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70AP1119 APRIL 1970

MINIGUN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

EUIPMET AIRCRFTDIISIO

BURINGON

VEMN

Apr' 11 19 70

SUKIRJMC,

FINAL
.

WI~ORT, R&D :oNrthACI' IAAF') I-68-C-060

Tim documonrt

ii An

In ro1port for Scopo Itomns I throtigh 5

of *iuh.joct cantract, with ono oxcoption.


t

Whon tho L'in~il report

to tixtoiI for OIw Doqign Studiosw, Sope Itemi 6, it will contain

A ooction doserthing the work performed to incorporate timing CotAturteN In tho miniguin Oltith (Scope Item 2).

IP

AD APRIL 1970

70AP819 MINIGLJN RESE-ARCH AND DEVFLOPMENT PROGRAM FINAL REPORT By

,ugene " I. r

ymond

David R. Skinner ll%-nry R. White

(erard J. lesany
(lharle I). Roumer

Prepared For: U. S. Army Wapons Command Rock island, Illinois 61201

Prepared by:

General Electric Company Aircraft Equipment Division Burlington, Vemont 05401

CONTRACT DAAF 01-68C-0060 AMCMS Code Number 5142"12"11209"14

The findings in this report are not to be construed as an offi rial Department of the Army position unless so eisagnated by other authorized Joeunent&.

Fhe dhlribution of this dooiment ik unlimited.

AD APRIL 1970

70APB19 MINIGUN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

Bly Eugene B. Raymond David R. Skinner Henry R. White Gerard J. Desany Charles D. Roaser

Prepared for: U. S. Army Weapons Command Rock Island, Illinois 61201

Prepared by:

General Electric Company Aircracft Equipment Division Burlington, Vermont 05401

CONTRACT DAAF 01-68-C-00

PRECEDING PAGE BLANK


The distribution of this document
is unlimited.

2.

ABSTRACT This report describes the design, development, and testing of a new mnnigun bolt, clutch, side stripping feeder, guide bar (including tolerance studies), and armament pod for the XM-18.

The new bolt functions independently of any external cam, other than the
main housing cam, and is completely interchangeable in all existing systems. Other advantages include reduced cost, longer life, and greater reliability. The new solenoid operated clutch is located in the aft end of the gun Dminigun * and, therefore, does not interfere with the feed systems of the numerous applications. The clutch stops the feed system at the end of a burst, but allows the gun to rotate and clear. A large savings is realized because It has no live ammunition is dumped during clearing. The new delinking feeder sidestrips, rathe- than endstrips. fewer parts and is more durable, life of the feeder. Tolerance studies of the guide bar interfacing with gun and feeder, highspeed films of round handoff from feeder to gun, and evaluations of various guide bar concepts were performed in an attempt to design a new guide bar which would decrease the gun's dependency on feeder timing and increase its tolerance to damaged ammunition. Conclusions and recommendations based on the studies, films, and evaluations are also included. The new feed and storage system for the minigim pod incorporates a storage drum similar to the MXU 470 Minigun Module with a new feeder design that has fewer parts and is more durable. The combination of these new features more than doubles the reliability of the pod.

thereby reduci,,g the cost and increasing the

PRECEDING PAGE BLANK


iii

ii

....

_ _ _

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section I

Title MINIGUN BOLTS, SCOPE ITEM 1 ................... A. ....... ............. DESCRIPTION OF TANGLESS BOLTS.... .................. INTRODUCTION ........... DEVELOPMENT .......... 1. Testing ............ 2. Stoppages. ............... MAINTENANCE ............ I-A. I-B. I-C. I-D. I-E. ...................... ....................... ..................... ..... ......................
..

Page

1
1 2 3 4 5 6 17 29 33 38 S0 50 So 50 51 51 52 53 55 56 58| 9 77 82 99 101 102 102 102

B.
C.

D.

SAPPENDIX SAPPENDIX
APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX

......... ......... Drawings ........... ......... Photos and Illustrations ..... Test Results ...................... .. . .. Weight and Center ofGaity .. Tolerance Study .......... .............. SCOPE ITEM 2 .............. ........

II
A

MINIGUN CLUTCH, A. B.

..................... ..... INTRODUCTION ........... .................. METHOD OF OPERATION .......... 1. Basic Operation ............ ................ 2. Detailed Operation ....... ............... .................. a. Firing Mode ........ .................. b. Clearing Cycle ......... c. Power Loading ........ ... .................

.... . .

C.
SD. D

........... TESTING......

...................
..

. ....
. ..

1. Clutch Unit 1.......... ... ................... ................... Clutch Unit 2 ............. 2. .. .. .. INSTALLATION PROCEDURE . .. .. II-A. II-B. II-C. II-D. II-E.

APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX

Drawings . . . . .............. Photos and Illustrations ..... ......... ................. ....... Test Results .. Weight and Center of Gravity .. ....... Final Report Minigun DeclutUiing System ... ................. Analysis .........

A. B. C. D. E. F.

ABSTRACT . . ... ...... ... .... . . . INTRODUCTION ..... ................... APPROACH ..... .................... . TEST PROGRAM . . . . . . . . PEAK LOADS IN THE SEVERAL MINIGUN SYSTEMS WITH* SEVERAL STOPS ........... . . . . . . . ............... ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION .....

0 107
108

PRECEDING PAGE BLANK


V

TABLE OF CONTENTS "cont)

Section G. H. J. K. L. M. N. 0.

Title SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF THE ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION .............. ................... DISCUSSION ........... ....... .............

Page

_.

...

108 109

I. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION (FOR DIGITAL COMPUTER)


DIGITAL COMPUTER PROGRAM . . ......... . .......... MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION (FOR ANALOG COMPUTER) " DISCUSSION OF ANALOG COMPUTER RESULTS ......... .. . . STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE DECLUTCHING MECHANISM RhLoi,4MENDATION ..... .................. .... CLUTCH HOUSING RESTRAINING LUG TORQUE ... . . . . CAPABILITY..........

110
111 114 117 117 118 119

P.
Q. R.

CLUTCH LUG SOCKET LOAD CAPABILITY IN CLUTCH


.................. HOUSING ............ CLUTTCH LOAD CAPABILITY IN INTERNAL LUGS OF ACTUATOR GEAR............ . ... .. .. ... ANALYSIS OF STRESS IN REAR GEAR ON ROTOR (REGION BELOW TEETH ROOTS) ............. ... ........ ...

1
119 120 121

S.

POSSIBLE MODIFICATION OF ACTUATOR GEAR DESIGN . . .


... ......................

122
123

APPENDIX II-F .......... A.

...

DECLUTCHING MECHANISM ANALYSIS, MOMENT OF INERTIA OF THE MODULE FEED SYSTEM.... . ... . . . . . .. . FEED SYSTEM (ASSUMED LUMPED IN THE DRUM) .. .... SPRING CONSTANT OF THE MODULE FEED SYSTEM ........ SPRING CONSTANT OF THE NEW POD FEED SYSTEM ... ............ ..

124 127 128 131 156 156 157 157 160 161 163 173 176 178 178 178 179 179

B. CALCULATION OF MOMENT OF INERTIA OF THE MODULE


C. D. III

SIDE STRIPPING FEEDER, SCOPE ITEM 3 ..... A. B. C. D.

... ... ... ... .... ... . ... ...

INTRODUCTION ............. ..................... DESIGN OBJECTIVES .......... .................. HIFTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ......... ... ................ METHOD OF OPERATION ........ .................. III-A. III-B. III-C. III-D. Drawing .......... ... ........... Photos and Illustrations ... ......... Test Results .. ........... Weight and Center of Gravity . . . SCOPE ITEM 4 ..... .. _ ..............

APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX IV

MINIGUN GUIDE BAR, A.

INTRODUCTION.._.......

.. ..................
. . . . . . .

B. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . C. TOLERANCE STUDIES ..... ............. D. HIGH-SPEED FILMS ............. . ...........

.. . .

. .

vi

,L

- - * - -,-

TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont)

Section E.

Title EVALUATION OF VARIOUS GUIDE BAR DESIGNS ......... ........... 1. Replaceable Guide Bar Fingers ...... ................ Modified Round Path ........ 2. New Rim Guide.................... 3. 4. Mechanisms to Increase the Gun's Tolerance to ................... Late Feeding ............... .............. a. Movable Rim Guides ....... .............. Accelerators ............. b. Cl) Angle-Multirpying MechanIsm .......... (2) Spring Lever Mechanism . . . . . . . .... (3) Solenoid Kicker ........ Illustrations ...... Tolerance Study...... XM-18, ...............
. . . . . . . .

Page . ... 180 181 181 181 181 182 182 182 183 183 184 195 248
. . . . . . . .

... .. ...
. .

APPENDIX IV-A. APPENDIX IV-B. V ARMAMENT POD, B. D. E. SU1iARYD.

. .

SCOPE ITEM 5 ................. . ... . .

A. INTRODUCTION. .. ...........................
............................
.

248
248

C. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT.........
END ITEM CONFIGURATION ......... ............ TESTING ..... V-A. V-B. V-C. V-D.

..................
. .

249
253 253 255 264 276 282

................ .........

APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX


A-

. .... . ....... . . . . . Drawings.... Photos and Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ...... Test Results . Weight and Center of Gravity ..........

Im

[:!.

..

rI

Ii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Title ............... Bolt Head Subassembly .......... ............... Bolt Body Subassembly .......... ................... Head Bolt .................. ..... ................... Body Bolt ........... .I.I.. .................. Firing Pin ........... ... .................. Spring Stop Pin ......... ... Helical Compression Spring ...... ............ .. .................... Cam Roller ............. .................. Thrust Washer ................ ... ................... Headed Pin ............. ... ................... Bolt Assembly ........... Bolt Asscmbly ........... ................... ... .............. Exploded Bolt Assembly ........... ... .................. Timing Diagram ........... .............. Modified Bolt Assembly ........... ... ................. Cracked Bolt Head ......... .... ..................... Detent ............. ..................... Cook-off ................. ..... .............. Sheared Roller Stub ..... (Sheet 1 of 2) Computer Program for Self... ................. Actuating Bolts ......... (Sheet 2 of 2) Computer Program for Self... .................. Actuating Bolts ......... Computer Output for Self-Actuating Bolts ... ..... ... ........... Center of Gravity of Bolt ....... Tolerance Study Layout of Tangless Bolt ... ...... Action Time Study for Self-Actuating Bolt Assembly. ... .................. Power Loading ............ ... .................... Solenoid ............... ... ................. Bearing Housing ........... ... ................. Actuator Yoke ............ ... ................. Clutch Housing ........... ................... Actuator Arm ............. ......... ..... Gear Actuator .................... ..... ....... Rotating Knife Ring ............ ..... ............ Liner .................... ..... ......... Rotor Spur Gear .............. ........................ .... Mounting Bracket ..... Aft Gun Support ...................... .................. Rotor Housing .......... ................ Aft Gun Support ... ...... . ................ .......... Link .......... . ............... ........ Pivot Arm .....

Page 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1s 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 28 34 4P 49 54 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74

viii

4,

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure No. 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Title

(cont)

Page

SSudden

Clutch Assembly ........ .................. ... 75 Ball Bearing ............... ................... 76 Clutch Assembly on Minigun (Rear View) .. ...... .. 78 Clutch Assembly (Rear View) ... ........... ..... 78 Clutch Assembly (Front View) ....... ........... 79 Clutch Assembly Mounted on Gun Rotor (Side View).. 79 Clutch Assembly Mounted on Gun Rotor (Rear View).. 80 Clearance Between Decision and Non-Decision Knives...................................... . 80 Exploded Clutch Assembly ..... ........... .... 81 Clutch Assembly ........ .................. ... 100 Peak Torque on Minigun Pod Feeder Shaft vs Rate 103 Peak Torque A-37 System with Stops on ofMinigun Rear Gear ofFeed Rotor ........ 104 Peak Torque on Minigun Pintle Mount Delinking Feeder Shaft with Sudden Stops of Rear Gear of Rotor .............. ....................... ... Peak Torque on Minigun Module Exit Shaft with Sudden Stops of Rear Gear on Rotor ... ........ .. Program for Feed Systems with Sudden Stops . ... Pod with Module-type Drum and New Feeder ..... Second Order Nonlinear Equation of Motion ...... Declutching Torque Estimated from Analog Computer Results ............ ...................... ... Steady State Feeder Torque vs Rate at Several Drum Loads for the Module System ..... ........... ... Module Feed System Spring Constant .. ...... .... New Pod Feed System Spring Constant . . . . . . .. . Present Module ......... ................. .... Present Module ............... ................. New Pod ............ ..................... .... New Pod ............ .................... .... Module with 2000 Rounds ..... ............. .... Module with 2000 Rounds ................ ....... Module with 3000 Rounds ..... ............. .... Module with 3000 Rounds ...... ............ .... New Pod with 3000 Rounds ..... ............ ... New Pod with 3000 Rounds ..... ............. ... Module with 2000 Rounds ...... .............. ... Module with 2000 Rounds ...... .............. ... Module with 3000 Rounds ...... ............. ... Module with 3000 Rounds ...... .............. ... New Pod with 3000 Rounds ..... ............. ... New Pod with 3000 Rounds ..... ............. ... Module with 2000 Rounds .............. Module with 3000 Rounds ...... ............. ...

105 106 112 113 115 116 126 130 132 133 134 135 136 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 151

54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79

is

ix

LIST 01, II,IAI0I'RATION.i

(iont)

Figure No,
80

lIt T Io
Module witt%3000 Htounds . . . . .

Pt . ...
.

81 82 83
84 85

Modulo with .000 Hounds . N,- Pod with 3000 Rounds. N, , Pod with 3000 Rounds
Sido Stripping Feeder Feeder . . . . . .
......

..

. ..
,

15I 153 1.4


155

161 105
166 168 160 170 171 172 177

. .

.4

86

87 89 90 91 92 93 94

1embdyr and Geun

Sidu Stripping Mechanism

.Mounted

, . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .......... . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . ... run . .%$011* ..... . .. . . .


. . .... .

Side Stripping Didram . . Link Jam . . . . . . . . . . Disassoinblod lFeudar .. . Entronoo Aron. . . . . . . . Food Si'le . . . . . . . . . . ,Assembly of Feeder Mounted to Side Stripping Feeder . . .,

167

95
96 97 98

Cartridge Ilandoff - Feeder/Guide Bar/ Head Bolt ,


Modified Round Path . . . ... New Rim Guide . . . . . . . . . . Guide Bar, Adjustable Rim Guide .... . . .
. .

185

180
. . .. . . 187 188 189 191 .
.

99 100
101 102

Guido Bar Back Face Rim Guido,


Adjusting for Excess Loading
.

Foodor Side Self. ..

Spring Rim Guido

Spring-loaded Rim Guide . .. Angle-Multiplying Mechanism Solenoid Kicker ........... . . . ... .

,...

. . ..
.. . .........
. . . . . .......

190

.......
.

192

103
104

Spring Lever Mechanism to Control Round

. .

193
194

105 106 107 108 109 110


i11

Maximum-Minimum Positions of Feeder Components Maximum Allowable Delay to Feeder Sprocket from
Timed Position .........
. .

233
236

112
113 114

Clearing Guide Interference . ..... ..... ....... Barrel Plug .... ....... ........ ......... Aircraft Armament Pod...256 Exit Unit Assembly. .............. . . Feeder Assembly......... ..... ..... . . . Loader Assembly , . ............... ..
Gun Support Assembly Drum Assembly ......
................

243 247 257


258

259
260 261

...................

115
116

Aft Drum Assembly .,....

. .

.... .
. .

..................
. ........

62
263

Battery and Control Assembly

117 118 119 120

Feed and Storage System with Gun (Right Side View) ....... ... ................... Feed and Storage System with Gun (Left Side View) ....... ... .................. Loader and Exit Unit with Loader in Load Position ..... ..................... Loader and Exit Unit with Loader in Stored Position .. . . ......... .................

... 265 ... 266 267 ... 268

I.0l Figur. No, .1

01t II0,10TRATIONSI Title

(cont) Page .. . .

.. rPeodor nota&leid oi Prod ..... .oodor Showing T'ime C~learing Mechanism .

123 124
15I 116 1,1

Inner Dmrum ftxtrusion ............... Round P'ositloned in Inner l'Drum . ......... Pound I'ath Through Ioader and Bxit Unit, Now Delsign . . . . . .. I I % % $ . . (.oht I of 2) Design Study of Inner Drum to bxit Sprocket Handoff . . . . ............. (Shoot 2 of 2) Design Study of Ininer Drum to Exit Sprockowt llandoff .

259 270 271 272

273
274

27S

ix

i,IST OF TABLEtS Number I II Ti t Le R 4 1) Tlngles LUolts Firing Schedule . . . . . . . . Total Rotnds on H !I,1) Bolt Assemblies by lholt Body . . 4. .. . 6 Number . . . . . . . . . . . Live 'resting Clutch Unit I - Module System . . . . .. Live 'resting Clutch Unit 1 - A-37 System . . * . . . Continued Live Testing Unit 2, Prior Testing 246 Actuations, 21,500 Rounds Fired . . . . . . . . . . Peak Torquos for Sudden Stops from 6000 spin . . . . Torque at Rear Gear of Rotor on Declutching of Feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . System . . . ... ... ...
. . . . . . . . . . .

Page 30, 32 31

III
IV V

83-89
90-92 93-98

VI
VIl Vill

107

. .

122

IX
X XI Xil XIII XIV

129 Spring Constant of the Module Feed System . . . . . .. 131 Spring Constant of the New Pod Feed System . . . . . .. 137 Potentiometer Settings for Analog Computer . . . . . . Side Stripping Feeder, Live Test Results, Design No. 2 . 174, 175 Summary of Results for High-Speed Films of 7.62-mm 246 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Round Handoff 252 ...... ..... Par'ts Eliminated from'Feeder.;.. Summary of Results on 1SO,000-Round Engineering Reliability 'rest of Research and Development Foed and 277-281 ...... .. Storage System

xv

7.62-mm Aircraft Machine Gun Armaent Pod, Weight Data


Report ........... ......................... ... 283

xii

LL

SECTION I MINIGUN BOLTS, SCOPE ITEM 1 A, INTRODUCTION

Scope Item I of this contract specified a new bolt design that will be fully interchangeable with all existing guns and systems. The bolt will be self-operating and independent of cams external to the bolt other than the main gun housing cam. cost, Other desirable features would be lower manufacturing A design longer life, and greater reliability than the present design.

requiring a minimum of maintenance with less dependence on lubrication when resetting the firing pin was also desired. The design criteria attained in the final configuration exceed all initial development expectations. B. DESCRIPTION OF TANGLESS BOLTS The bolt design finally accepted is commonly referred to as a two-pin, self-actuating bolt. This design surpasses all original estimates of life There are only seven parts in expectancy and operational characteristics. possible.

this design, making greater reliability and greater ease in assembly Figures 11, 12, and 13 show the bolt assembly.

As the name "self-actuating" implies, both triggering and resetting are performed as the bolt head locks and unlocks. Only the linear action of the Triggering is conResetting is performed by gun housing cam is required to actuate the firing pin. trolled by the "L" slot located in the bolt head.

a triangular camming surface in the aft portion of the bolt body. The operating cycle is initiated as the rotor turns, assembly forward in reaction to the housing cam. feeding the bolt

The bolt head turns into

lock and makes contact with the barrel face. The aft pin located in the bolt body prevents the firing pin from rotating with the bolt head. The "L" slot rotates relative to the forward cross pin located in the firing pin. Bolt head rotation continues until the forward cross pin rounds the "UL slot corner. The firing pin is then aligned to move forward in the longitudinal slot and is accelerated by the firing pin spring to indent the primer of the fully chambered round.

i
_ _ _

~II1_

After dwell, the gun housing cam interacts with the rotor rotation to pull the bolt body aft to rotate the bolt head out of lock. rotates the firing pin and retracts it from the primer. This action Firing pin reset

occurs when the forward cross pin reacts with the cross slot in the bolt head. During the last unlocking action of the bolt head, the aft cross pin interacting with the bolt body cams the firing pin in a clockwise rotation to its reset position. The two cross pins then transmit the extract loads. This cycle is represented in Figure 14. This bolt design eliminated the need for the firing pin camming surface to be cut into the gun rotor and maintained at depot level. The new design also has a longer bolt body, providing more control of the bolt assembly as it moves forward in the rotor trackways. Primer indents are more nearly central due to increased support in the trackways. Wear of the removable tracks is reduced, increasing their life. Since the bolt head is firmly affixed to the assembly by the forward cross pin, it is impossible for a bolt head separation from the bolt body to occur, thereby a possible source of gun stoppage is eliminated. is 250,000 rounds. Spring stress is reduced in this design by Life expectancy of the spring increasing the coil diameter of the spring.

The life expectancy of the bolt assembly is not known as five of the six original test bolts have been tested for over 300,000 rounds and remain operational. replaced. during tests. All testing analyses and tolerance studies show this bolt to be a This design is expected to far exceed the present standard of reliability and part longevity at a significantly reduced cost. C. DEVELOPMENT superior product. Only the forward cross pin a:.d springs have been The new bolts functioned well at all rates from 750 to 6500 spm

Several designs were studied in the initial development state of a bolt mechanism which would function independent of the gun rotor. After an extensive evaluation of operating characteristics, reliability, producibility, and cost, the two-pin design was decided upon as the best approach. Work was then initiated on a set of prototypes. Concurrent work was done on tolerance and timing studies.

Particular effort was given to the firing pin spring to decrease the working stress necessary for the spring to deliver enough energy to insure primer firing, while keeping spring stresses as low as possible. A computer This program was written to determine the parameters for an optimal spring. pick the best one for the new bolt.

program made is possible to analyze many different spring combinations and The program was also used to determine and fall time The The computer program theoretical values for firing pin velocity, acceleration, thereby, greatly increasing new design comprehension.

and a print out of the present spring are included in Figures 20 and 21. are theoretical values
-

values of energy in this program are higher than actual values because they the effects of friction were neglected. However, frictional losses will be a constant; therefore, the optimal theoretical spring will also be the optimal actual spring.
1.

Testing

When the calculations and tolerance studies were complete, certain changes were made on the prototypes. They were then assembled and test fired. The testing revealed misfire occurance at both high and low rates. Corrective action involved making new An investigation showed that under certain conditions firing pin protrusion was insufficient to fire the round. pins with an additional 0.070 inch on the forward end. Further testing indicated the misfire percentage had been reduced, but a very low (1 in 2000 rounds) percentage of misfires still existed. Further investigation of these persistent misfires indicated the aft pin might be rotating out of its proper firing position. To eliminate this possibility, a set of bolts was modified with a special cantilever spring arrangement (see Figure 15). position. This spring, located on the underside of the to its proper bolt, applied a force to the aft pin which returned it

Resumed testing showed this configuration reduced misfire occur-

ance, but did not eliminate it, A more detailed test was evolved to eliminate certain variables and determine the ba. ic problem. Velocity screens were employed in an effort to determine which bolt(s) misfired in a burst. With msfires occurring so infrequently, The test this test arrangement was needed to determine if one bolt was misfiring consist-

ently or if all the bolts were misfiring in a random manner.

Sshowed all the bolts were misfiring at random.

3!

The timing study was re-evaluated; it was fourvd that under extreme conditions 0.030-inch of coast was possible in the firing pin. The fall off point was advanced three degrees and 0.030 inch was added to the fall off side of the "L" slot to correct this situation. During the surface welding of the The cracks have in no "L" slot to accommodate the three-degree change, a small crack was initiated in each of the six bolts being welded (see Figure 16). way affected the operation of these bolts. cant improvement in bolt operation. above 1500 shots per minute (spmi). Further testing indicated a zone between 1000 and 1500 spm where misfires still occurred. It was observed, under certain conditions, the aft pin could work its way out of its required firing position. position. Wear on the forward pin was the only problem remaining. cases, this wear amounted to 0.007 inch after 50,000 rounds. In some A small detent three degrees to further reduce extract torque. The aft helix was also moved These changes made a signifi-

No misfires were observed at any rate

(see Figure 17' was added to the aft helix to hold the aft pin in its proper

The pins were

given a greater surface hardness to eliminate this wear. Using the same base material, a new process known as "Tufftriding" gave a surface hardness in the Rc 70's. A set of these specially treated pins presently has been used for over 150,000 rounds with only negligible wear. Testing after the detent was added and the surface hardness of the forward pin was increased revealed no misfires. single misfire. 2. Stoppages Several stoppages occurred during the testing period. appreciable damage to the assemblies. in a cook-off situation (see Figure 18). Two did In one test, over 10,000 1300 spm without a rounds were fired at the previously troublesome rate of

One bolt head was split along one side Another bolt was damaged when a This The

defective pit pin allowed the safing sector to open during firing. resulted in the shearing of a body bolt roller (see Figure 19). This left five of the original six bolts operational. been tested well over 300,000 rounds. a complete mechanical failure occurs. 4

undamaged parts of these two bolts were combined to make one good assembly. This set of bolts has Testing will continue on the set until

D.

MAINTENANCE Lubrication is of prime importance in bolt assembly maintenance. It has

a direct affect on part life and reliability and should always be performed thoroughly and as often as use dictates. assembly. If Mil-L-46000 with teflon is Mil-L-46000 is compatible with this

used, the operational life of the

assembly will increase. 1. 2.

The key lubrication areas are listed below.

Aft helix (top and bottom) Head, body interface

3. 4.

Firing pin Forward pin*

Both pins must be removed to completely assemble or disassemble these bolts. However, the bolt head, body, and spring can be separated by removing

only the aft pin. The forward pin is held in place by a medium drive press fit. This pin

can be assembled from only one direction. Do not remove this pin unless it

When changing this pin make

certain the firing pin holes line up with the clearance hole in the bolt head. is absolutely necessary. Unnecessary causing the pin removal will wear both the forward pin and its mating hole, to fit loosely and reduce the bolt's efficiency. The aft pin is held in place by the firing pin spring. Care must be If

taken in replacing this pin to make sure the flat is it is not correctly aligned,

correctly aligned.

the pin may become loose and cause a malfunction.

*When the forward pin is

lubricated,

excessive grease may b.,ild up in

the

"LU' slot, causing a malfunction.

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1

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Photos and Illustrations

I.

. ..

180

L-4

00

wLL.

caa

z
LUJ I-

19

Figure 13.

Exploded Bolt Assembly 20

FEED

ASECTION

A-A

LOCKED

-B

SECTION B-B

Cj

POINT OF FIRING

SECTION C-C
S

04
EI

SECTION

E-E SE CTION

D-D

ii iiRESET
"FF

EXTRACT --.
Figure 14.

"F
Timing Diagram 21

SECTION F-F

If

() (Side View) Figure 1S, Modified Bolt Assembly

22

,,/.,CRACK AREA

BOLT tiEAD

-4,a

.015 In. DETENT

BOLT BOOY
Figure 17. Detent

23

V I

IcRAC'K

('a)

Bolt Assembly

(b) Bolt Assembly (End View) Figure 18. Cook-off 24

*1 ... .

Figure 19.

Sheared Roller Stub

25

001 002 003 004 00S 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 030 040 060 065 070 080 090 100 110 120 130 140 141 142 144 146 148 150 155 160 170 180 190

PRINT "THIS IS A SPRING PROGRAM THAT WILL AID IN" PRINT "DEVELOPING NEW SPRINGS. BEFORE USING THIS" PRINT "PROGRAi,4 CHECK ALL VARIABLES ." PRINT "WHAT IS THE WIRE DIA." INPUT DI PRINT "WHAT IS THE O.D." INPUT D2 PRINT "WHAT IS THE FREE HEIGHT" INPUT F3 PRINT 2WHAT IS THE COMPRESED HEIGHT" INPUT F2 PRINT "WHAT IS THE MAX. WORKIND HEIGHT" INPUT Fl PRINT "WHAT IS THE NUMBER OF TURNS" INPUT N LET G=11.SE06 LET F=F3-F2 LET P=(F*G*D1A4)/(N*8*(D2-D1)A3) LET PI=P LET R=P/(F3-F2) LET C=(D2-D1)/D1 LET H=(D2*(N+2))/(C+1) LET SI=(8*P*(D2-D1))/(3.1416*D1A3) LET K=((4*C-1)/(4*C-4))+(.615/C) LET S2=S1*K LET P2=R*(F3-F1) LET EI=((F1-F2)*P2)+(.S*(P1-P2)*(F1-F2)) PRINT PRINT "THE MAX. FORCE IS";P PRINT "THE SOLID HEIGHT IS ";H PRINT "THE SPRING RATE IS ";R PRINT "THE SPRING STRESS IS ";S2 PRINT "THE SPRING ENERGY IS ";El PRINT PRINT "DO YOU WANT PIN ENERGY(YES=O,NO=1)"; INPUT Z IF Z=1 THEN 310 PRINT "WHAT IS THE WEIGHT OF YOUR PIN IN POUNDS"

Figure 20.

(Sheet 1 of 2)

Computer Program for Self-Actuating Bolts 26

200 21) 220 240 250 26U 270 280 290 300 305 310 320 330 340 342 344 350 355 360 365 370 380 382 384 390 400 402 405 410 411 412 413 420 430 440 450

INPUT W LET Ml=W/386 LET S=S2 LET I=(3.1416*S*DlA3)/(16*((D2-D1)/2)*K) LET J=(G*DI^4)/(64*N*((D2-DI)/2)^3) LET M2=((D2-D1)*3.1416*(N+2)*3.1416*(D1/2)A2*.282)/386 LET M3=Ml+(M2/3) LET V2=(((2*I)/M3*(F1-F2))-((J/M3)*(F1-F2)A2) LET E2=.S*M3*V2 PRINT "THE VALUE OF E2 IS";E2 PRINT PRINT "DO YOU WANT PIN VELOCITIES(YES=O,NO=1"; INPUT Q IF Q=1 THEN 410 PRINT "THIS PART OF THE PROGRAM GIVES A THEO VALUE OF" PRINT"PIN VELOCITY , 4CCELERATION , AND TIME FOR EVERY" PRINT ".01 INCHES OF TRAVEL STARTING FROM REST ." PRINT "DISTANCE VEL ACC TIME" LET K=O LET F4=F2 LET F4=F4+.01 LET V2=(((2*I)/M3)*(F4-F2))-((J/M3)*(F4-F2)A2) LET V=SQR(V2) LET A=(I-J*(F4-F2))/M3 LET T=(1.0/V)*(F4-F2) IF F4>F1 THEN 410 PRINT F4,VAT IF K=l THEN 413 GO TO 365 LET F4=Fl LET K=1 GO TO 370 PRINT "EO YOU WANT TO TRY AGAIN(YES=0, NO=l)"; INPUT X IF X=l THEN 450 GO TO 04 END

Figure 20.

(Sheet 2 of 2)

Computer Program for Self-Actuating Bolts

27

THIS IS A SPRING PROGRAM THAT WILL AID IN BEFORE USING THIS DEVELOPING NEW SPRINGS. PROGRAM CHECK ALL VARIABLES WHAT IS THE WIRE DIA. ? .060 WHAT IS THE O.D. ? .270 WHAT IS THE FREE HEIGHT ? 2.20 WHAT IS THE COMPRESED HEIGHT

? 1.62
WHAT IS THE MAX. WORKIND HEIGHT

? 1.78
WHAT IS THE NUMBER OF TURNS ? 22.0 THE MAX. FORCE IS 53.0347

THE SOLID HEIGHT IS

1.44

THE SPRING RATE IS 91.4392 THE SPRING STRESS IS 193761. THE SPRING ENERGY IS 7.31513 DO YOU WANT PIN ENERGY(YES=0,NO=I)? 0 WHAT IS THE WEIGHT OF YOUR PIN IN POUNDS ? .0514 THE VALUE OF E2 IS 7.31513 DO YOU WANT PIN VELOCITIES(YES=0,NO=1)? 0 THIS PART OF THE PROGRAM GIVES A THEO VALUE OF PIN VELOCITY , ACCELERATION , AND TIME FOR EVERY .01 INCHES OF TRAVEL STARTING FROM REST . VEL ACC DISTANCE 1.63 85.4356 361789. 355442. 1.64 120.298 349094. 146.686 1.65 1.66 168.628 342747. 336400. 1.67 187.688 1.68 204.674 33(1053. 220.066 323706. 1.69 234.178 317359. 1.7

TIME 1.17047E-04 1.66254E-04 2.04518E-04 2.37209E-04 2.66399E-04 2.93149E-04 3.18087E-04 3.41620E-04

1.71 1.72 1.73


1.74 1.75 1.76 1.77

247.231 259.384 270.758


281.448 291.528 301.061 310.096

311011. 304664. 298317


291970. 2G3623. 2"')276. 272928

3.64032E-04 3.85529E-04 4.06267E-04


4.26367E-04 4.45926E-04 4.65022E-04 4.83721E-04

1.78
1.78

318.677
318.677

266581
266581.

5.02076E-04
5.02076E-04

DO YOU WANT TO TRY AGAIN(YES=O,NO=I)? 1 Figure 21. Computer Output for Self-Actuating Bolts 28

A P P E N D I X Test Results

I-C

29

Table I.

R & D Tangless Bolts Firing Schedule Bolt Arrangement

Bolt Set

T2 la 2a

2, 5, 2, 5,

Bolt Body No. 3, 4, 8, 9, 12 6, 7, 10, 13, 14 3, 7, 8, 9, 12 6, 4, 10, 13, 14 Rounds Fired 22,000 49,600 1500
9000

Bolt Set lb Ic ld A B System

Bolt Body No. 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, Prod. bolt 3, 7, 8, 9, Prod. bolt, Prod. bolt 2+, 3, 7, 8, 9, Prod. Bolt 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14 10, 13, 14, 4*, 5*, 6* Remarks

Bolt Set 1 2 2
1

Firing Date 3771/769 3/24 5/6


5/9

'R&D feeder
prod. pod XN 21 stand w/clutch A-37 blast tube
R&D feedse

prod pod 2 1 2 1
1

5/12 5/12 5/12 5/12


5/13

1500 4500 7500 7500


13,500

la 2a la la A B la la
B

6/3 6/3 6/4 6/9 6/17 6/18 6/18 6/19


6/19

5200 100 6000 4400 20,000 8000 8000 12,000


8000 1

XCM 21 stand

Bolt assemblies 4 and 7 exchanged between sets

A-37 w/clutch XM 21 stand XM 21 XM 21 stand Amount of lubrication varied Cantilever spring on 3 assys. Safing sector moved to different spacings Rates varied

30

Table I. Firing Date 7/9 7/10 7/31 8/1 8/4 8/5 8/7 8/8

R & D Tangless Bolts Firing Schedule (cont.) Rounds Fired 12,000 8000 11,000 10,500 9000 6000 11,700 11,000 XM 21 clutch Cook-off split bolt head bolt assy. (body 2) replaced by prod. bolt assy. New bolt set (std. instead of bolt assy. 2) XM 21 stand w/clutch

Bolt Set la la la la la la la la

System

Remarks

lb lb lb lb lb

8/13 8/14 8/29 9/3 9/8

4500 9000 10,000 12,000 9000

XM 21

Detent added to aft helix in

rear of bolt body


R&D pod w/R&D feeder Stoppage - safing sector pin came loose - bolt assy. (body 12) sheared bolt roller

lc lc ld Id ld Total

9/8 9/9 9/9 9/10 9/30

36,000 3000 45,000 3000 1500 400,500 XM 21 stand Note: + in Bolt Arrangement

+ Bolt body 2 (from cook-off on 8/8/69, which cracked the bolt assembly head) combined with bolt head 15 (from sheared roller stud on 9/8/69. which lost the bolt body 12) * Special bolt assemblies with a cantilever spring added to the rear pin (reset pin in bolt body).

31

Table II.

Total Rounds on R&D Bolt Assemblies by Bolt Body Number

Body No. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Rounds Fired 36,800 47,217 12,000 12,700 12,700 51,067 50,550 50,550

Sets Appearing in
1, la,

la .b, ic, B B B lb, A, lb, A, lb, A, 1c, ld Ic, ld Ic, ld Id

1,

la,

1, 2a, 2, 2, 2, 2a, 2a, la,

1, la, 1, la,

10 12
13 14 Body 2 + Head 15

16,022 40,717
16,022 16,022 8250

2, 2a, A, B. 1, la, Ib, id


2, 2, ld 2a, A, B 2a, A, B

32

A P P E N D I X

I-D

Weight and Center of Gravity

33

Pi

We

, )I

rov I tv

t Iin 'm It A $I' r all I) Ix Ifl m tq I tfi, it I'ho p rodmi t Ion tild At I f- a ' t %rII weight, with the sl' f-acittIunt1 livbi1ng %I Ilht IY hriPvt (i, lFor Ior 0 s Io1 %i the center of gravity ,,vv oltclosd *Iktch.

1,

SO I f - act uA t Iu+ tip27n~

Produlct per bolt 0,01590 pound

Weight in1' as4

.005 in. .0 0 5 In. .0 13 in.


- 1 .4 9 In.-

NOT TO SCALE

Figure 22.

Center of Gravity of Bolt

34

11CHNIKAt ANAMAS~

P#AM

IV

PAOI

IU~ IVi 0AT


CL) KuP~t~ UEAM19
Cj)sv6% lck

(u

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KA~o bU's 41 -JPof4

TICHNICAI ANAM14g FORM


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f6w1AeKu~~

MtODU

DATI Ifi

ply.~o

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oy36

TICHNICAL ANAMYSI KAM

NY$,INIA,@IIUCT#IC
CK

ILOI
___ ___ __

4 j ~ t
1 -6

V
Nov W -AT

mil Lital1-1

' 6 ~',37

A P P E N I) I X

I-

Tolerance Study

38

TECHNICA ANAL'VSI FORM CK. IIA mc t"I MODli


ArmyO (g'3&

L140A

DATE d)*~Crdo.15 aIy,


TtA"L95% %.t,

Ta~logec lI3u

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.

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90

54.0 to. OCtO 8 Lac Of COA~

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1! 2*= mtooi~L!, T

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40

TECHNICAL ANALYSIS FORN

BY

CK.

GININALSILICTRIC
REV.

PAGE s REPORT

MODEL 'I o7

Opp

DATE 0) 0 06'r- 6

*Alt'r ?F.& C.AwooNr*c:r


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TECHNICAL. ANALYSIS FORM

BY
CK. DATE 4J &LT. 114. REV.

GIIA

LCRC

PAGE
OE REPORT

4o~

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42

TECHNICAL ANALYSIS FORM

By CK. DATE '4OCT Mal REV.

GENftIERAL

ELECTRIC

PAGE MODEL REPORT

Or

ASICKSL~Et

44hotvSr T

cM

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14

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TECHNICAL ANALYSIS FORM

'By 0-4IuPAGE

CK.
DATE '%OCT ft REV.

IMODEL
REPORT

4O'

1. CeZ t4h*
%wbyf "ad~tC

T~eCI

qir

7=031 0146fA'C
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TECHNICAL ANALYSIS FORM ay

0-albot

GIE

AelITC
W

PAGE

CK. DATE S06CI'iREV.

LCRC

jMODEL
REPORT

t4~ p4

((*-k)

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~4

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TICHW~AL ANALYIS FORM


l'

*ININAt @IIICTRtC DAFo

CK

PAOI MODIL

(01

M M~

l Rv

REPORT

Te~AtA~ac~

Aftv

8cam l Qa oo25 I

OILrb 4.1 t,~ a~

*! OA-bt 2.a A

z.~ 00aft

0.4

~~-i 1

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1.aOI I~i

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46

T[CHNICAC ANAIYSIS PORN

rF

MO

"I. WQcsMka

41. 304

t.

ZS

46X

0015r

0546.

06

437W

iii

if

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t !.

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g

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I,

I \\

0..*Js. P

* ,I4 lus

SW+-v+. . . ... -

"

pr~ .a ,SHI s...j W . " '

Figure 24.

Action Time Study for Self-Actuating Bolt Assembly

49

.&('11ON 11 MIlN I OIN C AIT.lCH, SCOPE ITE2

A,

INTROIIHIT ION
Ihit
I'V ISiIn f0'
tl

ng

.1 lI, C kLitch

a, i means of" ensuring a safe gun are not

new to applicationsi cunlsideration.

involving a mult ibarrelled, Gattling-type gun.

lEconomic incrrea.ed

of operating the gun with other forms of clearing,

ei fective payload, mwtvit: Ji


ig

and improved safety are all well establis!,,d needs

the use of a clutch. c;ultch devNeleped utnter thi ; contract and designed to be

A major difference between thi pteviously devwloped clutches is

that the new clutch is

MOUTIted within the aft end of the present 7.b2-mm GAU 2B/A minigun rather than as an integral part of a feeder. Several major de igni problems were but one inaior advantage was bt'oikght about by this placement of the clutch, gained. BiY locating the clutch within the gun,

it could be used with the several different types of feeders for all applications instead of requiring a unique, s ,rafely desigred clutch for each application. in a

Anothei

basic design criteria for this clutch was to design it

configu-,*tiun that could be supplied as a modification kit and installed on any gun in rotor. th field with no modification required to the gun housirg or

B.

METHOD OF OPERATION 1. Basic 2Reration The underlying principle in the operation of the clutch as an

instrument for clearing is that the feed system is disconnected from the gun and brought to a controlled stop. The gun continues to rotate and fires all of the ammunition remaining in fire, The actuation of the clutch is the gun, thus ensuring a safe gun. To the gun and feeder are automatically re-engaged in a timed position. governed by a solenoid in such a way that the Figures 43 electrically energized.

gun will fire when the solenoid is through 49 show the minigun clutch.

50

2.

Deta.iled Operation

Figure 49 sh(ows -in .- ploded ".oc: f the clutch assembly. firing of the gun, (11839384).

During

the torque used to drive the feed system is transmitted from the gun rotor, which is driven by the main motor, to the rotor housing The interior coutour of the rotor housing matches the contour of the, aft end of the present gun rotor and transmits both gun feeder timing and torque from the rotor to two slots, which in turn drive the two interior lugs (driven lugs) on the gear actuator (11839378). These two driven lugs cause the entire gear actuator to rotate and transfer torque to the aft rotor spur gear (11839381) by means of the four large tongs which maintain a mesh with the four longitudinal slots on the inside diuamotur of the gear. This gear in turn drives the feed system. The new gear is no longer pinned to the gun rotor as it is in the present gun, but is now capable of rotating independently of the gun rotor. The axial location of the gear on the rotor is ijcntical with the present gun. The timing between the feeder and gun is The importance of the timing controlled by the above train of components.

oeLwecn the gun and feeder in the round handoff area necessiLa4ls relatively close tolerances on the pertinent dimensions of these parts. a. which, Firing Mode

In the firing mode the solenoid is energized (plunger retracted) through the yoke assembly, forces the two actuator arms (11839377) to

the extreme forward portion of their travel. On the inside of each actuator arm is a camming knife which cams the rotating knife ring (11839379) forward or aft, depending on the location of the solenoid plunger. With the actuator arms in the forward fire position and the gun rotating, the actuator camming knives force the rotating knife ring toward the rear. This action causes the driven lugs on the gear actuator to mesh with the driving slots on the rotor housing. (There are two actuating knives in this clutch instead of the one found in most other clutch designs.) Due to severe space limitations, it was impossible to obtain a sufficient base on the rotating knife ring to allow an asymmetrical force to cam it fore and aft without causing Lhe part to cock and bind. possible, This introduced another problem in that with two k.,ives it is due to tolerances and cocking, for the knives to try to cam the

rotating knife ring in both directions at the same time. This occurrence would cause a stoppage. To eliminate this possibility, one of the knives on

51

the rotating knife ring was cut to a steeper angle, thus causing one knife to make the initial decision as to which way to cam while the other knife provided a symnetrical camming force once the decision was made. The rotating knife ring slides fore and aft in four longitudinal slots in the rotor housing. Contact is maintained between the rotor housing and the rotating knife ring; consequently, whenever the gun is rotating, the knife ring is also rotating. The rotating knife ring is connected to the gear actuator by four lugs and the four 11839403 pins. This method of connection allows the rotating knife ring to rotate independent of the gear actuator; however, the two components translate fore and aft along the axis of the gun together. The gear actuator, like the rotating knife ring, slides axially in the aft rotor gear maintaining contact with it. Thus, these two parts always rotate or stop together. b. Clearing Cycle

The solenoid is first de-energized when going into a clearing cytie. the return spcing in the tilaioid forces the plunger to the rear, which, through the yoke assembly, causes the two actuator arms to go to the rear also. between it The rotation of the rotating knife ring and the interference and the two actuator knives cams the rotating knife ring and,

consequently,

the gear actuator forward. The driven lugs on the gear actuator move forward, out of contact with the driving slots, and the four stopping lugs on the outside diameter of the gear actuator mesh with the four strpping slnts in th- ciutch ,wuuin (11839376). The clutch hnusing is rigidly keyed to the gun housing through the bearing housing (11839374) and the finger on the solenoid mounting bracket (11839382). The meshing of the stopping lugs with the stopping slots brings the gear actuator and, consequently, the aft spur gear to an abrupt stop. (The gear actuator and the entire feed system are now completely independent of any gun rotor motion.) The feed system is stopped, and the rotor continues to rotate under power until clear of all remaining ammunition. The angular location of the gear and the amount of time required

for the feeder to come to a complete stop are extremely important.

Once the

gear actuator driven lugs lose contact with the rotor housing, no timing exists between the gun and feeder. Contact between two parts must be

52

;i

maintained until the bolt head has complete control of the last round to be fed (i.e., Also, the last round fed is completely free of the feeder sprocket). the feeder must be stopped before the feed system begins to feed the (i.e., the next round to be fed is completely The time when the transition between the driving dependent on the camming angle and total

next round to the bolt head clear of the bolt head).

slots and stopping slots begins is throw of the knives. To fire the gun, to the motor, still

the solenoid is

energized,

which moves the supplied

actuator arm to the forward position.

At the same time, power is

causing the rotor to turn.

Since the rotating knife ring is

in the forward position (from the previous clearing cycle) and the

actuator knives have moved to the forward position, an interference exists which causes the rotating knife r.ng to cam aft under the power of the gun motor. This action takes the stopping lugs of the gear actuator out of Timing is also important in this transition, contact with the stopping slots and meshes the driven lugs with the driving slots on the rotor housing. since it is imperative that the two driven lugs be in a location which

enables them to mesh with the driving slots. There are four stopping lugs, but only two driven lugs. This is due to the generally higher loads encountered in stopping the entire feed system. 7he fact that there are four stopping lugs implies that the gear each 90 degrees out of phase. e a-uirebponding shift of 90 a 90-degree phase shift would prod, can be stopped in one of four positions, However,

.- grees when the clutch was reactivated to fire, and no driving slots would be available to mesh with the driven lugs. Also, during firing and normal flight, recoil and "1g" forces could cause the gear actuator to translate fore and aft. For these reasons, the knives on the rotating knife ring have been lengthened to include approximately 90 degrees of arc. gear actuator to move fore or aft only when the soleiioid is de-energized. c. Power Loading Although no present Army systems require the ability to power load, several Air Force systems do have this requirement. Since it is conceivable that such an ability will eventually be re4uired by the Army, This allows the energized or

53

it has been included on the clutch. In order to power load, the clutch must first be _ngaged. This

can be accomplished by manually engaging the solenoid and rotating the gun in the firing direction until the feeder begins to rotate (approximately one-half revolution of the gun). With the solenoid still manually depressed, the Depressing the solenoid and rotating the gun and power load will now operate.

cams the gear actuator into engager7ent with the rotor housing (see Figure 25). The gun is then rotated in the direction opposite to the firing direction, surface of the rotor housing. the driven lugs on the gear actuator are driven by the power loading driving

GEAR ACTUATOR DRIVEN LUG

POWER LOADING DRIVING SURFACE FIRING DIRECTION OF ROTATION

ROTOR HOUSING/ ll

Figure 25.

Power Loading

It was experimentally determined that the minimum height ("Y") required for the pywer loading driving surface was 0.095 inch. The angular cut intersecting the 0.095-inch surface is a clearance cut which allows the driven lugs to enter the driving slot on the camming angle of the knives. The dimension "X"7 shown on the sketch is the clearance resulting from the This increased clearance allows an addition of the power loading step.

additional movement of the gear actuator, and consequently of the entire feed system, equivalent to one tooth of rotation in the aft rotor gear. This clearance was incorporated in such a way to avoid a latv feed. faster than the gun (e.g., which slowed it The possibility of an early feed could occur only if the feed system rotated if the gun would receive a high momentary torque If the feed were too early, the feed system would not be driven at that time) until down slightly).

would pause slightly (since it

54

timing was again correct. due to this possible cause.


C. TESTING 1. Clutch Unit 1

No problems were encountered during any testing

Dry firing on a MXU-470 Module System was started on April 13, 1969; 356 actuations were completed. This dry firing included cycling with up to Live fire 1500 rounds in the module drum at rates of 2000 and 4000 spm. 1969.

testing was conducted at the Underhill Firing Range from July 7 to July 11, A total of 50,000 rounds were fired using the clutch; approxinmately 26,000 rounds were fired using the Module System; 22,500 rounds were fired using a delinking feeder; and 1500 rounds were fired using a Pod System. The equivalent rounds fired was 85,000 based on the 100 rounds per burst or 883 actuations. One problem encountered early in this portion of the testing resulted in a failure to start. When the feed system stopped at the end of a burst with the stopping lugs on the gear actuator in the extreme rear position in the stopping lug slots in the clutch housing, the driven lugs missed meshing with the driven lug slots upon start-up, causing the system to jam. 'To eliminate this problem, approximately 0.120 inch of material was added to the rear portion of the stopping lug slot in two of the four positions. After the addition of this material,
stoppage..

it was impossible to duplicate this type of

Another major problem that became apparent during live testing was:
insuffi, ient clearance had been allowed between the two sets of caiming

knives to eliminate the possibility of the two knives being caught halfway tion with one knife attempting to cam in the fire direction while the other Knife attempted to cam in the clearing direction. To eliminate this problem, the camming angle on the non-decision knife was i.ceased to allow for additional clearance. Now when the decision knife of the rotating knife ring is lined up edge-to-edge with the actuating knife there is 0.07U to 0.081-incb clearance between the edges of the two knives (see Figure 48). After the clearance was increased, there were no further through an o--..

55

..

. .

stoppages attributed to this cause during this portion of the test.

Detailed

live firing data sheets are included in Appendix II-C. After testing and modification had been completed on the first clutch, the major unresolved problem was the inability of the clutch to perform a power load operation satisfactorily. In order to power load, first the loading sector must be installed; then the clutch solenoid must be mechanically locked in the energized position; and finally the gun must be hand rotated approximately one-half revolution in the firing direction to engage the gun to the feeder. system is now ready to be power loaded. The ability to drive the feeder in reverse was initially dependent on a 0.040-inch step in the lead end of the driving lug slot in the rotor housing (11839384). During power loading, the rotor housing transfers power through this step to the gear actuator, which in turn drives the feed system Test results and a tolerance study of the area involved conin reverse. firmed the fact that under extreme conditions and severe vibration it was possible for the driving lugs to slip beyond the step and cam forward on the relief cut -causing a stoppage. To eliminate this problem, material was This shortened removed from the power load drive side of the rotor housing. The

the lead-in and increased the power load driving surface to 0.095 inch. There were no further stoppages in testing with the revised configuration. Over 10v cycles have been run without ammunition and 6000 rounds have been loaded on an A37 system with no malfunctions. 2. Clutch Unit 2 Live fire testing was conducted at the Underhill Firing Range and the G.E.Springfield Range. A total of 100,100 rounds, representing 884 actuations, were fired on clutch unit 2. During this test, over 40,000 rounds were fired using the side-stripping feeder. and feeder were encountc,-d. delinking feeder. During testing, a stoppage which appeared to be the result of a burr on the rotor housing occurred. One of the four arms of the rotating knife ring appeared to hang up during transition from the forward to the aft (fire) No interface problems between the clutch The remaining rounds were fired using a

56

position. fire.

This caused the part to cock severely and resulted in a failure to To eliminate any future stoppages of this nature, these four arms will

be lengthened by approximately 0.060 inch, on the third and fourth units, until they are flush with the rear portion of the rotating knife ring. This change yields better control of the rotating knife ring and greatly simplifies the configuration of the part. The slots on the rotor housing that receive these arms will likewise be modified. To help ensure maximum engagement of the driven lugs during firing and power loading, 0.030 inch of material was added to the forward end of the actuator arms. This change forces the rotating knife ring, and consequently the driven lugs, ing. to seat approximately 0.030 inch deeper in the rotor housTesting of the revised configuration revealed a greatly improved

"operation, especially during power loading.


The pins which connect the solenoid mounting bracket to the bearing housing are another potential problem. During a severe stoppage it is possible for the solenoid mounting bracket to tip. This tipping allows the finger on the bracket which attaches to the gun housing cover lugs to jump position and rotate. This type of stoppage requires the clutch to be reassembled and the connecting pins replaced. The upgrading of these pins from the present roll to a spiral pin should eliminate any possibility of the solenoid bracket's tipping as the result of a stoppage. During handling, the pivot arm which connects to the solenoid plunger was bent slightly due to a hammer blow's making it asymmetrical. When the arm was assembled one way, this bend made it possible for the solenoid plunger to stick and cause a stoppage. By reversing the pivot arm, no more difficulties of this nature were encountered. Three stoppages were experienced in which the two actuator knives attempted to cam the rotating knife ring in opposite directions. The first of these stoppages occurred due to a failure of one of the yoke support spring pins. The pin had been damaged during a previous stoppage and fell out during this burst. The stoppage occurred when the yoke could no longer control the axial movement of the actuator arms. The other two stoppages were caused by a combination of two factors. During the first stoppage, the clearance between the decision knife and the following knife was reduced to

'I

57

0.048 inch. Also, the four arms on the rotating knife were prone to cocking slightly due to the small minimum engagement when in the forward position. (This has been corrected on all new parts.) After the knives were resharpened and the clearance increased from 0.048 to 0.078 inch, no further stoppages of this nature were encountered. Several stoppages were experienced during continued testing of the second unit due to a failure of the mechanical joint between the solenoid mounting bracket and the bearing housing. A detailed investigation revealed the connector holes on the solenoid bracket had been damaged and were oversize. The stoppages were minimized by using a screw and nut instead of a pin to hold the parts together. There was some difficulty in keeping the screws tight. In production quantities these parts will be made as one piece, thus eliminating this potential problem. D. INSTALLATION PROCEDURE

The clutch can be provided as a modification kit to be installed in the field on an existing gun. The procedure for installation of the clutch is as follows: 1. Remove the gun bolt assemblies and guide bar. 2. 3. 4. Remove the three bolts in the aft support. Remove the rotor from the gun housing. Drive the pins from the aft rotor gear and remove the
aft gear and aft bearing.

58

A P P E N D I X Drawings

II-A

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A P P E N D I X

II-B

Photos and Illustrations

77

III

La

Figure 43.

Clutch Assembly on Minigun (Rear View)

Figure 44.

Clutch Assembly (Rear View)

78

Figure 45.

Clutch Assembly (Front View)

Figure 46.

Clutch Assembly Mounted on Gun Rotor (Side View)

79

ii

Figure 47.

Clutch Assembly Mounted oni Gun Rotor (Rear Viow)

Figure 48.

Clearance Between Decision and Non-Decision Knives

80

MOUNTING BRACKET

AD

AFT GUN SUPPORT


BALk

1 SOLENOID BEARING

PIVOT ARM-z

f..

N
ACTUATOR
YOK'E
-,

HOUSING

"N.A

ACTUATOR-

GUN ROTOR

ARM

I-

LINER

ROTOR SPUR GEAR CLUTCH HOUSING GEAR ACTUATOR

ROTATING KNIFE RING


ROTOR HOUSING
Figure 49. Exploded Clutch Assembly

81

A P P E N D IX Test Results

I1-C

82

Table III.

Live Testing Clutch Unit 1 - Module System

4/7/69

Burst No.

Fired

Gun Status

Remarks

Loaded 500 rounds 1 2 3 4 5 34 81 93 105 88 Clear Clear Clear Clear Hot Erratic fire OK OK OK Failure to cam by both knives - timing finger on solenoid bracket jumped time and rotated 1/2 rev. - replaced pins in bracket, inspected parts, no damage Feed system retarded too much at stop OK OK Feed system retarded too much at stop
-

aft support screws not tight

6 7 8 9

0 91 91 0

No go Clear Clear No go

Parts reworked 1. Filed steeper angle on non-decision knife so 0.050 in. clearance between non-decision knife and stationary knife when decision knife lines up edge-to-edge with stationary knife Added 0.030 in. places TESTING RESUMED 10 11 12 13 90 96 11 19 Clear Clear Clear to rear side of stopping lug cavity in two

2.

4/8/69 OK OK OK OK fire out

Loaded 1000 rounds 14 104 Clear OK

83

Table III.
Burst No. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Fired 78 100 97 111 92 112 .0

Live Testing Clutch Unit 1 - Module System (cont.)


Gun Status Clear Clear Clear Clear Clear Clear No go OK OK OK OK OK OK Feed system retarded too much at stop parts inspected - no damage - must add more material to back end of stopping lug cavity OK OK OK Remarks

22 23 24

92 111 103

Clear Clear Fire out

Loaded 1500 rounds 25-35 36 37-40 0 1500 Clear No go Clear OK - 11 bursts fired all cleared No damage, no jam - suspect wiring short

OK - four bursts fired out on burst 40

Loaded 1500 rounds 41 42-50 51 52 0 95 0 No go Clear No go Hot Feed system retarded too much at stop OK No damage, no jam - suspect wiring short
-

High extract - gun cleared by hand high extract on one barrel OK OK

very

53-56 57 1500

Clear Fire out

Loaded 2000 rounds 58 Clear

OK

84

Table III. Burst No. 59 60 61-68 69 70-79 80 81-83 84 85 86 87 0 0 0 2000 0 Fired 0 9

Live Testing Clutch Unit 1 - Module System (cont.) Gun Status No go Hot Clear No go Clear Fire out Clear No go No go Clear No go Remarks Feed system retarded too much at stop Feed system mistimed - retimed OK Feed system retarded too much at stop OK OK OK Feed system retarded too much at stop Feed system retarded too much at stcop OK Feed system retarded too much at stop added approx. 0.060 in. to end of stop lug cavity OK OK

88-93 94 2000 Rework 1.

Clear Fire out

Added 0.030 in.

to end of actuator arms

Loaded 2000 rounds

95-97
98

Clear
Hot

OK
Stoppage during firing damage - no jams
-

no apparent

99

Hot

Round (pierced in module exit shaft) feed into gun left projectile in barrel stoppage when next round fed into plugged barrel - primer was blown on first round but propellent not fired OK OK

100-116 117 2000

Clear Fire out

85

Table III. Burst No. Fired

Live Testing Clutch Unit 1 - Module System (cont.) Gun Status Loaded 2000 rounds Remarks

118-141 142 2000

Clear Fire out

OK OK

143-144 145

Loaded 200 rounds Clear OK Clear Intermittent solenoid failure - replaced solenoid and connector OK - battery very low - replaced battery this probably caused failure on burst 145 OK OK
-

146-149

Clear

150-164 165 2000

Clear Fire out

Loaded 1800 rounds 166-179 180 1800 Clear Fire out OK OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 181-196 197 2000 Clear Fire out OK OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 198-206 207 2000 Clear Fire out OK OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 208-224 225 2000 Clear Fire out OK OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 226-239 240 2000 Clear Fire out OK OK

86

Table III. Burst No. Fired

Live Testing Clutch Unit I - Module System (cont.) Gun Status Loaded 2000 rounds Remarks

241-260 261 262-265 266 2000

Clear Fire out Clear

OK OK OK Jam in drum hando.f - Module System shutdown as per original test plan - converted to Pod System (this system has damaged rounds on scoop disc in prior testing)

Loaded 1500 rounds 267-274 275 276-282 283 284 1500 Clear Hot Clear Hot Fire out OK Bent round in conveyor wheel OK Bent round in conveyor wheel OK - changed to delinking feeder due to defective scoop disc on Pod System

Loaded 2000 rounds 285-292 293 294-306 307 2000 Clear Hot Clear Fire out OK Mislinked round jammed in feeder OK OK

Loaded 2500 rounds 308 309 310-331 332 2500 Clear Hot Clear Fire out Belt broke (ammunition can too full) Feeder jam OK OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 344-370 Clear OK

87

Table III. Burst No.


371

Live Testing Clutch Unit 1 - Module System (cont.) Gun Status


Fire out OK

Fired
1500

Remarks

Loaded 1500 rounds 372-384 385 0 Clear No go OK Pin in yoke assembly fell out (improperly installed) System mistimed OK OK
-

386 387-396 397 1SO0

Hot Clear Fire out

retimed

Loaded 1500 rounds 398-415 416 1500 Clear Fire out OK OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 417-420 421 422-440 441 150( Clear Hot Clear Fire out OK Feeder jam OK OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 44I 4 464 1SO0 Clear Fire out OK OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 465-405 486 2000 Clear Fire out OK OK

Loaded 2300 rounds 487-51i 512 2300 Clear Fire out OK OK

Loaded 1200 rounds

88

Table III. Burst No. 513-526 Fired

Live Testing Clutch Unit 1 - Module System (cont.) Gun Status Clear OK Remarks

527

1200

Fire out 50,000 rounds

OK

total rounds fired

89

89

Table IV. Burst No. Fired

Live Testing Clutch Unit 2 - A-37 System Remarks

6/9/69

Gun Status Power loaded 1500 rounds

1-16 17 1500

Clear Fire out

OK OK

Power loaded 1500 rounds 18-31 32 1500 Clear Fire out OK OK

Power Loaded 1500 rounds 33-36 37 Clear Hot OK Stoppage near beginning of burst - round out of control ahead of bolt head debulleted attempting to enter chamber no damage to gun OK Same stoppage as 37 OK Same stoppage as 37 OK

38-39 40 41-42 43 44 1500

Clear Hot Clear Hbt Fire out

Power loaded 1500 rounds 45-58 59 (Note: Clear Hot OK Same stoppage as 37

Further investigation revealed a damaged guide bar in the gun.) Testing changed to delinking feeder

Loaded 2000 rounds 60-75 Clear OK

90

Table IV. Burst No. 76 Fired 0

Live Testing Clutch Unit 2 - A-37 System (cont.) Gun Status No go Remarks Burr on one of four slots on rotor housing caused cocking of rotating knife ring and subsequent stoppage - finger on solenoid bracket jumped time and rotated 1/2 rev. burr removed, slight damage to knives OK OK

77-83 84 2000

Clear Fire out

Loaded 2000 rounds 85-91 92 93-96 97 98-107 108 2000 Clear Hot Clear Hot Clear Fire out OK Sol. bracket finger jumped time and rotated 1/2 rev. - pins on sol. bracket loose OK Same stoppage as 92 OK OK
-

replaced pins

Loaded 2000 rounds 109-134 135 2000 Clear Fire out OK OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 136-157 158 2000 Clear Fire out OK OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 159-183 184 2000 Clear Fire out OK OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 185-206 207 2000 Clear Fire out OK OK

91

Tablo IV.

Livo Tvitiii

Clutch Unit 2

A-37 SyNmtom (Cuont

Burst No.

Fi red

Gn
Loadv,

jSta

.
2000 1nuund& OK A

208-?28 229 2000

Clear

Firo out

Loadod 200u 1oundm 230-24 Cloear Ok

Clutch Test shut down duo to iiisuffict| lol timo

92

A~ble

%,

10 l

uM

li ve Tl'lling

"i

f1 .1

h iml I.u"I

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Loiadketk

I viin.&nnlr it'ol) I C' Isel d ditd hiiding wts trou ndmsnltd

1I9- 8I3t

:000

C I tk1"

ntIdlk

L.o aded,1500 K'rounds

Soleoid stck

lungr lnkag

wa

93

rable V.

Continued Live Testing Unit 2


-

Prior Testing 246 Actuations Burst No. 107


Firod
-Hot

21,500 Rounds Fired (cont.)


Remarks

Gun Status

Right yoke pivot pin fell out causing


loss of knife control - set 1/16 bearing pins - filed down resulting burrs on knife blades

108- 1a1

1500

Clear

OK

LoaJed IS00 rolod's 122,138 1500 1 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds


139-154 ISO0 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds


155-164 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1 00 rounds Io5-172 1500 Clear rounds OK OK

Loaded 1SO0 173-183 1500

Clear

Clutch disassembled,
relubricated Loaded 1500 rounds

inspected, and

187-201

1500

Clear

OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 202-217 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 218-237 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 238-246 1500 1 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds I

94

Table V.

Continued Live Testing Unit 2


-

Prior Testing 246 Actuations Burst No. 247-256 Fired 1500 Gun Status Clear

21,500 Rounds Fired (cont.) Remarks OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 257-266 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 267-276 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 277-291 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 400 rounds 292-295 400 Clear OK Clutch disassembled, lubricated Loaded 1500 rounds inspected, and

"290-308

1500

Clear

OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 309-325 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 326-341 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 342-347 348


-

Clear Hot

OK Clutch jam - knife blades cammed both directions - solenoid bracket screws no other bent slightly (replaced) damage OK

349-356

1500

Clear

Loaded 1500 rounds 357-372 1500

Clear

OK

95

Table V.

Continued Live Testing Unit 2


-

Prior Testing 246 Actuations Burst No. Fired Gun Status

21,500 Rounds Fired (cont.) Remarks

Loaded 1500 rounds 373-389 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds

390-404

1500

Clear

Clutch jam at fire out - knife blades clearance 0.048 in. increased to
0.078 in. per design change

Loaded 1500 rounds 405-419 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 420-432 433


-

Clear Clear

OK Clutch jam - solenoid bracket screws worked loose permitting finger to jump time

1500

Loaded 1500 rounds 434-446 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 447-452 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1000 rounds 453-463 1000 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 464-476 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 477-491 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds


492-506 1500 Clear OK

96

L.

Table V.

Continued Live Testing Unit 2 21,500 Rounds Fired (cont.) Remarks

Prior Testing 246 Actuations Burst No. Fired Gun Status

Loaded 1500 rounds 507-520 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 521-531 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 532-544 2000 Clear OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 545-557 2000 Clear OK

Loaded 2000 rounds 558-567 2000 1 Clear OK

Loaded 1000 rounds 568-572 1000 Clear OK

Loaded 1000 rounds 573-577 1000 Clear OK

Loaded 1000 rotnds 578-583 1000 Clear OK

Loaded 1000 rounds 584-588 1000 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 589-596 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1500 rounds 597-608 1500 Clear OK

Loaded 1.500 rounds 609-623 1500 Clear OK

97

Table V.

Continued Live Testing Unit 2


-

Prior Testing 246 Actuations Burst No. Fired Gun Status

21,500 Rounds Fired (cont.) Remarks

Loaded 1500 rounds 624-638+ 1SO0 Clear OK

+ 246 prio r actuations

I
= 884

Total Rounds Fired a 100,000 Total Actuations

98

AP P E N D I X

II-D

Weight and Center of Gravity

99

Clutch Unit Total Weight pounds


=

=3.4805

Center of Gravity

.S429 inch aft of the (see figure S0).

forward edge of the bearing liner

SOLENOID -III1X134

CENTER OF

t~1T5ZO4-3CLUTCH

1 1I.5429

GRAVITY OF

Z- P104M30066-i1g

14OUS114@ - f.S 9774 (REP)

-N *66

FigureOXMAW 50. Clthasseml

100

A P P E N D I X

II-E

Final Report Minigun Declutching System Analysis

101

A.

ABSTRACT The declutching mechanism has been designed and is being tested at the

present time.

Early test results showed some minor adjustments were needed;

recent tests on the Module System have been conducted with excellent results. The dynamic characteristics of present minigun systems and the dynamic characteristics of two forecast systems are included in this report. analysis of some critical system parts has been performed and is A stress

also included.

B.

INTRODUCTION The desired declutching mechanism for the minigun is one that would be

contained within the gun itself feed systems.

and hence be available to all of the several

The mechanism generally considered would disconnect the rear drive gear from the rotor and stop the feed system at particular locations of the feeder sprocket so there would be no interference due to the round's being between the feeder and the gun during the handoff operation of the feeder. The advantages of this mechanism are in the saving of ammunition and in stopping the gun, tion. normally with no ammunition in the gun, in the safe stopped condi-

The two main difficulties in incorporating this mechanism in the gun

are - the space limitations within the gun and the probably high inertial loads on the several parts of the feed systems after a sudden stoppage.

C.

APPROACH A two-part program was undertaken to gain knowledge of the dynamics and

loads of the present systems and to forecast the dynamics and loads of future systems. The first was an experimental test program conducted to show the The second part was

torque-time-acceleration characteristics of the systems.

an analytical solution using the digital and analog computers to find solutions that correlate with present systems and solutions for systems with new design requirements.

102

D.

TEST PROGRAM

A test device was designed to disconnect the rear gear from the gun rotor at a particular location, where the rounds are fully contained in either the feed system or the gun, immediately after the disconnect. which the inertial loads build up. be expected for the several systems. and to stop the feed system almost The stop device was instrumented to Several curves of peak torque versus iow the maximum torque which may

give a trace of torque versus time during the very short time during

rate, presented on the following pages,

~t

ilALI

4 !

,.

4,

Figure 51.

Peak Torque on Minigun Pod Feeder Shaft vs Rate

103

I-*4

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-'

II

17,,

12,14

-7

.......... .ZT

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-- .... . ..... ~~~~.

-IT~

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-_-

A-317 Fecd S~ystem Figure 52. Peak Torque on Miniguni Rotor with Sudden Stops of Rear Gear of 104

..

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40

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.......

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.........

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>10

E.

PEAK LOADS IN THE SEVERAL MINIGUN SYSTEMS WITH SUDDEN STOPS

The peak torques on the several minigun systems are presented in the preceding graphs and are tabulated below for sudden stops from 6000 spm with full drums (where applicable). The most highly stressed part is indicated, and the peak load is compared to the allowable load. The peak loads expected on the most highly stressed parts are less than the allowable loads except for the new 3000-round Pod System with a new feeder and a module-type drum. This system develops a 4900-pound load on a pin that has a maximum allowable strength of 3000 pounds. This particular pin is a C-type pin; a roll pin could be substituted to increase the allowable load to 4400 pounds. However, if this system were siowed to 3000 spm before a sudden stop the peak load of 2740 pounds is less than the allowable load of 3000 pounds. Table VI. Peak Torques for Sudden Stops from 6000 spm LOCATION OF PIN Fdr. Drive Gear Fdr. Drive Gear Exit Shaft Drive Gear Feeder Sprocket
Fdr. Drive Gear

SYSTEM Present Pod AT-37 Module Delinking Feeder (MAU-58)

PEAK TORQUE (INCH-POUNDS) 280 760 900 950

PIN MS NO. 16562-231 39086-250 39086-250 39086-251

SHAFT DIA. PEAK LOAD (INCHES) (POUNDS) 0.375 0.500 0.500 0.624 1490 3040 3600 3050

ALLOWABLE LOAD POUNDS 3000 4400 4400 4400

3000-Rd. Pod & New Fdr. & Mod.-

1224

16562-232

0.500

4900

3000

Type Drum
3000-Rd. Pod & New Fdr. & Mod.685 Fdr. Drive Gear 16562-232 0.500 2740 3000

Type Drum at
3000 spm

107

F,

ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION Fundamental information regarding the dynamics des.ired. involved with engagement occinrs at the

of the several miniguo systems is

When engagement

Lun,

the feed sy~..t.em's ineirtia will develop loads depending upon the inertia,
and friction involved. The most simplp" differential teasonable answers to the above is the classic force porportional to velocity. A

spring constants,

oquation that might give

sprin g-mass system equation with friction second differentitk) equation that

is more realistic for cases where ammuias in the Module System, is the

tion is rotated and sliides ir .3 dr'umL,

differential equation for a spring-mass system, but with a friction force which varies as the second power ut' the velocity. Both systems are investi-

gated here, and they agree to a large exltvt since friction does not occur over a sufficiently long time to cause large differences. G. SUNMARY OF RESULTS OF TIE ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION The present Module System, with' 2000 rounds in the drum ,nd a rate of

6000 spm develops 500 foot-pounds of torque at the drum clutch engagement. Tile same type of system with 3000 rounds in the drum will develop 600 footpounds of' torque at the drum. A new Pod System w.t, 3000 rounds in a module-type drum will develop actuated at 3000 spin,

680 foot-pounds of torque at the drum at 6000 spinl; if it will develop 380 foot-pounds of torque.

The above results were obtained pounds per radian at the drum

with a measured spring constant of 3380 foot-

for the present Module System and with a spring constant of 4430 foot-pounds per radian at the drwii for the new Pod System. was measured with the new ieavier feeder shaft. *rhe new pod spring constant

108

The d g it al Compute r wan programmed fur t he equation:

B.)t

ko

tit

dt

It' the first ternis arO thl,,ughlt of as total torque, tl'c second terms as

frictionl torque, und the third terins as spring torque -- and deceleration
begins from the same initial conditions stop thle friction torquet (digital).
-

-it is obvious that during the

fur the second equetion (analog) will decrease

more rapidly with time than the friction torque for the first equation Consequently the peak spring torques for the unalog model will ht: geiierail v higher than those of the digital model, but thle differences are' not large (less than five percent) and thle two methods tend to verify VZaCh other. One interest ing observation was that nei tho'r mode 1 damped as The high-speed movies gave a possible The camera angle was such to observe that during
-

kqui~ki>' as the experimental. oxplanat ion for this.

th:,, stop, while the motion of the inner drum generally follows a dainped s inie curve pattern, higher frequency oscillations occurred many times during the stop. thle Inner drum t'i s very likely oscillated thle rounds from one fin to the next and back This would dissipate the stored kinctiLc energy imi,h faster than either of the two mathematical models and would account for the rapid experimiental1 damping obstrved. Thle several, present minigun systems should be capable of withstanding the suddta ztopping lu&ids owing to the declutching mtchanism. The AT..37 system will need ark additional bearing to insure continuous contact of the drum ring gear and its mating pinion, but this modification is a minor one.

1-09

1.

MATHEMATICAL

'ORMULA;,'ION

(FOR DIGITAL COMPUTER) which varielinearly

The simple spring mass system with friction force, with velocity, may be written in terms of rotational

inertia as follows:

42b

dti
wiiere
*

Lit

CC

bt

sin (at + a)

Ct "cos

(.t

+ a) - Cbe-btsin (at + a)

d2 dit

b2 2 C (b 2 - a")

.*bt. sin (at + a)

2b-bt-"

2Cabe

coq (at + a)

It will be found upon substitution of the last three equations into 2 + b2 . the first that a necessary requirement is that = aThe above four equations form the basis for writing the computer program included herein for the digital computer and produce indicated in the abstract. briefly, the results

the moment of inertia of the empty

Module System was determined from acceleration tests with strain gauges which found torque at the exit shaft and acceleration read from recording galvanometer tapes. here, The moment of inertia of a round in the drum is calculated The spring

and the total moment of inertia is

thereby available.

constants of the Module System and the Pod System were found by torquedeflection tests as specified herein. In order to find the torque buildup of the feed system alone, a

solenoid actuated device was built which would disconnect the rear rotor gear from the rotor while running, and then stop the feed system by This was dune with the and high-speed motion

inserting a solid obstruction at the rear gear. several feed systems, and exit shaft torque,

speed,

110

pictures were taken as the systems were stopped. behavier with the mathematical model.

This latter data along

with the steady state friction torque allowed a correlation of the system In effect, various values of the damping constant b were inserted into the computer program until a good match of initial friction torque and peak spring torque was obtained using the Module System as the experimental system. In order to predict the behavior of a new Pod System which would use a module-type drum, the damping constant b was assumed to vary direLtly as the drum load. J. DIGITAL COMPUTER PROGRAM In the following Fortran four digital computer program, the rate, spring constant, rounds in drum, and frictional constant b are read.
2 b2

The inertia is

calculated as shown in Appendix II-F. period, the equation K/i = a in radians/sec -j d =


C is obtained from C
=

Since a = 2T/TP where TP is the The initial speed of the drum The constant

+ b gives TP.

is calculated from spm and the gear ratio. dt t=O)(TP)/21T.

0 = FE is found from the second

equation of the formulation and converted to degrees FEDGR. do/dt = DFEDT 2 2 is found likewise, from equation 3. And d 2/dt = DTODT is from equation 4. The term total torque TOTQ in inch-pounds is from listing gives time, I) (dt (12). The program degrees of deflection of the drum, ve,'ocity, total torque, Also listed is a,

friction torque, spring torque, DELTQ a difference between the total torque, and the sum of spring and friction torque and acceleratioi,. spm, spring constant, friction constant Beta, and a check oi. the inertia COPIA. rounds in drum, period, inertia, the constant C, the

111

//JOR T //FOR *ONE WORD INTEGERS *FXTFNDFD PRECISION *IOCSICARD,1132 PRINTER) *LIST ALL C ME-2439PROBLEM1 4-28 500 READ(2,1C,00)SPMSPCONRONDSBETA 1000 FORMAT(4F10*4) 1030 FORMAT(1N1,48X9.TANIK SLOWDOWN PROBLEMl//,4X,'TIME,97X.IDEGREES', 16XIVELOCITY',7X,'TOTOR0UE',5X,'F'RITOUE't5X,'SPRITOUE',6X(,'DELTUO, 26X9 3'ACCL,9//. 4X.'SEC'.10X.'0 e1OX.'RAD/SEC *8X. ' NXLBS ,7X.' INXLBS.o 46X., INXLSS' ,7X, INXLBS .3X. 'RAD/SECXSEC' *//) 1040 FORMAT(SE1305) 1050 FORMAT(1H1,5X,'ALPHA99X.*SPM0',8X,'SPCON',18X,'RONDS'I,5 1X,6 PERI0D1,7X,'ERTIA,99X,'CO,99X,'8ETA',8X~,COPIA',2X) 1060 FORMAT(10F12@5) WRITE(3#1030) TwO0* P1.3. 14159 EPI=2. 71828 ERTIAs( 166*4RONDS*e8714) /4640. TPu2.*PI/U(SPCON/ERTIA)-RETA**2e)**95 DFEDO=SPM/3 83. SEE.DFEDO*TP/(2.'*PI) ALPH.An2o*PI /TP 20 DO 50 101940 FEUSEE*SIN(ALPHA*T) /EPl**(9ETA*T) FFDGRmFE*57, 3 DFEDTS((SEE*2.*PI/TP)/EP1**(BETA*T))*COSC2.*PI*T/TP)-(SEE*BETA/ l(EPI**(BETA*T))H*SIN(Z.*PI*T/TP) DTODTu(SEE*(BETA**2.-ALPHA**2.)*SIN(ALPHA*T))/EP1**(BETA*T)l(2.*SEE*ALPH.A*BETA*COS(ALPHA*T) )/EPI**(8ETA*T) TOT~nERT IA*DTODT*12* FR ITQu2.*B8ETA*DFEDT#ERT I A*12. !PTQ=SPC0N*FE*12. DEI.TQoTOTO+FR ITO WRITE(3,1040)TFEDGR.DFEDTTOTOFRITOSPT0,DELTODTODT 50 TxT+*002 COP IAUSPCON/(ALPHA**2.+BETA**2.) WRITE( 391050) WRITE(391060)ALPHASPNISPCONRONDSTPERTIASEERETACOPIA GO TO 500 150 CALL EXIT END

Figure 55.

Program for Feed Systems with Sudden Stops 112

I 1i

i.Ljj0 - ij4

113*

K.

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION (FOR ANALOG COMPUTER) The spring mass system with friction force, which varies as the second

power of velocity, may be written in terms of rotational inertia as follows:

do+ dt2 or

2B ( *J)2
dt

KV0

2d,
d2 dt
2

2BI ( dt

In the second equation the first term may be thought of as the inertia torque, system. and, if the second term as the friction torque. This equation is and the third term as the spring torque or the torque which results in torsional deflection of the thought to be more representative of the Module assumed to remain constant, the frictional Since Feed System, since the ends of the rounds slide on the stationary outer drum

the friction coefficient is

force and consequently the frictional torque may be considered to be a


function of the normal force between the rounds and the outer drum. the normal force is tional field and also of centrifugal force, accounts for the second effect. A diagram of the analog computer components is included oz the next a function of orientation of the drum to the gravitathe first effect is considered

constant; and the friction torque term includes a velocity squared term which

page, and the curves of spring torque at the drum versus the friction constant B are presented as a summary of the data curves found in Appendix II-F.

114

MQ T

I-

'Uj

ItI

VA

LLI

Nd

-f

cc)

L4.

0,7

cr

-o

~~

tin

4
I 41

t4

-4

It

aa

. 4a

at

t,

4-1

44
it
-

Figure S8.

Declutching Torque Estimated from Analog Computer Results


116

I.,

LISCLJOISION 01. ,NAIOt Th, t', sviati


+igaurt, SH)

COMPTllilM REISLlLTS %'ompute r prograni arv 41t'

of t h te liad tl

I vv en ol tthe prccedin
of II antd

A,11Ph 111
6o1l' tihe
ot'

44., 5;l'tlig toique tit

thie drum for variouis valtue,

Modu11t, or Pod SV s te m with was used to

t.000 or 3000 rounds


fit of init ial

in t he t'ruaall. A range
of' frict ion

It Vallote

bht~ailia btst

conditions

1c'que just prior to cltitch aictuat ion; tile best fit with tilte w ,psI' tI e, ntal I T6, r't'skltt.i s
p
hctaae

information agreed well spa.

t1.Ar tll orque fo

t'ie '

000-round moduloe tit C()OO


Iat

11 It lts

0. .1h,-lt t C't

th ,se, inl tiial condlt oos and are used to


.

thlt,.vsu

stat cd prt'vioutsl

Tho

ltitniti

the

3000- round load

i , tit sumond to be I .5 tme,,s that of tihe 2000 round load, NI, STRESS ANALYSIS 01" III[: IiIllT'CIIiNL4 MIECHANISM

In ordlr to obtain dynamic informotit'n quickly


descl'ibed in the

the test apparatus High-

i rst t'ow pages of this report wau. used tit ail early stage

of this investigation to stop the sveral food systems suddenly.

Spted movies 'Ind stroin g augo inst runac'ntat ion recorded the dynamic informa.tion presented there. It was expected that this exi'orimentz,.tion would cause ,iome deformation of the spring pins or roll pins, and theste were exanined at sovvral stages, but no tsuch deformation (sot pins) actually occurred. The feVer gear spring pin on the Pod System was monitored very closely alnd a conwclusion was drawn that set pins that had been reported previously with this system must have boon due to a stoppage of the feed system which allowed peak drive motor toroue plus inertia to be applied in order to set

the pins.

The several systems - Pod, Module, A-37, Pintle Mount with delinkThe allowable load summary for the pins is given

ing feeder - were actuated approximately 100 times from a 6000 spm rate with no dvformation ,f parts. design requirements. The present feed systems appear to be capable of withstanding the loads inposed by the declutching action. However, the ne.vly designed clutch and a which fits into the present minigun housing is ne,:essarily small, in the early pages of this appendix for the above systems and also for new

stress analysis of some of the critical aruas of chis design follows.

117

The March 1,

1969 prcimin titary mini gun declutching mechani-sm design ws Regions examined in detail were as

studied for possible high stress areas. fol lows: I


.

The clutch housing restraining

lugs were st ress analyzed for shear

tf-t lure. 2. 'he clutchc htuvig lug ',ket was examined toi n possible conlcal

shear fracture at the 4:11d Ut thibyS,,.ket. 3. Th'e internal lugs ot til,

act uator gear, whi0h engage to start tilt,

food "iystam, were 101a4verd

4,

'rho roear rotor

pgtvkr

was na led

In thei

rea between the root of the


tilg.

teeth and the section of tile goaz" Cut Out to accept the actuator gear The most highly stressio gv'ar, which engage to 'tarit oea-s -ire at thle internal v.tem.

lug% of the actuator

the lued

Tile maximum allowable torque at Recent tests and to be 1080

the actuator gtAr is calcul atvd to but:.;1'0 inch-pounds,

calculations show the ma.ximun torque expected on a disengagement inch-pounds at this location. However,

a greater applied torque probably especially if engagement and the

will o%,:ur on engagement to start the feod system, occurs when the gun is sy)tem motor on.

turning rapidly with the fted system stopped

N.

RF.COMflENDATION It is recommended that part 11839384, rotur housing, It is be altered by also recommended

removing the note to chamfer 10 places 0.05+0.01. that part 11839378,

actuator gear, be altered by slightly undercutting the lugs as described herein to allow proper mating

ends of the inner engagement of the two parts.

The change will increase the allowable torque at the

internal lugs of the actuator gear by 87 percent.

It will also decrease the

shell thickness of the actuator gear from 0.100 inch to 0.091 inch in the local area of the cut, which is a less seriously stressed area.

118

-.

o CLUTi0 HOUIsNG RUsTRA INING MA.


3,,149.hinch 01)
( mi i li mum (, rgagement )

TOR()JJI: C:APABIII, TY
or about
.,050

11)90-inch I 0 ,19% lnch

thick seoction

hug hoi~ght

0. lo Inich

.
, 0O.16 ,In1

0.050 i,.SHEAR AREA


Shea Aroa - (0.050) (0,

0 1" i

we) 0.0113 square inches . lbS 000 psi

e S allowable .

L0.6)(" ult tonsilo) - (0,b))(275,00() - 1860 pounds per lug

F-i - asA - (lb5,000)(0.011.1)

1860 = 26401Ibs.= F

FS
Mnoment capability + (F)(Dia) P. - (26,40) (2.950+0.050) 7b000 inch-pounds

CLUTCH LUG SOCKET LOAD CAPABILITY IN CLUTCH HOUSING

0.D. Actuator Gear - 2.720 ID. Clutch Housing = 2.450 0.270 overlap on diameters or 0.135 overlap on radius

0.123 In. DEPTH OF LUG SOCKET

119

I4

Assume a 90 degree conical shear fracture occurring on a 45 degree angle with

the surface.

900
45-

Cleavage surface area n 1/4 (cont, area) - 1/4 (2n r mean)(slant height)

M
2 (0.7"7)

- 0.0185 inches2

Load capacity in cleavage direction a (0.0185)(165,000) - 3030 pounds 3030 * 4290 Allowable load in the tangential direction Allowable torque - (Dia)(Allowable - (2.50)(4290) tangential load)

u 10,700 inch-pounds

Q.

CLUTCH LUG LOAD CAPABILITY IN INTERNAL LUGS OF ACTUATOR GEAR The rotor nousing is chainfered back on the starting lug face 0.050 inch, face width as follows: 2.181-inch
-

which leaves only 0.057-inch


-

1.966-inch

0.050 inch
0.215 2 The section is 0.136 inch high. 0.107 , 0.057-inch wide lug face

120

If the face shears on the muting gear actuator,


(0.057)(0.136) . 0.01096

the area sheared is

0.7070
or an allowable tangential Allowable torque - (2560) force of (0.01096)(165,000) 0.707 2.181 + 1.966 2560

- 5310 inch-pounds This is the smallest allowable torque calculated thus far, and it indicates a possible trouble spot. The allowable torque is based upon load carried by buth lugs simultaneously.

R.

ANALYSIS OF STRESS IN REAR GEAR ON ROTOR (REGION 2.576 2.400


-

BELOW TEETH ROOTS)

Root diameter of gear teeth Dia. of slot inside gear ring

0.176 - Thickness below root of teeth Width of gear = 0.61 inch Tensile area = (0.61) (0.176) Assume tensile strength of 4140 steel = 150 KSI Tensile load - (0.61) (0.176)(120,000) Allowable torque based = on tensile strength -Allowable load based = 12,900 pounds

(12,900)

16,150 inch-pounds torque (75,000) = 16,100 pounds

= (0.61)(0.176) (0.707)z
=

on shear stress Allowable torque based on shear strength

(16,100)(1.25)

20,150 inch-pounds

J
121

S.

POSSIBLE MODIFiCATION OF ACTUATOR GEAR DESIGN Part 11839378

Undercut the two interior lugs so that the O.0S0-inch chamfer on the housing rotor mating recess is not necessary. Drill 1/16-inch diameter holes on either end of the lug as per sketch

R = 0.03125

-O.0125

0.0221

= 0.009

(0.707 )( 0.03125 ) = 0.0221


If done in this manner, there is a 0.009-inch undercut. great. Table VII. System Torque at Rear Gear of Rotor on Declutching of Feed System Torque at Rear Gear of Rotor (inch-pounds) 336 912 1080 728 1470 820 Since the shell

thickness is 0.100-inch, the 0.009-inch undercut does not appear to be tog

"Present Pod
AT-37 Module Delinking Feeder New Side Strip Feeder at 6000 spm at 3000 spm

122

A P P E N D I X

II-F

123

A.

DECLUTCHIN(J MECHANISM ANALYSIS, SYSTEM

MOMENT OF INERTIA OF THE MODULE FEED

The design of a test mechanism to obtain torque versus time during sudden stoppage of the ammunition feed system was described previously. The momentF of inertia of the several systems will be most important in that investigation, since in cases where the feed system is stopped rapidly, the inertial effects will generate forces which may require the redesign of certain parts. The purpose of the following analysis is to describe the method by which the mcment of inertia of the Module Feed System is obtained. This information will be used to predict peak torque at other inertias, frictions, and spring constants. The Module System was run in the Development Laboratory with no

ammunition using an Air Force drive at several speeds. The feeder was instrumented with strain gauges on either side of the drive gear so that the torques for both the sprocket and for the drum drive were obtained. A speed transducer was used on the system in addition to the rounds indicator so as to have instantaneous speed recorded on the trace. The fundamental basis for the determination of the moment of inertia of the Module Feed the equation Tq = Ia or torque = moment of inertia of mass times the angular acceleration of the system. The velocity and torque data are taken during the start-up acceleration period, the drum is and the moment of inertia of calculated from these data as follows: TI'e data are from test 20 for a module with no rounds in the drum. set for Army low rate. spm at 20 milliseconds = 810 spin at 10 milliseconds = 225 spin = 585 System is

The

controller is

a rotor.

585 x 2 H (0.01) (60) (6)

1020 rrdians/sec'

acceleration of the gun

Since there is a
drum 1020 1020
=

2 6;--

to I ratio between the drum and the rotor

153 radians/sec

124

The torque at the feeder gear is

the sum of the sprocket torque plus 8.90

the drive gear torque and at the 15 millisecond time instant tq F inch-pounds. From the plot of steady state torque versus spm at 517 spin tqFSS inch-pounds. So the torque at the feeder required for acceleration is
=

0.70

tqFa tqFa

= = =

qF

qFSS

8.90 - 0.70 8.20 inch-pounds gun


=

The Module System has a five-tooth feeder sprocket so the feeder and since (tq W) feeder (tq w)gun,

6 W

also tq drun "drum tqgun wgun

6
tq 1 dru (8.2) Tq/a (6

(v-)

40

6S.5

656322

.6S. 5
: ) (144) F- -166. Data from three other tests verified the I in
=

1
(32.2) ( -) lb

166 for the moment of lumped

inertia of the Module Feed System (drum to feeder) when considered Ai the drum (when empty).

125

77
*1.

Ji IT
~
0
4

;;
40 0, 094 4
01

44 4

I I

',

f I4

I'

*4~4

4.44

444 .6

4.

::;::f:~T
4.44~.:

.4

44

~1'4 ''~ '-44+

t99I

.4'.

4W44 V'
4

fI

4.3H

126

1,

A'A,CI'I '

l. ON ( ION )N NI 0 I fI

IA QI (.1.f'q4 I'

)!40

lU .

OASI IFI) ItMITI' IN tI: 1111i1m)


A at atiovl'd M I llh%, l I o g 1011 il '. 0.' mm i voh

w0iov gratW. ha Oviilo r wo

Ilk Io

NP

I1hw malhiont ar till I 1.114hokl


t)(1%

Al I 1,01%oriU v4
4al

) A N 4I i

Ik0 0

C t'i froma Ihi

oaf t 110 ra'ssnt mlli ~

hie ciii Ic tU CAt '

(oill low,%
.-

Ithea ds'ne I t ii hiet wi'i'


hoI wo 11 t hei, I oil I
.1'1

Ii Il' 11,1mva
bi a

and tlie I
11AIlh h lip

I 11'A h di mi'n I oil And I lip %loll It I


0 Ve'iic o di'l1r'd to 1'0 1 (d'f r1-

I h d11 M011.4I oll 11,1 1h

4 I'i'

Iki

tillIfI I'mon, I-oi

p ct iolns i

),h

Oleh moiloH
verhe~i 4X~x a t

i of t'I illl'tt

4 o

hi'11 rrotind aboUt

itta v nt or of jIr*v ity tIran1i-

inciv. 'vInh om the bAA.')

uMay be' Calculated


*

I)

/
f
0

it,
1,22

C
f
0

45

follows,

l,SDI
Jr
0,0 15 Iar

0.0.5s93dr

O,036l3 i'llbs 0

The distance from the1 transverse axis of the round to the center of the a 392 ) module drum is 3,8S5 inches so My* ) (3.855)) - 0.83S or I per round - 0,8713 pound inch' per round.

Since the modulus of ine_-ia of the Module Feed System when empty was found to be lbb inch 2 poundsthe iner'ia of the feed system at any particular load is then as follows:
1b6.0 + (ROUNDS) 732. (0.8713) 2

ft

slugs

12

127

C,

SPING' CONSTANI'1

lii; 111

1S 11gt +111)

ITEM rodt b0t woo'i


t lip

I liptt i trg a p1ov of'' Tho I nlmor drtul W44M~ It hito Ir1 d IINv
.o 'el Ila 1It i t I kill ith Vl 000111P. killp t o theii

out or d rum atid Ikolt t ho h ino'r dri'm ofto t lho part it .on wh Ich the' rod had IIdr (I o, ti %m bt C [',t fromi rot 141 Ini pl0 o :' rum, .i i ;%,41 imor mo I move'me'tit it lik t a i rn It'l at 'Cokl e lit lutn beta ring 11poti d o#twoctr the' tnnor And tit Or drtuma . and tho ati Or WAR illt At It %I wolrd. 111%1
MA11114eUt'od ri't at i kil Ili I)rre' I 'A mind Itou n rot i t ioln o
IV 1l'kimlon t ho I Mik llWr

ed to rotlit i on bett weon t ho oiVOrto 'sa ro I - to - hous I ng

111d Wil

ouro it I a%: to %Ifrom t lip moan tib I

The' ilivn

emikitain it'' C he Cooed syvitm fr'om t he ujppcr ond of

tho dirtu

foot punridal [lot, radickn at the' drum. to the' bairrolx iA 3,1180!i

128

Table VIII .

Spring (Ontrant of the Module Feed System Last Word lnd. In, 0.001 0 0.75
1.0 1.1 2.0 2.9 3,7 4.! 6.0 7.6 17.0

I-oad (l0.j) 0 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 lU

'Torquo (jp..:.v, J 0 11
22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110

SC81o (in. on Ilous.ig

112
1.2 2.0
3.0 4.0 5.0 b.5 7.8 8.8 10.1 11.3 14.0

A1/32 Inch 0 0.8


1.8 ,.8 3.8 4.7 6.0 7.0 8.3 9.5 12.0

Allous.ing Reading (deci Lmj) 0 0.0250


0.0562 0.0875 0.1190 0.1470 0.1870 0.o190 0.2600 0.2970 0.3820

Inner Drum 0 Converted 0 0.0040


0.0050 0.0055 0.0100 0.0140 0.0180 0.0200 0.0300 0.0380 0.0840

Allousing -Inner Drum 9 0 0.0210


0.0512 0.0820 0.1090 0.1330 0.1690 0.1990 0.2300 0.2590 0.2980

00 @
The moment arm is

Q0
11.0 inches.
=
=

Inner Drum O.D.

6.800 in.
-0.12 in. 6.68 in. = 4.95 in.
*

-Radii on Ends of Fins

Diameter to Last Word Indicator

Diameter of Gun Housing

To Convert Last Word Indicator Reading to Gun Housing Inner Drum Converted Column 7 =
=

(Indicator) (Indicator)

.495S

(-g-- 8-) Gear Ratio


(--.)

Spring Constant =

(6.67) = Indicator (4.95) K = (A inch-pounds) (6.67)2 (12) (A Housing,( 1 2 f) j 2

.95 a

= (110.5)(44.5)(4.95)
(24) (0.300)

3380.

ft.-lbs./radian
at drum

129

I T It
~~~~
-I .

-t--

'

r' I
-41

.1-tJ~

4LZ

.-

444 -

Tf

D.

THE SPRING CONSTANT OF THE NEW POD FEED SYS'rT The new feeder and exit unit assembly with the new heavier parts was

mounted on a pod drum assembly,

and the exit gear of the exit unit assembly

was blocked by inserting a screwdriver (which fitted the tooth space closely) into the exit gear teeth and fastening the screwdriver firmly to the drum S assembly. A llt-inch arm was inserted transversely between the barrels, and weights were suspended from this arm. The rotational deflection between the of the housing. The spring foot-pounds/

rotor and housing was measured on the ).D.

constant of this new pod feeder system was found to be K = 4330. radian at the drum if it is assumed that there is the rotor and the inner drum.

a 40 to 6 ratio between

Table IX.

Spring Constant of the New Pod Feed System Deflection at Gun Housing (32nds of inches) 25.5 26.3 27.0 27.8 28.6 29.5 30.4 31.0 32.0 32.4 33.0 33.2 4330 ft-lbs/radian at the drum

Load (pounds) 4.2 5.2 6.2 7.8 8.2 9.2 10.2 11.2 12.2 13.2 14.2 15.2

Load (pounds 0 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11

Radius Arm = 11- inches

10 x 11.625 x (6.67)2 (12)(33.4-25.S) 211 4.9--S

131

7~ 7
4A

IT4W
iI

r.I

It

7 T.-

L'41,;41-t
40- --

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155

SECTION SIDE STRIPPING FEEDER,

III SCOPE ITEM 3

A.

INTRODUCTION The object of this program was to design a feeder that will side strip

7.62-mm linked ammunition belts.

These links are designed specifically for

end stripping by the inherent reciprocating motion found in most gas-operated rapid-fire machine guns. However, for feeding the minigun the rotary action

of the side stripping device is

ideal. designed to replace the end stripping The new design eliminates many close

The side stripping feeder is feeder and has many advantages. toleranced, to maintain. high cost parts.

This feeder will cost less and will be easier

The feeder operation will be less complex; timed clearing will The engineering design objectives were to make the

eliminate potential jams.

side stripping feeder as simple as possible with reliability equal to or better than the delinking feeder. The side stripping feeder chuting attachThe XM-28 system ment was to be designed with minimal system modification. was given design priority. with,

While these requirements were closely complied

four basic external differences from the delinking feeder evolved. 1. 2. The chute attachment is The links are ejected in one round length further forward. the same axial plane and general direction

as the spent cartridges. 3. first. 4. The chute attachment location makes it is easier to attach chuting in The ammunition enters the feeder with the double loop of link

the XM-29 than the present feeder; it XM-21 TAT 102 applications.

also completely compatible with the

The XM-27 system will require modifications due to items 1, 2, and 4 above. The chute path from the ammunition box to the feeder needs to be A provision in the cover fairing for the new link ejection rerouted.

location will also be necessary.

156

___

In the initial studies three feeder design concepts were generated, two of two shaft design and one of single main shaft design. The chosen design was a two shaft feeder which will be elaborated upon in the history of development portion of this section. The side stripping feeder hardware which evolved from this design Figure 86 shows the feeder mounted to the program is shown in Figure 85. 7.62-mm minigun. B. DESIGN OBJECTIVES The following objectives were established, and the feeder w, s designed with them as a guide line. 1. Performance - this new stripping concept had to be developed into a working gun feeder and perform as well as conventional end stripping feeders. 2. East of Maintenance - the simplicity of this new design should

produce a more easily maintained assembly. 3. 4. Reliability must be a primary consideration. Minimum Size and Weight
-

design a feeder of minimum size without

excess material. 5. Low Cost


-

the inherent simplicity of the new feeder should

result in drastic cost reduction. C. HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT The initial design studies produced a side stripping mechanism that delinks the round and pulls the belt with one sprocket (see Figure 87). The studies also produced three feeder design concepts. Two concepts incorporated a two shaft system. Both two shaft designs are alike in having one shaft support a stripping device and the second support a feeding sprocket. The third concept utilize a single main shaft which supports one sprocket that both strips and feeds the rounds to the gun. The first two shaft test feeder fabricated was basically a side The basic stripping mechanism attached to a module feeder (66D10013). differences between it and the present end stripping MAU-56 feeder are as follows: 157

1. The ammunition entrance is relocated 20 degrees counterclockwise, looking forward, and one round length further forward longitudinally along the gun. 2. The ammunition belt feeds a double loop of the link first; in the end stripping feeder the single loop is fed first. The nunher of parts and the overall length of the feeder have been reduced. Initial fire testing of design 1 showed that the timing between the stripping and feeding sprocket needed adjustment. Four M-13 NATO links were broken during stripping. This was corrected and testing continued. After the feeder accumulated 12,000 rounds, noted. The stripping action of the links severely marked the rounds producing small brass chips. However, the marked cartridges and brass chips did not adversely affect gun operation. 2. Slightly higher torque peaks than the end stripping feeder were 1. the following effects were 3.

experienced during stripping, although the average stripping torque was about the same. The higher torque peaks did not effect gun operation. 3. some strinped. At this point the feeder sprocket handoff to the gun worked finel the round control was good, but some links were broken in feeder 1. Design 2 was built and both feeders were further tested to determine which was the more desirable approach. Design 2 is a two shaft feeder. One sprocket both strips links and feeds the gun bolt. The feed to the gun is excellent. The good feeding action is attributed to the location and shape of a six-tooth feeding-stripping sprocket. This sprocket is timed so that it fully seats the round in the bolt extractor lip, then follows the bolt to hold it there until the nose of the round has entered the breech of the barrel. The round handoff is not critical to the slight mistiming between the gun and feeder. The belt pull capability is excellent and greater than the strength of the belt itself. 158 Rates of 420C spm were attained without mishap. Above 4500 spm,

,inks were broken at the base of the double loops while being

Both feeders were tested and compared.

Design 2 was chosen over the

first design tested for the following reasons: (1) the design is much simpler; (2) is lighter and less expensive; (3) performs better; (4) is more reliable; (5) has greater belt pull capacity; and (6) is easier to maintain. At this point problems still existed with peak torque and link breakage. Modifications to the stripper sprocket and a new support shaft were made to allow more link clearance while stripping the round. The modifications changed the pivot point of the link single loop while the double loop is stripped (see Figures 88 for stripping action diagram). The first modification tried was the support shaft. A broken link jam occurred immediately. In observing this jam it was noticed links were hung up in the link ejection area. It was possible for the links to pivot upon entering the link chute, allowing the single loop to catch on the edge of the round guide. This caused jamming of the links in the link chute,breaking the captured single loop. The possibility of this recurring again was eliminated by removing the round guide protrusion adjacent to the link ejection chute. Rotational control of the link was gained by adding an extension to the link ejection chute (see Figure 89). A clear jam on complement 4, burst 8, caused another stoppage (see Appendix III-C, Test Results). A round rammed the clearing finger, shearing the clearing stop pin. The feeder was repaired by replacing the spring pins, and testing continued successfully for 20 complements to complement 24 when a broken link caused a jam. Visual inspection of the parts revealed no damage and the cause of the stoppage was not readily apparent. Testing was continued in an attempt to determine the cause of the link breakage which recurred infrequently (see Appendix III-C). After complement 31, burst 4, the feeder was removed and disassembled for a dimensional check of all parts. At this time 42,100 rounds had been fired with the feeder. The investigation revealed the inner round guide was bent and consequently moved the round out of position, causing it to be bound up between the aft support sprocket, inner round guide, and stripper sprocket. The inner round guide was straightened and the feeder was tested further. During the next complement, number 32, repeated clearing jams occurred

159

due to a bent clearing finger. have occurred. wear.

This was repaired and no further stoppages

The feeder will continue to be tested for durability and

In addition to the 44,100 rounds fired at the range, 1800 dummy rounds were stripped and fed to the gun. This brings the total accumulated rounds on the feeder to 45,900. As previously agreed, 500 steel cased dummy The results were good. The side stripping rounds from Frankford Arsenal were cycled to see what effect the steel cases would have on the feeder. feeder performed perfectly. cases. D. METHOD OF OPERATION action of the M-13 link showed no damaging marks on the steel cases and the Aluminum cases are still not available for test, but no difficulty is expected in the stripping or feeding of these

The basic operation of this feeder is the very reliable rolling action of two sprockets. As can be seen by the disassembled feeder (see Figure 90), there are not many parts. double loop first. Figure 91 shows the ammunition entering the feeder, The stripping action starts when the stripper sprocket

engages the ammunition belt between the single and double loops of the link. Stripping occurs in sequence with the trailing single loop first and the double loop second. stripped. The belt pulling sprockets carry the linked ammunition It supports the round whilE the single loop is belt into the sprocket.

The single loop uses the belt pulling sprocket shaft as a pivot

point while the double loop is stripped from the round (see Figure 88). The stripper sprocket is aiso the feed sprocket and carries the round with the aid of a guide to the gun bolt. Figure 92 shows this area of the feeder. Clearing gates are controlled, as in the MXU-470 module, by timing the finger's movement through the round path, thus eliminating clearing jams. This feeder is mounted to the gun in the same way as the delinking feeder. The timing device is an improved wide spring, more easily used than the pin used in the delinking feeder. Figure 93 shows the feede- mounted to the gun.

160

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TR!PPING A:JD FEEDING SPROCKET

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PT ,A POINT FOR PIVOT STRIPPING SINGLE LOOP

"-

f""
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PT.B PIVOT POINT FOR STRIPPING DOUBLE LOOP

DELINKED ROU

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Figure 88. Side Stripping Diagram

167

NOTE: ADDED EXTENSION AND REMOVAL OF MATERIAL PREVENTS LINK FROM PIVOTING AND HANGING UP ON INTERIOR OF OUTER GUIDE

AMMO

STRIPPED ROUND" OUTER GUIDE

ENTRANCE

ADDED EXTENSION REMOVED MATERIAL LINK EJECTION


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lCI':l'ON IV MINIG;IUN (3~ 1110 BIAR, SCOPIF l'IliM ,4

A.

I NTODUCTI' ION The rescitIrch and dete lopilnnt work on tile guide bar h as been completed.

The work has shown nfit) 6irthew

improvement s can be made without Changing the The present

highly dvsirable charactrist ics of the present one-plece bar. devsigi is best for thc existing gun and feeders.

The purpose of this work was to design a new guide bar that would increase tle gun's degree of tolerance to feeder timing and damaged Umiun ttion. The approach taken was that of determining the status of the interfacing with the gun and feeder through the use of With this known, a ba-sis could be

present guide bar's

tolerance studies and high-speed film,,. est ablished for futrther imflrovement 1B. CONCLUSIONS AND REICOMMIINDA'rIONS 1. system is 2. limi ted.

The tolerance studies and high-speed films show that the present the most desirable design for the existing gun and feeder systems. The .. ent to which the guide bar can compensate for late feed is

To further decrease the dependency of round control on feeder some other mechanism(s) must be added to the guide

timi ng during handoff, bar or feeder. 3.

'The amount of damage to guide bars due to late feeding and damaged

ammunition is small and does not justify any further engineering effort on
this part; therefore the research and development work on the guide bar has been terminated. 4. Interference exists between the round and the guide bar rim guide The

during the transition of the round from the feeder to the guide bar.

tolerance limit on the dimension that controls the feeder rim guide location should be tightened for both the pod and delinking feeders to correct this condition.

178

C,

TIOLLRANCL1 SniL) I: S~ 1'ho to lerianet St Lid I s wvre lildvrt akeil to dietermiilie the 11 .hi lilty o1. llinilg at lilte teed sit klat i til and damlaged amniuiit i of) wi thI th, present ties Ign

01 eralev onl the go ide bar, gun

and feeders.

A l arge share of the val ues heactual

use~d inl those studie!s was kub! ai ned fromn

a 1(0 to I Iay out. .

in determining results, ana v is, including all of' the faCturS considered is found i n Append i x I V IL. Tthe follow ing is it summary of' these re SUItS. Ill ii ve Y feeding Svtethe
,

bet ween the bolIt head

dtsi red amount of Crush- up exists -B, pages 198 and rouLnd, Mnd guide ba r ( see Appendi I iV

it is iipossil lt)) , Evory system feedis the round into the gunl early. to ha1Ve a late feeding situoat ion due to the aCCUMUl ati on of toleranIces.
-.

Marginal i nt erterence exi st s between the

oudandthgudbari

guide foix tho pod and del inking feeders during the transition from feeder to guide bar (see Appendix lV-il, pages 2214 through 227). 3. Clearance alway's exists between the bolt head keyway and the guide

bar, key, and between the bolt and the guide bar (see Appendix IV-13, page 202). 4. The rim guide always controls the roun1d SO that it is always free to

enter the bolt head extractor lip (see Appendix IV-13, page 2103). S. Lither clearance or a Iinc-to-line condition was foutnd to exist at all times between the rim guiJe flat and the feeder housings Appendix IV-Il, page 240) D. IIIGlI-SPIIED FUIS In ordcr to thoroughly understand the actual dynamic conditions of round handoff to the bolt for all feeding systems, high-speed films were taken of the round cycling at high rate. The sumimar-/ of results for, the films is in A ppendjix IV-B, Table Xi1, page 246 The filming was accomplished by removing the barrels from the rotor, inserting plexiglas plugs (see Figure 108) into the rotor's barrel holes, and cycling dummy rounds through the gun while simultaneously taking highspeed films through the plexiglas plugs. (see

179

These

H I ills

show thai

a I I sYS t c ,, fe'Od the round i into the gun

ar I y

The module,
bar t'i ngers.
aglinl1.sthe

pod,

and A-37 feedeir sprockets push the round against the guide
The effect of this is seen in the dcflcction of the guide thit, deli nk i ng feeder p resses the round
aind then cIuse.,s tile round to bounce several

bar mt all t ines.

on tile other hand,


inne ,eder guides

times against the fingers before it

is fully seated in til

head bolt.

'File

filns have shown that tilt, feeders move tile round into tile gun very et'ficiently. 1'. J'VAI.UA'rION OF VARRIOUS tU IDE- BAR DESIGNS The areas of the guide bar that are susceptible to damagc are the fingers and the rim guides. has a sheared roller stud. against it The fingers may be damaged when a bolt assembly A broken rim guide occurs when a round is pushed

by the bolt head - as in a late feed. occurrences were 1 in 1,000,000 and

The average hangfire and late ',ed I in 100,000, respectively,

based on General Electric's SEA malfunction Approximately 25 percent of the

reports from ,January 1968 to March 19b9. hangfires cause bent fingers, cause broken rim guides.

and a very small percentage of the late feeds

Even though these statistics indicate a very high reliability for the present guide bar, ideas for decreasing the cost and/or increasing the

already high reliability of the present guide bar were accumulated and evaluated. The following ideas for possible guide bar and round control

improvement are discussed below. 1. 2. 3. 4. Replaceable guide bar fingers Modified round path New rim guide Mechanisms to increase the gun's tolerance for late feeding a. b. Movable rim guides Accelerators

180

I.

Replaceable Guide Bar Fingers It was thought that replaceable guide bar fingers would help to save

the guide bar when a bolt body roller stud shears because of a hangfire. entire guide bar would not have to be disposed of if replaced. bent fingers could be

The

This idea has been found impractical because of the infrequency of damage to guide bar fingers, finger:, the additional machining required for new and the uncertainty in the

the added cost of casting fingers,

capability of designing new fingers with the same strength as the present guide bar fingers. 2. Modified Round Path During the initial guide bar studies, material from the guide bar fingers, the degree of tolerance to late feed. feeder sprocket to be set ahead, the sprocket can be retarded. This approach cannot be used because the sprocket is advanced as far as it already it was felt that removing Figure 96, would increase

as shown in

Such a modification would allow the

consequently increasing the zone in which

can be - the feeder sprockets press the round against the present design.

the rotor's stationary tracks in 3. New Rim Guide

Changing the present guide bar rim guide to the other side of the guide bar (see Figure 97) would reduce manufac'uring costs. investigation has shown this idea is infeasible. However,

It was found that the

minigun's removable track ways would prevent the proposed rim guide from extending far enough to the bolt head extractor lip to ensure full control of the round as it passes from the rim guide to the lip. The guide bar

would lose control of the round before it extractor lip and, consequently, 4.

was fully seated inside the

a double feed situation could occur.

Mechanisms to Increase the Gun's Tolerance to Late Feeding The extent to which the guide bar can compensate for late feeding

is

limited.

Some other type of mechanism must be added to the guide bar or Two

the feeder to lurther increase the gun's tolerance to feeder timing.

181

possible approaches involve having the guide bar rim guide and the feeder inner guides move out of the round's way and having a mechanism push the round ahead of the sprocket. a. Ideas employing these approaches are as follows

Movable rim guides (1) (2) Rotational displacement rim guides Translational displacement rim guides

b.

Accelerators (1) (2) (3) Angle-multiplying mechanism Spring lever mechanism Feedback system with actuated solenoid (solenoid kicker)

Since only a very small number of guide bars are damaged because of late feeding, above ideas. it would be impractical to pursue any design employing the The increased gun reliability resulting from such a mechanism is not worth the engineering effort or additional cost required to develop and produce one. However, the ideas will still be discussed. a. Movable Rim Guides The whole theory behind a movable im guide is that the excessive force exerted on the rim guide during a late feeding situation would create sufficient clearance for the round to pass over the top of the rim guide. This would prevent broken rim guides and gun stoppages cause by the late feeds. Figures 98 through 101 illustrate various ways of producing a movable rim guide. b. Accelerr.,or(1) Angle-Multiplying Mechanism This mechanism would accelerate the round into the bolt body at all times. It is based on the same principle used for a shaper. The pin on the feeder sprocket would traverse a certain predetermined arc length while the accelerator would travel a greater arc length during the same time period. A kicker would be mounted on the irKde surface of the feeder

182

forward inner guide as shown in Figure 102.

One of the pins on the feeder

sprocket would engage the track of the kicker and push the kicker 180 degrees, where another pin would engage the track. The pins would engage and disengage the kicker every 72 degrees of feeder sprocket rotation. The difficulty in employing such a device lies in the interference that exists between the kicker and the feeder shaft. size would overcome this problem, of the shaft. (2) Spring Lever Mechanism The spring lever mechanism shown in Figure 103 ensures that the rounds are in the head bolt extractor lip at all times during handoff. The mechanism consists of a lever and a spring. The top surface of the head bolt travels along the cam of the lever (kicker) and activates it, causing the lever arm to push the round into the head bolt. The head bolt directly controls the position of the lever, independent of the feeder sprocket. (3) Solenoid Kicker This mechanism is different from the others previously discussed. The other mechanisms would work at all times, regardless of The solenoid kicker mechanism (see Figure 104) would The head bolt would push early or late feed. Reduction of the shaft's but would jeopardize the required strength

operate only when a late feed situation existed. miniature solenoid.

the round against the rim guide and cause a microswitch to actuate a The solenoid kicker would accelerate the round into the head bolt, at which time the microswitch would be turned off and the kicker would return to its original position. Some of the problems with this type of device are the feasibility of producing such a small solenoid with the required characteristics and the reliability and time delays involved with the use of such an electrical system.

183

A P P E N D I X illustrations

IV-A

184

FACE OF BOLT CLEARS GUIDE BAR RIM OF CARTRIDGE j* .ALWAYS FREE TO ENTER EXTRACTOR L)

CARTRIDGE ALWAYS CLEARS FORWARD LIP

MARGINAL CARTRIDGE INTERFERENCE ON POD DELINKING FEEDERS

TY'PICAL FEEDER

Figure 95.

Cartridge Handoff

Feeder/Guide Bar/ Head Bolt

185

MODIFILD ROUND PATH ( INCREASE IN TIMING( TOLERANCE. ) --- \

Figure 96.

Modified Round Path

186

NEW RIM GUIDE 'ELIMINATED RIM GUIDE

0LE

Figure 97.

New Rim Guide

187

TEFLON

WA SHER(S) ALTERNATE DESIGN


COIL SPRING (ELtM. LEAF SPRING)

COVR

/R
LEAF SPRING VIEW SHOWN, COVER REMOVED
Figure 98. Guide Bar, Adjustable Rim Guide

188

SPRING

FASTENER (HEADS NOT SHOWN FOR CLARITY) BACK rACE RIM GUIDE

IDEA I

S[

BACK FACE

----

IDEA

11

FASTENER ()

BUNA-N O-RIJC (2)

Guide Bar Back Face Rim Guide, Feeder Side Self-Adjusting for Excess Loading

Figure 99.

189

RIM GUIDE-SR ACE - --

Figure 100.

Spring Rim Guide

190

COIL OR

LEAF SPRING
Figure 101.

Spring-loaded Rim Guide

ii,

191

INTERFERENCE EXISTS BETWEEN TIP OF KICKER AND FEEDER SHAFT ( DUE TO LENGTH REQUIRED FOR KICKER)

KIC KEER---

ONE OF FIVE PINS ON SPROCKET

Figure 102.

Angle-Multiplying Mechanism

192

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KICK PUSHES ROUND INTO HEAD BOLT

MICROSWITCH

//
- MINIATURE SOLENOID KICKER

Figure 104.

Solenoid Kicker

194

AP P END I X

IV-B

Tolerance Study

195
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CARTRIDGE SEATED, STARTS TO TRANSLATE FORWARD OUT OF DWELL. CARTRIDGE MAKES FINAL CONTACT WITH GUIDES. DEGREE OF INCREASE REQUIRED TO ELIMINATE EARLY FEED.
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SECTION ARMAMUINT PO1), XM-18,

V SCOPE ITUM S

A.

INTROQ)UCT ION Wh'on the doigl gn ad development of the new feed aind storage system for

the minigun pod was initiated, objectives were Ostablishod to make the less ,:tom mort' reliable, eaon-er to operate and maintain, to produce.

l1nL.

and more economical

Th'li approach taken to improve the existing system was to decrease

the oumbor of mc\,'ng and fixed parts while simplifying the fabrication of the pod's components. The objectives tstablished to improve the pod system were as follows: 1. Use steel Investment castings to replace the aluminum castings on the feeder and cit unit, to eliminate the necessity for separate guides and wear plates and reduce the machining requirements. 2. Eliminate the shoet metal conveyor guide and crossover guide on the durability, and ease of installation. mechanism in the feeder to eliminate

feeder to increase reliability, 3. Include a timed clear

clearing jams. 4. Eliminate the drum ring gear, geared retainer partition, and scoop disc assembly by using a single lead sheet metal helix similar in design and function to the MXU-470/A Minigun Module, S. Incorporate a power load feature to decrease load time and increase ease of operation. B. SUMMARY The efforts of this Research and Development program have resulted in a new design that meets and surpasses the target levels of reliability and cost savings established at the beginning of the program. The proven reliability of the minigun module drum has been combined with a new feeder that fired over 200,000 rounds without being responsible for a single stoppage. This combination makes possible a pod system that will easily exceed 100,000 mean

248

rounds between failures.

Thv new feeder, which is interchangeable with the


weighs approxinately 1 3/4 pounds

fteeder used on all product ion ml nigun pods, 1)1,ac. more than the uni t it rep

'-The weight difference i due to the use of However, tihe added weight is a The now system has

steel castings where aluminun was employed. many fewer parts and is, therefore,
which is

small price for the tremendous increase in performance.

much easier to assemble and maintain

extremely important when related to down time in a combat area.

C2. DLESIN DVLVLLOPMIhN'I'

Pursuing those objectives established to improve the pod,


phase moved through layouts to Class I drawings. see Figure 114,

the design

The ammunition storage area,

incorporates a design similar to the MXU-470/A Minigun Module,

which has a rotating finned inner drum and a stationary outer drum helix. The new design elininates the expensive honeycomb outer structure and replaces it with the forged support, part number 11839419. Loads are trans-

mitted from the suspension lugs through the support and into the drum cover and aft bearing support at each end of the storage drum. i'limin!ttes the scoop disc assembly, nwumber of moving parts is geared retainer, the new pod. reliability is drum ring gear, This design also The

and geared retainer.

reduced from 17 - for the scoop disc assembly,

and inner drum of the old pod - to one for the inner drum of costs and wear are reduced and

With fewer moving parts, increased.

The inner drium design deviates from the module configuration in round space is 124). not radial

that the

to the centerline of the drum (see Figures 123 and canted so that when the drum is rotating in the not

The round spaLCe is

firing direction the round is held radial to the drum and the base is permitted to lag.

Holding the round radial reduces the fricL.on force on the

base of the round and reduces the driving torque required for the drum. The new exit unit utilizes a precision steel investment casting for its housing, wnich eliminates the need for four separately attached guides and The configuration of the exit unit has been changed from the The new loader feeds the

year plates.

old design to allow relocation of the loader.

stripped rounds into the exit sprocket (see Figure 1251 rather than into the gear sprocket as in the old design. An intermittent Geneva-type drive was

required between the old loader and exit unit for the rounds to be picked up

249

by the exit gear.


assemb ly.

By moving the pickup point to the exit sprocket, the

intermittent drive is no longer needed, which causes a smoother operating

When dry cycling of the pad system was initially attempted, rounds

jaumed in the handoff from the inner drum to the exit sprocket.

To determine

the cause of the poor handoff, a detailed layout similar to Figures 126 and Two problems were apparent when the round path was established. 127 was drawn. First, the timing of the sprocket was such that in the firing direction the sprocket could cram the round, guide to be clear of the drum. prototype. round control was minimal. under some tolerance conditions, into the inne,

drum fin ahead of the round before the round was far enough up the 11839363
This condition was experienced with the Secondly, as the round moved from the drum into the sprocket, The sprocket did not pick up the round before the

centerline of the nose had passed the end of the drt.'. As the round continued out, the effective working diameter on the nose became smaller. Therefore the drum allowed the base of the round to lag, making pick up by the sprocket impossible. Two modifications were made to correct the handoff problem. First, the
The

inner drum fins were moved 0.060 inch closer to the sprocket, which gave the
drum control of the round for a greater distance up the 11839363 guide. second modification involved enlarging the retarding the nose round space of the exit sprocket to accommodate the difference in velocity of the nose and base of the round as it moves into the sprocket. With these changes incor-

porated, dry cycling was successful using rates of 2000 and 4000 spm. W'hile loading for the first fire tests of the new feed and storage system, approximnately one out of every 100 rounds hung up between the loader A design study of this area revealed a possible interference the round, and the inner round guide (see Figure

and exit unit.

between the loading guide, 125).

The guide surface of the inner round guide was lengthened 0.260 inch

and moved 0.023 inch away from the round to provide a smoother transition from the loader to the exit unit and prevent any possible interference. loader and exit unit functioned as desired when the modified parts were installed. The

2S0

Thc new loader and exit unit have been designed so the loader is always In storage, the loader attached to the exit unit (see Figures 119 and 120). is held in place against the front of the drum cover by a quick release pin. To load the pod, the quick release pin is removed and the loader is swung into position and secured by the same pin.

Having the loader attached to the exit

unit in this manner cuts the time required for loading the system. The primary engineering goals for the redesign of the feeder assembly were that it be interchangeable with the MAU-S7A/A production design which is used on all minipods and that the troublesome features that exist in the old feeder be eliminated. Figures Il and 121). These goals have been achieved in the new design (see The sheet metal conveyor guide, the crossover guide, the 63DI0900 and 63C10904 guides, as well as all wear plates, have been eliminated by the use of steel investment castings. list of those parts eliminated. The functions of conveyor guide and crossover guides are now being performed by features incorporated in the feeder housing and sliding wheel support castings. After it leaves the exit unit, the round is controlled The nose guide is an integral part of the At approximately 12 o'clock, ose control is 'his action The nose guide then rotates the base of by the sliding wheel support base and nose guides for about 70 degrees rotation of the conveyor wheel. sliding wheel support casting. See Table XIII for a

transferred to the feeder housing.

the round down under the base guide of the feeder housing.

eliminates the function of the scoop guide. The outer guide and clearing jams have been eliminated by a timed clearing mechanism which is similar in principle to those used on other minigun feed svytems. tain, longer lived, and less costly to manufacture. The rounds counter drive assembly, part number 11839429 (see Figure 109), has been relocated to provide more direct routing for the flexible drive shaft. The assembly is now mounted on the drum cover nearly in line with This will greatly increase the life of the flexible shaft. the counter. This design has produced a unit that has fewer parts, is extremely reliable, easier to main-

The new pod is provided with redesigned slides to support the battery and control assembly. The stationary portions of the slides are machines from an extrusion and riveted to the aft drum structure (see Figure 115).

251

The male pirtions of the slides are mounted to the support assembly frame of the control package. For ease of operation, the mating surfaces of the male and female slides are treated with a dry film lubricant. A latch similar to that used on the old pod is used to secure the control assembly in the pod. The material used for the strika or hook has been changed from aluminum to steel to prevent yielding under high "g" loadings. A power load capability has been developed for the new pod design. A

small motor and gearbox is used to drive the drum, exit unit, and loader when the feeder is disconnected for loading. This motor would be mounted on the aft bearing support in the aft drum, which would require lengthening the aft drum fcir inches if the present control pack configuration were maintained. Engineering feels the added weight, the 1500-round pod. length, and expense are not justified for However, a new control pack configuration could be

developed to reduce the length increase and provide power load capability for a larger capacity pod. A pod capacity of up to 3000 rounds could be developed. The design of the new pod assembly is tailored to adapt to an increased storage capacity by replacing the outer drum and helix assembly, the rotating inner drum, and a power cable adapter. Table XIII. Part No. 1. 63EI0829 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 63D10843 63D10900 63C00903 63CI0904 63C10907 63D10916 63D10917 63CI0920 32 Pieces Miscellaneous Hardware Parts Eliminated from Feeder Part Conveyor Guide Crossover Guide Scoop Guide Rim Guide Outer Guide Nose Guide Solenoid Bracket Chute Guide Plate

252

D.

END ITEM CONFIGURATION To save large tooling expenses, the prototype pod deviates from the

drawing in

several areas.

All components that form a part of the new design forgings, or extrusions were fabricated from the inner drum extrusion for which

and are delineated as castings, hogouts and/or weldments. a die was built.

One exception is

While the prototype pod was being built and tested,several changes were made in the drawings which would have required welding to bring the parts to These changes were not critical tu the function of to avoid possible warpage of the parts by welding, the new configuration. the assembly; therefore,

the following items are not to the latest drawing revision: 1. The holes for two MS3S207-264 screws (see Figure 110) which secure part number 11839304, to the exit unit housing were located

the inner guide,

so that under some tolerance conditions the nuts could interfere with the exit gear sprocket, part number 11839319. The drawing was changed, but because there was no interference on the prototype unit the parts, were not changed. 2. The timing pin, part number 11839397, If Figure 114, was mislocated on

the design layout.

the pin in the exit unit and the pin in the drum cover placed on the drum cover, timing will be both pins

are depressed as the exit unit is correct. cannot However,

after the exit unit is

secured with hardware,

be engaged simultaneously.

A simple check by running a round through

the exit unit and into the drum will insure proper timing has been obtained.

3.

Figure 121 shows a guide at the left of the solenoid that is mounted On the drawings this guide is not a

to the feeder housing by one screw.

separately attached part, but is cast as an integral part of the housing. E. TESTING

The feeder was the first assembly of the new pod to be completed. Because it is interchangeable with the old pod design, it was mounted on an XM-18EI pod and successfully fire tested. High-speed films were taken to The transition of the study the movement of the rounds through the feeder. control was maintained at all times.

round from the sliding wheel support to the feeder was very smooth, and round Final design configuration was

253

established after the first two complements. were fired with the feeder on an XM-18E1 pod. stoppages occurred,

In final form, 52,000 rounds During this testing only three

and these were caused by bent rounds which were caused by a faulty scoop disc assembly. There were no feeder stoppages or malfunctions. Additional testing of the feeder began when the prototype storage drum and exit unit were completed; 150,000 rounds were fired with the feeder on the new pod. The feeder performed flawlessly throughout this test with no stoppages or malfunctions. The 150,000-round engineering test was conducted on the prototype feed and storage system to prove the design and establish the system's reliability, See Appendix V-C for summary test results. Rates fired were from 2000 to 6000 spm, utilizing both Air Force and Army gun drives. Burst lengths were varied from 50 to 300 shots. After firing the first two complements, design changes were made in the loader and exit unit as explained in Section IV, Part C,"Design Development." Following these changes, the feed and storage system, which was in its final design configuration, successfully fired the remaining 147,000 rounds. Six stoppages occurred, four resulted from hangfires, one was caused by a safing sector pin's coming loose, and the last was caused by a personnel error when loading the system. Thus the new feed and storage system handled 147,090 It also proved to rounds without being responsible for a single stoppage.

have a high level of durability as ..one of the system's primary components was damaged by these stoppages. The only repairs required for the feed and storage system were the replacement of the feeder drive gear pin and the exit gear pin on three of the six stoppages. The 150,000-round test established that the new pod design has both high reliability and high durability, which combine to save many dollars in repair parts and labor and to keep the system operational for many more missions.

254

A P P E N D I X Drawings

V-A

255

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Photos and Illustrations

264

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Figure 124.

Round Positioned in Inner Drum

~2721

S~EXIT

SPROCKET

SCOOP , ' IGUIDE

~LOADING GUIDE

EXIT GEAR

SPROCKET

GUID
LOADER SPROCKET

/I

Figure 125.

Round Path Through Loader and Exit Unit, New Design

273

GUIDE -11839363 SPROCKET -11839307

GUIDE

-11839309

BASE OF HELIX

Figure 126.

(Sheot

1 of 2) Design Study of Inner Drum


I

to Exit Sprocket Handoff

274j

--.- EXIT UNIT

.--- GUIDE

11839363

SPROCKET

11839307

NOSE

SHOW

UDGUIDE - 11839309

I
INNER DRUM

~j~.DRUM COVER

Figure 126.

(Sheet 2 of 2) Design Study of Inner Drum to Exit Sprocket Handoff 27S

AP P E NDI X
Test Results

V-C

276

Table XIV.

Summary Results on 150,000-Round Engineering Reliability Test of Research and Development Feed and Storage System

Comp. No? 1

No. of Bursts 15

Rate (spm) 2000-4000

Status No go burst 7 - round damaged during loading jammed at exit sprocket

11

3000-6000

Stoppage burst 4 - same as above

Installed modified loading guide and round guide to eliminate loading damage 3 4 s 6 7 8 9 10 8 S S 5 8 8 S 8 2000 4000 4000 3000 60no 6000 6000 6000 OK OK OK OK OK OK OK Stoppage burst 5 - bent round jammed in feeder - personnel error damaged rounds during loading OK Hangfire burst 6 - gun stoppage resulted OK OK - installed Research and Development bolts in gun OK OK OK OK OK

11 12 13 14 is 16 17 16 19

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 3000 3000 3000

277

Table XIV. Sumnary Results on 150,00O,.Round Nnpineering Reliability Teot of Research and Development Poed and Storqe System (Cont.)
No, c

Comp. Not
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 3S 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Burstr.
5 5 5 5 7 S 5 8 5 5 S 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 8 8 8 5 8

Rate (
3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 278

8O*t
OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK Ox OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK

L.

-..

...........

........-

Table XIV, Summary Results on l 0,00O-Rouwd RngIneering Reliability Test ot Research and Development Peed and Storage System (cont.) No, of Rate
.UK I I I a lll

43 44

5
5

2000 2000

OK

Stoppage

safing sector pin came o016e fTrO gun - damaged (1) Research and Development bolt, guide bar, and roll pins
OK OK OK

45 46 45

8 a

4000 4000 4000

49

4000

OK

so
51

a
a

4000
200

OK
OK

52 537 54

S a a

2000 2000
4000

OK OK OK x

560 so

4000

OK OK

62 63

5
6

4000 4000

OK OK

279

Table XIV,

Sumary Results on No. of

SO,000-Round Ingineering Reliability Test

of Research and Development Feed and Storage System (cont.)

NL
64 6S 66 67 66 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83

AOIt
S
A

Rate (soml
4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 2000 2000 4000 4000 2000 2000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000

Stlatus
OK Hanlfir* stoppage gun or pod
-

no damage to

a
S 5 a 8 S 6 8 8 S S 5 5 6 S S 5

OK OK OK OK OK - Removed Research and Development bolts OK - Reinstalled Research and Development bolts Hangfire stoppage
-

no damage

OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK

64

280

ii
j~.-. ----. -~

Table XIV. Summary Results on 150,000-Round Engineering Reliability Test of Research and Development Feed and Storage System (cont.) No. of
S

Rate

Comp. Not
85

Bursts

CspIn
4000

Status
OK

96 87 88 89 90 91 92
93 94 95 96 97

5 6 5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5

4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000


4000 4000 4000 4000 4000

OK Hangfire stoppage
-

no damage

OK OK OK OK OK
OK OK OK OK OK

98
99 100

s
5 S

4000
4000 4000 1500 rounds.

OK
OK OK

*Each complement is

I2

281

'

A P P E N D I X

V-D

Weight and Center of Gravity

282}
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283b.

UNCLASSIFIE!

DOCUMINT CONTROL DATA. R & D


(Seetwofty 01Uleaeion of title,
66 o fem

.. a"

nImdISMd annaetio mammal be twend .W##me Oerall not

Iscessined)

I. ORIGINATING ACTIVITY (Cespwle-emikeu)

111 REPORT SECURITY CLASSFICATION

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT DIVISION BURLINGTON, VERMONT


I.
"%PORIT

UNCLASSIFIED 86. GeouP Not Applicable

TITLE

Minigun Research and Development Program Contract Scope Items 1, 2, 3, 4, and S


4. OES~ftVPTIV3 NOTES (p

.1vel

me d Uahmv. ate) rne)

Finagi Reoort
S.AU TmsIlu) (JMf
nae, aS1ide* Mihd~hlosat

Scope Item 1 - Eugene B. Raymond, Scope Item 2 - David R. Skinner, Scope Item 3 - Henry R. White, Scope Item 4 - Gerard J. Desany, Scope Item S - Charles D. Rossier
4- REPORT DATE

March 1970
CONTRACT OR GRANT NO. C&

70. TOTAL NO. OF PAGES

292

|b.

NO. OF REPS

None

S.

ORIGINATON*$ REPORT NUMrERII|

DAAF 01-68-C-0060
6. PROJECT NO.

70APB19
8 0T1CR TE. REPORT NO(S) (AIm

Not Applicable
6.

Not Applicable 'LNot Applicable


IS. OITINUTION STATEMENT

W"s'q'

ltw A

inbff.

Admmy be "a.I

AMCMS Code Number 5142"12'11209'14

Distribution of this document is unlimited.


IN. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE*
to. SPONSORING MILITARY ACTIVITY

Not Applicable
uS. AETRAT

U. S. Army Weapons Command Rock Island, Illinois

4s

This report describes the design, development, and testing of a new minigun bolt, clutch, sidestripping feeder, guide bar, and armament pod for the XM-18. The new bolt functions independently of any external cam other than the main Other adhousing cam, and is completely interchangeable in all existing systems. reliability. and greater life, vantages include reduced cost, longer The new solenoid operated clutch is in the aft end of the gun and does not inter fere with the feed systems of the many minigun applications. The clutch stops the feed system at the end of a burst, but allows the gun to rotate and clear. A large savings is realized because no live ammunition is dumped. It has fewer parts, The new delinking feeder sidestrips, rather than endstrips. is more durable, and thereby reduces cost and increases feeder life. Tolerance studies of the guide interfacing with gun and feeder, high-speed films of round handoff, and evaluations of various guide bar concepts were performed to try to design a guide bar which would decrease dependency on feeder timing and increase tolerance to damaged ammunition. The new feed and storage system for the minigun pod incorporates a storage drum similar to the MXU 470 Minigun Module with a new feeder design that has fewer parts and is more durable. The combination of these two features more than doubles the reliability of the pod.

11"doww"1473

UNCLASSIFIED

UNCLASSIFIED

"Ott
dLINK A

ROS6

00166

WT

LINK S WY

LINK C ROLW-

1. Self-Actuating Bolt 2. Tuftrided Pins


3. S. Spring Energy Clutch

4.- Minigun 6.
7. 8. 9. 10.

Clearing
Sidestripping Feed Link Ejection Stripper Sprocket

11. 12. 13. 14.


15.

Minigun Guide Bar


Guide Bar Round Accelerators Feeders Ammunition Feeder Storage Drum Minigun Pod

16. 17.

Ii

IL

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