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~The Digestive System~

The Three Primary Functions –

1) Digestion of food.
2) Absorption of nutrients.
3) Elimination of waste.

Primary Organ Groups –

1) Mouth or oral cavity –


a) Breakdown of food begins with chewing (mastication).
b) Mass of chewed food (bolus).

2) Pharynx –

a) Epiglottis prevents food from entering trachea.

3) Esophagus –

a) Transports food from mouth to stomach.


b) Food moves into stomach by peristalsis (movement of food).

4) Stomach –

a) Saclike structure that holds food while digestion continues.


b) Chyme is a semi-fluid mass of partially digested.

5) Small intestine –

a) Divides into three parts – duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.


b) Absorption of most nutrients takes place in small intestine.

6) Large intestine –

a) Division include:
1. Cecum.
2. Ascending colon.
3. Transverse colon.
4. Descending colon.
5. Sigmoid colon.
6. Rectum.

7) Anal Canal
Supporting Structures –

1) Teeth.
2) Salivary glands.
3) Liver.
4) Gallbladder.
5) Pancreas.
6) Vermiform appendix.

Digestion –

1) Physical –
a) Chewing.
b) Grinding in stomach.

2) Chemical –
a) Saliva.
b) Enzymes in the stomach and small intestine.

Metabolism –

1) Processing of nutrients within cells throughout body to produce energy.

The Endocrine System –

1) Hormone help regulate metabolism of nutrients for growth and development.


2) Insulin and glucagon control sugar metabolism.
3) GI system provides nutrients to maintain endocrine glands.

Diseases and Disorders –

1) Anorexia: eating disorder characterized by a pathological fear of weight gain and


distorted body image.

2) Appendicitis: Inflammation of the appendix.

3) Ascites: Accumulation of fluid in abdominal cavity.


4) Bulimia: Eating disorder characterized by a cycle of extreme overeating.

5) Cholecystitis: Inflammation of gallbladder.

6) Cholelithiasis: Presences of gallstones.

7) Cirrohosis: Inflammation of liver.

8) Cleft lip: Congenital defect upper lip does not fuse together properly during
embryonic development.

9) Cleft palate: Congenital fissure of palate. Resulting from incomplete fusion


during embryonic development.

10) Colitis: Inflammation of colon.

11) Crohn’s disease: Autoimmune disorder involves chronic irritation and ulceration
of ileum and/or colon.

12) Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver.

13) Ulcer: Open lesion in lining of digestive tract.

~The Urinary System~

The Three Primary Functions –

1) Regulation – regulates chemical composition of body fluids.


2) Filtration – filters blood to remove waste.
3) Elimination – eliminates waste and excess water from the body.

Primary Structures –

1) Kidneys (2)
2) Ureters (2)
3) Bladder
4) Urethra
The Organs –

1) Kidneys (2) –

a) Nephron – functional unit of the kidney.

2) Ureters (2) –

a) Narrow tubes about 10-12 inches long.


b) Carry urine from kidneys to bladder.

3) Bladder –

a) Serves as a reservoir for urine.

4) Urethra –

a) Tube that extends from bladder to outside of body.

The Nervous System –

1) Controls urine production and micturition.

Diseases and Disorders –

1) Cystocele: Herniation of urinary bladder into vaginal wall.

2) Renal Calculi: Kidney failure.

3) Renal failure: Occurs when kidney is unable to filter blood and form urine.