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EEE 125 LAB 1

Universiti Sains Malaysia Electrical & Electronic Engineering Department Basic Circuits Laboratory EEE125

Multimeters, Breadboard and Regulated DC Power Supply


OBJECTIVE To become familiar with using a digital/analog multimeter, breadboard and regulated DC power supply. To become familiar how to configure basic measurement tools based on their capabilities.

INTRODUCTION Multimeter A multimeter is an electrical instrument designed to measure voltage, current, resistance and often other variables as well. Some of the recent multimeters are capable of testing diodes and transistors as well. Multimeters are manufactured in both digital and analog form. A digital multimeter is preferred for precision work, but analog meters are also useful for gaining an intuitive understanding of instrument sensitivity and range. A digital multimeter (DMM) gives a more accurate digital readout over the less expensive analog models that have a needle that moves over a set of printed numbers on the dial. The digital multimeter is very close to being a perfect voltmeter, with a very high input resistance and a very low input current. The multimeter is capable of measuring voltages, currents, resistance, waveform frequency (or period), and even short circuits (continuity). Given the wide range of measurements that are possible with this device, it is easy to see why it has become such an indispensable tool in lab. Due to the complexity of the internal circuitry which makes up the multimeter, however, we will focus mainly on learning how to perform some common measurements which will be useful throughout the semester. Before jumping straight into the measurement procedures, let us take a brief look at the multimeter control panel as in Figure 1 and Figure 2. A multimeter normally has: 1. Function/Range Switch - selects the function (voltmeter, ammeter, or ohmmeter) and the range for the measurement. Input Terminals - to be connected in series (for current measurement) or in parallel (for voltage and resistance measurement) with the component of interest.

2.

There may be an internal fuse or a cut out to prevent excessive currents in ammeter mode, which otherwise might damage the instrument.

EEE 125 LAB 1

Figure 1: External view of an analog multimeter

Figure 2: External view of a digital multimeter

EEE 125 LAB 1

DC Power Supply Figure 3 shows a laboratory DC Power Supply that we will use for most of the experiments.

Figure 3: GW GPR3030 DC Power Supply You should take note that there are three banana jacks for output of power supply. The output is usually used to support digital circuits and analogue applications. The output can be configured to be positive (+ve) or negative (-ve) output depends on the selection of banana jacks. Voltage and current meters indicate the desired output you need. Notice that the output only accepts banana plug cables. Wires can be clamped into the terminals but this is usually more trouble that its worth. Breadboard/Protoboard We will be making use of a breadboard for constructing our lab circuits. The layout of the breadboard allows us to quickly construct and test circuits without the need for complicated wiring or soldering. Figure 4 illustrates the internal wiring of the breadboard.

Figure 4: Internal connections of a breadboard

EEE 125 LAB 1

Note: The dark center strip indicates that the five columns to the left are electrically isolated from the five columns two the right. That is, no physical connection exists between them. As shown in Figure 4, there are 4 columns which are connected vertically. That is, a voltage applied to any point in that column will be available at any other point along the same column. These columns are typically used to supply Vcc and GND to the circuit being constructed. The remaining sockets of the breadboard are connected horizontally, so that a voltage applied to any point in a row is available at all other points of the row. Since rows on different sides of the centre isolator are unconnected, the centre region is most commonly used to place integrated circuits (such as op-amps, etc.) so that each pin of the IC has an entire row for possible connections. This wiring configuration applies, not only to the breadboards which we will use in the lab, but in general to most breadboards. Connectors You might take note of the fact that the several instruments will have different connection terminals on the front panels, courtesy of different applications and histories. All of these connectors are female connectors, and are identified by Figure 5b. The corresponding male connectors are identified by Figure 5a. Often it takes a fair amount of patching to connect across different species of connectors. The crudest way to do so is to use the alligator clip (see Figure 5a). However, the preferred way to connect up a circuit on the breadboard is using single core wire that we will use for most of the experiments.

Figure 5: Connectors

EQUIPMENTS Resistors 1k X 1 Rectifying silicon diode 1N4001 X 1 Analog multimeter Digital multimeter Breadboard GW GPR3030 DC power supply Crocodile clips, BNC Connectors, Connection wires (single core)

EEE 125 LAB 1

Experiment: Part I Analog and digital multimeter 1. This test is required to calibrate a multimeter before we use it for the first time. The calibration process is important to eliminate (neglect) the multimeter's internal resistance and the lead resistance. Take your analog multimeter and select to X10 ohm scale. With the test lead tips touching each other, adjust the null ohm knob (see Figure 1) or sometime called "zero" knob on the front panel so that the needle indicates a resistance of zero ohms (top scale). Now the analog multimeter is already calibrated.

Figure 1a: Analog multimeter short-lead test Rshorted = __________ 2. Use the same way for digital multimeter. Select to ohm meter range and repeat the test. This time you will hear a buzzer/beep sounds indicating that the leads are shorted each other.

Figure 1b: Digital multimeter short-lead test Record the resistance reading from the digital display. This resistance should be very small indicating that internal and lead resistances are negligible. Rshorted = __________

EEE 125 LAB 1

3. To check a fuse inside digital multimeter for proper operation, touch the leads together as shown below. Note that the leads are now changed.

Figure 1c: Digital multimeter fuse test Record the resistance reading from the digital display. Rfuse = __________ 4. Configure the multimeters (analog and digital) to measure the resistance of a given resistor (Brown-Black-Red). This configuration is selected by choosing the appropriate scale for ohm meter reading. For applications which require the specific measurement of resistance (say a few hundred Ohms), select the desired setting. Record the resistance in Table 1a. Table 1a: Readings Analog Digital multimeter multimeter

Brown-Black-Red Resistance,

Difference,

5. Configure the multimeter (analog or digital) to measure the resistance/continuity of all crocodile clips (alligator clips) inside your workbench. This test is useful for detecting broken wires in circuits (open circuits). Determine whether the connection is open or short. If short, the crocodile clip is ok, otherwise it is broken. The broken crocodile clip should be removed and need to be sent to the technician for repairing. Number of broken wires = __________ 6. Any group which fails to return broken wires (if available) for repairing will get 50% marks deduction. This is considered as a mandatory mistake. You should be alert with this caution all the time.

EEE 125 LAB 1

7. Diodes are one of the components that can be tested very easily. Ordinary diodes as wells as Zener diodes can be checked by using a multimeter. While testing a diode the forward conducting mode and reverse blocking mode has to be tested separately.

Figure 1d: Ordinary diode symbol and its polarity 8. To check an ordinary silicon diode using an analog multimeter, put the multimeter selector switch in the ohm meter range. Connect the negative lead of multimeter to the anode and positive lead to cathode of the diode. If multimeter displays some resistance reading, we can assume that the diode is healthy. Repeat the measurement by reversing the connection and record them in Table 1b.

Table 1b: Diode testing using analog multimeter Anode -ve lead +ve lead Cathode +ve lead -ve lead Resistance, Conduction mode

9. To check an ordinary silicon diode using a digital multimeter, put the multimeter selector switch in the diode check mode. Connect the positive lead of multimeter to the anode and negative lead to cathode of the diode. If multimeter displays a voltage between 0.5 to 0.7, we can assume that the diode is healthy. This is the test for checking the forward conduction mode of diode. The displayed value is actually the potential barrier of the silicon diode and its value ranges from 0.5 to 0.7 volts depending on the temperature. 10. Now connect the positive lead of multimeter to the cathode and negative lead to the anode. If the multimeter shows an infinite reading (over range), we can assume that the diode is healthy. This is the test for checking the reverse blocking mode of the diode. Record them in Table 1c. Table 1c: Diode testing using digital multimeter Anode +ve lead -ve lead Cathode -ve lead +ve lead Voltage, V Conduction mode

EEE 125 LAB 1

Experiment: Part II DC Power Supply 1. This test is required to calibrate a DC power supply before we use it for the first time. The calibration process is important to make sure that the voltage output of a supply is exactly the same with the actual voltage measured by digital multimeter.

2. Use crocodile clips included with male banana connector to perform connection as shown

in Figure 2a. To short wire between ve and GND outputs, use a shorting bar or a single core wire. Make sure that the power switch is firstly set to OFF position. Set current mode selection to LO position. Set both voltage knob and voltage tuning knob to fully counter clockwise position (CCW).

Figure 2a: Positive output power supply with ground and its schematic

3. Connect the DC power supply output to a digital multimeter. Configure the multimeter to
measure DC voltage. Connect the positive lead of multimeter to the positive output of power supply and negative lead of multimeter to the negative output of power supply.

4. Turn on the power supply and green LED (CV) will light on. If it is not, set the current
knob to a little bit clock wise (CW) direction. Adjust the voltage tuning knob (FINE) until you get almost 0 V displayed on the digital multimeter screen. Adjust the X screw as in Figure 2a so that the voltage range is exactly display 0 volt. Now the power supply is already calibrated.

5. Advance the voltage slowly by adjusting the voltage knob and confirm your readings as
you fill up Table 2a.

EEE 125 LAB 1

Table 2a: Readings Voltage displayed by power supply panel, V 2 5 10 12 15 25 Voltage displayed by digital multimeter, V Difference, V

6. Turn off the power supply. 7. Construct the connection as shown in Figure 2b. Now you are shorting the +ve and GND
outputs. Connect the positive lead of multimeter to the negative output of power supply and negative lead of multimeter to the positive output of power supply.

Figure 2b: Negative output power supply with ground and its schematic

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8. Turn on the power supply and slowly advance the voltage by adjusting the voltage knob
and confirm your readings as you fill up Table 2b. Table 2b: Readings Voltage displayed by power supply panel, V 2 5 10 12 15 25 9. Show how you build the following power supplies based on the given schematic. Use two units of GW GPR3030 to do this. Measure the equivalent voltages. Voltage displayed by digital multimeter, V Difference, V

Figure 2c: Two power supplies and the symbol

VA = __________V,

Vx = __________V,

VAX = __________V

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EEE 125 LAB 1

10. Show how you build the following power supplies based on the given schematic. Use two units of GW GPR3030 to do this. Measure the equivalent voltages.

Figure 2d: Two power supplies and the symbol VB = __________V, Vx = __________V, VBX = __________V

11. Show how you build the following power supplies based on the symbol. Use two units of GW GPR3030 to do this. Measure the equivalent voltages.

Figure 2e: Two power supplies and the symbol VC = __________V, VX = __________V, VCX = __________V

12. Turn off the power supply and RETURN the connection back to the positive output power supply as shown in Figure 2a.

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EEE 125 LAB 1

Experiment: Part III Breadboard 1. This test is required to check the interconnection between holes on a breadboard as shown in Figure 3a. The test is important so that you familiar with the breadboard configuration and later will use for most of the experiments.

Figure 3a: Breadboard

2. Check the continuity of connections as shown in Figure 3b. You may refer Figure 4 in the introduction part to ease you in determining the internal connection of a breadboard. The multimeter might be useful for checking the connection. Record your results in Table 3a.

Figure 3b: Breadboard connections

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EEE 125 LAB 1

Table 3a: Results Nodes A and B A and D A and E D and E D and G E and G G and H A and Z A and Y X and Y X and W X and R V and U U and S P and Q O and P M and N M and L I and K I and J L and F C and F C and Y R and T Continuity ( or X)

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EEE 125 LAB 1

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. List the uses of multimeter, breadboard and power supply. 2. What are the differences between analog and digital multimeter. 3. Indicate how a diode conducts or does not conduct when a digital/analog multimeter is applied to it. 4. Why it is important to learn about different output polarity of a DC power supply.

TURN IN ONE REPORT PER GROUP AT THE END OF YOUR LAB SESSION. THERE IS NO TAKE HOME REPORT.

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