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Notes in Botany

Compiled by: N.R. Bautista

Plant Tissues and the Multicellular Plant Body

Goals: 1. Know how plants are organized from the cell up to the individual. 2. Understand the difference between simple and complex tissues. 3. Contrast the function of the three tissue systems of plants and know whether they are composed of simple or complex tissues. 4. Know the difference between parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma, their functions, and their locations 5. Understand the structure, function and location of xylem and phloem in plants. 6. Be familiar with the type of cells contained within these 2 tissues. 7. Know the difference between the epidermis and periderm, their location, composition and function. 8. Understand the difference between plant and animal growth. Be able to describe plant growth at all meristems. 9. Be able to identify the location of all plant meristems (primary and secondary) WHAT IS A PLANT Plants are multicellular eukaryotes that is a photosynthetic autotrophy. Plants come in a wide range of diversity from herbaceous annuals to woody perennials. But almost all, are composed of the following organs: roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. These different organs can be divided into the root and shoot system. Like animals, plants are organized from the cell and upward to create a functioning unit. Cell --> tissues --> tissue systems --> organs --> individuals. Plant tissues: simple (1 cell type) and complex (>1 cell type) Tissue system: sets of tissues that have a particular function Ground tissue system Vascular tissue system Dermal tissue system THE GROUND TISSUE SYSTEM Functions in storage, support, and photosynthesis. Herbaceous plants are composed mostly of ground tissues This system is composed of 3 simple tissues which can be distinguished by their cell walls: Note that young growing cells secrete a primary cell wall that is elastic and can expand. Mature cells may

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or may not produce a secondary cell wall that is thick and rigid. (It is produced to the inside of the first) Parenchyma (simple tissue with thin primary cell walls) Found throughout the plant body Most basic and undifferentiated tissue type Functions in storage (no chloroplasts), photosynthesis (cells with chloroplasts) and secretion (e.g. Nectar producing cells) This tissue is living. Makes up the soft tissues of plants (e.g., apples and carrots). Collenchyma (simple tissue with unevenly thickened cell walls) Very flexible support tissues Found in young plants, under epidermis, and along veins Living tissue (e.g., celery and asparagus) Schlerenchyma (simple tissue with a thick secondary cell wall) Cells function in support, have very think secondary cell walls, and are dead at maturity Two types of cells Sclerids short and cubical cells (e.g., walls of pits (nectarine), coconut shells); they usually compose the cells of very hard parts of plants Fibers long tapered cells; occur in clumps; abundant in wood and bark (e.g., hemp and sisal rope) THE VASCULAR TISSUE SYSTEM Embedded in the ground system Transports water, minerals and sugars throughout the plant body Most cells oriented parallel to the plant axis but some are perpendicular for horizontal transport Xylem (water conducting cells; 2 types) Conducts water and minerals from roots to leaves Composed of 2 cell types Tracheids: long tapering cells with pits (holes) in walls to allow water to pass through Vessel elements: wider and squatter cells, with pits. But at ends of cells, the cell walls are perforated to allow water to pass through. Stacks of vessel elements make up vessels Two other cell types occur in xylem, fiver cells for support, and some parenchyma cells Wood is composed of xylem cells Phloem (food conducting cells; 2 types) Conducts sugars, hormones, and other plant products (materials pumped either way) Plant Tissues and the Multicellular Plant Body Page 2

Sieve tube members materials are conducted mostly through here. These are specialized cells that are stacked on one another. The ends of the cells, which are called sieve plates, are pierced by a series of holes through which cytoplasm passes. Cells are alive but lack nucleus and many organelles Companion cells adjacent to sieve tube cells. They are living and intact with nucleus. Function in controlling transport and are connected with the tube cells with pits as well. Two other cell types occur in phloem, fiber cells for support, and some parenchyma cells THE DERMAL TISSUE SYSTEM This system provides a protective covering for plants and is composed of 2 types of tissues Epidermis outermost layer of cells in an herbaceous plant In most plants is a single layer thick Composed of parenchyma and some guard cells Cell walls are thicker towards outside Secretes a waxy covering called the cuticle Guard cells surround tiny openings in leaves called stomata (to allow gas exchange) Epidermal cells may have specialized outgrowths called trichomes (hairs; e.g., root hairs, plant fuzz) Trichomes function in solar reflection, retard water loss, and deter herbivores Periderm a thicker skin for woodier plants Replaces the epidermis in woody plants and eventually becomes "bark" Composed of 3 types of cells Cork cells dead at maturity, walls heavily coated with suberin Cork parenchyma function in storage Cork cambium meristematic tissue The cork cambium is located near the outside of the stem. It produces cork cells to the outside and parenchyma cells to the inside. Describe growth with respect to phloem. PLANT GROWTH Cell growth includes cell division, elongation, a differentiation Plants like animals grow, but they exhibit localized growth at meristems. Meristem specific area where plant cells are dividing and growing. Always maintain capacity to divide. Exercise. Draw a plant figure and label all meristems

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Primary meristems and growth Primary growth is plant growth that contributes to length and height It occurs at primary meristems, which are located at the tips of stems and roots, and axils of leaves. Describe growth at roots and shoots, including division, elongation, and maturation / differentiation Secondary meristems and growth Secondary growth contributes to plant thickness (stem and root) Occurs in lateral meristems which extend throughout the entire plant Vascular cambium (a meristem) thin ring (tube) of cells in trees. Located between xylem and phloem, it produces xylem to the inside and phloem to the outside. Cork cambium (a meristem) thin tube in the outer bark region that produces cork cells and cork parenchyma.

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