confrontation of calculations with experiment

Experimental data of Wilson [2002]

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 74

FEM calculations of notched specimens. Confrontation of calculations with experiment

Experimental data of Wilson [2002]

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 75

FEM calculations of notched specimens. Confrontation calculations with experiment


S. K. I y e r, C. J. L i s s e n d e n, Multiaxial constitutive model accounting for the strength-differential in Inconel 718, Int J Plast 19, 2055-2081 (2003).

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 76

FEM calculations of notched specimens. Confrontation of calculations with experiment


S. K. I y e r, C. J. L i s s e n d e n, Multiaxial constitutive model accounting for the strength-differential in Inconel 718, Int J Plast 19, 2055-2081 (2003).

Comparison of empirically proposed ellipsoidal yield surface with rotational paraboloid resulting from energy-based Burzyski hypothesis of material effort (R.B. Pcherski et al. Arch. Met. Mat. [2011]

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77

FEM calculations of deformation of Inconel Material characteristics


Experimental data of S. K. I y e r, C. J. L i s s e n d e n [2003]

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 78

FEM calculations of deformation of Inconel. Confrontation of experiment with calculations

Experimental data of S. K. I y e r, C. J. L i s s e n d e n [2003]

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 79

FEM calculations of deformation of Inconel. Confrontation of experiment with calculations

Experimental data of S. K. I y e r, C. J. L i s s e n d e n [2003]

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 80

FEM calculations of deformation of Inconel. Confrontation of experiment with calculations


Experimental data of S. K. I y e r, C. J. L i s s e n d e n [2003]

G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, [2011]


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5. Identification methodolgy

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82

The idea of shear-compression test


D. Rittel, S. Lee, G. Ravichandran, Exp. Mech. [2002]
Originally the idea of the applications of SCS was used for obtainning the stress-strain characteristics of metallic materials with symmetric elastic range under quasi-static and dynamic conditions.

Huber-Mises condition
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

C Y

C Y
83

T Y

R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

Analytical study of the shear-compression test


(M.Vural, A. Molinari, N. Bhattacharya, Analysis of slot orientation in shear-compression specimen (SCS), Exp. Mech., 2010)

Boundary conditiongs:
P

displacements

uy
x

0, u x

0
x

for y

y C

x B

sin( )

cos( )

for y

w
*

tractions
xy

w h

cos( )

yy

sin( )

0 for y

D
A

t ez
t ex

0 on ABCD
0 on BCC'B' and ADD'A'
R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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84

Analytical study of the shear-compression test


P
yy

cos( ) w 4sin 2 ( ) cos 2 ( )

y h

C x B

xy

2 sin( ) w 4sin 2 ( ) cos2 ( )

zz

yy
2 : 3
3 S:S 2

eq

4 ( 3
3 (4 4

2 xy

2 yy

)
)

3 2 h

cos( ) 4sin 2 ( ) cos 2 ( )

eq

2 xy

2 yy

3 P cos( ) 4sin 2 ( ) cos 2 ( ) 2 D t


85

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R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

State of stress and strain for w << t

0 xy 0
p

xy 0 0
xy

0 0 0
0 0 0
2 xy

xy

0
eq

p 0
3 (2 2

3 ' ' : 2

t
xy

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86

Analytical results
eq

k 1 ( ) exp
1 k1 ( ) h

k2 ( )

p eq

P D t0
P
y x

eq

C B
*

k1 ( )

3 cos( ) 4sin 2 ( ) cos 2 ( ) 2

D
A

k2 ( )

3 2

cos( ) 4sin 2 ( ) cos 2 ( )


R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials

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87

Experimental investigations in the lab of the Division of Applied Plasticity, IPPT


shear compression specimen (SCS)
w

dimensions: L= 20.0 mm D = 7.0 mm w = 2.0 mm t = 1.0 mm = 45 h = 1.42w

h t

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AlMg 5%SiC Composite

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Experimental results

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90

Numerical simulation of the shecompression test


ABAQUS Standard (Marcin Nowak [2011])

Assumptions:
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

element: C3D8 friction: 0.0001 vertical displacement: 1.0 mm number of elements: 11540 number of nodes: 13871
R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 91

Approximation of material characteristic


eq

A B

eq

C 1 exp

D C

eq

A B C D

235.24MPa 21.02MPa 264.21 3018.19

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92

Results of numerical simulation versus experiment

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93

Paraboloidal criterion of Burzyski

for 3

C Y

T Y

paraboloid of revolution
2 2 m

1 3 k 1 2

9 k 1

4k

2 eq

C Y

k
C Y T Y S

C Y T Y

1 :1 3

eq

3 ' ' ( : ) 2

- yield limit in compression - yield limit in tension

- yield limit in shear


R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 94

Agadir, July 08-12, 2013

Identification of the strength differential factor k by means of FEM simulation of compression test
k
S
C Y T Y

1 3k

C Y

For AlMg 5%SiC:


C Y

235.24MPa

k 1.15
S

126.64MPa

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95

Aluminum alloy PA6


Skad chemiczny:

Si 0.2 -0.8 Fe 3.5 - 0.7 Cu 0.4 - 4.5 Mn 0.4 -1.0 Mg < 1.0 Cr < 0.1 Zn < 0.25 Ti + Zr Al < 0.25

eq

A B(

p N eq

A 220MPa B 70MPa N 0.6


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 96

Experimental results obtained in the lab of the Division of Applied Plasticity, IPPT

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97

p eq

1 k1 ( ) h
k 1 ( ) exp

Analytical results
Vural et al. (2010)
p eq
eq

eq

k2 ( )

p eq

P D go

Rittel et al. (2002)


p eq

0.85(1 0.2

P ) D go

k1 ( )

3 cos( ) 4sin 2 ( ) cos 2 ( ) 2

k2 ( )

3 2

cos( ) 4sin 2 ( ) cos 2 ( )

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Experiment versus analytical results

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99

Analysis of the effect of Lode angle


2

27 J 3 3 2 eq

J3 p
q

1 Sij Sik S jk 3 1 kk 3
eq

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100

The influence of the slit angle

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101

= 45

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102

Literature
W. BURZYSKI: Study on Material Effort Hypotheses, Lww, 1928 (in Polish) ; English translation: Engineering Transactions, vol. 57, No. 3-4, 185-215, 2009. D.Rittel, S. Lee, G. Ravichandran, A Shear-Compression Specimen for Large Strain Testing, Experimental Mechanics, 2002 M.Vural, A. Molinari, N. Bhattacharya, Analysis of Slot Orientation in Shear-Compression Specimen (SCS), Experimental Mechanics, 2010 G.Vadillo, J. Fernandez-Saez, R.B. Pcherski, Some application of Burzyski yield ocndition in metal plasticity, Material and Design, 2011

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103

Part II. Phenomenological description of micro-shear banding


1. Inntroduction experimental motivation
2. Phenomenological description of inelastic flow viscoplasticity theory accounting for micro-shear banding

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104

Outline
1. Shear banding:
- one of the mechanisms of plastic flow in metallic materials - the dominant mechanism of plastic deformation of ufg, nano-metals and glassy metals.

2. Phenomenological description. 3. Identification of the model for ufg and nanocrystalline Fe. 4. Concluding remarks.
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 105

Shear banding
First observations of shear bands - F. Adcock, The internal mechanism of cold-work and recrystallization in Cupro-Nickel, J. Inst. Metals, 27, 1922. Description of shear banding as the mechanism competing with dislocation glide; shear banding contribution function - f SB R.B. Pecherski, Archives of Mechanics [1992], [1997]; Acta Mechanica [1998]; Technische Mechanik [1998]. Necessity of the description of shear banding contribution in deformation of ufg and nano-metals, hard deformable materials, amorphous materials (glassy metals), e.g.: L. Anand, C. Su, A theory for amorphous viscoplastic materials undergoing finite deformations, with application to metallic glasses, JMPS, 53, 1362-1396, 2005. Z. Nowak, P. Perzyna, R.B. Pecherski, Description of viscoplastic flow accounting for shear banding, Arch. Metall. Mat., 52, 2007.
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 106

Physical motivation
SEM image revealing the deformation and fracture behaviour of the bulk glassy Co43Fe20Ta55B31.5 alloy rod with a diameter of 2 mm deformed up to a true strain of 0.021at 698K. Shear bands and shear deformation induced fracture are observed on the specimen surface.

Akihisa Inoue et al., nature materials, 2, 661-663, 2003.


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 107

Physical motivation
An illumination-mode atomic force microscope image of a Berkovich indentation made in a Zr-based metallic glass, illustrating the formation of shear bands on the surface around the indent.
J-J. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Suresh and A.S. Argon, Science, 295, 654, 2002. C.A. Schuh and T.G. Nieh, J. Mater. Res.,19, 46-57, 2004.
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 108

Observations of shear banding - ufg Fe


quasistatic
d = 980 nm
d = 980 nm

high-strain rate deformations


d = 268 nm

d = 268 nm
d = 268 nm

crystallographic slip shear banding Change in deformation mode of ultrafine grained consolidated iron under uniaxial compression: (a) uniform low-rate deformation with d = 980 nm; (b) non-uniform low-rate deformation with d = 268 nm and (c) non-uniform high-rate deformation with d = 268 nm (Jia, Ramesh and Ma [2003]) .
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 109

Evolution and development of shear bands in 268 nm-Fe. Observations of shear bands at the same location at different nominal strain levels: (a) 3.7%; (b) 7.8%. Loading axis is vertical. Note the development of new shear bands, the broadening of existing shear bands, and the propagation of a shear band tip (Jia, Ramesh and Ma [2003]).

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110

Deformation of nano - and ufg metals


Experimental results of Jia, Ramesh and Ma, Acta Materialia, 51 (2003)

f SB - shear banding
contribution function

Z. Nowak, P. Perzyna R.B. Pecherski, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 52, 2007 free pdf available on the Journal website.

Typical stress-strain curves obtained for the consolidated iron under quasistatic and high-strain-rate uniaxial compression.
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 111

Multiscale hierarchy of shear bands in polycrystalline metals

A. Korbel and W. Bochniak [2004]

Homogeneous deformation by the crystallographic slip replaced by heterogeneous and localized one produced by micro-shear bands leads to significant reduction of global hardening rate. This phenomena may be enhanced and stabilized by the subsequent (e.g. cyclic) changes of the strain path during the deformation process KOBO method The controlled cyclic strain path changes enable also the refinement of the material microstructure.
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Multiscale hierarchy of shear bands in polycrystalline metals


CSB

Micro-shear band - long and very thin (ca. 0.1 m ) sheet-like region of concentrated and intensive plastic shear crossing grain boundaries without deviation Particular MSB operates only once and develops fully in very short time

Trace of the cluster of MSB

[Dziado, 1993] (courtesy of profesor Andrzej Korbel)


Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 113

Multiscale hierarchy of shear bands in polycrystalline metals


Position of shear bands depends on the scheme of loading during deformation. In rolled sheet - inclined by Traces of the clusters about 35o to the of MSB rolling plane and orthogonal to the specimen lateral face
[A. Korbel and W. Bochniak, 2004]
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 114

Multiscale hierarchy of shear banding in polycrystals


msb micro-shear bands
CSB CSB coarse slip band

msb
Trace of msb cluster

msb clusters

shear bands
[Dziado, 1993] (The micrograph provided by A. Korbel)
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 115

Literature
1. R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of large plastic deformations based on the mechanism of micro-shear banding. Physical foundations and theoretical description, Arch. Mech. (1992). R.B. Pcherski, Macroscopic measure of the rate of deformation produced by micro-shear banding, Arch. Mech. (1997). R.B. Pcherski, Macroscopic effects of micro-shear banding in plasticity of metals, Acta Mechanica (1998)

2.

3.

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116

Multiscale hierarchy of shear bands


Schematic illustration of multi-level hierarchy of micro-shear bands:
a) polycrystalline RVE with the increasing zone of shear banding, b) cluster of active micro-shear bands,

c) a single micro-shear band (comp. of CSB) R.B. Pcherski, Macroscopic measure of the rate of deformation produced by micro-shear banding, Arch. Mech. [1997]
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Some relations of the model

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118

System of active micro-shear bands as surface of strong discontinuity

R.B. Pcherski, Macroscopic effects of micro-shear banding in plasticity of metals, Acta Mechanica (1998)
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Macroscopic measure of the rate of deformation accounting for shear banding


R.B. Pcherski, Arch. Mech. 49, (1997)

Dp

p DS

p DSB

p DS rate of plastic deformation by slip p DSB rate of plastic deformation by shear banding

d f SB

D p , d SB d SB d
S

p DSB

2d

shear strain rate

instantaneous shear banding contribution

f SB
s

(1

f SB )

f SB

SB

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120

Contribution function of shear banding identification with use of the channel-die test

f MS

FMS ( )

fo (a b 1 e
33

1. R.B. Pcherski, Continuum mechanics description of plastic flow produced by micro-shear bands, Technische Mechanik 1998 2. Z. Nowak, R.B. Pcherski, Plastic strain in metals ... II. Numerical identification and verification of plastic flow law, Arch. Mech. 2002
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Account for the change of deformation path (Lode angle ) K. Kowalczyk Gajewska, R.B. Pcherski (2005)
(
p

(1

cos( )) D Dp
p

cos( )

6 3 det 2

f MS 1 e

fo (a b ( ))

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122

Plane strain compression (experimental data: Anand et al.) numerical simulations: K. Kowalczyk-Gajewska&R.B.Pcherski [2009]

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123

Simple compression (experimental data: Anand et al.) numerical simulations: K. Kowalczyk-Gajewska&R.B.Pcherski [2009]

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124

Simple shear (experimental data: Anand et al.) numerical simulations: K. Kowalczyk-Gajewska&R.B.Pcherski [2009]

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Vs

Viscoplastic flow law accounting for shear banding in application for ufg metals
(Z. Nowak, P. Perzyna, R.B. Pecherski, Arch. Metall. Materials, 2007)

VSB Representative Volume Element traversed by shear bands


Inst. contr. of shear banding

SB

V
SB

Vs VSB
Volume fraction of shear banding

f SB

f SB

V SB V
126

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Balance of plastic deformation power in RVE


assumption - no hardening

P P k k k

Ps

PSB , k s s (V VSB ), PSB fV ) k SB


SB V

k V , Ps k s (1 k s (1

k SB f
V SB

SB SB

f SB )(1

f , 0

VSB V

f SB )(1

f SVB )

for k SB

yield strength at shear

f SB <1
127

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Viscoplastic flow law accounting for shear banding


(1 f SB ) 0 S, F k 1 f SB <1, f SB
SB

f SB
S

- inst. shear banding contribution function

Perzyna model

- shear strain rate


by dislocation controlled slip

(1 f SB ) ks F () K
p

F 1 V ks (1 f SB )(1 f SB ) , , ,
p t 0

- excess stress
1 2

2 p D D p dt 3
2 m

function in Perzyna viscoplasticity model [1971]


2 e

1 3( 1) 2

9( 1) 2

- viscosity parameter
C Y T Y

SDE
128

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Burzyski paraboloid yield surface (M. yczkowski [1999])

F ()

1 3( 2

1)

9(

1)

2 m

2 e

T Y

The associated flow rule:


D
p 3 2

:' H
F
1

3 2

1 2H

1 9(

( 1)2

1) tr
2 m

4
2 3

2 e

tr
p p

e p

p dt

D : D dt

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129

Viscoplasticity model accounting for SDE

G ,

G
T Y

G ( ) F

1 3( 1) 2
=

9( 1)2

2 m

2 e

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130

Viscoplasticity model accounting for micro-damage

G ,

G
T Y

G G

G( ) F
0

(1 f SB ) ktr = K tr A 1,
p

F 1 V ktr (1 f SB )(1 f SB ) the void growht threshold stress

, ,

[ 0 , ),

T Y

V 3k s (1 f SB )(1 f SB )

1 3( = 1) 2

9( 1)2

2 m

2 e
131

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Dynamic compression
vp

f SB

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0x10 sModelling of inelastic R.B.3 Pcherski, behaviour of materials

132

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Concluding remarks
1. The novelty of presented approach consists in derivation of energy-based hypothesis of material effort well-founded on the multiscale analysis of deformation processes and assuming a measure of material effort as a definite part of elastic energy density on macroscopic level of continuous body related with critical strain processes. Studying the literature of the subject one can observe that the yield or failure criteria, which are obtained in the rigorous way from the energybased material effort hypothesis proposed originally by (Burzyski, 1928) were later rediscovered again and again for different ranges of empirical parameters independently by many researchers (R. Pecherski, Engng. Trans. 2008). Recent studies show that an adequate prediction of dynamic fracture processes should account for physical mechanisms activated on different levels of observation. In particular, the multiscale mechanism of shear banding plays pivotal role in the evolution of ductile fracture.
Agadir, July 08-12, 2013 R.B. Pcherski, Modelling of inelastic behaviour of materials 134

2.

3.