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Music Library of Greece - LILIAN VOUDOURI

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Bibliography Selection for Ancient Greek Music


Albrecht, Michael von et Werner Schubert, edd., Musik in Antike und Neuzeit (Bern: Lang, 1987) We owe the initiative for the publication of this collection of essays to the Heidelberg Seminar on Classic Literature; the work represents the seminars contribution to the 600th anniversary of the Heidelberg University. The texts document the pursuits of the Music Score Archives on the influence of Antiquity in modern times music (Notenarchiv zum Fortwirken der Antike in der Musik der Neuzeit), founded by Joachim Draheim. The essays discuss issues on music archaeology (E. Eibner, Music life during the Hallstatt period: considerations about music based on representations); on ancient music theories (F. Zaminer: On the meaning of pitch from Antiquity to modern times); on organology (E. Poehlmann, The two Elgin lyres at the British Museum); and even the assimilation of the impact of Ancient Greek Music in modern times (M. von Albrecht, Music and Rhetoric in Goethe and Quintilianus). Anderson, Warren D., Ethos and Education in Greek Music: The Evidence of Poetry and Philosophy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, c1966) Andersons classic monograph examines the educational, ethical and philosophical dimension in music for the Greeks from Pindar, Plato and Aristotle to the Papyrus Hibeh 13 and Philodemus. Anderson was the first to question the excessive importance attributed to Damon in the history of the ethos theory (e.g. in Abert and Lasserre, see title no. 34). __________, Music and Musicians in Ancient Greece (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994) Andersons more recent book completes the first one and studies the surviving evidence on the practice of music. The central part of the book refers essentially to the 5th century BC with various references however to earlier and later periods. The subject is developed chronologically from the Stone Age and the so-called Dark Ages (from 1100 to 900 BC) to the times of Plato and Aristotle. Arrighetti, Graziano, Gigante, Marcello Kleve, Knut, edd., Cronache Ercolanesi no. 19 (Napoli: Gaetano Macchiaroli, 1989) The 1989 yearbook of the Herculaneum Papyri International Research Centre includes Daniel Delattres text Philodemus On Music: 4th book, columns 40 to 109 and James Porters Content and form in Philodemus which studies the very interesting theory on aesthetics and poetry as exposed by Philodemus and his opponents (known as critics). Barbera, Andr, The Euclidian Division of the Canon: Greek and Latin Sources (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991) The new analytical texts in this edition study sources that were unknown at the time of the Menge publication in 1916, and proceed to the most reliable reconstitution of the three main versions of the text: the main version in Greek with the written ascription to Euclides or Cleoneides, the shorter version in Greek which is included in the comments of Porphyry in Ptolemys Harmonics and the Latin version of Boethius included in his Institutio Musica. ________ , ed., Music Theory and its Sources: Antiquity and the Middle Ages, Notre Dame Conferences in Medieval Studies I (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1990) This volume includes highly important articles by Andr Barbera, Thomas Mathiesen and Jon Solomon on the duties and conjectures of modern reviewers of ancient Greek texts on music and music theory. The reconstruction of an ideal prototype is a chimera, Barbera sums up: the texts are organic compositions, experience stories in successive layers, an important factor that should be pointed out in modern editions. Barker, Andrew, Greek Musical Writings (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990) A selection with translation and comments on the sources of Ancient Greek Music. Barker aspires to render all the sources on Ancient Greek Music accessible to readers with no knowledge of Ancient Greek. Blis, Annie, Aristoxene de Tarante et Aristote: Le Trait dharmonique, tudes et commentaires 100 (Paris: Klincksieck, 1986)

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This is a recent study on Aristoxenus of Tarentum and his Armonika (Elements of harmony), after the previous one by Laloy on the same subject (Paris 1904). Blis extensively analyzes the contents of Aristoxenus treatise, ascertains the line of thought rather than the fragmentary character of the surviving document, points out the Aristotelian elements and highlights Aristoxenus founders role in treating the study of harmonics as a separate science. ___________, Les Hymnes Apollon, cole Francaise dAthnes. Corpus des inscriptions de Delphes III (Paris: Diffusion de Boccard, 1992) About twenty years after the publication of the work Denkmaeler der altgriechischen Musik (1970), which is the first work where the Delphic Hymns are presented as they really were and not as one would wish they were (p. 24), Blis publishes her own study using means and methods that were unknown to Poehlmann, and presents us with a reviewed and improved version of the two hymns, equipped with an extensive commentary on the text, the music and the music notation. Blis identified the composer of the first hymn (article 19 in the Poehlmann edition) as Athinaios Athinaiou and dated both hymns to 128 BC. Boldrini, Sandro, Prosodie und Metrik der Roemer, Teubner-Studienbuecher (Stuttgart:Teubner, 1999) An excellent manual on metrics in classic Latin poetry with a concise reference to music. Brancacci, Aldo et al., Aristoxenica, Menandrea Fragmenta, Philosophica, Studi e testi per il Corpus dei Papiri Filosofici Greci e Latini XCI (Firenze: Olschki,1988) Luigi Enrico Rossis view on two papyrus fragments by Aristoxenus, one of them on harmonics and the other on metrics and rhythm. The author deems it possible that these two fragments are the work of a later writer, possibly of the Hellenistic period. The same volume includes the first-rate study of the Hibeh 13 Papyrus by Aldo Brancacci, in which the author questions the accepted chronology of the work and the authorship which is attributed to Ippias the Sophist; he convincingly maintains that the author of these fragments was the rhetorician Alkidamas, pupil of Gorgias and a contemporary of Antisthenes and Isocrates, who was an active figure in Athens from 390 to 365 BC. Ceccarelli, Paola, La Pirrica nell'Antichita greco-romana: studi sulla danza armata, Filologia e critica. Collana diretta da Bruno Gentili (Pisa: IEPI, 1998) Focusing on pyrrhic dance the author studies a number of sources from the entire Greek world of that period, including representations, texts and inscriptions. She devotes a special chapter to music (on P. Vidal-Naquets insistence, p. 7) in which she studies the information found in sources that deal with the distinction between pyrrhic metres and feet, instruments and the corresponding ethos. Comotti, Giovanni, Music in Greek and Roman Culture,. R. Munson (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989) [ : La musica nella cultura greca e romana (Torino: EDT, 1979)] Comottis introduction to Ancient Greek Music is the first volume of a series of publications dedicated to the European History of Music as seen by the Italian Society of Musicology and aiming at the creation of manuals for the curriculum in musicology in Italian universities. Following the leading spirit of the series described by Alberto Bosso in the prologue, but unfortunately not included in the English translation- Comottis objective is to present a panoramic view of the Greek and Roman worlds highlighting the role of music in society; in a dialectic and questioning -rather than aphoristicmanner, he deals with specific subjects (instruments and music theory). In conclusion, he gives a detailed analysis of the surviving fragments and submits a selection of translated documents and sources. Dale, A.M., The Lyric Metres of Greek Drama (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1948) A classical and analytical review of the use of lyric metres in drama in Attica and decisive chapters on the formation of strophes, as well as information on performance. D'Alfonso, Francesca, Stesicoro e la performance: studio sulle modalita esecutive dei carmi stesicorei, Filologia e critica 74 (Roma: Gruppo Editoriale Internazionale, 1994) Yet another interesting research, in the sphere of influence generated by the famous modern Italian philologist Bruno Gentili, on the question of performance in Ancient Greek poetry. DAlfonso refers to

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the modern controversial issue regarding the limits that should be applied in the traditional separation of Ancient Greek poetry between chorus and lyric poetry, and concludes corroborating the ancient evidence relative to the choral character in Stesichorus poetry. Degering, Hermann, Die Orgel: Ihre Erfindung und ihre Geschichte bis zur Karolingerzeit (Muenster: Coppenrathsche Buchhandlung, 1905 / . . Buren: Frits Knuf;1989) A German translation of Greek and Latin texts and a detailed presentation of illustration sources for the hydraulic instrument of Antiquity. Delavaud-Roux, Marie-Helene, Les Danses Pacifiques en Grece Antique (Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l'Universit de Provence,1994) A detailed study on the illustration sources of the various types of ancient Greek dances included in what Plato called peaceful dances, i.e. mainly women dances, not war dances or Dionysiac dances, such as the kalasthikos and geranos (or crane) dances, dances of married and unmarried women, wedding dances, funerary and drama dances, and so on. The volume includes a highly useful glossary on choreography (lexique chorgraphique) and an equally useful index (rpertoire) of technical terms and dance names. Drachmann, A.G., Ktesibios, Philon, and Heron: A Study in Ancient Pneumatics, Acta historica scientiarum naturalium et medicinalium IV (Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1948) A classic and one of the most important publications on Ancient technology in general, and on pneumatics and their application more specifically (e.g. hydraulis). The author focuses on Herons Pneumatics, which he believes to be a technicians notebook, rather than a full treatise. Drieberg, Friedrich von, Die griechische Musik auf ihre Gesetze zurueckgefuehrt (Berlin:Trautwein, 1841) Drieberg (1780 1856) was a composer and a much published amateur researcher in Ancient Greek Music. His contemporaries (Chladni, Marx, and others) found his theories were the fruit of a vivid imagination. In the present work Dreiberg presents his answers to the unedited excerpts of his critics. Duering, Ingemar, ed., Die Harmonielehre des Klaudios Ptolemaios, Elanders Goeteborgs Hoegskolas Arsskrift XXXVI (Goeteborg: Elanders Boktryckeri Aktiebolag, 1930) New critical text on Ptolemys work. __________________, ed., Porphyrios-Kommentar zur Harmonielehre des Ptolemaios, Goeteborgs Hoegskolas Arsskrift XXXVIII (Goeteborg: Elanders Boktryckeri Aktiebolag, 1932) New critical text on Porphyrius work. ____________________ , Ptolemaios und Porphyrios ueber die Musik, Goeteborgs Hoegskolas Arsskrift XL (Goeteborg: Elanders Boktryckeri Aktiebolag, 1934) Translation of Ptolemys Harmonics and extensive commentary of Ptolemys and Porphyrius texts. Gentili, Bruno et Perusino, Franca, edd., Mousike: Metrica, ritmica e musica greca in memoria di Giovanni Comotti, Studi di metrica classica 11 (Pisa: IEPI, 1995) A collection of essays dedicated to the memory of the great researcher of Ancient Greek Music, Giovanni Comotti (1931 1990), edited by Bruno Gentili, possibly todays leading Italian philologist and previous collaborator of Comotti. The volume includes essays by E. Poehlmann, A. Barker, B. Gentili, D. Restani, R. Pretagostini and others. The collection is noted for its holistic approach to the ancient Greek term mousik. Georgiades, Thrasybulos, Musik und Rhythmus bei den Griechen: Zum Ursprung der abendlaendischen Musik, Rowohlts deutsche Enzyklopaedie (Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1958) and ____________________, Greek music, verse and dance [. . Der griechische Rhythmus] (New York: Merlin Press, c1955) Despite their somewhat old-fashioned character, Georgiades theories remain interesting from a scholarly point of view and stand out for their strong argumentation. Both books share the same

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basis: the 1947 Habilitationsschrift on Greek rhythm, the origin of the modern distinction between music, prose and poetry deriving from the general single ancient Greek term music; the surviving of ancient prosody in modern Greek dance and the relation of the kalamatian dance with the dactylic hexameter, and so on. Glau, Katherina, Rezitation griechischer Chorlyrik: die Parodoi aus Aischylos' Agamemnon und Euripides' Bakchen als Tonbeispiel auf CD mit Text- und Begleitheft (Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1998) Recording of two choruses from Ancient Greek drama, with comments and an accompanying text in the original version and in a German translation. The students in the Classic Seminar in Heidelberg choose specific parts (Parodoi) from the choruses in Euripides Bacchae and Aeschylus Agamemnon as being respectively characteristic of the more ancient and the more modern aspects in rhythm; they proceeded to stage both versions in an effort to physically grasp the difficulties of performance in chorus poetry. As Glau points out, the rendition was based on the acknowledged but in part out-dated (p. 30) theories of Westphal. Greaves, Denise Davidson, ed., Sextus Empiricus: . new critical text and translation on facing pages, with an introduction, annotations, and indices verborum and nominum et rerum, Greek and Latin Music Theory (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986) This is a new critical edition based on the comparison of 25 manuscripts instead of 8 as was the case in former editions- of the work on music by the 2nd century AD Sceptic philosopher, Sextus Empiricus. Grenfell, Bernard et Hunt, Arthur, edd., The Hibeh Papyri Part I (London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1906) This is the first description, publication and translation (into English) of the famous Hibeh Papyri 13 with treatise excerpts on Harmonics and the ethical influence in music. The reviewers suggest Ippias as the possible author, but are challenged in this by Croenert who favours the young Isocrates and dates the work to around about 390. More recently, the authorship has been bestowed on Alkidamas (see title no. 11) Heinrichs, Albert, "Warum soll ich denn tanzen?": Dionysisches im Chor der griechischen Tragoedie, Lectio Teubneriana IV (Stuttgart: Teubner, 1996) This is the text of a conference organized by the well-known Teubner publishers on 24.3.1995. The author studies the chorus in ancient tragedy in the light of group chorus as the central diachronic phenomenon in Greek life. Jan, Carl von, ed., Musici scriptores graeci (Stuttgart: Teubner, 1995, . .1895) Jans work consists of the first modern philological version of the ancient Greek texts by music theorists which replaced the Meibom edition of 1652. It includes: Aristotelian excerpts on music, the pseudo-Aristotelian Problems relative to music, excerpts from Euclids Division of the canon, Cleonides Introduction to harmonics, the Manual on Harmonics of Nicomachus of Gerasa, the Introduction to the Art of Music by Bacchius the senior, Gaudentius Introduction to Harmonics, Alypius Introduction to Music and the excerpta Neapolitana. The volume, in a modern transcription, presents all the music fragments that were known in Jans time. Jonker, G.H., ed. & transl., The Harmonics of Manuel Bryennius (Groningen:Wolters - Noordhoff, 1970) This is a modern version of Manuel Bryennius Harmonics (after a first edition by John Wallis in 1699). In his Introduction Jonker presents the life, work and influence of Bryennius, studies the various modern opinions on the relation between The Harmonics and Pachimeres chapter on music, and determines Bryennius role in the Ancient Greek music theory tradition on the one hand, and on the other hand, his role as witness of his time (cf. in particular Bryennius comparison between the ancient Greek tropoi and the Byzantine modes or ichoi). Koller, Ernst, Musse und musische Paideia: ber die Musikaporetik in der aristotelischen Politik (Basel: Schwabe, 1956) A study on music as presented in Aristotles Politics and the role it is ascribed in the ideal democratic state ( , , )

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Landels, John, Music in Ancient Greece and Rome (London: Routledge, 1999) Landels is known for his interest in ancient technology. He gives a general outline of ancient Greek and Roman music with emphasis on the technical means and the properties of the music instruments. Lasserre, Francois, Plutarque: De la musique. Texte, traduction, commentaire prcds dune tude sur L' ducation musicale dans la Grece antique, (Olten: Urs Graf,1954) Laserres work takes into account Zieglers book which was published just one year earlier (Teubner, 1953). Its main value lies more in the study of musical education and the education of ethos, focusing on Damon, than in the critical version and translation of the text. Laserres view in attributing an influence in this work to Dionysus of Halicarnassus and thereby dating it to a later period -between 170 and 300 AD- has not been generally accepted. Lawler, Lilian B., The Dance in Ancient Greece (London: Adam & Charles Black, 1964) Lawlers classic study is a diachronic survey of the Greek world, since pre-historic Crete to the later Roman times; her work also includes modern studies on the various roles of dance in orgy, drama and professional acting. Levin, Flora R., The Manual of Harmonics of Nicomachus the Pythagorean. Translation and Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1994) This is an English translation of Nicomachus of Gerasas work, with an introduction and an extensive commentary. Lippman, Edward A., Musical Thought in Ancient Greece (New York: Columbia University Press,1964) Lippmans general interest in the aesthetics of music leads him to study the beginnings of the aesthetical, ethical and philosophical outlook in Greek music. The main part of this work deals with the Pythagoreans, Plato, Aristotle and the Peripatetic School (Aristoxenus, Theophrastus), but leaves out later developments (Philodemus, Sextus, pseudo-Plutarch). Lohmann, Johannes, Mousike und Logos: Aufsaetze zur griechischen Philosophie und Musiktheorie (Stuttgart: Musikwissenschaftliche Verlags-Gesellschaft, 1970) This volume edited by Anastasios Giannaras- presents Lohmanns studies on Ancient Greek Music. The writer, famous for his publications in the field of Linguistics and Language Philosophy, sheds new light on the subject of Greek attitude to music through an etymological approach, which is also a history of ideas that leads to the analysis of archaic beginnings in Greek thought. Lohmann focuses his research in the history of terms, a pivotal historiographic central theme that emerged in the spiritual environment of Freiburg-im-Breisgau (Gurlitt, Eggebrecht) which was to result later in the Handwoerterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie (Freiburg, 1972 - ) Mathiesen, Thomas, Ancient Greek Music Theory: A Catalogue Raisonee of Manuscripts, Repertoire International des Sources Musicales [RISM] B11 (Muenchen: Henle, 1988) This is one of the most valuable references in the study of Ancient Greek Music. In it Mathiesen draws up a completeas far as possible - catalogue of the manuscripts on the theory of Ancient Greek Music, with commentaries and chronologies, and with references to the incipit and explicit of their contents. ____________, Greek Views On Music (New York: Norton, 1998) : ed. Leo Treitler, Source Readings In Music History (1st vol.) In this new version of the classic anthology by Oliver Strunk (Norton, 1950), the first volume on Ancient Greek Music is edited by Mathiesen who explains in his Introduction why the view (singular) in the old version has been replaced by views (in the plural) in the new version. Meibom, M., ed., Antiquae Musicae Auctores Septem (Amsterdam: Elzevir, 1652) Meiboms edition was until about 1900 the only standard version of the theory of music as stated in ancient Greek documents.

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Monro, D. B., The Modes of Ancient Greek Music (Oxford: Clarendon Press,1894) An important study on the tonal system in Ancient Greek Music, in which modern tools from the field of philology are first introduced. Monro, and Gombosi after him, maintained that the 5th and 6th centuries BC harmonies (or modes) had nothing to do with Aristoxenus modes ( ), and rejected the common view that the latter were but a codification of the former. Nowadays, the study of the relation between these two different modes underlines the earlier pioneering stage of the harmonies (see booktitle Winnington-Ingram, R. P., Mode in Ancient Greek Music). Morelli, J., ed., Aristidis oratio adversus Leptinem. Libanii declamatio pro Socrate. Aristoxeni rhythmicorum elementorum fragmenta (Venezia: C. Palesio, 1785) The first modern, and for a long time unique, version of Aristoxenus Rythmicon. Murr, Christoph G, von, Philodem/ von der Musik./ Ein Auszug aus dessen viertem Buche./Ein Auszug aus dessen viertem Buche/Aus dem Griechischen einer Herkulanischen Papyrusrolle/uebersetzt/von/Christoph Gottlieb von Murr./Nebst einer Probe des Hymnenstils altgriechischer Musik./Mit zwo Kupfertafeln/Berlin 1806./Bei Heinrich Froehlich. Still under the impact of the sensational discovery of the Herculaneum Papyrii (1752-54), the historian, jurist and art critic C. G. von Murr (1733 1811) publishes, translates and comments excerpts from Philodemus On Music, Book IV. An analysis on the style of the hymns in Ancient Greek Music is included in this same volume, where the author based on music style criteria and with much insight questions for the first time ever- the authenticity of the music for Pindars first Pythian Ode as noted in Athanasius Kirchers Musurgia Universalis (Rome, 1650). Neubecker, Annemarie Jeanette, Die Bewertung der Musik bei Stoikern und Epikureern: Eine Analyse von Philodemus Schrift de Musica Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Veroeffentlichung Nr. 5 (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1956) and ________________________, ed., Philodemus: ueber die Musik IV. Buch (Napoli: Bibliopolis,1986) Thirty years later, Neubecker reviews her analysis on Peri Mousikis (On Music), Book IV by the Epicurean philosopher Philodemus (ca. 110 40 BC), which was the basis of her 1956 thesis on the ethic value of music in the works of Stoic and Epicurean philosophy. _________________________, Altgriechische Musik: Eine Einfuehrung (Darmstadt: WBG, 1977)] A first-rate introduction to Ancient Greek Music in the same spirit as the WBG (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft) series Introductions on various modern fields of research: a detailed reference to the literature works and to the then up-dated (1977) bibliography with indications in the chapters on the role of music in everyday life, music theory and practice, and the ethical evaluation of music. Neumaier, Wilfried, Antike Rythmustheorien: Historische Form und aktuelle Substanz (Amsterdam: Gruener, 1989) This is a comprehensive survey of the various systematization methods on metres and rhythms in ancient music theory, from Plato to Augustine. The study is concerned by a clearly systematic need to discover a common denominator to all the theories on rhythm (see title of last chapter: The hyper-historical essence in ancient rhythm) Paquette, Daniel, L'instrument de musique dans la ceramique de la Grece antique, Universit de Lyon II - Publications de la Bibliothque Salomon Reinach IV (Paris: Diffusion de Boccard, 1984) An exhaustive illustrated documentation on Ancient Greek Music instruments. Paratore, Ettore, Musica e poesia nell'antica Roma (Cremona: Fondazione Claudio Monteverdi, 1981) This work is an attempt to re-establish elements in Roman music tracing them back to music features in the metrics of theatre (Plautus, Seneca) and lyric (Catullus, Statius) writers. Parker, LP.E., The Songs of Aristophanes (Oxford: Clarendon, 1997) Using as starting point the recognition of Classic Athens as song culture and in an effort to fill in the gap in our understanding of Ancient comedy due to our ignorance of the music that went with it,

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Parker applies himself to the study of the metres used by Aristophanes, which, as he points out, is what comes closest to a music score (page 5). Paul, Oscar, Boethius und die griechische Harmonik: Des Anicius Manlius Severinus Boetius Fuenf Buecher ueber die Musik aus der lateinischen in die deutsche Sprache uebertragen und mit besonderer Beruecksichtigung der griechischen Harmonik sachlich erklaert (Leipzig: Leuckart,1872; repr. Hildesheim: Olms, 1985) Pauls classic German translation and study of Boethius Institutio musica. Pearson, Lionel, ed., Elementa rhythmica: the fragment of book II and the additional evidence for Aristoxenean rhythmic theory (Oxford: Clarendon Press,1990) Pearsons edition supersedes that of Pighi (Bologna, 1959) which is a simple copy of Westphals problematic edition (see title no. 70). However, the use of Aristoxenean theory in choruses of the classic period (Euripides, Sofocles, Pindar) does not find many supporters (see Poehlmann, under Griechenland, in the recent MMG [Stuttgart and so on, 1995]). Perrot, Jean, The Organ from its Invention in the Hellenistic Period to the End of the Thirteenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press,1971) Perrots study remains the most complete and updated monograph on the hydraulis, from its invention in Hellenistic times to its use in the Middle-Ages (East and West). An extremely useful handbook in which the author presents us with all the sources, documents and illustrations on this subject. Poehlmann, Egert, Denkmaeler altgriechischer Musik: Sammlung, Uebertragung und Erlaeuterung aller Fragmente und Faelschungen (Erlangen: Hans Carl,1970) This is a critical edition of all the fragments and false inscriptions of Ancient Greek Music known at the time of publication. It was superseded later by the Poehlmann and West Oxford University Press version with all the more recent additional data (see corresponding entry). Reinach, Theodore, La musique grecque (Paris: Payot, 1926) A classic introduction to Ancient Greek Music with all the data known at the time of publication. Restani, Donatella, ed., Musica e mito nella Grecia antica, Polifonie: Musica e spettacolo nella storia (Bologna: Il Mulino, 1995) A selection of old and new articles in an Italian translation. The editor explains in her Introduction that the choice and structure of the volume does not follow a traditional order in the history of music but is based on an anthropological approach to Ancient Greek Music. Her work includes articles by H. Abert, H. Kolller, G. Dumezil, J.-P. Vernant, A. Belis, M. Detienne and others. Rios, Rosetta da. ed., Aristoxeni Elementa Harmonica (Roma: POP,1954) This is the critical edition of Aristoxenus Armonika (Harmonics) which replaced Meiboms classic. A second volume includes an Italian translation with comments with tables and music examples. Sachs, Carl, Rise of Music in the Ancient World: East and West, New York: Norton, 1943) In this classic manual Sachs compiles the work of about forty years research and publication of articles in various fields. Sachs characteristically approaches the study of Ancient Greek Music within the context of all great civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean, and with a specific angle on its rise and development through the study of various phenomena. Schlesinger, Kathleen, The Greek Aulos: A Study of its Mechanism and of its Relation to the Modal System of Ancient Greek Music (London: Methuen, 1939) A milestone in the study of the Greek aulos which however is superseded today by the results of more recent research both on the theory of Ancient Greek Music and on the actual reconstruction of the flutes (in particular the distance between the holes on the instrument). The evidence included in this study from popular music in other cultures is of special historical interest. Schueller, Herbert M., The Idea of Music: An Introduction to Musical Aesthetics In Antiquity and the Middle Ages, Early Drama, Art, and Music Monograph Series 9 (Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications,1988) Schuellers study is a very useful handbook for those studying medieval music and are interested in the sources of medieval music aesthetics, as well as for students of Ancient Greek Music (in

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particular the first half of the book that comes under the title: The Idea of Music in Ancient Europe). More specifically, the author undertakes to describe in a chronological order the adventures of the idea of music. The subchapter Hebraism and Hellenism is particularly interesting for the role it attributes to the influence of Philon of Alexandria on the Pateriki appreciation of music. Scott, William C., Musical Design in Aeschylian Theater, (Hanover: University Press of New England,1984) and _______________, Musical Design in Sophoclean Theater,> (Hanover: University Press of New England,1996) The author begins by stating his practical interest in modern staging of Greek tragedies based on the key role of the chorus, a basic aspect of the drama, and its impact on the successful development of the play. The author studies, in Aeschylus and Sophocles, the use the chorus makes of metrical music techniques (repetitions, metric variations), and assesses their influence on shaping and supporting the meaning of the poetic text. Sicking, C.M.J., Griechische Verslehre, Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft II/4 (Muenchen: Beck,1993) The title, Greek verse teachings and not metrical- is significant: Sicking undertakes to make a critical summary of all the relevant theories from Westphal to our days and suggests a rethinking of the and view which, as the author convincingly demonstrates, leads to misconceptions regarding the rhythmic profile of verses; he makes valuable comments on the effect of melody and the changes it causes in this field. We quote from the Epilogue: It has been ascertained that the rhythmic profile of verse is not defined by the metrical in the modern sense of the word- arrangement of the verse elements or their fusion through metric (or ) recurrence, but is mainly defined by their linear sequence. Sickings work, part of the historical Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, is the most updated study on this subject. Torr, Cecil, On the Intepretation of Greek Music (London: Frowde, 1896 . Ann Arbor, MI: UMI) This brief review on Ancient Greek Music notation makes a specific reference to the evaluation of intervals and the notation of values. The author makes a belligerent remark against those who interpret and evaluate Ancient Greek Music without taking pains to acquire sufficient knowledge of the original. Wallace, Robert W. et Bonnie MacLachlan, edd., Harmonia Mundi: Musica e filosofia nell antichit, Biblioteca di Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica (Roma: Edizioni dell Ateneo, 1991) The essays in this volume were first read at the symposium on Ancient Greek Music and Philosophy which took place on May 25th 1989 at the American Academy in Rome. These essays included the following: Music and philosophy in Antiquity and Damon and his followers: an analysis of the sources by R. W. Wallace; The harmony of the spheres: dulcis sonus, by B. McLachlan; Pythagoras, Ippasos, Lasos and the experimental method, by Giovanni Comotti; Aristoxenus and the Ethnoethical Modes, by John Thorp; Epicurean elements in nature and ethics in Philodemus of Gadaras music theory, by Gioia M. Rispoli; Logos and feeling in Ptolemys Harmonics, by Andrew Barker; Pindar and the Sphinx: Celtic Polyphony and Greek Music, by Frederick Ahl. Wegner, Max, Musik und Tanz, Archaeologia homerica - Band III, Kapitel U (Goettingen:Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht,1968) A chapter on music in the context of a general study in Wegners Archaeologia homerica which comprises other chapters on Athletics, Writing, Worship, and so on, with as a central piece the material culture in Homeric times. Wegner sums up the results of his research by affirming the unequivocal functional character of music (Gebrauchmusik) and dance during the Geometric period (ca 900 to 700 BC). Wegners work is the most significant study to date on music in Homeric times. Wellesz, Egon, ed., Ancient and Oriental Music, New Oxford History of Music, . 1 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, c1957) In this first volume of the Oxford New History of Music Greek-Roman music is studied alongside with Oriental cultures. The article on Ancient Greek Music, by Isobel Henderson, is still of great significance in the synoptic and precise survey it makes of the various complicated aspects involved

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Music Library of Greece - LILIAN VOUDOURI

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in the study of Ancient Greek Music. The merit of the article is particular obvious on subjects such as the notation of music, one of the best introduction in this field. West, Martin L., Ancient Greek Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press,1992) This publication is the latest inclusive presentation of Ancient Greek Music and confirms the definite turn towards music sources as opposed to the former attitude which concentrated mainly on documents- that general research on the subject has taken in the last twenty years or so. This is partly due to the emphasis in the publication of more recently discovered music fragments (about 80 fragments edited by West and Poehlmann are now in print at the Oxford University Press) and partly due to alternative approaches in the study of Ancient Greek Music, such as Ethnomusicology to name but one. Westphal, Rudolf, Aristoxenos von Tarent: Melik und Rhythmik des classischen Hellenentums (Leipzig: Teubner,1883 . Hildesheim: Olms,1965)) Westphal dedicated many years of his life to the study of Aristoxenus of Tarent (For over thirty years, there was hardly a week when I didnt study Aristoxenus, page V). The author backs up most of his studies of Ancient Greek Music and his results thereof on the bulk of the Elements of Rhythm and elements of Harmony. The two volumes of this work include translations and analytical editions of Aristoxenus writings, as well as Westphals own theories. ______________, Die Fragmente und die Lehrsaetze der griechischen Rhythmiker (Leipzig: Teubner, 1861) Analytical version in a Latin translation and extensive commentaries on Aristoxenus Rhythmika (Elements of Rhythm), and fragments on rhythm by Dionysius, Bacchius, Aristides Quintillianus, M. Capella, M. Psellos and the Parisian Fragments. Westphal, Rudolf Hugo Gleditsch, Allgemeine Theorie der griechischen Metrik, Theorie der musischen Kuenste der Hellenen (Leipzig: Teubner, 1887) A monumental and to date still accurate work on the value of metrics in Antiquity, despite Westphal attempts to centre all metric phenomena on one single principle, that of Gleichtaktigkeit; this view was to be abandoned on the basis of Wilamowitzs critical work. A more descriptive theory is now preferred to Westphals systematic one. Wille, Guenther, Musica Romana: Die Bedeutung der Musik im Leben der Roemer (Amsterdam: Schippers, 1967) Willes unique and monumental work (800 pages) was and continues to be a landmark. His work presents the richest concentration of elements in theory as well as in practice- in all the fields of Ancient Roman Music, the influence of Greece, the link between music and literature, and references to the relevant sources from the first Latin inscriptions to Isidore of Sevillas Etymologiae (ca 560 to 636 AD). Winnington-Ingram, R. P., Mode in Ancient Greek Music (Amsterdam: Hakkert,1968 . . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1936) A highly significant contribution to the understanding of the complex questions on the theory of Ancient Greek Music: the differences between (tone), (mode) and , the link between tones in Aristoxenus and classic harmonies, and so on. Winnington-Ingram offers a scholarly study of both the documents and the surviving fragments. His investigation (to find reliable music proof for the 6th and 5th centuries harmonies, considered as forerunners of the ) has lost none of its acumen (cf. West, 1992). Michaelides, Solon, The Music of Ancient Greece: An Encyclopaedia (London: Faber, 1978) This is an essential tool in the study of Ancient Greek Music (Greek edition: Athens, 1989). It is presented in the form of a dictionary with extensive and detailed entries.

(translated by Maria Teresa Hildebrand) URL: http://www.mmb.org.gr/page/default.asp?id=1684&la=2#

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